WorldWideScience

Sample records for ban daytime alcohol

  1. US State Statutes Banning Powdered Alcohol: Exceptions and Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    To examine state statutes banning powdered alcohol, we identified relevant statutes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia through a search (initial search March 2016; follow-up search November 2016) using the legal research database LexisNexis. To identify the laws, we used the following search terms: "concentrated alcohol," "crystalline alcohol," "granulated alcohol," "palcohol," and "powdered alcohol." As of November 2016, 31 states had statutory bans on powdered alcohol. Statutes in 22 states outline penalties for violating the state's ban on powdered alcohol. Five states include suspension and revocation of alcohol beverage licenses and permits among the penalties. Thirteen states provide exceptions to their ban on powdered alcohol for bona fide scientific research. Twelve states have exceptions for powdered alcohol designed for commercial use or not intended for human consumption. With concerns expressed that powdered alcohol may lead to greater alcohol consumption, particularly among minors, the majority of state legislatures have demonstrated their willingness to restrict access to novel alcohol products to protect the public's health. However, the effectiveness of these laws should be evaluated if the product does become available.

  2. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  4. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  5. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  6. Daytime Sleepiness: Associations with Alcohol Use and Sleep Duration in Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Chakravorty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current analysis was to investigate the relationship of daytime sleepiness with alcohol consumption and sleep duration using a population sample of adult Americans. Data was analyzed from adult respondents of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008 (N=2919 using self-reported variables for sleepiness, sleep duration, and alcohol consumption (quantity and frequency of alcohol use. A heavy drinking episode was defined as the consumption of ≥5 standard alcoholic beverages in a day. Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables and insomnia covariates were used to evaluate the relationship between daytime sleepiness and an interaction of alcohol consumption variables with sleep duration. The results showed that daytime sleepiness was reported by 15.07% of the subjects. In univariate analyses adjusted for covariates, an increased probability of daytime sleepiness was predicted by decreased log drinks per day [OR = 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58–0.95], a decreased log drinking frequency [0.90 (95% CI, 0.83–0.98], and lower sleep duration [OR = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67–0.84]. An interaction between decreased sleep duration and an increased log heavy drinking frequency predicted increased daytime sleepiness (P=0.004. Thus, the effect of sleep duration should be considered when evaluating the relationship between daytime sleepiness and heavy drinking.

  7. The Use of Regulatory Power by U.S. State and Local Alcohol Control Agencies to Ban Problematic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R; Binakonsky, Jane; Jernigan, David

    2017-12-19

    Alcohol is responsible for 4,300 deaths a year in the U.S. among persons under 21. Alcohol companies innovate rapidly and produce new products, some of which prove popular among young people. The 18 "control jurisdictions" in the U.S. - those that exercise monopoly control over some aspect of alcohol distribution - have the ability to govern which products become available within their borders and have, at times, exercised that authority to block particular products from sale. This paper is an exploratory study examining how states use regulatory authority in control jurisdictions to restrict the sale of new alcohol products within their borders, and the reasoning used to justify those decisions. The authors, collaborating with the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association, surveyed control state officials regarding procedures and policies governing the sale of new products in their jurisdictions. Control jurisdictions have banned/restricted different products (e.g., grain alcohol and alcoholic energy drinks) for a variety of reasons (e.g., flavorings/packaging appealing to underage drinkers, blurring of distinctions between alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, and judgment that the product was not socially responsible). Conclusions/ Importance: Although U.S. control jurisdictions universally have the authority to limit access to problematic alcohol products; they vary in the degree to which they use it. These states need to take action, and as of now, there is no systematic reasoning behind when and how states make decisions to ban/restrict these products. Greater exploration of regulatory authority in this arena could be protective of public health.

  8. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  9. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  10. Voices of the Banned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2018-01-01

    In Western cities, public authorities are increasingly resorting to the use of patron banning orders as means of reducing alcohol and other drug-related harms in nightlife. While the use of banning orders is often hailed by authorities, due to their presumed deterrent and crime reduction effects...... of patrons as rational actors, as well as linear notions of cause and effect, this article challenges such conceptions. Instead, this article draws on actor network theory, and an understanding of banned youth as situated in networks of relations, in order to provide insights into how the effects of banning...

  11. Shiguri Ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    Introduktion til den japanske arkitekt Shiguri Ban og hans arbejde med paprør som konstruktionsmateriale i arkitektur......Introduktion til den japanske arkitekt Shiguri Ban og hans arbejde med paprør som konstruktionsmateriale i arkitektur...

  12. Sleep Disruption and Daytime Sleepiness Correlating with Disease Severity and Insulin Resistance in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Weisskopf, Diego M; Pflueger, Marlon O; Mosimann, Jan; Campana, Benedetta; Terracciano, Luigi; Beglinger, Christoph; Heim, Markus H; Cajochen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indeterminate. We sought to detail sleep characteristics, daytime sleepiness and meal times in relation to disease severity in patients with NAFLD. Basic Sleep duration and latency, daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale), Pittsburgh sleep quality index, positive and negative affect scale, Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and an eating habit questionnaire were assessed in 46 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 22 healthy controls, and correlated with biochemical and histological parameters. In NAFLD compared to healthy controls, time to fall asleep was vastly prolonged (26.9 vs. 9.8 min., p = 0.0176) and sleep duration was shortened (6.3 vs. 7.2 hours, p = 0.0149). Sleep quality was poor (Pittsburgh sleep quality index 8.2 vs. 4.7, p = 0.0074) and correlated with changes in affect. Meal frequency was shifted towards night-times (p = 0.001). In NAFLD but not controls, daytime sleepiness significantly correlated with liver enzymes (ALAT [r = 0.44, p = 0.0029], ASAT [r = 0.46, p = 0.0017]) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [r = 0.5, p = 0.0009]) independent of cirrhosis. In patients with fibrosis, daytime sleepiness correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.364, p = 0.019). In NAFLD sleep duration was shortened, sleep onset was delayed and sleep quality poor. Food-intake was shifted towards the night. Daytime sleepiness was positively linked to biochemical and histologic surrogates of disease severity. The data may indicate a role for sleep-wake cycle regulation and timing of food-intake in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD as suggested from murine models.

  13. Sleep Disruption and Daytime Sleepiness Correlating with Disease Severity and Insulin Resistance in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bernsmeier

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is indeterminate. We sought to detail sleep characteristics, daytime sleepiness and meal times in relation to disease severity in patients with NAFLD.Basic Sleep duration and latency, daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, positive and negative affect scale, Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and an eating habit questionnaire were assessed in 46 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 22 healthy controls, and correlated with biochemical and histological parameters.In NAFLD compared to healthy controls, time to fall asleep was vastly prolonged (26.9 vs. 9.8 min., p = 0.0176 and sleep duration was shortened (6.3 vs. 7.2 hours, p = 0.0149. Sleep quality was poor (Pittsburgh sleep quality index 8.2 vs. 4.7, p = 0.0074 and correlated with changes in affect. Meal frequency was shifted towards night-times (p = 0.001. In NAFLD but not controls, daytime sleepiness significantly correlated with liver enzymes (ALAT [r = 0.44, p = 0.0029], ASAT [r = 0.46, p = 0.0017] and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [r = 0.5, p = 0.0009] independent of cirrhosis. In patients with fibrosis, daytime sleepiness correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.364, p = 0.019.In NAFLD sleep duration was shortened, sleep onset was delayed and sleep quality poor. Food-intake was shifted towards the night. Daytime sleepiness was positively linked to biochemical and histologic surrogates of disease severity. The data may indicate a role for sleep-wake cycle regulation and timing of food-intake in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD as suggested from murine models.

  14. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  15. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    national and international by ... Marketing restrictions, such as. Reducing availability of retailed alcohol. Bans on alcohol advertizing, ... relationships between alcohol consumption and household poverty (e.g. the opportunity costs of alcohol).

  16. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question: Under what conditions do democracies ban political parties? It does so by exploring three hypotheses generated by a disparete literature on party bans and in light of the 2003 ban on radical Basque nationalist parties Herri Batasuna, Euskal Herritarrok...... and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...... relevant office holders, or those holding a majority in parliament, have reason to believe they will not be disadvantaged electorally for supporting the ban....

  17. Nonessential Products Ban Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by banning the sale and introduction into interstate commerce of certain non-essential products manufactured with or containing ozone-depleting substances.

  18. Patron Banning in the Nightlife Entertainment Districts: A Key Informant Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Curtis, Ashlee; Palmer, Darren; Warren, Ian; McFarlane, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues is associated with substantial costs. Many interventions have been introduced in an effort to combat these harms, and one such intervention is known as patron banning. Patron banning involves prohibiting patrons who have been violent or disorderly in a licensed venue in an attempt to reduce alcohol-related harm. It can be implemented by the venue, by members of police, or by liquor accords. This study aimed to obtain key informant perspectives on the benefits of patron banning as well as on the effectiveness of patron banning in reducing alcohol-related harm. Thirty-six key informants provided perspectives on patron banning through in-depth interviews that were part of a larger study. Key informants were supportive of patron banning for reducing alcohol-related harm, noting that it had many benefits including increased venue safety, general risk management, and deterrence of antisocial behavior. Although processes for banning were not always consistent, identification scanners were generally recognized as a way to ensure that patron banning was enforced. Key informants viewed patron banning as an effective measure for increasing patron safety and reducing alcohol-related harms.

  19. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  3. Thoughts on Book Banning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Uluğbay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, written by the author who used to be one of the former ministers of national education, includes some instances that took place in different date ranges in Turkey and different countries around the world about book censorship. It is emphasized in the article that censorship has been in public agenda since history of religions, some books with various subjects in different periods has been censored especially due to public safety and decency. The author states that philosophers particularly such as authors, publishers, journalists and scientists have been suppressed in each period by indicating that censorship is mainly derived from differences of ideas and the root of the problem is violation of freedom of thought and thought broadcast. The article supports the idea that book censorship is against democracy by citing quotations from famous statesmen, scientists, lawyers and litterateurs from past to present. Suggestions were made for governments about subjects such as freedom of thought and freedom of press which are the basis of democracy by referring to the “banned books week” as an example from the USA. It is suggested that such practices should be initiated in Turkey as well on the path towards the solution of the problem.

  4. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  5. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. To promote better sleep during the day: ... Take naps. Napping late in the day before work might help you make up your sleep debt. ...

  6. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  7. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    in political concern for the possible effects of an abolition of art. 140 on the status and circumstances of religious minorities in Denmark. In this article, we will first look at the historical development of the blasphemy ban, leading to the current art. 140 of the Danish Penal Code. The content and scope...... of art. 140 will be sketched, followed by a discussion of the few cases brought to court since 1933, reaching a climax with the Muhammed Cartoons in 2006. One legal particularity of the blasphemy ban will be given special attention, namely the reference to art. 140 in the Danish Alien’s Act which has...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  8. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  9. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  10. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  11. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  12. 16 CFR 1301.5 - Banning criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banning criteria. 1301.5 Section 1301.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.5 Banning criteria. (a) Any refuse bin of metal construction produced or...

  13. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  14. Smartphone addiction risk and daytime sleepiness in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jee Eun; Choi, Soo An; Kim, Ki Tai; Yee, Jeong; Kim, Joo Hee; Seong, Jin Won; Seong, Jong Mi; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2018-04-06

    Smartphone overuse can cause not only mobility problems in the wrists, fingers and neck but also interference with sleep habits. However, research on smartphone addiction and sleep disturbances is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate daytime sleepiness in association with smartphone addiction risk in Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional survey method was used in this study. The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale was used to assess daytime sleepiness, and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale index was used to evaluate the degree of risk for smartphone addiction. The analyses were performed in 1796 adolescents using smartphones, including 820 boys and 976 girls. The at-risk smartphone users made up 15.1% of boys and 23.9% of girls. Our multivariate analyses demonstrated that students who were female, consumed alcohol, had lower academic performance, did not feel refreshed in the morning and initiated sleep after 12 am were at a significantly higher risk of smartphone addiction. The at-risk smartphone user group was independently associated with the upper quartile Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale score in students with the following factors: Female gender, alcohol consumption, poor self-perceived health level, initiating sleep after 12 am, longer time taken to fall asleep and duration of night sleep less than 6 h. The quality of sleep in adolescence affects growth, emotional stability and learning skills. Therefore, the management of smartphone addiction seems to be essential for proper sleeping habits. There is a critical need to develop a means of preventing smartphone addiction on a social level. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  16. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  17. Formative Assessment Probes: The Daytime Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    The familiar adage "seeing is believing" implies that children will recall a particular phenomenon if they had the experience of seeing it with their own eyes. If this were true, then most children would believe that one could see the Moon in both daytime and at night. However, when children are asked, "Can you see the Moon in the daytime?" many…

  18. 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers : alcohol results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the prevalence estimates for alcohol-involved driving derived from the recently completed U.S. : national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved driving (primarily of nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime : Friday drive...

  19. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  20. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  1. Ban the Hickory Stick. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that corporal punishment should be banned from every school as a means of classroom discipline, and presents teachers and administrators with workable alternatives to disciplining children. (BB)

  2. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  3. From BAN to AmI-BAN : micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  4. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  5. Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Banned Corticosteroids in Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative Assessment of Banned Corticosteroids in Cosmetic Creams in Lagos Metropolis. B O Silva. Abstract. Background: Cosmetic creams are widely used for good causes. They however pose dangers when they contain banned corticosteroids. As part of its control measures and its effort on public safety, NAFDAC ...

  7. Eveningness Chronotype, Daytime Sleepiness, Caffeine Consumption, and Use of Other Stimulants Among Peruvian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Anjalene; Sanchez, Sixto; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate patterns of circadian preferences and daytime sleepiness, and to examine the extent to which the consumption of stimulant beverages is associated with daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype among Peruvian college-age students. Methods: A total of 2,581 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire that gathered information about sleep habits, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, and the use of caffeinated beverages. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to assess chronotype and daytime sleepiness. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations of sleep disorders with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 35% [95% CI 32.7-36.4] and eveningness chronotype was 10% [95% CI 8.8-11.1%]. Age, sex, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with an evening chronotype. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverages had 1.25 increased odds of excessive daytime sleepiness (OR=1.25 [95% CI 1.03-1.53]) compared with students who did not consume stimulant beverages. Consumption of any stimulant beverages was not statistically significantly associated with being an evening chronotype (OR=1.30 [95% CI 0.86-1.96]). Conclusions: Excessive daytime sleepiness and eveningness chronotype are common among Peruvian college students. MEQ scores were associated with age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Regular stimulant beverage consumption tended to be positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

  8. Daytime Sleep Aids and Nighttime Cognitive Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eddy, Douglas; Barton, Emily; Cardenas, Rebecca; French, Jonathan; Gibbons, John; Hickey, Patrick; Miller, James; Ramsey, Carol; Storm, William

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compared two doses of the hypnotic zolpidem, two doses of melatonin and placebo for their effects on daytime sleep, on nighttime cognitive performance and on mood in an operationally...

  9. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies pro...

  10. Daytime Sleep Aids and Nighttime Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    anticonvulsant properties, and has been shown to be effective in inducing and maintaining sleep in adults with various sleep pathologies (Salva...AFRL-HE-BR-TR-2006-0039 Air Force Research Laboratory DAYTIME SLEEP AIDS AND NIGHTTIME COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE Douglas Eddy Emily Barton Rebecca...Daytime Sleep Aids and Nighttime Cognitive Performance F41624-97-D6004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER

  11. Risky drug use and effects on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Phillips, James G; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Broadbear, Jillian H

    2015-09-01

    Sleep problems are commonly reported following alcohol and cannabis abuse, but our understanding of sleep in non-clinical drug using populations is limited. The present study examined the sleep characteristics of alcohol and cannabis users recruited from the wider community. Two hundred forty-eight self-identified alcohol and/or cannabis users (131 women and 117 men) with a mean age of 26.41 years completed an online study that was advertised via online forums, print media and flyers. As part of the study, participants completed validated sleep scales assessing sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) in addition to validated drug scales assessing alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and cannabis (Marijuana Screening Inventory) use. Problems with sleep quality were more commonly reported than were complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clinically significant poor sleep quality was associated with comorbid problem alcohol and cannabis use. Women reporting problem alcohol and cannabis use had poorer sleep outcomes than men. Social drug users who report risky alcohol and cannabis use also report poor sleep. Poor sleep quality likely exacerbates any drug-associated problems in non-clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  13. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  15. Microstrip Patch Antenna for Ban Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sehrish Rashid, Sana Ahmad; Muhammad Talha Asghar; Irum Gillani and Nida Kiyan

    2014-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna is designed for UWB (Ultra Wide Band) range i-e; 3.1GHz-10.6GHz. The antenna is particularly designed for BAN (Body are Network) applications. The substrate used is Rogers RT Duroid 5880 with thickness 1.577mm. Comparison between UWB antenna with and without body phantom is presented. It is shown that an UWB antenna can be modified and used for BAN. Radiation patterns and return loss plots are also shown.

  16. Daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease: a reappraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cochen De Cock

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD; however the frequency and risk factors for objective sleepiness remain mostly unknown. We investigated both the frequency and determinants of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD using a wide range of potential predictors.One hundred and thirty four consecutive patients with PD, without selection bias for sleep complaint, underwent a semi-structured clinical interview and a one night polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT. Demographic characteristics, medical history, PD course and severity, daytime sleepiness, depressive and insomnia symptoms, treatment intake, pain, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder, and nighttime sleep measures were collected. Self-reported daytime sleepiness was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS score above 10. A mean sleep latency on MSLT below 8 minutes defined objective daytime sleepiness.Of 134 patients with PD, 46.3% had subjective and only 13.4% had objective sleepiness with a weak negative correlation between ESS and MSLT latency. A high body mass index (BMI was associated with both ESS and MSLT, a pain complaint with ESS, and a higher apnea/hypopnea index with MSLT. However, no associations were found between both objective and subjective sleepiness, and measures of motor disability, disease onset, medication (type and dose, depression, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behaviour disorder and nighttime sleep evaluation.We found a high frequency of self-reported EDS in PD, a finding which is however not confirmed by the gold standard neurophysiological evaluation. Current treatment options for EDS in PD are very limited; it thus remains to be determined whether decreasing pain and BMI in association with the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome would decrease significantly daytime sleepiness in PD.

  17. Some Daytime Activities in Solar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This century's transits of Venus (2004, 2012) captured significant public attention, reminding us that the wonders of astronomy need not be confined to the night. And while nighttime telescope viewing gatherings (a.k.a. "star parties") are perennially popular, astronomy classes are typically held in the daytime. The logistics of…

  18. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  20. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of children with daytime incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebeke, P.; Bower, W.; Combs, A.; de Jong, T.; Yang, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article is one of the standardization documents of the International Children's Continence Society, and discusses how anatomical/iatrogenic and functional/urodynamic causes of daytime incontinence in children of all ages are to be diagnosed, how neurogenic bladder dysfunction or urinary tract

  2. Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…

  3. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  4. Sleep Habits, Insomnia, and Daytime Sleepiness in a Large and Healthy Community-Based Sample of New Zealanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsmore, Bradley R.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Fransen, Marlene; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the relationship between sleep complaints, primary insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and lifestyle factors in a large community-based sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Blood donor sites in New Zealand. Patients or Participants: 22,389 individuals aged 16-84 years volunteering to donate blood. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire including personal demographics and validated questions assessing sleep disorders (snoring, apnea), sleep complaints (sleep quantity, sleep dissatisfaction), insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood, and lifestyle factors such as work patterns, smoking, alcohol, and illicit substance use. Additionally, direct measurements of height and weight were obtained. Results: One in three participants report sleep, 5 or more nights per week, and 60% would like more sleep. Almost half the participants (45%) report suffering the symptoms of insomnia at least once per week, with one in 5 meeting more stringent criteria for primary insomnia. Excessive daytime sleepiness (evident in 9% of this large, predominantly healthy sample) was associated with insomnia (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50 to 2.05), depression (OR 2.01, CI 1.74 to 2.32), and sleep disordered breathing (OR 1.92, CI 1.59 to 2.32). Long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating work shifts also increase the risk of daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Even in this relatively young, healthy, non-clinical sample, sleep complaints and primary insomnia with subsequent excess daytime sleepiness were common. There were clear associations between many personal and lifestyle factors—such as depression, long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating shift work—and sleep problems or excessive daytime sleepiness. Citation: Wilsmore BR; Grunstein RR; Fransen M; Woodward M; Norton R; Ameratunga S. Sleep habits, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness in a large and healthy

  5. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (Pgenders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).

  6. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  7. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  8. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion

  9. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  10. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  11. Daytime Sleepiness, Circadian Preference, Caffeine Consumption and Khat Use among College Students in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darve; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane

    2013-12-20

    To estimate the prevalence of daytime sleepiness and circadian preferences, and to examine the extent to which caffeine consumption and Khat (a herbal stimulant) use are associated with daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype among Ethiopian college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,410 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about sleep, behavioral risk factors such as caffeinated beverages, tobacco, alcohol, and Khat consumption. Daytime sleepiness and chronotype were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Horne & Ostberg Morningness /Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), respectively. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. Daytime sleepiness (ESS≥10) was present in 26% of the students (95% CI: 24.4-27.8%) with 25.9% in males and 25.5% in females. A total of 30 (0.8%) students were classified as evening chronotypes (0.7% in females and 0.9% in males). Overall, Overall, Khat consumption, excessive alcohol use and cigarette smoking status were associated with evening chronotype. Use of any caffeinated beverages (OR=2.18; 95%CI: 0.82-5.77) and Khat consumption (OR=7.43; 95%CI: 3.28-16.98) increased the odds of evening chronotype. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness among our study population was high while few were classified as evening chronotypes. We also found increased odds of evening chronotype with caffeine consumption and Khat use amongst Ethiopian college students. Prospective cohort studies that examine the effects of caffeinated beverages and Khat use on sleep disorders among young adults are needed.

  12. 47 CFR 73.157 - Antenna testing during daytime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna testing during daytime. 73.157 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.157 Antenna testing during daytime. (a) The licensee of a station using a directional antenna during daytime or nighttime hours may, without further authority...

  13. Proposal of cutoff points for pediatric daytime sleepiness scale to identify excessive daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carolina; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Pelegrini, Andreia; Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to propose cutoff points for the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) through sensitivity and specificity analyses in order to identify excessive daytime sleepiness, considering parameters such as duration and quality of sleep, health perception, stress control and depressive moods (feelings of sadness) in adolescents. A total of 1,132 adolescents, aged 14-19 years old, of both sexes, from the public high school of São José - SC, answered the questionnaire with information on age, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, health perception, stress management, depressive moods (feelings of sadness) and quality of sleep. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate cutoff points considering the sensitivity and specificity values ​​that best identify adolescents with excessive daytime sleepiness, using independent variables as a reference. The majority of the sample was female (54.2%), aged 14-16 years. The girls presented worse quality of sleep (66.4%), and the boys had a more positive perception of health (74.8%), better stress control (64.8%) and lower depressive moods (feelings of sadness) (63.3%). The largest area in the ROC curve was the one that considered sleep quality as a parameter in both sexes (area of the curve = 0.709 and 0.659, respectively, for boys and girls, p sleep quality as a reference, the cutoff point for excessive daytime sleepiness was 15 points. The other parameters used were also significant (p sleep quality was the parameter most strongly related to daytime sleepiness, and a cutoff of 15 points for the PDSS for both sexes should be used in the definition of excessive daytime sleepiness. For the other parameters, stress management, depressive mood (feelings of sadness) and health perception, different cutoff points are suggested for boys and girls.

  14. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Price Discrimination Bans on Dominant Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.; van Dijk, T.

    2008-01-01

    Competition authorities and regulatory agencies sometimes impose pricing restrictions on firms with substantial market power — the “dominant” firms. We analyze the welfare effects of a ban on behaviour-based price discrimination in a two-period setting where the market displays a competitive and a

  16. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  18. Sleep habits, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness in a large and healthy community-based sample of New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsmore, Bradley R; Grunstein, Ronald R; Fransen, Marlene; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-06-15

    To determine the relationship between sleep complaints, primary insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and lifestyle factors in a large community-based sample. Cross-sectional study. Blood donor sites in New Zealand. 22,389 individuals aged 16-84 years volunteering to donate blood. N/A. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire including personal demographics and validated questions assessing sleep disorders (snoring, apnea), sleep complaints (sleep quantity, sleep dissatisfaction), insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood, and lifestyle factors such as work patterns, smoking, alcohol, and illicit substance use. Additionally, direct measurements of height and weight were obtained. One in three participants report sleep, 5 or more nights per week, and 60% would like more sleep. Almost half the participants (45%) report suffering the symptoms of insomnia at least once per week, with one in 5 meeting more stringent criteria for primary insomnia. Excessive daytime sleepiness (evident in 9% of this large, predominantly healthy sample) was associated with insomnia (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50 to 2.05), depression (OR 2.01, CI 1.74 to 2.32), and sleep disordered breathing (OR 1.92, CI 1.59 to 2.32). Long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating work shifts also increase the risk of daytime sleepiness. Even in this relatively young, healthy, non-clinical sample, sleep complaints and primary insomnia with subsequent excess daytime sleepiness were common. There were clear associations between many personal and lifestyle factors-such as depression, long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating shift work-and sleep problems or excessive daytime sleepiness.

  19. 76 FR 1151 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ11-8-000] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing December 30, 2010. Take notice that on December 22, 2010, the City of Banning, California (Banning) filed its annual revisions to is Transmission Revenue Balancing Account Adjustment and a...

  20. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...

  1. 2007 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report describes the methodology for the 2007 U.S. national field study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol-, drug-, and alcohol-and-drug-involved driving, primarily among nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime Friday drivers. This study ...

  2. Banning short sales and market quality: The UK's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, I. W.; Payne, R.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects that the ban on short sales of shares in financial firms introduced in late 2008 and removed early 2009 had on the microstructure and the quality of UK equity markets. We show that the ban did nothing to affect order flows: financial stocks were being more aggressively sold off than their peers pre-ban and this situation persisted through the ban period. Trading volume in financials was massively reduced, however. The ban decimated order book liquidity for financials. The...

  3. Programmer's manual for the Banning artwork program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    The document is intended to serve as the programmer's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. A detailed description of the internal logic and flow of the Artwork Program has been included in this report. It is recommended that every user review this manual in order to receive an appreciation of the functions performed by the Artwork Program; however, the User's Manual for the Artwork Program contains sufficient information to allow the designer/engineer to efficiently use the Artwork Program. Before beginning a detailed study of this Programmer's Manual, the reader should have a complete understanding of the contents of the User's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. It is assumed that the programmer using this manual has a working knowledge of FORTRAN IV.

  4. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  5. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  6. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  7. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Ilijas, B.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a cornerstone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion will constrain the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996. The Treaty will enter into force after it has been ratified by the 44 States listed in its Annex 2. These states possess nuclear power or research reactors. The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission) is an international organization established by the States Signatories to the Treaty on 19 November 1996. It carries out the necessary preparations for the effective implementation of the Treaty, and prepares for the first session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty. The Treaty has been signed and ratified by the Republic of Croatia and National Commission for the implementation of the Treaty has been established. Basic obligations of the Treaty, as specified in Article I, are: (1) Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. (2) Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.(author)

  8. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  9. Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: the potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, William; Ebel, Beth E; McCarty, Carolyn A; Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-03-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortality. We first estimated the effect of public health interventions to decrease harmful drinking among youth from literature reviews and used life table methods to estimate alcohol-attributable years of life lost by age 80 years among the cohort of approximately 4 million U.S. residents aged 20 in the year 2000. Then, from national survey data on transitions in drinking habits by age, we modeled the impact of interventions on alcohol-attributable mortality. A tax increase and an advertising ban were the most effective interventions identified. In the absence of intervention, there would be 55,259 alcohol-attributable deaths over the lifetime of the cohort. A tax-based 17% increase in the price of alcohol of dollar 1 per six pack of beer could reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 1,490, equivalent to 31,130 discounted years of potential life saved or 3.3% of current alcohol-attributable mortality. A complete ban on alcohol advertising would reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 7,609 and result in a 16.4% decrease in alcohol-related life-years lost. A partial advertising ban would result in a 4% reduction in alcohol-related life-years lost. Interventions to prevent harmful drinking by youth can result in reductions in adult mortality. Among interventions shown to be successful in reducing youthful drinking prevalence, advertising bans appear to have the greatest potential for premature mortality reduction.

  10. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  11. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Strasse 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe (Germany) and Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)] e-mail: j.schleich@isi.fraunhofer.de; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hoppe, Christian [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Seifert, Stefan [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Takon GmbH, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions.

  12. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  13. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health effects of banning beehive coke ovens and implementation of the ban in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Shen, Huizhong; Yun, Xiao; Gao, Fei; Chen, Yilin; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Xueping; Tian, Chongguo; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-13

    Environmental legislation and proper implementation are critical in environmental protection. In the past, beehive coke ovens (BCOs) were popular in China, resulting in enormous emissions of benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP), a common indicator of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. BCOs were banned by the Coal Law in 1996. Although BCO numbers have declined since the ban, they were not eliminated until 2011 due to poor implementation. Here, we present the results of a quantitative evaluation of the health effects of historical BCO operation, the health benefits of the ban, and the adverse impacts of the poor implementation of the ban. With only limited official statistics available, historical and geospatial data about BCOs were reconstructed based on satellite images. Emission inventories of BaP from BCOs were compiled and used to model atmospheric transport, nonoccupational population exposure, and induced lung cancer risk. We demonstrated that more than 20% of the BaP in ambient air was from BCOs in the peak year. The cumulative nonoccupational excess lung cancer cases associated with BaP from BCOs was 3,500 (±1,500) from 1982 to 2015. If there was no ban, the cases would be as high as 9,290 (±4,300), indicating the significant health benefits of the Coal Law. On the other hand, if the ban had been fully implemented immediately after the law was enforced in 1996, the cumulative cases would be 1,500 (±620), showing the importance of implementing the law. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental Perspectives on Alcohol Use among School-Aged Children in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Research on alcohol misuse and abuse indicates that it can cause many personal health and family problems. This study investigated whether Ghanaian parents would reward their children with alcohol if they sent the children to buy alcoholic drinks and whether they would favor legislation banning children from using alcohol. Also addressed in this…

  17. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we investigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this

  18. Sleep and daytime sleepiness in methylphenidate medicated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Excessive daytime sleepiness due to any cause can result in various symptoms similar to those used for the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A common treatment for children diagnosed with ADHD is methylphenidate which is also used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. This paper ...

  19. Estimating daytime ecosystem respiration from eddy-flux data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    based on whole ecosystem fluxes from a linear regression of photosynthetic photon flux density data vs. daytime net ecosystem exchange data at forest ecosystem level. This method is based on the principles of the Kok-method applied at leaf level for estimating daytime respiration. We demonstrate...

  20. Daytime napping associated with increased symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theadom, Alice; Cropley, Mark; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The

  1. 47 CFR 73.187 - Limitation on daytime radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on daytime radiation. 73.187 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.187 Limitation on daytime radiation. (a)(1) Except as..., subsequent changes of facilities which do not involve a change in frequency, an increase in radiation toward...

  2. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  3. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  4. 76 FR 79678 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ12-3-000] City of Banning...) Tariff of the City of Banning, California (Banning), Banning filed a Petition for Declaratory Order, seeking a declaratory order to (1) accept Banning's annual revisions to its Transmission Revenue Balancing...

  5. 75 FR 857 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-28-000] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing December 29, 2009. Take notice that on December 23, 2009, the City of Banning, California filed its seventh annual revision to its Transmission Revenue Balancing Account Adjustment, to...

  6. 77 FR 77073 - City of Banning, California; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ13-4-000] City of Banning, California; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 12, 2012, City of Banning, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Filing 2013 TRBAA and ETC Update to be effective 1/1/2013. Any person...

  7. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  8. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  9. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  10. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  11. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  12. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  13. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  14. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we investigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this means in terms of equality of rights for all citizens. With this analysis, an attempt to explain the exercise of power beyond the State in policing space in Western countries is provided.

  15. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  16. Daytime Celestial Navigation for the Novice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Night, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    What kinds of astronomical lab activities can high school and college astronomy students carry out easily in daytime? The most impressive is the determination of latitude and longitude from observations of the Sun. The ``shooting of a noon sight'' and its ``reduction to a position'' grew to become a daily practice at the start of the 19th century1 following the perfection of the marine chronometer by John Harrison and its mass production.2 This technique is still practiced by navigators in this age of GPS. Indeed, the U.S. Coast Guard exams for ocean-going licenses include celestial navigation.3 These techniques continue to be used by the military and by private sailors as a backup to all-too-fallible and jammable electronic navigation systems. A sextant, a nautical almanac,4 special sight reduction tables,5 and involved calculations are needed to determine position to the nearest mile using the Sun, Moon, stars, or planets. Yet, finding latitude and longitude to better than 30 miles from measurements of the Sun's altitude is easily within the capability of those taking astronomy or physics for the first time by applying certain basic principles. Moreover, it shows a practical application of astronomy in use the world over. The streamlined method described here takes advantage of the similar level of accuracy of its three components: 1.Observations using a homemade quadrant6 (instead of a sextant), 2. Student-made graphs of the altitude of the Sun over a day7 (replacing lengthy calculation using sight reduction tables), and 3. An averaged 20-year analemma used to find the Sun's navigational coordinates8,9 (rather than the 300+ page Nautical Almanac updated yearly).

  17. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  18. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... damage or abuse. (2) Dolls and stuffed animals and other similar toys described in § 1500.18(a)(3) in... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as a banned...; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.86 Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other...

  19. Detection of Daytime Arctic Clouds using MISR and MODIS Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Tao; Clothiaux, Eugene E; Yu, Bin; Braverman, Amy J; Groff, David N

    2006-01-01

    ...) 7 are used operationally for detection of clouds in daytime polar regions. While the information content of clouds inherent in spectral radiances is familiar, the information content of clouds contained in angular radiances (i.e...

  20. Sleep and daytime sleepiness in methylphenidate medicated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with significantly greater anxiety, daytime fatigue, nocturnal enuresis, fear of sleeping alone, depression, poor school achievement, learning problems, behavioural problems, inattention, disorientation, speech deterioration, poor judgement, poor impulse control, irritability, confusion and hyperactivity.21,22.

  1. Daytime sleepiness and related factors in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Gökçe

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of the frequency and causes of daytime sleepiness in nursing students because it is an important factor in improving the health status of the students, controlling sleep problems, improving students' academic achievements, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of daytime sleepiness in nursing students and the factors associated with it. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Nursing students (n=382). Data were collected using a questionnaire prepared by the authors to assess socio-demographic characteristics, sleep habits, and problems of nursing students and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), which assesses daytime sleepiness. Descriptive statistics included numbers, percentages, mean, median, and standard deviation. Mann-Whitney U test (Z) and Kruskal-Wallis (KW) analysis of variance were used for evaluating the relationship between ESS scores and independent variables. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness in the students was found to be 10.5%. Those in the 2nd grade, who were married, who did not consume coffee or tea, lived alone, regarded their own academic achievement as poor, and used the Internet during morning hours experienced increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, students who talk in their sleep, grind their teeth, feel restless before sleep, experience problems in falling asleep, and wake up at night were found to experience increased daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness is a considerably common health problem in nursing students. This study found that daytime sleepiness is associated with individual characteristics, lifestyle and consumption habits, and sleep habits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  3. FCTC followed by accelerated implementation of tobacco advertising bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate changes in countries' enacting advertising bans after the effect of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compared adoption of advertising bans on five areas (TV and radio, print media, billboards, point-of-sale, sponsorship) in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the Convention. On average, passage of complete advertising bans accelerated after FCTC ratification. The development was strongest among lower middle-income countries. Lack of state capacity was associated with lower likelihood of countries implementing complete advertising bans. Implementation of complete advertising bans slowed after 2007. Implementation of FCTC Article 13 was followed by increased progress towards complete advertising bans, but progress is incomplete, especially among low-income countries. Low-income countries need comprehensive support to implement FCTC as part of a broad effort to reinvigorate progress on global implementation of the FCTC. Enforcing complete bans requires constant monitoring and attacking of tobacco industry efforts to circumvent them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Daytime sleepiness and sleep quality among Malaysian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailinawati, A H; Teng, C L; Chung, Y C; Teow, T L; Lee, P N; Jagmohni, K S

    2009-06-01

    Poor sleep quality and daytime somnolence is reported to be associated with cardiovascular events, road traffic accident, poor academic performance and psychological distress. Some studies documented that it is prevalent in most populations but its frequency among medical students has not been documented in Malaysia. This is a self-administered questionnaire survey of medical students from International Medical University, Malaysia. Daytime sleepiness of medical students was assessed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Student scoring ESS > 11 was regarded as having excessive daytime sleepiness. Psychological distress was measured using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A total of 799 medical students participated in this survey (response rate 69.5%). Daytime sleepiness occurred in 35.5%, psychological distress was present in 41.8% and 16.1% reported bad sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly more common among the clinical students, those with self-reported bad sleep quality and psychological distress; but unrelated to the number of hours sleep at night. We have documented high prevalence of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality and psychological distress. Higher frequency among clinical students and the significant relationship with psychological distress suggest possible link to the stressful clinical training.

  5. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  6. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  7. Test ban compliance: is seismology enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The treaties under debate were signed more than a decade ago: the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) by President Nixon in 1974 and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET) by President Ford in 1976. Between them, they prohibit all underground nuclear blasts with an explosive yield greater than 150 kilotons. When negotiated, verification of the testing agreements was entrusted to seismology, but the remote seismic techniques they must rely on today to monitor Soviet nuclear tests, do not provide yield estimates with the accuracy required for effective verifications of compliance. The alternative seized upon was hydrodynamics. The US technique is called CORRTEX, a mercifully terse acronym for Continuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time Experiments. A cable connected to a suitcase-sized electrical unit and a microcomputer is buried in a deep satellite hole roughly 50 feet away from the emplacement hole holding the nuclear device. The rate at which the CORRTEX cable is crushed and short-circuited by the shock wave generated by the exploding device provides the yield estimate. The paper compares the accuracy and constraints of both methods, and discusses the Soviet reaction to CORRTEX

  8. Down the local: A qualitative case study of daytime drinking spaces in the London Borough of Islington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Milton, Sarah; Egan, Matt; Lock, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends. Adopting a legitimate peripheral participation approach to data collection, 39 licensed premises were visited in Islington and on-site observations carried out between the hours of 12 pm and 6 pm using a semi-structured observation guide. Observations were written-up into detailed fieldnotes, uploaded to NVivo and subject to a thematic analysis. The daytime on-premises alcohol environment was characterised by two main trends: the decline of traditional pubs and a proliferation of hybrid establishments in which alcohol was framed as part of a suite of attractions. The consumption trends that the latter exemplify are implicated in processes of micro-cultural production and 'hipster capitalism'; and it is via this framing that we explore the way the diverse local drinking spaces were gendered and classed. Hybrid establishments have been regarded as positive in terms of public health, crime and safety. However, they could also help introduce drinking within times and contexts where it was not previously present. The intersection of an expanding hipster habitus with Local Authority efforts to tackle 'determined drunkenness' create very particular challenges. The operating practices of hybrid venues may feed into current alcohol industry strategies of promoting 'new moments' in which consumers can drink. They blur the divisions between work and play and produce temporal and classed divisions of drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  10. Building a norm: the banning of anti-personnel landmines

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Anti-personnel (AP) landmines have historically been used as a military tool. The humanitarian consequences of AP mines have generated support for an absolute ban on their use. Based on pre-existing principles of humanitarian law, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) campaigned for an international agreement banning AP mines. Canada and a group of like-minded states and NGOs provided the leadership and momentum necessary to gain a broad support for the Ottawa Treaty, which prohibits AP mines...

  11. Toward an Asbestos Ban in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Lemen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developed countries have banned the use of asbestos, but not the United States. There have, however, been multiple efforts in the US to establish strict exposure standards, to limit asbestos use, and to seek compensation through the courts for asbestos-injured workers’ In consequence of these efforts, asbestos use has declined dramatically, despite the absence of a legally mandated ban. This manuscript presents a historical review of these efforts.

  12. Effects of Paraquat Ban on Herbicide Poisoning-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Ryul; Chung, Sung Phil; You, Je Sung; Cho, Soohyung; Park, Yongjin; Chun, Byeongjo; Moon, Jeongmi; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyung Woo; Choi, SangChun; Park, Junseok; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Seung Whan; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Su Jin; Kang, Hyunggoo; Hong, Dae Young; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2017-07-01

    In Korea, registration of paraquat-containing herbicides was canceled in November 2011, and sales thereof were completely banned in November 2012. We evaluated the effect of the paraquat ban on the epidemiology and mortality of herbicide-induced poisoning. This retrospective study analyzed patients treated for herbicide poisoning at 17 emergency departments in South Korea between January 2010 and December 2014. The overall and paraquat mortality rates were compared pre- and post-ban. Factors associated with herbicide mortality were evaluated using logistic analysis. To determine if there were any changes in the mortality rates before and after the paraquat sales ban and the time point of any such significant changes in mortality, R software, version 3.0.3 (package, bcp) was used to perform a Bayesian change point analysis. We enrolled 2257 patients treated for herbicide poisoning (paraquat=46.8%). The overall and paraquat poisoning mortality rates were 40.6% and 73.0%, respectively. The decreased paraquat poisoning mortality rate (before, 75% vs. after, 67%, p=0.014) might be associated with increased intentionality. The multivariable logistic analysis revealed the paraquat ban as an independent predictor that decreased herbicide poisoning mortality (p=0.035). There were two major change points in herbicide mortality rates, approximately 3 months after the initial paraquat ban and 1 year after complete sales ban. This study suggests that the paraquat ban decreased intentional herbicide ingestion and contributed to lowering herbicide poisoning-associated mortality. The change point analysis suggests a certain timeframe was required for the manifestation of regulatory measures outcomes. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  13. Association between report of insomnia and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Yuriy; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Wal, Gregory S Vander; Taylor, Daniel J; Riedel, Brant W; Bush, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between reports of insomnia and daytime functioning was investigated using hierarchical regression. The presence or absence of a report of insomnia was the predictor of primary interest. A number of covariates were included in the model: demographic variables, health variables, and quantitative sleep parameters. Data were collected from a community sample in the Memphis, Tennessee area. Data from 734 volunteers, ranging in age from 20 to 96years were analyzed. The sample included 235 individuals who reported having chronic insomnia and 499 individuals who reported no sleep problems. Participants completed a 2-week sleep diary, a battery of daytime functioning questionnaires, and a medical disorders checklist. Demographic information was also collected. The daytime functioning assessment included the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Insomnia Impact Scale, and the Fatigue Severity Scale. The hierarchical regression model included four sets. The first three sets consisted of 18 variables capturing demographic, health, and sleep diary parameters. The fourth set included a single dichotomous variable representing the presence or absence of a report of insomnia. Reports of insomnia were a significant predictor of all five daytime functioning measures, which is consistent with previous research. We also showed that reports of insomnia were able to uniquely explain a significant amount of variability in self-reported daytime functioning after controlling for demographics, health, and sleep diary variables. The pattern of individual variables that reached significance in the first three sets varied depending on which daytime functioning measure was predicted, however, age, the presence of pain, the presence of mental health problems, SOL, and WASO were the most commonly significant predictors of poor daytime functioning from these sets across measures. Individuals' perceptions of their sleep are

  14. 77 FR 12277 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ12-3-001] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on February 16, 2012, the City of Banning, CA (Banning) submitted a compliance filing with a revised version of Appendix I to Banning's Transmission...

  15. Do night naps impact driving performance and daytime recovery sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Dorrian, Jillian; Hilditch, Cassie J; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Short, nighttime naps are used as a fatigue countermeasure in night shift work, and may offer protective benefits on the morning commute. However, there is a concern that nighttime napping may impact upon the quality of daytime sleep. The aim of the current project was to investigate the influence of short nighttime naps (sleep periods were recorded polysomnographically. Compared to control, the napping conditions did not significantly impact upon simulated driving lane variability, percentage of time in a safe zone, or time to first crash on morning or evening drives (p>0.05). Short nighttime naps did not significantly affect daytime recovery total sleep time (p>0.05). Slow wave sleep (SWS) obtained during the 30-min nighttime nap resulted in a significant reduction in SWS during subsequent daytime recovery sleep (p<0.05), such that the total amount of SWS in 24-h was preserved. Therefore, short naps did not protect against performance decrements during a simulated morning commute, but they also did not adversely affect daytime recovery sleep following a night shift. Further investigation is needed to examine the optimal timing, length or combination of naps for reducing performance decrements on the morning commute, whilst still preserving daytime sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Consequences of Split Shift Work in Indian Traffic Police Personnel: Daytime Sleepiness, Stressors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Soni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.

  18. Mean tracheal sound energy during sleep is related to daytime blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kenji; Sadamitsu, Yumiko; Shin, Shizue; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2013-09-01

    The pathological role of snoring independent of obstructive sleep apnea remains under debate. The authors hypothesized that snoring sound intensity, as assessed by mean tracheal sound energy (Leq) during sleep, is related to daytime blood pressure. Retrospective analysis of clinical records and polysomnography data. Sleep laboratory at a national hospital in Japan. Consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography with suspicion of sleep apnea between January 2005 and December 2009 (n = 1,118). Not applicable. Leq was calculated from tracheal sound spectra recorded every 0.2 sec during polysomnography. Daytime high blood pressure (HBP) was defined as taking antihypertensive drugs or having a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg at the patient's first clinical visit. Patient age, sex, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, alcohol consumption, and smoking were considered as confounders. Leq during sleep was associated with HBP after adjusting for all confounding factors (n = 1,074, P = 0.00019). This association was demonstrated even in nonapneic nonobese patients (n = 232, P = 0.012). The association between snoring intensity, as assessed by mean sound energy, and blood pressure suggests a pathological role for heavy snoring. Further study in a general population is warranted.

  19. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  20. Banned -- Select: "a drug to alter the sex of the foetus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, P V

    1993-04-01

    In 1991, the Government of Gujarat State, India, banned the manufacture and sale of an Ayurvedic drug called Select. This was the first time an Ayurvedic product had ever been banned. The manufacturer claimed that if a pregnant woman took Select for 45 days after her last menstrual period, she would have a male fetus. Further, the manufacturer marketed the drug as a tool which would change the dowry system (i.e., it would reduce the number of girls in the population). Select's high cost did not deter the naive and trusting public in Gujarat and other states. Drug activists and consumer groups called for the ban and noted that the marketing claims were typical of the unethical behavior of the Ayurvedic market. These consumer groups brought the existence of Select to the attention of the government which admittedly cannot adequately monitor and control the drug market. Groups ranging from illegal smugglers to multinational giants use loopholes in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Excise Laws to license their drugs as Ayurvedic/Herbal, but most drugs are hazardous. Policy makers, physicians, nongovernmental and consumer groups, the media, and others should join together to rid India of this unethical practice. They should help the government to implement a rational policy for traditional systems of medicine and, once the policy has been developed to select an essential drug list of Ayurvedic drugs needed for national health programs; monitor and minimize misleading advertisements; screen all existing Ayurvedic drugs and drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs. The government should declare any products with more than 12% alcohol to be liquor.

  1. Investigations of conjugate MSTIDS over the Brazilian sector during daytime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, O. F.; Kherani, E. A.; De Paula, E. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the daytime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed at conjugate hemispheres. It is the first time that the geomagnetical conjugate daytime MSTIDs are observed over the South America sector. To observe the MSTID characteristics, we used detrended total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems receivers located at Brazilian sector covering the Northern and Southern Hemispheres along the same magnetic meridian. The geographic grid of 1°N to 14°S in latitude and 60°S to 50°S in longitude was selected for this study. The cross-correlation method between two latitudes and longitudes in time was used to observe the propagation of the MSTID waves. The following features are noted: (a) MSTIDs are well developed at both hemispheres; (b) the peak MSTIDs amplitudes vary from one hemisphere to another; hence, we suppose that MSTIDs generated in Southern Hemisphere or Northern Hemisphere mirrored in the conjugate hemisphere; (c) the gravity wave-induced electric fields from one hemisphere map along the field lines and generate the mirrored MSTIDs in the conjugate region. To investigate the hemispheric mapping mechanism, a rough approximation for the integrated field line conductivity ratio of E and F regions is calculated using digisonde E and F region parameters. We noted that during the period of mapping the decrease in E region conductivity results in an increase in total conductivity. This shows that the E region was partially short circuited; hence, electric field generated at F region could map to the conjugate hemisphere during daytime: daytime MSTIDs at conjugate regions; mechanisms responsible for daytime electrified MSTIDs; gravity wave-induced electric field role in daytime MSTIDs.

  2. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce A; Wolfson, Amy R

    2009-05-01

    Three independent lines of inquiry have found associations between alcohol use and academic performance, sleep and academic performance, and alcohol use and sleep. The present study bridges this research by examining the links among alcohol use, sleep, and academic performance in college students. Personal interview surveys were conducted with a random sample of 236 students (124 women) at a liberal arts college. The interviews measured alcohol consumption, gender, academic class, weekday and weekend bedtimes and rise times, and daytime sleepiness; 95% of the sample granted permission to obtain grade-point average (GPA) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores from official college records. Ordinary least squares regressions showed that alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). Women and students with late sleep schedules were more apt to report daytime sleepiness. SAT score was the strongest predictor of GPA. However, gender, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness also were significant predictors when other variables were controlled. In addition to alcohol's direct relationship with GPA, mediational analysis indicated that alcohol had indirect effects on sleepiness and GPA, primarily through its effect on sleep schedule. The findings show how alcohol use among college students is related to sleep-wake patterns and further support the connection between alcohol use and grades.

  4. Impact of the balance billing ban on California emergency providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Bing; Riner, Myles; Chan, Theodore C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  5. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  6. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, pcigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, pcigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When crossing the Sahara it was expected that nocturnal migrants would continue their flight into the day. We investigated whether migration taking place in the Sahara during daytime comprises the normal diurnal migrant species or the nocturnal ones prolonging their flight into the day. Birds departing from the Sahel in ...

  8. The effect of nap frequency on daytime sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Alaynick, William A; Mednick, Sara C

    2012-08-20

    It is well documented that the quality and quantity of prior sleep influence future sleep. For instance, nocturnal sleep restriction leads to an increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) (i.e. SWS rebound) during a subsequent sleep period. However, few studies have examined how prior napping affects daytime sleep architecture. Because daytime naps are recommended for management of disrupted sleep, understanding the impact of napping on subsequent sleep may be important. We monitored sleep-wake patterns for one week with actigraphy followed by a 75-minute polysomnographically-recorded nap. We found that greater nap frequency was correlated with increased Stage 1 and decreased SWS. We categorized subjects based on nap frequency during the prior week (0 nap, 1 to 2 naps, and 3 to 4 naps) and found differences in Stage 1, Stage 2, and SWS between groups. Subjects who took no naps had the greatest amount of SWS, those who took 1 to 2 naps had the most Stage 2 sleep, and those who took 3 to 4 naps had the most Stage 1. While correlations were not found between nap frequency and nocturnal sleep measures, frequent napping was associated with increased subjective sleepiness. Therefore, frequent napping appears to be associated with lighter daytime sleep and increased sleepiness during the day. Speculatively, low levels of daytime sleepiness and increased SWS in non-nappers may help explain why these individuals choose not to nap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hierarchy of insomnia criteria based on daytime consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Riemann, Dieter; Morin, Charles; Reynolds, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    To explore how insomnia symptoms are hierarchically organized in individuals reporting daytime consequences of their sleep disturbances. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the general population of the states of California, New York, and Texas. The sample included 8937 individuals aged 18 years or older representative of the general population. Telephone interviews on sleep habits and disorders were managed with the Sleep-EVAL expert system and using DSM-IV and ICSD classifications. Insomnia symptoms and global sleep dissatisfaction (GSD) had to occur at least three times per week for at least three months. A total of 26.2% of the sample had a GSD. Individuals with GSD reported at least one insomnia symptom in 73.1% of the cases. The presence of GSD in addition to insomnia symptoms considerably increased the proportion of individuals with daytime consequences related to insomnia. In the classification trees performed, GSD arrived as the first predictor for daytime consequences related to insomnia. The second predictor was nonrestorative sleep followed by difficulty resuming sleep and difficulty initiating sleep. Classification trees are a useful way to hierarchically organize symptoms and to help diagnostic classifications. In this study, GSD was found to be the foremost symptom in identifying individuals with daytime consequences related to insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Excessive daytime sleepiness in multiple system atrophy (SLEEMSA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Lopez, C.; Santamaria, J.; Salamero, M.; Del Sorbo, F.; Albanese, A.; Pellecchia, M.T.; Barone, P.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Aarden, W.C.C.A.; Canesi, M.; Antonini, A.; Duerr, S.; Wenning, G.K.; Poewe, W.; Rubino, A.; Meco, G.; Schneider, S.A.; Bhatia, K.P.; Djaldetti, R.; Coelho, M.; Sampaio, C.; Cochen, V.; Hellriegel, H.; Deuschl, G.; Colosimo, C.; Marsili, L.; Gasser, T.; Tolosa, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are common in multiple system atrophy (MSA), but the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and associations of EDS in MSA. DESIGN: Survey of EDS in consecutive patients with MSA and comparison with patients

  11. High‑risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra‑city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross‑sectional study in three ...

  12. Accuracy of estimating wolf summer territories by daytime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Dominic J.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800–2000 h; nighttime = 2000–0800 h; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour) did not differ between daytime and nighttime nor between sunup and sundown locations. We conclude that in areas similar to our study area day-only locations are adequate for describing the location, extent and core use areas of summer wolf territories by both MCP and FK methods.

  13. Daytime Sleepiness among Medical Students in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of daytime sleepiness could be associated with underlying medical/ psychological disorders. There is a need for future studies to address these correlates of day time sleepiness. It is recommended that strategies to enlighten students on sleep hygiene should be pursued. Keywords: Day time sleepiness, medical students, ...

  14. Daytime variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and ph in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daytime variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH were investigated at 3-hourly intervals from 6a.m. to 6 p.m. January had the lowest temperature values, while at noon; September and January had the lowest air and pond water temperature values respectively.Dissolved oxygen increase from 6a.m.

  15. Nomogram for the height of the daytime mixed layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyren, K.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1999-01-01

    A method to construct a nomogram of the daytime mixed-layer-height evolution is presented. The nomogram will be specific for a given location and land surface type and is intended to be an easy tool to achieve a general understanding of mixed-layer behaviour. Also it is a pedagogical graphical on...

  16. Objective daytime sleepiness in patients with somnambulism or sleep terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-11-25

    To objectively measure daytime sleepiness and to assess for clinical and polysomnographic determinants of mean sleep latency in adult patients with somnambulism (sleepwalking [SW]) or sleep terrors (ST) compared with controls. Thirty drug-free adult patients with primary SW or ST, and age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls underwent a standardized clinical interview, completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and underwent one night of video polysomnography followed by the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Excessive daytime sleepiness defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale score >10 was reported in 66.7% of patients and 6.7% of controls. The temporal pattern of sleep latencies in individual MSLT trials differed between patients and controls, with progressive increased sleep latency in patients across the trials in contrast to a "U curve" for controls. We did not find between-group differences regarding the mean sleep latency on the 5 MSLT trials, but did observe reduced sleep latencies in patients for the first 2 trials. Despite increased slow-wave sleep disruptions found in patients (i.e, more micro-arousals and hypersynchronous high-voltage delta waves arousals), we did not find polysomnographic characteristic differences when comparing sleepy patients for either subjective or objective daytime sleepiness on the MSLT compared with alert patients. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common complaint in subjects with SW or ST and shorter sleep latencies in the early morning hours. Despite an increased slow-wave sleep fragmentation found in these patients, we did not identify any association with the level of daytime sleepiness. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  18. Senate follows House in banning funds for needle swaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    The U.S. Senate has approved anti-drug legislation which permanently bans Federal funding for needle-exchange programs. Senator Paul Coverdell of Georgia added the anti-drug legislation to a tobacco bill that is very important to many politicians. During the Senate approval process of this tobacco bill, needle exchange programs were hardly mentioned. If the combined bill reaches the President, it is believed that he will sign it because of the Administration's interest in tobacco legislation. If, however, the tobacco bill is not approved, the funding ban may be attached to other, less controversial legislation.

  19. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  20. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  1. Determinants of daytime sleepiness in first-year nursing students: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Feng; Yang, Li-Yu; Wu, Li-Min; Liu, Yi; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Daytime sleepiness may affect student learning achievement. Research studies have found that daytime sleepiness is common in university students; however, information regarding the determinants of daytime sleepiness in this population is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of daytime sleepiness in first-year nursing students. In particular, we looked for the relationship between perceived symptoms, nocturnal sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. A cross-sectional and correlational design was employed. Participants were recruited from two nursing programs at an institute of technology located in southern Taiwan. Ninety-three nursing students completed the questionnaires one month after enrollment into their program. Approximately 35% of the participants experienced excessive daytime sleepiness at the beginning of the semester. Six variables (joining a student club, perceived symptoms, daytime dysfunction, sleep disturbances, sleep latency, and subjective sleep quality) were significantly correlated with daytime sleepiness. Among them, daytime dysfunction and perceived symptoms were two major determinants of daytime sleepiness, both accounting for 37.2% of the variance. Daytime sleepiness in students should not be ignored. It is necessary to help first-year students identify and mitigate physical and psychological symptoms early on, as well as improve daytime functioning, to maintain their daytime performance and promote learning achievement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychometric Properties of Turkish Version of Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bektas, PhD, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The study's results showed that PDSS-T is a valid and reliable instrument for detecting Turkish-speaking children's and adolescents' daytime sleepiness. PDSS-T is convenient for professionals to prevent and manage daytime sleepiness.

  3. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  4. [Nutritional status, healthy habits, quality of life and daytime sleepiness in nightlife workers of Córdoba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Linares, Vicente; Diéguez Cantueso, Inmaculada; Lara Carmona, Juan José; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    This study is aimed to analyze the factors that affect body composition, nutritional status, dietary habits, substance abuse (alcohol and smoking), physical activity, sleepiness disorders and self-rated health status in people working in nightlife in the city of Cordoba. Representative sample of 144 subjects (88 men and 56 women) with a mean age of 26.88 (± 4.7) years was studied. Individuals were analized for their body composition. Besides, a personal interview was used to administrate validated questionnaires to get other important data related to the aim of the study. The male group showed higher body mass index (phabits such as drinking alcohol and smoking and at the same time they suffer from sleepiness daytime disorders. In spite of they seems to have a high self-awareness about their own health status, 1 from every 5 individuals recognize that they could improve it. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal seismological stations for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, O.; Israelson, H.

    1980-06-01

    Verification of the compliance with a comprehensive test ban on nuclear explosions is expected to be carried out by a seismological verification system of some fifty globally distributed teleseismic stations designed to monitor underground explosions at large distances (beyond 2000 km). The internal stations, which are intended to operate at much shorter distances, have however also been discussed. Such internal stations would be set up in the USSR and in the US and possibly also in the UK. Estimates partaining to currently used detection techniques (P waves) indicate that a limited number (less than 30) of such stations would not improve significantly upon the detection capability that a global network of stations would have throughout the territories of the US and the USSR. Observations in certain areas in eastern North America indicate that Lg-waves would be more suitable for detection purposes than would P-waves. Internal stations would provide a substantial lowering of detection threshold. Firm conclusions on this point have however to await further studies on Lg-waves. Internal stations would probably provide supplementary identification at short distances. Such data could contribute to more confident identification of seismic events detected by a global network and thereby reduce the risk for misinterpreting earthquakes as clandestine nuclear explosions. According to the estimated detection capabilities in this paper 10 internal stations would not improve significantly upon the detection capability that a global network would have in the US and the USSR. They might however serve an essential political purpose. (author)

  6. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    173. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide Consumption in. Ogun State, Nigeria. Http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i1.15. Tijani S.A. ... of manure and draught power and fulfills cultural roles in livestock farming ... which is brown in colour, is prepared by subjecting the animal hide to an amount of.

  7. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  8. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  9. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  10. Do Bans on Fraternities Violate the First Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Ben

    1998-01-01

    A number of small, private, liberal arts colleges have abolished Greek systems on campus and vowed to quash student attempts to establish off-campus fraternities and sororities. Some argue that a ban on fraternities denies students their constitutional right to freedom of association. A nonbinding resolution recently passed in Congress may support…

  11. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  12. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  13. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  14. Daytime Utilization of a University Observatory for Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    Scheduling convenience provides a strong incentive to fully explore effective utilization of educational observatories during daylight hours. I present two compelling daytime student activities that I developed at the Observatory at Fayetteville State University. My Introductory Astronomy Laboratory classes pursue these as separate investigations. My Physical Science classes complete both in a single lab period of 110 minutes duration. Both of these activities are also appropriate for High School student investigators, and could be used as demonstrations for younger students. Daylight Observation of Venus. With a clear sky, and when its elongation exceeds ~20˚, Venus is readily apparent in the daytime sky once a telescope is pointed at it. This is accomplished either with a digital pointing system, or with setting circles on a polar-aligned mount using the Sun to initialize the RA circle. Using the telescope pointing as a reference, it is also possible under optimal circumstances for students to see Venus in the daytime sky with naked eyes. Students are asked to write about the circumstances that made it possible to see Venus. Educational utilization of daytime observations of the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, and the brightest stars are also discussed. Using a CCD Camera to Determine the Temperature of a Sunspot. After my students view the Sun with Eclipse Glasses and in projection using a 3-inch refractor, they analyze a CCD image of a sunspot (which they obtain if possible) to determine the ratio of its surface intensity relative to the normal solar surface. They then use the Stefan-Boltzmann law (usually with some coaching) to determine the sunspot temperature given the nominal surface temperature of the Sun. Appropriate safety precautions are presented given the hazards of magnified sunlight. Mitigation of dome seeing during daylight hours is discussed.

  15. Sleep Characteristics and Daytime Cortisol Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha; Waite, Linda; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-05-01

    Older adults frequently report sleep problems and are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disruption. Experimental sleep restriction of younger adults has suggested that cortisol may be on the pathway between sleep restriction and cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether the natural variation in sleep among older adults is associated with daytime cortisol level. Salivary cortisol samples and actigraphy sleep data were collected from a random subsample of participants in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative probability sample of adults aged 62-90 (N = 672). Salivary cortisol was measured with 3 timed samples at the beginning, middle, and end of a 2-hr in-home interview. Sleep characteristics were derived from wrist actigraphy (fragmentation, wake after sleep onset [WASO], and duration) and from survey responses about usual sleep duration and sleep problems. For each individual, a single summary daytime cortisol level was estimated by fitting a marginal longitudinal model for the 3 time-stamped cortisol samples. The resulting estimates were then regressed on each sleep measure, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. From actigraphy, both higher fragmentation score (β = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03) and longer WASO (β = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.51) were significantly associated with higher daytime cortisol; sleep duration was not. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep problems were also not associated with cortisol. Actigraph measures of sleep disturbance are associated with higher daytime cortisol among older adults. However, cross-sectional data cannot distinguish causal direction or whether cortisol and sleep disruption have a common cause. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for refractory daytime urinary urge incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstroem, Søren; Mahler, Birgitte; Madsen, Bodil; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Rittig, Søren

    2009-10-01

    We studied the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder and treatment refractory daytime urinary incontinence. We recruited 27 children 5 to 14 years old with daytime urge incontinence refractory to timer assisted standard urotherapy and anticholinergics who had normal urinalysis, and unremarkable urinary tract ultrasound and physical examination. Study exclusion criteria were bladder underactivity, lower urinary tract obstruction, ongoing defecation disorders, lower urinary tract surgery and previous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. After a 2-week run-in of standard urotherapy the children underwent natural fill ambulatory urodynamics to confirm detrusor overactivity. Subsequently they were randomly allocated to 4 weeks of 2 hours of daily active or placebo S2-S3 transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The severity of incontinence and urgency, and 48-hour bladder diaries were recorded before randomization and during intervention week 4. Children withdrew from anticholinergics throughout the study period. Two children were excluded from randomization due to urodynamic signs of lower urinary tract obstruction. After 4 weeks of intervention 8 children (61%) in the active group showed a significant decrease in incontinence severity but this occurred in only 2 (17%) in the sham treated group (p incontinence episodes compared to the sham treated group (p electrical nerve stimulation did not alter maximal and average voided volumes. Sacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation seems superior to placebo for refractory daytime incontinence in children with overactive bladder. This effect does not seem to be a consequence of improved bladder reservoir function.

  17. Hysteresis response of daytime net ecosystem exchange during drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pingintha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE using the eddy-covariance method were made over an agricultural ecosystem in the southeastern US. During optimum environmental conditions, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was the primary driver controlling daytime NEE, accounting for as much as 67 to 89% of the variation in NEE. However, soil water content became the dominant factor limiting the NEE-PAR response during the peak growth stage. NEE was significantly depressed when high PAR values coincided with very low soil water content. The presence of a counter-clockwise hysteresis of daytime NEE with PAR was observed during periods of water stress. This is a result of the stomatal closure control of photosynthesis at high vapor pressure deficit and enhanced respiration at high temperature. This result is significant since this hysteresis effect limits the range of applicability of the Michaelis-Menten equation and other related expressions in the determination of daytime NEE as a function of PAR. The systematic presence of hysteresis in the response of NEE to PAR suggests that the gap-filling technique based on a non-linear regression approach should take into account the presence of water-limited field conditions. Including this step is therefore likely to improve current evaluation of ecosystem response to increased precipitation variability arising from climatic changes.

  18. Excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent development of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, R D; Ross, G W; White, L R; Tanner, C M; Masaki, K H; Nelson, J S; Curb, J D; Petrovitch, H

    2005-11-08

    To determine if excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) can predate future Parkinson disease (PD). EDS was assessed in 3,078 men aged 71 to 93 years in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 to 1993. All were free of prevalent PD and dementia. Follow-up for incident PD was based on three repeat neurologic assessments from 1994 to 2001. During the course of follow-up, 43 men developed PD (19.9/10,000 person-years). After age adjustment, there was more than a threefold excess in the risk of PD in men with EDS vs men without EDS (55.3 vs 17.0/10,000 person-years; odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4 to 7.0; p = 0.004). Additional adjustment for insomnia, cognitive function, depressed mood, midlife cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, and other factors failed to alter the association between EDS and PD (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.4; p = 0.014). Other sleep related features such as insomnia, daytime napping, early morning grogginess, and frequent nocturnal awakening showed little relation with the risk of PD. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease.

  19. Associations of nonrestorative sleep with insomnia, depression, and daytime function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Van Brunt, David L; Johnston, Joseph A; Foley, Kathleen A; Morin, Charles M; Walsh, James K

    2010-12-01

    Nonrestorative sleep (NRS) complaints are common but associations with insomnia, daytime function or depressive symptoms are not well-established. This study aims to (1) describe insomnia related symptoms and sleep quality in those with NRS compared to those with no NRS; (2) identify the independent associations between NRS, insomnia severity, and depression; and (3) identify the association between NRS and daytime function independent of insomnia severity and depression. Cross sectional survey of enrollees at a health plan in the Midwestern United States. Respondents were surveyed about the presence and frequency of NRS complaints, depression, insomnia severity and related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to examine the study's three research aims. Study sample consisted of 541 subjects with NRS and 717 who reported never experiencing any NRS symptoms. We found a statistically significant interaction between NRS and total sleep duration such that the association between sleep duration and sleep quality was attenuated in those with NRS compared to those without NRS (b=-0.26, SE=0.07, pfunction, cognitive function and emotional function OR [95%CI]=2.21 [1.59-3.08], 1.90 [1.37-2.64] and 1.71 [1.23-2.36], respectively. NRS is a complex concept that should be further defined and studied in the larger context of sleep quality, other insomnia related symptoms, daytime function and depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photography of a lithium vapor trail during the daytime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Barium and lithium vapors were released from sounding rockets in the thermosphere and observed from aboard a jet aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 ft. The purpose of the releases was to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-weather technique for observing chemical releases and to evaluate methods of observing daytime releases. The selected flight plan of the aircraft allowed a series of observations of the trail from two different straight line paths. Data were recorded photographically. The reduction in sky brightness at the 40,000-ft altitude as compared to the ground allows the use of a filter with a 10-A bandwidth for trail photography in the daytime. These photographs verified the calculation of the usable angular field of the narrow-band filters. Photographs of a 45-min-old trail of lithium vapor were obtained up to 20 min after sunrise at the aircraft. It is concluded that now vapor trail observations may be made during the daytime without regard to weather and logistic restrictions.

  1. Lights on for daytime driving: mandatory from 1 January 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Swiss Federal Decree of 15 June 2012, it will be mandatory from 1 January 2014 to keep your vehicle lights permanently switched on when driving on Swiss territory.   New vehicles are now equipped with daytime running lights which switch on automatically. For older vehicles, side lights can be used as daytime running lights, and it is always possible to fit specific daytime running lights to a vehicle at a later date. This measure is already in force in most European countries and is particularly aimed at improving the visibility of vehicles and helping pedestrians and cyclists to judge the distance and speed of an approaching vehicle more easily. From 1 January 2014, this obligation applies to all “automobiles (passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles, delivery vehicles and coaches)”(1) as well as to “motorcycles” driven on Swiss roads. “Electric bicycles and vehicles in circulation before 1970”(2) are exempt.&nb...

  2. Lights on for daytime driving: mandatory from 1 January 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Swiss Federal Decree of 15 June 2012, it will be mandatory from 1 January 2014 to keep your vehicle lights permanently switched on when driving on Swiss territory.   New vehicles are now equipped with daytime running lights which switch on automatically. For older vehicles, side lights can be used as daytime running lights, and it is always possible to fit specific daytime running lights to a vehicle at a later date. This measure is already in force in most European countries and is particularly aimed at improving the visibility of vehicles and helping pedestrians and cyclists to judge the distance and speed of an approaching vehicle more easily. From 1 January 2014, this obligation applies to all “automobiles (passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles, delivery vehicles and coaches)”(1) as well as to “motorcycles” driven on Swiss roads. “Electric bicycles and vehicles in circulation before 1970”(2) are exempt.&nb...

  3. Restricting access to alcohol and public health: Evidence from electoral dry laws in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguma, Marcos Y; Restrepo, Brandon J

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of short-term alcohol bans on road traffic accidents, traffic injuries, and hospital admissions. We focus on the 2012 Municipal Elections in Brazil, during which 11 out of 27 states imposed on its 2,733 municipalities the decision to adopt alcohol bans. Using day-level data on municipalities, we find that alcohol bans caused substantial reductions in road crashes (19%), traffic injuries (43%), and traffic-related hospitalizations (17%). An analysis of traffic-related hospitalization costs allows us to estimate the lower bound of the negative externality associated with excessive alcohol consumption in this context, which reveals that electoral dry laws saved Brazil's public healthcare system $100,000 per day. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  5. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  6. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  7. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  8. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  9. Post-ban self-reports on economic impact of smoke-free bars and restaurants are biased by pre-ban attitudes. A longitudinal study among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2011-11-01

    Objective sales data have indicated that the Norwegian indoor smoke-free regime implemented in June 2004 did not affect the hospitality business negatively. This paper investigates whether self-reports on the economic impact of the smoking ban from employees in the hospitality sector gave similar results, and whether post-ban self-reports on the economic impact of the ban were influenced by pre-ban attitudes towards smoke-free policies. A random sample of 516 employees in bars and restaurants stated their attitudes towards smoke-free policies shortly before the ban became effective. One year later, the same respondents gave their perceptions of changes in patronage for their workplace. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. 56.4% of the hospitality workers stated that the ban on smoking had led to a large reduction (28.2%) or some reduction (28.2%) in the number of patrons, a result inconsistent with analysis of sales data. After adjusting for demographic and smoking-related variables, a negative pre-ban attitude significantly increased the odds for reporting a negative economic impact post ban (odds ratio 2.48, confidence interval 1.48-4.14). Subjective reports of the economic impact from an indoor ban on smoking are influenced by attitudes towards smoke-free policies and should not be considered as a valid measure of the economic effect.

  10. Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor.

  11. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  12. Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical students in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of sleep difficulties has achieved a great deal of attention recently, with university students considered as a homogenized population, particularly affected by sleep habits. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate whether Libyan college students experience sleep disturbance during their academic programmes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the college of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, during February 2010. A total of 201 students, including 179 females (89.05% and 22 males (10.95%, were recruited from different academic levels. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and included a number of life-style variables. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS was used for the assessment of daytime sleepiness. Results: This study showed that the total sleep time (TST on a weeknight was 6.40 h and 67 students reported napping during daytime. The TST plus naps totalled 7.39 h. Out of eight possible dozing situations, we found that the mean score for ESS was 8.78. In addition, 79 students showed an ESS score of >10. Furthermore, our results showed that the majority of students (>92% reported poor sleep satisfaction with quality and duration of sleep hours. Thinking about difficulty of study but not increasing education programs or tea/coffee consumption is associated with sleep difficulties reported. Moreover, 77.6% of students reported an irregular sleep–wake schedule. Conclusion: These findings indicate that students experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. The TST of pharmaceutical students in Libya, as in other developing countries, is less than those reported by Western students. Students experienced various environmental demands during their college years and, their quality of sleep was negatively affected.

  13. Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical students in Tripoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Yousef A; Samud, Awatef M; Ratimy, Aya H; Seabe, Areeje M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of sleep difficulties has achieved a great deal of attention recently, with university students considered as a homogenized population, particularly affected by sleep habits. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Libyan college students experience sleep disturbance during their academic programmes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the college of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, during February 2010. A total of 201 students, including 179 females (89.05%) and 22 males (10.95%), were recruited from different academic levels. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and included a number of life-style variables. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used for the assessment of daytime sleepiness. This study showed that the total sleep time (TST) on a weeknight was 6.40 h and 67 students reported napping during daytime. The TST plus naps totalled 7.39 h. Out of eight possible dozing situations, we found that the mean score for ESS was 8.78. In addition, 79 students showed an ESS score of >10. Furthermore, our results showed that the majority of students (>92%) reported poor sleep satisfaction with quality and duration of sleep hours. Thinking about difficulty of study but not increasing education programs or tea/coffee consumption is associated with sleep difficulties reported. Moreover, 77.6% of students reported an irregular sleep-wake schedule. These findings indicate that students experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. The TST of pharmaceutical students in Libya, as in other developing countries, is less than those reported by Western students. Students experienced various environmental demands during their college years and, their quality of sleep was negatively affected.

  14. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  15. Correntropy measures to detect daytime sleepiness from EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Montserrat, Josep M; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Gaig, Carles; Caminal, Pere; Santamaria, Joan

    2014-10-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders and has a great impact on patients' lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on correntropy function analysis of EEG signals was proposed in order to detect patients suffering from EDS. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five Maintenance of Wakefulness Tests (MWT) and Multiple Sleep Latency Tests (MSLT) alternated throughout the day for patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing (SDB). A group of 20 patients with EDS was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60 s EEG windows in a waking state. Measures obtained from the cross-correntropy function (CCORR) and auto-correntropy function (ACORR) were calculated in the EEG frequency bands: δ, 0.1-4 Hz; θ, 4-8 Hz; α, 8-12 Hz; β, 12-30 Hz; total band TB, 0.1-45 Hz. These functions permitted the quantification of complex signal properties and the non-linear couplings between different areas of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were mainly found in the β band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). The WDS group presented more complexity in the occipital zone than the EDS group, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between the occipital and frontal regions was detected in EDS patients than in the WDS group. At best, ACORR and CCORR measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and the area under ROC curve (AUC) was above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. These performances represent an improvement with respect to classical EEG indices applied in the same database (sensitivity and specificity were never above 80% and AUC was under 0.75).

  16. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  17. Is a unilateral Danish ban on pesticides costly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Søren E.; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of eliminating the use of an essential input within a computable general equilibrium model and presents one approach to implementing endogenously determined shifts in technologies – shifts determined by changes in relative prices, hectare premiums or other...... subsidies or taxes. The proposed approach is based on detailed agronomic data and the approach is tested using two numerical examples - a complete and a partial ban on the use of pesticides in Danish agriculture....

  18. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Pao; Myles Riner; Theodore C. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California.Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims ...

  19. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  20. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  1. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  2. The Time is Now to Remove the Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-08

    and cohesiveness problems, gay bashing incidents and more open displays of homosexual behavior ” none of which occurred.18 The ban in Canada was removed...the invalid and unsubstantiated, but widely held assumptions and beliefs regarding these two groups’ abilities or behaviors during their period of...Ask Don’t Tell policy does not guarantee privacy. Homosexuals are invisible, which means individuals who are homophobic or fear homosexuals are just in

  3. Imipramine for refractory daytime incontinence in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Israel; Arlen, Angela M; Collett-Gardere, Therese; Zelkovic, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) and voiding dysfunction constitute a large percentage of pediatric urology referrals. Children with urinary incontinence unresponsive to behavioral modifications and traditional pharmacotherapy including anticholinergics and alpha blockers remain a challenge. We evaluated the impact of imipramine on treatment outcomes in children with refractory incontinence. Children ≤18 years of age with refractory non-neurogenic daytime incontinence prescribed imipramine were identified. Patient demographics and baseline testing were assessed, as well as medication dosing and side effects of all patients. The Vancouver Symptom Score (VSS) was completed at the initial consultation and each subsequent clinic visit. The questionnaire was self-administered and completed by patients and/or parents. Treatment success was defined as per the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS). One hundred and three patients (55 males and 48 females) met the inclusion criteria. The intention-to-treat response rate was 65% (complete 44, partial response 23). Sixteen (15.6%) patients were non-responders and 20 (19.4%) were lost to follow-up. There was no statistical difference between all groups with regards to age, baseline VSS, and dose. Of those children with complete follow-up (n = 83), 44 (53%) experienced complete treatment response. Pre- and post-VSS were statistically different in both complete and partial response groups (complete 19.5-9.5; p incontinence refractory urotherapy, anticholinergics, and/or non-selective alpha blockers can be difficult to treat, and can be unresponsive to parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS). We observed that over half of children with refractory daytime incontinence reported complete resolution of daytime accidents with imipramine. Limitations of the study include the retrospective nature, relatively small sample size and lack of control group. Two

  4. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  5. Night-time evapotranspiration vs. daytime and 24h evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Esmaiel

    1992-09-01

    The continuous measurement of night-time ETa,n (sunset to sunrise), daytime ETa,d (sunrise to sunset) and 24h ETa,24h alfalfa evapotranspiration was carred out, using the Bowen ratio-energy balance method, in a closed mountainous semi-arid irrigated valley in northern Utah. The results indicate that {ET a,n}/{ET a,24 h} was {2.93 mm}/{173.87 mm}, or about 1.7%, during a complete growing cycle of alfalfa in August and September 1991. The results also show that this ratio could be very high (about 14%) when the night-time wind speed is high.

  6. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  7. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  8. Markers When Feeding Is Restricted to Two Daytime Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta B. Rivera-Zavala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted feeding (RF during daytime is associated with anticipatory activity before feeding, marked hyperphagia after mealtime, adjustments in hepatic metabolism, and the expression of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO. 24 h rhythmicity of liver PPARα, β, and γ, peroxisomal markers (PMP70, AOX, and catalase, and free fatty acids (FFAs during RF was evaluated. The effect of fasting-refeeding was also studied. Results showed (1 higher levels of FFA before feeding, (2 a shift of PPARα and PPARγ before and of PPARβ peaks after feeding, (3 an increase in peroxisomal markers, (4 a shift of PMP70 and AOX peaks before feeding, and of maximal catalase activity in the dark period, (5 changes in the fasting-refeeding response, and (6 high correlations (>0.9 of serum corticosterone with PPARα and PPARγ and of PMP70 with PPARβ. In conclusion, 24 h rhythmicity of FFA, liver PPARs, and peroxisomal markers are biochemical adaptations associated with daytime RF and FEO expression.

  9. Cardiac autonomic activity during daytime nap in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; Torre, Jacopo; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2018-04-01

    The current study investigated both sympathetic and vagal autonomic patterns during a daytime sleep in 25 healthy adults (23.2 ± 2.4 years). Pre-ejection period (PEP; related inversely to beta-adrenergic sympathetic activity), the interval between consecutive R-waves (RR) and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) were computed during pre-nap wakefulness and undisturbed sleep stages. Results showed sleep-related changes in RR and HRV measures, whereas PEP decreased significantly from pre-nap to sleep, showing no differences across sleep stages. Moreover, pre-nap PEP and HFnu (the normalized unit of the high-frequency component of HRV) were associated negatively with sleep latency and wake after sleep onset. These results indicate a marked autonomic output reduction during daytime sleep, with different stage-dependent fluctuations for sympathetic and vagal activity. Importantly, pre-nap autonomic activity seems to modulate subsequent sleep quality. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  11. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  12. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. [Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Quality Sleep, and Low Academic Performance in Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Echeverri Chabur, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affect cognitive ability and performance of medical students. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of EDS, sleep quality, and assess their association with poor academic performance in this population. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on a random sample of 217 medical students from the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sociodemographic, clinic and academic variables were also measured. Multivariate analyses for poor academic performance were performed. The included students had a mean age of 21.7±3.3 years, of whom 59.4% were men. Almost half (49.8%) had EDS criteria, and 79.3% were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5), while 43.3% had poor academic performance during the last semester. The bivariate analysis showed that having used tobacco or alcohol until intoxicated, fairly bad subjective sleep quality, sleep efficiency performance. Sleep efficiency academic performance (P=.024; OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.12-15.42) in the multivariate analysis. A poor sleep quality determined by low efficiency was related to poor academic achievement at the end of semester in medical students. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  15. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  16. How sleep and mental disorders are related to complaints of daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Caulet, M; Philip, P; Guilleminault, C; Priest, R G

    Daytime sleepiness is widespread and has negative impacts on the public sector. To ascertain the incidence and prevalence of daytime sleepiness and associated risk factors in the general population. In 1994, a representative sample of the non-institutionalized British population aged 15 years or older was interviewed via telephone using an expert computer-assisted program designed to facilitate surveys of this type (Sleep-Eval, M. M. Ohayon, Montreal, Quebec). Subjects were classified into 3 groups based on the severity of their daytime sleepiness. We completed 4972 interviews (acceptance rate, 79.6%). Severe daytime sleepiness was reported in 5.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.9%-6.1%) of the sample, and moderate daytime sleepiness in another 15.2% (95% confidence interval, 14.2%-16.2%). Associated factors with severe daytime sleepiness included female sex, middle age, napping, insomnia symptoms, high daily caffeine consumption, breathing pauses or leg pain in sleep, depressive disorder (based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria), falling asleep while reading or watching television, and motor vehicle crashes or accidents involving use of machinery. Moderate daytime sleepiness was associated with female sex, napping, insomnia symptoms, arthritis or heart disease, and gross motor movements during sleep. It is likely that daytime sleepiness deleteriously affects work activities, social and/or marital life, and exhibits a negative socioeconomic impact. In addition, the risk of a motor vehicle crash appears to be higher in this specific population: twice as many subjects operating a motor vehicle or using machine tools reported having a crash or accident, respectively, in the previous year in the groups with severe daytime sleepiness or moderate daytime sleepiness than did the general population with no daytime sleepiness. The high prevalence rates of daytime sleepiness and multiplicity of related factors mandate further

  17. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  18. Correntropy measures to detect daytime sleepiness from EEG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Guaita, Marc; Montserrat, Josep M; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders and has a great impact on patients’ lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on correntropy function analysis of EEG signals was proposed in order to detect patients suffering from EDS. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five Maintenance of Wakefulness Tests (MWT) and Multiple Sleep Latency Tests (MSLT) alternated throughout the day for patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing (SDB). A group of 20 patients with EDS was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60 s EEG windows in a waking state. Measures obtained from the cross-correntropy function (CCORR) and auto-correntropy function (ACORR) were calculated in the EEG frequency bands: δ, 0.1–4 Hz; θ, 4–8 Hz; α, 8–12 Hz; β, 12–30 Hz; total band TB, 0.1–45 Hz. These functions permitted the quantification of complex signal properties and the non-linear couplings between different areas of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were mainly found in the β band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). The WDS group presented more complexity in the occipital zone than the EDS group, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between the occipital and frontal regions was detected in EDS patients than in the WDS group. At best, ACORR and CCORR measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and the area under ROC curve (AUC) was above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. These performances represent an improvement with respect to classical EEG indices applied in the same database (sensitivity and specificity were never above 80% and AUC was under 0.75). (paper)

  19. Advertising Bans and the Substitutability of Online and Offline Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising b...

  20. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Y Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.

  2. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  3. Banning PRF programmer's manual. [considering MOS integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelthau, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    This manual describes a modification of the Banning placement routing folding program. The modifications to this program have been made to implement it on a Sigma 5 computer. Flow charts of various levels, beginning with high level functional diagrams and working down to the level of detail deemed necessary to understand the operations of the various sections of the program are included. Along with the flow charts of each subroutine is a narrative description of its functional operation and definitions of its arrays and key variables, and a section to assist the programmer in dimensioning the program's arrays.

  4. Seismological monitoring of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, S.; Haslinger, F.

    2001-01-01

    Seismological monitoring is one of the four technologies used by the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. When fully operational, two seismic networks, one primary (50 stations) and one auxiliary (120 stations), will enable global detection and event characterisation of sources with equivalent magnitude as low as 4. The basic principles of seismological theory and practice applied to verification are summarised, with particular emphasis on the new requirements imposed by the needs of the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  5. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  6. Daytime naps, motor memory consolidation and regionally specific sleep spindles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence demonstrates that motor-skill memories improve across a night of sleep, and that non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep commonly plays a role in orchestrating these consolidation enhancements. Here we show the benefit of a daytime nap on motor memory consolidation and its relationship not simply with global sleep-stage measures, but unique characteristics of sleep spindles at regionally specific locations; mapping to the corresponding memory representation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects trained on a motor-skill task using their left hand - a paradigm known to result in overnight plastic changes in the contralateral, right motor cortex. Both groups trained in the morning and were tested 8 hr later, with one group obtaining a 60-90 minute intervening midday nap, while the other group remained awake. At testing, subjects that did not nap showed no significant performance improvement, yet those that did nap expressed a highly significant consolidation enhancement. Within the nap group, the amount of offline improvement showed a significant correlation with the global measure of stage-2 NREM sleep. However, topographical sleep spindle analysis revealed more precise correlations. Specifically, when spindle activity at the central electrode of the non-learning hemisphere (left was subtracted from that in the learning hemisphere (right, representing the homeostatic difference following learning, strong positive relationships with offline memory improvement emerged-correlations that were not evident for either hemisphere alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that motor memories are dynamically facilitated across daytime naps, enhancements that are uniquely associated with electrophysiological events expressed at local, anatomically discrete locations of the brain.

  7. Daytime Ionosphere Retrieval Algorithm for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew W.; Korpela, Eric J.; Sirk, Martin M.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer Extreme Ultraviolet spectrograph, ICON EUV, will measure altitude profiles of the daytime extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) OII emission near 83.4 and 61.7 nm that are used to determine density profiles and state parameters of the ionosphere. This paper describes the algorithm concept and approach to inverting these measured OII emission profiles to derive the associated O+ density profile from 150-450 km as a proxy for the electron content in the F-region of the ionosphere. The algorithm incorporates a bias evaluation and feedback step, developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using data from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) missions, that is able to effectively mitigate the effects of systematic instrument calibration errors and inaccuracies in the original photon source within the forward model. Results are presented from end-to-end simulations that convolved simulated airglow profiles with the expected instrument measurement response to produce profiles that were inverted with the algorithm to return data products for comparison to truth. Simulations of measurements over a representative ICON orbit show the algorithm is able to reproduce hmF2 values to better than 5 km accuracy, and NmF2 to better than 12% accuracy over a 12-second integration, and demonstrate that the ICON EUV instrument and daytime ionosphere algorithm can meet the ICON science objectives which require 20 km vertical resolution in hmF2 and 18% precision in NmF2.

  8. Subjective daytime functioning assessment in people with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Karol; Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Rutkowski, Marcin; Bandosz, Piotr; Nowicki, Zbigniew

    2017-10-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of subjective daytime functioning impairment among people with insomnia complaints. Another goal was to establish its relationships with age, gender, type and duration of subjective insomnia. Study group consisted of NATPOL study participants - 2,413 people (1,245 women and 1,168 men) aged 18-79. We extracted group with declared insomnia complaints, consisting of 1,221 people (736 women and 485 men) aged 18-79. Data on insomnia symptoms characteristics, their duration and subjective functioning impairment were further analyzed. Functioning impairment was declared by 825 people (67.7% of those who declared subjective insomnia) and it was more common in women. It was most common among people with insomnia complaints lasting over two weeks - 72.4%. In people with symptoms lasting less than two weeks or for a few days it was 70.7% and 64.9% respectively. People with insomnia symptoms lasting over two weeks accounted for 20% of group with severe functioning impairment. For shorter duration of symptoms it was 8.6% and 6.9% respectively. Among people with mild functioning impairment, persons with symptoms lasting for a few days and less than two weeks were predominant - 32.5% and 35.3% respectively. In people aged 18-24 years mild functioning impairment was predominant (66.66%). Subjective daytime functioning impairment is common in people declaring insomnia symptoms. It is more common in women and its prevalence and intensity are greater in people with longer duration of sleep problems. Its prevalence is not correlated with age and it is the mildest in people aged 18-24.

  9. Parties in chains: do ethnic party bans in Africa promote peace?

    OpenAIRE

    Basedau, Matthias; Moroff, Anika

    2011-01-01

    Since the sweeping (re)introduction of multiparty systems in the early 1990s, almost all sub-Saharan countries have introduced legal provisions to ban ethnic or other identity-based particularistic parties. Altogether, 12 countries have actually banned political parties on these grounds. In theoretical terms, such bans can exclude particularism from politics but - contrary to public discourse - also run the risk of forcing groups to resort to violent means or of becoming an object of conflict...

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  12. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry S O'Brien

    Full Text Available Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years. During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87% was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86% was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989, compared with the daytime (N = 235,233. In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1 than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94. Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  13. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  14. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  15. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  16. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  18. Melatonin Decreases Daytime Challenging Behaviour in Persons with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…

  19. Links between Sleep and Daytime Behaviour Problems in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A. J.; Hoffman, E. K.; Beebe, D. W.; Byars, K. C.; Epstein, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In the general population, sleep problems have an impact on daytime performance. Despite sleep problems being common among children with Down syndrome, the impact of sleep problems on daytime behaviours in school-age children with Down syndrome is an understudied topic. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and…

  20. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  1. The pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS): sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher; Nickel, Chelsea; Burduvali, Eleni; Roth, Thomas; Jefferson, Catherine; Pietro, Badia

    2003-06-15

    To develop a measure of daytime sleepiness suitable for middle-school children and examine the relationship between daytime sleepiness and school-related outcomes. Self-report questionnaire. Four hundred fifty, 11- to 15-year-old students, from grades 6, 7, and 8 of a public middle school in Dayton, Ohio. A pediatric daytime sleepiness questionnaire was developed using factor analysis of questions regarding sleep-related behaviors. Results of the sleepiness questionnaire were then compared across other variables, including daily sleep patterns, school achievement, mood, and extracurricular activities. Factor analysis on the 13 questions related to daytime sleepiness yielded 1 primary factor ("pediatric daytime sleepiness"; 32% of variance). Only items with factor loadings above .4 were included in the final sleepiness scale. Internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha) for the final 8-item scale was .80. Separate one-way analyses of variance and trend analyses were performed comparing pediatric daytime sleepiness scores at the 5 different levels of total sleep time and academic achievement. Participants who reported low school achievement, high rates of absenteeism, low school enjoyment, low total sleep time, and frequent illness reported significantly higher levels of daytime sleepiness compared to children with better school-related outcomes. The self-report scale developed in the present work is suitable for middle-school-age children and may be useful in future research given its ease of administration and robust psychometric properties. Daytime sleepiness is related to reduced educational achievement and other negative school-related outcomes.

  2. Daytime ozone and temperature variations in the mesosphere: A comparison between SABER observations and HAMMONIA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikty, Sebastian; Weber, Mark; Savigny, Christian von [Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Hauke [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Mlynczak, Martin [Langley Research Center, NASA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate the latest version 1.07 SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) tropical ozone and temperature data with respect to daytime variations in the upper mesosphere. For a better understanding of the processes involved we compare these daytime variations to the output of the three-dimensional general circulation and chemistry model HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere). The results show good agreement for ozone. The amplitude of daytime variations is in both cases approximately 60 % of the daytime mean. During equinox the daytime maximum ozone abundance is for both, the observations and the model, higher than during solstice, especially above 80 km. We also use the HAMMONIA output of daytime variation patterns of several other different trace gas species, e.g., water vapor and atomic oxygen, to discuss the daytime pattern in ozone. In contrast to ozone, temperature data show little daytime variations between 65 and 90 km and their amplitudes are on the order of less than 1.5 %. In addition, SABER and HAMMONIA temperatures show significant differences above 80 km.

  3. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June C Lo

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  4. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  6. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...

  7. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS...

  8. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  9. Perceptions of Teachers on the Ban of Corporal Punishment in Pre-Primary Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Beth Kirigo; Kimengi, Isaac Njuguna; Kipsoi, Emmy Jerono

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of teachers on the ban of corporal punishment in pre-primary institutions. The objectives of the study were to investigate teachers' attitudes towards corporal punishment ban in pre-schools and to establish whether the level of education of teachers had an influence on the use of corporal…

  10. 48 CFR 52.223-18 - Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Text Messaging While Driving. 52.223-18 Section 52.223-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-18 Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving. As prescribed in 23.1105, insert the following clause: CONTRACTOR POLICY TO BAN TEXT MESSAGING WHILE DRIVING...

  11. Coming This Fall to a School Library near You: The Challenged, the Banned, and the Filtered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Important happenings related to the concept of intellectual freedom (IF) coincide with the annual back-to-school ramp up. This article discusses how to use the summer hiatus to develop learning opportunities related to events such as Banned Books Week (BBW) and Banned Websites Awareness Day (BWAD). The author provides resource information to aid…

  12. Perceptions of a Gay-Straight Alliance Club Ban: School Counselors and Advocacy for LGBTQQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…

  13. 47 CFR 73.2090 - Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions. 73.2090 Section 73.2090 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2090 Ban on...

  14. Trust in Science: CRISPR-Cas9 and the Ban on Human Germline Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttinger, Stephan

    2017-06-26

    In 2015 scientists called for a partial ban on genome editing in human germline cells. This call was a response to the rapid development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, a molecular tool that allows researchers to modify genomic DNA in living organisms with high precision and ease of use. Importantly, the ban was meant to be a trust-building exercise that promises a 'prudent' way forward. The goal of this paper is to analyse whether the ban can deliver on this promise. To do so the focus will be put on the precedent on which the current ban is modelled, namely the Asilomar ban on recombinant DNA technology. The analysis of this case will show (a) that the Asilomar ban was successful because of a specific two-step containment strategy it employed and (b) that this two-step approach is also key to making the current ban work. It will be argued, however, that the Asilomar strategy cannot be transferred to human genome editing and that the current ban therefore fails to deliver on its promise. The paper will close with a reflection on the reasons for this failure and on what can be learned from it about the regulation of novel molecular tools.

  15. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  16. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Epilepsy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Giorelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep complaints are common in patients with epilepsy (PWE. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is one of the most reported complaints and its impact is still a matter of debate. Objective. Evaluate the relationship between EDS and epilepsy, with emphasis on prevalence, assessment, and causes. Methods. A systematic review on PubMed database in the last 10 years (2002 to 2012. The search returned 53 articles and 34 were considered relevant. After citation analysis, 3 more articles were included. Results. Most studies were cross-sectional and questionnaire based. 14 papers addressed EDS as the primary endpoint. 14 adult and 3 children studies used subjective and objective analysis as methodology. The number of studies increased throughout the decade, with 21 in the last 5 years. Adult studies represent almost three times the number of children studies. EDS prevalence in PWE varies from 10 to 47.5%. Prevalence was higher in developing countries. Conclusion. EDS seems to be related more frequently to undiagnosed sleep disorders than to epilepsy-related factors, and although it affects the quality of life of PWE, it can be improved by treating comorbid primary sleep disorders.

  17. Motorcycle conspicuity: effects of age and daytime running lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Janan Al-Awar; Torrez, Lorenzo I

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated variables that may contribute to motorcycle conspicuity within a high-fidelity simulated environment. The variables included motorcycle lighting, vehicular daytime running lights (DRLs), and age of the driver of the other vehicle. Research suggests that decreased levels of conspicuity associated with riding a small two-wheeled vehicle reduce the ability of other drivers to detect and respond to that vehicle effectively. This lack of conspicuity is often responsible for the frequent injuries and fatalities incurred by motorcycle riders. The 75 participants who took part in this study watched a series of video clips of roadway traffic and were asked to indicate when they saw a hazardous situation, such as the presence of pedestrians, motorcycles, or traffic cones. Both motorcycle and following-vehicle lights were manipulated, and participant reaction times were collected and analyzed. Analyses indicated main effects for all three variables as well as interaction effects between motorcycle lighting and vehicle-following conditions. Overall, findings showed a link between DRLs and the effective detection of motorcycles and suggested that age-related changes affect the ability to detect and respond to a motorcycle effectively. Although our laboratory findings corroborated previous correlational studies, further research in real-world settings, such as those with high-density traffic or under adverse environmental conditions, needs to be conducted. Potential applications of this research include the assessment of appropriate lighting technology to enhance conspicuity of motorcycles and reduce the high rate of fatalities and injuries related to motorcycle crashes.

  18. Non-steady wind turbine response to daytime atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak N.; Herrig, Andreas; Brasseur, James G.

    2017-03-01

    Relevant to drivetrain bearing fatigue failures, we analyse non-steady wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and the rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique dataset from a GE field experiment and computer simulation. Time-resolved local velocity data were collected at the leading and trailing edges of an instrumented blade together with generator power, revolutions per minute, pitch and yaw. Wind velocity and temperature were measured upwind on a meteorological tower. The stability state and other atmospheric conditions during the field experiment were replicated with a large-eddy simulation in which was embedded a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine rotor modelled with an advanced actuator line method. Both datasets identify three important response time scales: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25-50 s), blade rotation (once per revolution (1P), ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (inclination in the aerofoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power responds strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. We show that internal dynamics of the blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the non-steady external flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade-generated turbulence motions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  19. Workplace lighting for improving alertness and mood in daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachito, Daniela V; Eckeli, Alan L; Desouky, Ahmed S; Corbett, Mark A; Partonen, Timo; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Riera, Rachel

    2018-03-02

    Exposure to light plays a crucial role in biological processes, influencing mood and alertness. Daytime workers may be exposed to insufficient or inappropriate light during daytime, leading to mood disturbances and decreases in levels of alertness. To assess the effectiveness and safety of lighting interventions to improve alertness and mood in daytime workers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases; ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization trials portal up to January 2018. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and non-randomised controlled before-after trials (CBAs) that employed a cross-over or parallel-group design, focusing on any type of lighting interventions applied for daytime workers. Two review authors independently screened references in two stages, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to pool data from different questionnaires and scales assessing the same outcome across different studies. We combined clinically homogeneous studies in a meta-analysis. We used the GRADE system to rate quality of evidence. The search yielded 2844 references. After screening titles and abstracts, we considered 34 full text articles for inclusion. We scrutinised reports against the eligibility criteria, resulting in the inclusion of five studies (three RCTs and two CBAs) with 282 participants altogether. These studies evaluated four types of comparisons: cool-white light, technically known as high correlated colour temperature (CCT) light versus standard illumination; different proportions of indirect and direct light; individually applied blue-enriched light versus no treatment; and individually applied morning bright light versus afternoon bright light for subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder.We found no studies comparing one level of illuminance versus another.We found two CBA

  20. The Pentagon's gay ban is not based on military necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, A

    2001-01-01

    When President Bill Clinton attempted to lift the U.S. military's ban on gay and lesbian soldiers, Congress reacted by enacting a law that prohibits known homosexuals from serving in the U.S. armed forces. The official justification for the new policy is the unit cohesion rationale, the notion that if known gays and lesbians were allowed to serve, unit cohesion, performance, readiness and morale would decline. The thesis of this paper is that the evidence that advocates of discrimination invoke to support the plausibility of the unit cohesion rationale does not constitute scientifically valid data. This paper was delivered originally as a lecture at the Commonwealth Club of California and broadcast subsequently on National Public Radio.

  1. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  2. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  3. Impact of Denmark's ban on antimicrobials for growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Hayes, Dermot J

    2014-06-01

    Denmark was among the first countries to ban the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion (AGPs) in animal production through an on-going series of actions and regulations since 1995. In 2010 the Yellow Card scheme was adopted to decrease total antimicrobial consumption in pig production through additional restrictions on pig farmers. The withdrawal of AGPs and other restrictions have reduced total antimicrobial use, but at the same time therapeutic drug use has increased and resistance in key zoonotic bacteria has not decreased. Improved use of vaccines and management practices can help reduce losses especially for weaner pigs, but come with additional costs to producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  5. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  6. Implementation and enforcement of tobacco bans in two prisons in North Carolina: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kristie L; Proescholdbell, Scott; Herndon Malek, Sally; Johnson, Jana

    2010-04-01

    Despite the national trend that 90% of prisons have smoke-free indoors policies, compliance and enforcement remain barriers to policy success. Key informant interviews about policy compliance and enforcement were conducted with 10 staff and inmates at two North Carolina prison facilities, one with a complete ban (indoors and outdoors) and one with a partial ban (indoors only). Communication of the tobacco bans was consistent and well understood in both facilities. Barriers to compliance and enforcement, especially in the complete ban facility, included policy ''buy in,'' the emerging black market for cigarettes, staff support, and access to nicotine replacement therapy. Despite these barriers, most informants reported that implementation and enforcement of complete bans is possible with adequate communication about the policy and access to cessation therapy.

  7. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  8. A holistic approach to assessing the impact of a smoke-free ban in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Brad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A smoke-free ban in full compliance with FCTC recommendations entered into force in Romania as of March 2016, after an intense advocacy effort and with strong argumentation support provided by international tobacco control organizations. The ban has been under heavy challenge from policy-makers and interest groups including a constitutional appeal and two attempts to relax its' provisions. As such, fundamentation of the benefits and direct impact of the smoke-free ban on health, economic and social indicators became a crucial defense pillar. As of September 2016, part of the 2035 Tobacco-Free Romania Initiative project, funded by a grant from Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, several research polls and studies have been conducted to assess the ban's impact. Subsequent external communication to decision makers and media increased the awareness of the positive impact of the ban and helped adress its' key critical challenge areas.

  9. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  10. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  11. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcoholic beverage — such as chemicals, grains or preservatives. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. In rare instances, an unpleasant reaction to alcohol can be a sign of a serious underlying health problem that requires diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms Signs ...

  13. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top 5 risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  14. Nitrous acid (HONO) nocturnal surface deposition and daytime acid displacement: An alternative mechanism contributing to the unknown daytime HONO source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. G.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Young, C. J.; Brown, S. S.; Markovic, M. Z.; Talukdar, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of HONO were made during two intensive field campaigns: NACHTT 2011 in Erie, CO and CalNex 2010 in Bakersfield, CA. These field data and results from a flow tube study provide a new perspective on the interactions of HONO with ground surfaces. Integrated atmospheric column measurements of HONO and NO2 during NACHTT provided clear evidence that the ground surface dominates HONO production and loss at night. Simultaneous measurements of the gas and particle phases made by an Ambient Ion Monitor - Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC) system during CalNex demonstrated the potential for reactive uptake of HONO on mineral dust/soil as a nocturnal sink. Similarly, the potential for nitrite salts to react with strong acids, displacing HONO during the day was suggested by this dataset. Lab study results confirmed that HONO reacts irreversibly with carbonate salts and real soil extracts. Relative humidity-dependent reactive uptake coefficients were derived. Subsequent release of HONO by displacement reactions with HNO3 and HCl was also demonstrated. Together, these field and lab studies contribute to a new picture of HONO surface interactions by providing i) a more explicit description of the nocturnal HONO sink that also is a surface reservoir and ii) a new mechanism for daytime HONO formation that does not require NO2.

  15. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  16. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-specific differences between conventional and ambulatory daytime blood pressure values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conen, David; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    Mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values are considered to be lower than conventional BP values, but data on this relation among younger individuals ... population-based cohorts. We compared individual differences between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP according to 10-year age categories. Age-specific prevalences of white coat and masked hypertension were calculated. Among individuals aged 18 to 30, 30 to 40, and 40 to 50 years, mean daytime BP.......2 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all PMasked hypertension was more prevalent among men...

  18. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  19. Non-steady wind turbine response to daytime atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak N; Herrig, Andreas; Brasseur, James G

    2017-04-13

    Relevant to drivetrain bearing fatigue failures, we analyse non-steady wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and the rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique dataset from a GE field experiment and computer simulation. Time-resolved local velocity data were collected at the leading and trailing edges of an instrumented blade together with generator power, revolutions per minute, pitch and yaw. Wind velocity and temperature were measured upwind on a meteorological tower. The stability state and other atmospheric conditions during the field experiment were replicated with a large-eddy simulation in which was embedded a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine rotor modelled with an advanced actuator line method. Both datasets identify three important response time scales: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25-50 s), blade rotation (once per revolution (1P), ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (load fluctuations result in response to temporal changes in velocity vector inclination in the aerofoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power responds strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. We show that internal dynamics of the blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the non-steady external flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade-generated turbulence motions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of excessive daytime sleepiness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Na, Geonyoub; Joo, Eun Yeon; Lee, Munhyang; Lee, Jeehun

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the clinical and polysomnography (PSG) characteristics of sleep disorders in children with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Between February 2002 and June 2015, 622 pediatric patients with EDS were evaluated with overnight PSG and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test at the Samsung Medical Center. The medical records; questionnaire responses about depression, sleepiness, sleep habits; and sleep study data of 133 patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were reviewed retrospectively. The patients (63 girls, 70 boys) slept for an average of 7 h 30 min and 8 h 44 min on weekdays and weekends, respectively. The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 11.01 ± 4.09 and did not differ significantly among sleep disorders. Among the 102 patients who completed the depression questionnaire, 53 showed depressive feelings, which were moderate or severe in 39, with no significant differences among specific sleep disorders. Thirty-four patients exhibited normal PSG results. Seventeen of them were concluded as not having any sleep disorders, and the others as having delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Narcolepsy (n = 78) was the most common disorder, followed by DSPD (n = 17) and idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 12). Pediatric patients with EDS had various sleep disorders and some did not have any sleep disorder despite EDS. More than half the patients with EDS showed depressive feelings affecting their daily lives. For pediatric patients with EDS, a systematic diagnostic approach including questionnaires for sleep habits and emotion and PSG is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  2. 78 FR 49749 - Southern California Edison, City of Banning, California; Notice of Meeting To Conduct a Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... No. 14520-000-California] Southern California Edison, City of Banning, California; Notice of Meeting... 10:00 a.m. (PDT) and concluding at 1:00 p.m. (PDT). b. Place: City of Banning, California, City Hall Council Chambers, 99 East Ramsey St., Banning, CA 92220 and by teleconference. c. FERC Contact: Rebecca...

  3. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children’s Viewing Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Kerry S.; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children’s viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6am-8.29pm) and evening periods (8.30pm-11.59pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0–4 years, 5–13 years, 14–17 years, 18–29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0–17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising. PMID:26263170

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  6. Participation in daytime activities among people with mild or moderate intellectual disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseljee, J.C.E.; Rijken, P.M.; Cardol, M.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation has been defined as performing daytime activities by people while interacting with others. Previous studies on community participation among people with intellectual disability (ID) have mainly focused on the domestic life aspect. This study investigates

  7. Participation in daytime activities among people with mild or moderate intellectual disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseljee, J.C.E.; Rijken, P.M.; Cardol, M.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Community participation has been defined as performing daytime activities by people while interacting with others. Previous studies on community participation among people with intellectual disability (ID) have mainly focused on the domestic life aspect. This study investigates the

  8. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  10. Attitudes and motivations of competitive cyclists regarding use of banned and legal performance enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaalita, Nkaku R; Robinson, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Drug 'doping' and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs) remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing "fair" and "unfair" performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications) may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p PEP use (p PEP use (p > 0.05). Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that "legal" performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors. Key PointsUse of performance enhancers is high even among non-professional athletesCyclists overall rated "risk to health" as the most important factor in choosing to use a performance enhancing product.Motivations to use banned performance enhancer are complex and are significantly influenced by whether an athlete utilizes "legal" performance enhancers.

  11. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health . Accessed March 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol ... Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders . Accessed March ...

  12. Evidence for circadian influence on human slow wave sleep during daytime sleep episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, S. S.; Zulley, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of slow wave sleep within spontaneously initiated daytime sleep episodes was studied to examine hypothesized associations with prior wakefulness and circadian factors. There was a strong relationship between measures of slow wave sleep and the proximity of sleep episodes to the maximum of body core temperature. Those sleep episodes that began within 4 hours of the maximum in body core temperature contained significantly more slow wave sleep than did all other daytime sleep peri...

  13. The role of nuclear weapon ban in the peace keeping laws of the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    The thesis includes a comparison of bilateral and multilateral nuclear weapon banning contracts and treaties (nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear weapon-free zones, nuclear disarmament etc.) and voluntary nuclear weapon abandonment declarations in view of legal aspects, their verification, ratification, included exceptions, and potential penalties. In the second part an eventual stabilization of the nuclear weapon ban and the non-proliferation treaty as customary international law and ''ius congens'' is discussed. The third part is concerned with possible measures and sanctions in connections with these laws. The fourth part discusses military measures for justifiable enforcement of the non-proliferation treaty and their legitimization.

  14. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiqun; Xu, Huajun; Xia, Yunyan; Qian, Yingjun; Li, Xinyi; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Tang, Xulan; Zhu, Huaming; Zhou, Huiqun; Su, Kaiming; Yu, Dongzhen; Yi, Hongliang; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2017-10-03

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have showed that excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with some individual components of metabolic syndrome. We performed a large cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in male OSA patients. A total of 2241 suspected male OSA patients were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth sleepiness scale. Anthropometric, metabolic, and polysomnographic parameters were measured. Metabolic score was used to evaluate the severity of metabolic syndrome. Among the male OSA patients, most metabolic parameters varied by excessive daytime sleepiness. In the severe group, male OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness were more obese, with higher blood pressure, more severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia than non-sleepy patients. Patients with metabolic syndrome also had a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and scored higher on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio =1.242, 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.512). No substantial interaction was observed between excessive daytime sleepiness and OSA/ obesity. Excessive daytime sleepiness was related to metabolic disorders and independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in men with OSA. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be taken into consideration for OSA patients, as it may be a simple and useful clinical indicator for evaluating the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Daytime Thermal Anisotropy of Urban Neighbourhoods: Morphological Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scott Krayenhoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface temperature is a key variable in boundary-layer meteorology and is typically acquired by remote observation of emitted thermal radiation. However, the three-dimensional structure of cities complicates matters: uneven solar heating of urban facets produces an “effective anisotropy” of surface thermal emission at the neighbourhood scale. Remotely-sensed urban surface temperature varies with sensor view angle as a consequence. The authors combine a microscale urban surface temperature model with a thermal remote sensing model to predict the effective anisotropy of simplified neighbourhood configurations. The former model provides detailed surface temperature distributions for a range of “urban” forms, and the remote sensing model computes aggregate temperatures for multiple view angles. The combined model’s ability to reproduce observed anisotropy is evaluated against measurements from a neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. As in previous modeling studies, anisotropy is underestimated. Addition of moderate coverages of small (sub-facet scale structure can account for much of the missing anisotropy. Subsequently, over 1900 sensitivity simulations are performed with the model combination, and the dependence of daytime effective thermal anisotropy on diurnal solar path (i.e., latitude and time of day and blunt neighbourhood form is assessed. The range of effective anisotropy, as well as the maximum difference from nadir-observed brightness temperature, peak for moderate building-height-to-spacing ratios (H/W, and scale with canyon (between-building area; dispersed high-rise urban forms generate maximum anisotropy. Maximum anisotropy increases with solar elevation and scales with shortwave irradiance. Moreover, it depends linearly on H/W for H/W < 1.25, with a slope that depends on maximum off-nadir sensor angle. Decreasing minimum brightness temperature is primarily responsible for this linear growth of maximum anisotropy. These

  17. Associations among daytime sleepiness, depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Boksun; Choe, Kwisoon; Park, Youngrye; Kang, Youngmi

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of daytime sleepiness on depression and suicidal ideation in adolescent high-school students. A survey of 538 high school students aged 16-17 years attending two academic schools was conducted. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Beck Depression Inventory and the Scale for Suicide Ideation were used to assess subjects' daytime sleepiness, depression and suicidal ideation. The mean score for daytime sleepiness was 8.52, which indicates a sleep deficit. Significant positive correlations were found between daytime sleepiness and depression, between daytime sleepiness and suicidal ideation and between depression and suicidal ideation. Gender and depression were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, accounting for 48% of the variance in this measure. Depression acts as a mediator of the relationship between daytime sleepiness and suicidal ideation. High school students in Korea generally have insufficient sleep time and feel sleepy during the day; insufficient sleep during adolescence may be associated with depression and suicidal ideation.

  18. Adolescent Sleep and the Impact of Technology Use Before Sleep on Daytime Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann E E; Petrisko, Maria A; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-01-01

    Technology has become pervasive in our culture, particularly among adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between use of technology before sleep and daytime function in adolescents. This study is a secondary analysis of respondents aged 13 to 21 years (N = 259) from the 2011 National Sleep Foundation's Sleep in America Poll. The survey included questions on demographics, sleep habits, and use of technology in the hour before bedtime. Daytime sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Student's t-tests, Mann-Whitney U, and Fischer's exact tests were performed to detect differences in demographics, sleep duration, and technology use in the total sample, and between respondents with "adequate" compared to "inadequate" sleep. Correlations were calculated between technology frequency and daytime function. Adolescents had mean sleep duration of 7.3 ± 1.3 h. Almost all respondents (97%) used some form of technology before sleep. Increased technology use and the frequency of being awoken in the night by a cell phone were significantly associated with waking too early, waking unrefreshed, and daytime sleepiness (p technology use before bedtime, feeling unrefreshed on waking, and greater daytime sleepiness than those reporting "adequate" sleep (all p-values Technology use before sleep by adolescents had negative consequences on nighttime sleep and on daytime function. Healthcare professionals who interact with adolescents should encourage technology to be curtailed before bedtime and for adolescents to value obtaining adequate sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of daytime continuous positive airway pressure titration in severe obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowski, J C; Verschelden, P; Kimoff, R J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate manual nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) titration during daytime polysomnography compared with conventional overnight titration for patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Thirty-two patients who underwent daytime titration were retrospectively matched (for age, sex, body mass index and apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI)) to a group titrated overnight during the same period. Successful titration was defined as the identification of the nCPAP level (effective nCPAP (Peff)) required to eliminate respiratory events during all sleep stages. After 3 months of therapy on nCPAP at Peff, nCPAP utilization history was obtained and a group of patients underwent a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and completed a follow-up Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score. Initial titration was successful in 91% of daytime patients and 91% of overnight patients. The success of daytime titration was not related to diagnostic AHI or ESS score. Subjective nCPAP utilization was statistically similar in both groups. On the follow-up PSG, there were no significant differences between daytime (n=11) and overnight (n=11) patients in measures of sleep quality or respiratory disturbance. Both groups demonstrated similar and significant improvements in ESS score. These findings suggest that the effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be accurately established during daytime titration in a substantial proportion of severe, symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

  20. Bud break responds more strongly to daytime than night-time temperature under asymmetric experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is diurnally asymmetric, leading to a less cold, rather than warmer, climate. We investigated the effects of asymmetric experimental warming on plant phenology by testing the hypothesis that daytime warming is more effective in advancing bud break than night-time warming. Bud break was monitored daily in Picea mariana seedlings belonging to 20 provenances from Eastern Canada and subjected to daytime and night-time warming in growth chambers at temperatures varying between 8 and 16 °C. The higher advancements of bud break and shorter times required to complete the phenological phases occurred with daytime warming. Seedlings responded to night-time warming, but still with less advancement of bud break than under daytime warming. No advancement was observed when night-time warming was associated with a daytime cooling. The effect of the treatments was uniform across provenances. Our observations realized under controlled conditions allowed to experimentally demonstrate that bud break can advance under night-time warming, but to a lesser extent than under daytime warming. Prediction models using daily timescales could neglect the diverging influence of asymmetric warming and should be recalibrated for higher temporal resolutions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Daytime ozone and temperature variations in the mesosphere: a comparison between SABER observations and HAMMONIA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dikty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the latest version 1.07 SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry tropical ozone from the 1.27 μm as well as from the 9.6 μm retrieval and temperature data with respect to day time variations in the upper mesosphere. The processes involved are compared to day time variations of the three-dimensional general circulation and chemistry model HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere. The results show a good qualitative agreement for ozone. The amplitude of daytime variations is in both cases approximately 60% of the daytime mean. During equinox the daytime maximum ozone abundance is for both, the observations and the model, higher than during solstice, especially above 0.01 hPa (approx. 80 km. The influence of tidal signatures either directly in ozone or indirectly via a temperature response above 0.01 hPa can not be fully eliminated. Below 0.01 hPa (photo-chemistry is the main driver for variations. We also use the HAMMONIA output of daytime variation patterns of several other different trace gas species, e.g., water vapor and atomic oxygen, to discuss the daytime pattern in ozone. In contrast to ozone, temperature data show little daytime variations between 65 and 90 km and their amplitudes are on the order of less than 1.5%. In addition, SABER and HAMMONIA temperatures show significant differences above 80 km.

  2. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stephen A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Methods/Design Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants’ experience with their health and nicotine addiction. Discussion We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction.

  3. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen A; Celli, Bartolome R; DiFranza, Joseph R; Krinzman, Stephen J; Clarke, Jennifer G; Beam, Herbert; Howard, Sandra; Foster, Melissa; Goldberg, Robert J

    2012-10-15

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants' experience with their health and nicotine addiction. We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction.

  4. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  5. Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, David; Selby, Neil D.

    2009-05-01

    One application of forensic seismology is to help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One of the challenges facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes of potential interest each year and potential Treaty violations (underground explosions). There are four main methods: (a) ratio of body- to surface-wave magnitudes, (b) ratio of high-frequency P to S energy, (c) model-based methods, and (d) source depth. Methods (a) and (b) have an empirical basis. The weakness of methods (a)-(c) is the lack of an equivalent elastic source for an underground explosion fired in the range of geological media found around the world. Reliable routine source-depth determination has proved difficult. However, experience gained in the past decade at identifying suspicious seismic sources suggests that although no single method works all of the time, intelligent and original application of complementary methods is usually sufficient to satisfactorily identify the source in question.

  6. Daytime running lights : the attention light : a literature survey of daytime running lights for motor vehicles and their effect on road safety in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the history of (motorised) traffic, the role of lighting has assumed increasing importance, not only at night but also during daylight hours. Studies in the U.S. and Sweden demonstrated the positive effect of daytime running lights (DRL) on traffic safety. The aim of this study is to investigate

  7. Craving Alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    Individuals involved in the treatment of alcoholism for decades have argued that men and women crave alcohol essentially because they enjoy the effect it offers. This effect is so mysterious that, while adults will confess that these cravings are potential dangerous to their health and well being, during consumption their reasoning and belief of these facts will alternate between the true and the false. In essence these individuals alcohol cravings life actually seems to them the only normal ...

  8. Social jetlag affects subjective daytime sleepiness in school-aged children and adolescents: A study using the Japanese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Yoko; Breugelmans, Raoul; Drake, Christopher L; Nakajima, Shun; Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the level of daytime sleepiness in Japanese school-aged children and adolescents, and to examine associated factors including sleep loss and social jetlag using the Japanese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-J). After the linguistic validation of the PDSS-J with a multi-step translation methodology, consisting of forward translation, back translation, expert review and cognitive debriefing interviews, we conducted a psychometric validation for 492 students aged 11-16 years (46.7% boys) of public elementary school, junior high school and high school, using the PDSS-J, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and bedtimes and wake-up times on school days and free days. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the PDSS-J was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability demonstrated by the intraclass coefficient was 0.88. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both short sleep duration and social jetlag were identified as factors associated with daytime sleepiness, after adjustment for age and sex. PDSS-J scores were significantly higher in the group with large social jetlag with or without sufficient sleep duration than in the group with sufficient sleep duration and small social jetlag. The PDSS-J is an important tool for assessing daytime sleepiness, given its ease of administration and robust psychometric properties. The impact of not only sleep loss but also social jetlag on daytime sleepiness among school-aged children and adolescents must be fully taken into account.

  9. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ...?" I argue that the competitive, distributive negotiation strategies and tactics used by the United States and pro-ban advocates during the campaign ensured that a negotiated agreement was not reached...

  10. The nuclear test-ban verification regime: An untapped source for climate change monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The benefits of a global ban on nuclear testing for international security and for protecting human health and the environment from radioactive fallout are obvious. The relevance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) for climate change research may not, however, be evident at first glance. The CTBT bans all nuclear explosions on Earth. To monitor compliance with the Treaty, the CTBTO Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), is establishing a verification regime capable of detecting clandestine nuclear tests. As the only international body operating its own system of monitoring stations that literally spans the globe, the CTBTO is in a unique position to contribute to the UN's efforts in the area of climate knowledge.

  11. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  12. SISTEM INFORMASI KEUANGAN SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFO KAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahiduzzaman Syahiduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak-Standar keuangan adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.1. Pengelolaan keuangan sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi keuangan yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data transaksi keuangan, mencatatnya dalam sistem akuntansi, dan melaporkannya. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi keuangan ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi keuangan dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci: Standar 6.1. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Keuangan, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  13. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  14. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  15. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  16. On-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifft, Edward

    2017-11-01

    On-site inspections (OSI) are a key aspect of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Preparations to be able to conduct such inspections are going well. In particular, realistic major field exercises in Kazakhstan in 2008 and Jordan in 2014 enabled the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to learn valuable lessons regarding both the technical and human factors involved in being able to successfully implement the treaty's provisions.

  17. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  18. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  20. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  1. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  2. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  3. The Logging Ban Policy in Addressing Deforestation: a Comparison Between Thailand and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    -, Safrina

    2014-01-01

    The logging ban policy is applying in several countries, such as Thailand and Indonesia, in order to deal with deforestation and forest degradation in natural forests. However, both countries stillhave had difficulties resolving the problem. The logging ban in Thailand does not work as expected due to centralized systems of forestry policy that still applies in Thailand. However, Indonesia is actively adjusting the decentralized system, which gives authority to local governments to set polic...

  4. A comparison of three different sleep schedules for reducing daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Aldrich, M S; Lin, X

    2001-06-15

    To determine if the combination of scheduled sleep periods and stimulant medications were more effective than stimulant medications alone in controlling the excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine treated narcoleptic subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) two 15-minute naps per day; 2) a regular schedule for nocturnal sleep; or 3) a combination of scheduled naps and regular bedtimes. Measures of symptom severity and unscheduled daytime were obtained at baseline and at the end of the two-week treatment period, using the Narcolepsy Symptom Status Questionnaire (NSSQ) and 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic monitoring. No alterations were made in stimulant medications during the study period. N/A. N/A. N/A. The addition of two-15 minute naps did not alter either symptom severity or the duration of unscheduled daytime sleep. Regular times for nocturnal sleep reduced perceived symptom severity, but did not reduce the amount of unscheduled daytime sleep. Only the combination of scheduled naps and regular nocturnal sleep times, significantly reduced both symptom severity and the amount of unscheduled daytime sleep in treated narcoleptic subjects. The type of sleep schedule prescribed, however, was less important than the severity of the patients' pre-treatment daytime sleepiness. Subjects with severe daytime sleepiness benefited from the addition of scheduled sleep periods, while those who were only moderately sleepy or able to maintain alertness did not benefit from scheduled sleep periods. Scheduled sleep periods are helpful for only those patients who remain profoundly sleepy despite stimulant medications and should not be prescribed for all patients with narcolepsy.

  5. Supine awake oximetry as a screening tool for daytime hypercapnia in super-obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yewon; Garden, Frances L; Jee, Adelle S; Srikantha, Subash; Gupta, Saurabh; Buchanan, Peter R; Collett, Peter W; Marks, Guy B; Vedam, Hima

    2017-10-01

    Evidence-based screening tools are required for detection of daytime hypercapnia in high-risk patient populations. To determine the validity of supine awake oximetry as a test for daytime hypercapnia and severe sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in super-obese patients. This was a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation of super-obese adults (body mass index >50 kg/m 2 ) presenting to Liverpool Hospital, Australia, between 2009 and 2015 for diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and arterial blood gas measurement. Supine awake oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) was determined using oximetry measurements from the first three awake epochs of raw PSG data. Sensitivity and specificity of SpO 2 for detecting patients with daytime hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >45 mmHg) and severe SDB (respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >30 events/h) were assessed at various cut-off points and displayed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Area under the ROC curve and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) in the present patient population were derived. Of 52 patients, 23 (44%) had daytime hypercapnia. SpO 2 measured awake in the supine position was associated with the presence of daytime hypercapnia but not with the presence of severe SDB. Overall, awake supine SpO 2 <91.2% had 34.8% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity and 88.8% PPV, and SpO 2 <96.7% had 87.0% sensitivity, 20.7% specificity and 66.7% NPV for the presence of daytime hypercapnia. Awake supine oximetry is an easily performed test that may have novel use in identifying patients at high risk of respiratory failure. Future studies are required to evaluate prospectively its role in screening patients at risk of daytime hypercapnia. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Is nocturnal epilepsy cause of disturbed quality of sleep and elevated daytime sleepiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucníková, Katariná; Carnická, Zuzana; Wagnerová, Helená; Siarnik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Authors evaluated quality of sleep and daytime vigilance in patients with nocturnal epilepsy and compared it to those with daytime epilepsy. Nocturnal seizures are an important type of epilepsy. They can result in morbidity due to disruption of sleep architecture. Daytime sleepiness, as a serious consequence of nocturnal seizures, has negative influence on quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Authors examined 100 patients with epilepsy. The occurrence of epileptic seizures in circadian rhythm, type of epilepsy and epileptic seizures, as well as aetiology of epilepsy were evaluated. Patients were divided in two groups, 17 patients with nocturnal epilepsy and 83 patients with epileptic seizures not related to sleep. All of them underwent overnight video-EEG-polysomnography and they filled in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire (ESS) as well as The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Overnight video-EEG-polysomnography detected significant changes in the sleep architecture in patients with nocturnal epilepsy. Significant decrease of N3 stage of NREM sleep (14.31%±8.07 in the group of nocturnal epilepsy vs. 20.12%±9.24 in the group of daytime epilepsy, p=0.01). Concurrently, significantly poorer sleep quality according to PSQI (18.52±7.51 in the group of nocturnal epilepsy vs. 6.21±3.62 in the group of daytime epilepsy, p=0.01) and tendency to increased daytime sleepiness according to ESS was revealed in these patients. Remarkable changes in sleep architecture associated with poor quality of sleep and increased daytime sleepiness were detected in patients with nocturnal epilepsy. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of sleep history taking in patients with epilepsy and their further evaluation in sleep laboratory.

  7. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥1 cigarettes per day participation among youth. Methods: one to two waves (primarily one wave of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents’ smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. Results and Conclusions: We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1, daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1, and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05 participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  8. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  9. Bar and restaurant workers' attitudes towards Norway's comprehensive smoking ban: a growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Bontempo, Daniel E; Hetland, Jørn

    2010-06-01

    Norway passed legislation banning smoking in restaurants, bars and other public spaces in 2004. This study tracks changes in hospitality workers' attitudes towards Norway's ban over three time points, using growth modelling analysis to examine predictors of attitude change. Participants were a national sample of 1525 bar and restaurant workers. Surveys were conducted, by phone or internet, one month before the ban's implementation and at 4 and 12 months thereafter. Exploratory principal components analysis of nine survey items revealed one primary attitude component. A latent growth model was fitted to the data to examine trajectories of attitude change and individual differences in rate of change. Respondents supported the ban before implementation and increased support at 4 months (p=0.021) and again at 12 months (p=0.001). Concern for one's job followed a quadratic trend, increasing at 4 months and decreasing at 12 months (phospitality workers increased their support of the ban over its first year. The strong influence of the within-person variables leads to two primary policy recommendations. First, support should be provided to assist cessation efforts and prevent relapse. Second, informational campaigns should inform hospitality workers about evidence that smoking bans are not economic threats to the industry.

  10. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  11. Banned and discouraged-use ingredients found in weight loss supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Sara; Maguire, Michelle; Shea, Leticia A; Fete, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    To identify banned and discouraged-use ingredients, such as ephedra, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, and beta-methyl-phenylethylamine, in readily available weight loss dietary supplements within a 10-mile radius of Regis University. A list of banned and discouraged-use ingredients was compiled with the use of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dietary supplement website which provides information on supplement ingredients that are no longer legal or are advised against owing to adverse event reporting. Investigators visited all retail outlet stores within a 10-mile radius of Regis University in Denver, Colorado. Retail chains were not duplicated and only one of each chain was evaluated. A total of 51 weight loss supplement products from retail stores were found with banned or discouraged-use substances listed on their labels. At least one banned ingredient was found to be listed on the product labels in 17 of the 51 studied supplements (33%). At least one discouraged-use ingredient was found in 46 of the 51 products (90%). Retail outlet stores dedicated to supplements and sports nutrition alone were found to have the greatest number of weight loss supplements that included banned and discouraged-use ingredients. The FDA has taken action to remove some weight loss supplements from the market that contain banned ingredients. Unfortunately, based on the findings of this study, it is evident that products containing these ingredients remain on the market today. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  13. Sequence-dependent cleavage of mismatched DNA by Ban I restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Zhu, Dan; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2017-10-01

    Restriction enzymes have previously shown the ability to cleave DNA substrates with mismatched base(s) in recognition sequences; in this study, Ban I endonuclease demonstrated this same ability. Single base substitutions were introduced, and fragments containing various types of unpaired base(s) (heteroduplex fragments) within the Ban I endonuclease recognition sequence, 5'-G|GPyPuCC-3', were generated. Each of the heteroduplex fragments was treated with Ban I endonuclease and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that heteroduplex fragments containing mismatched bases at either the first or third position of the Ban I recognition sequence or, because of the symmetrical structure of the sequence, the sixth or fourth position on the opposite strand were cleaved by the enzyme. Furthermore, these cleaved fragments contained at least one strand corresponding to the original Ban I recognition sequence. Fragments with mismatches formed by an A (noncanonical, nc) opposite a purine (canonical, ca) or a T (nc) opposite a pyrimidine (ca) were cleaved more efficiently than other types of mismatched bases. These results may help elucidate the mechanisms by which DNA and protein interact during the process of DNA cleavage by Ban I endonuclease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  15. Test ban treaty verification with regional data: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, P.W.; Best, W.J.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of regional (Δ ≤ 30 0 ) seismic data in a test ban context for detecting, locating, identifying, and determining the yield of underground nuclear explosions. In many areas of the world (Eastern North America, Africa, Eastern USSR), Lg is the largest amplitude wave recorded on standard seismograph systems and thus is the most appropriate phase for monitoring small magnitude events. Excellent location capability for near-regional events has been demonstrated at the Norwegian small aperture array (NORESS) using Lg and P waves. Lg and other regional phases may contain information on source depth, but such information has not been exploited to date. Fifteen classes of regional discriminants are listed. Most have been tested only on limited data, usually from one geographic region and only one or two recording stations. No systematic analyses have been done to determine the best individual discriminant or combination of them. Preliminary evaluation of the use of Lg for yield determination suggests that regional waves hold promise in this application. Theoretical studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of propagation characteristics of regional waves but further studies are required emphasizing modeling for realistic anisotropic sources. The major conclusion of this study is that a systematic and comparative evaluation of all the proposed regional discriminants is now required, utilizing a common data base derived from all present-day test sites. This evaluation would suggest the optimal discrimination procedure using regional waves, and would also define areas of needed research. Without such an integrated evaluation, it is still possible to speculate, using existing results, on the most promising regional discriminants

  16. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  17. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and the Liver: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is ... provider or contact a Substance Use Disorder program Alcohol Drinking Diary and Change Plan Alcohol Drinking Diary ...

  20. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  1. [Excessive daytime sleepiness and risk for obstructive sleep apnea in the public transport drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarowski, Łukasz; Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Czaban, Marcin; Mickiewicz, Magdalena; Kozakiewicz, Natalia; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Chyczewska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a set of symptoms related to the increased upper airways resistance during sleep (due to pharyngeal walls collapse) leading to intermittent airflow obstruction in the lungs. One of the most severe OSA symptoms is excessive daytime sleepiness. Sustained daytime sleepiness may impair cognitive functions and thus influence the everyday functioning of affected person. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess excessive daytime sleepiness and the risk for OSA in municipal bus drivers. The study was performed in a group of 103 men. The anonymous survey comprised Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) for daytime sleepiness assessment and STOP-Bang Questionnaire (SBQ) for OSA risk assessment. In 43 (42%) respondents OSA risk was assessed as low, while moderate and high risk was observed in 55 (53%) and 5 (5%) drivers, respectively. Severe daytime sleepiness correlated positively with ESS results (r = 0.32; p < 0.05). In drivers with high OSA risk revealed in SBQ no correlation with high ESS was observed. In drivers with moderate and high OSA risk a sleep medicine specialist consultation with a consecutive diagnostic procedures is necessary. STOP-Bang Questionnaire and ESS are the fast tools to identify patients at increased risk for OSA. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Unintended Sleep Episodes Associated with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Salawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the issues of excessive daytime sleepiness and unintended sleep episodes in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and explores the reasons why patients might suffer from these symptoms, and what steps could be taken to manage them. During the last decade, understanding of sleep/wake regulation has increased. Several brainstem nuclei and their communication pathways in the ascending arousing system through the hypothalamus and thalamus to the cortex play key roles in sleep disorders. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in PD patients, and excessive daytime sleepiness is also common. Excessive daytime sleepiness affects up to 50% of PD patients and a growing body of research has established this sleep disturbance as a marker of preclinical and premotor PD. It is a frequent and highly persistent feature in PD, with multifactorial underlying pathophysiology. Both age and disease-related disturbances of sleep-wake regulation contribute to hypersomnia in PD. Treatment with dopamine agonists also contribute to excessive daytime sleepiness. Effective management of sleep disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness can greatly improve the quality of life for patients with PD.

  3. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, p<0.001), fewer reported making spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, p<0.05) and fewer claimed the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, p<0.05; cued recall 22.1% vs 3.8%, p<0.001). Before the ban, spontaneous purchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, p<0.05; cued recall 40.0% vs 17.9%, p<0.01). After the ban, spontaneous purchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, p<0.01) as it did for planned purchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, p<0.05; cued recall 17.9% vs 2.1%, p<0.01). We observed a 30% reduction in smokers making spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  5. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  6. When Thinking Impairs Sleep: Trait, Daytime and Nighttime Repetitive Thinking in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; Eisma, Maarten C; van Zanten, Kristopher B; Topper, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    We performed two studies in individuals with sleep problems to investigate trait, daytime, and nighttime repetitive thinking as risk factors for insomnia. In Study 1, 139 participants completed questionnaires on worry, rumination, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and a sleep diary. Trait rumination and trait worry were not associated with sleep impairment. In Study 2, 64 participants completed similar measures and a daytime and nighttime sleep-related worry diary. Only nighttime sleep-related worry was consistently associated with sleep impairment. Overall, results indicate that nighttime sleep-related worry is important in the maintenance of insomnia, whereas effects of trait and daytime repetitive thinking are more benign. Treatment for insomnia can potentially be improved by focusing more on nighttime sleep-related worry.

  7. Reduced daytime activity in patients with acquired brain damage and apathy: a study with ambulatory actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich; Czymmek, Jana; Thöne-Otto, Angelika; Von Cramon, D Yves

    2006-02-01

    Apathy is difficult to assess in clinical practice. Ambulatory actigraphy was used with the aim to measure locomotor activity during the daytime as a correlate of self-initiated action in brain-damaged patients with apathy. Twenty-four patients with acquired brain damage and high levels of apathy or low levels of apathy as well as 12 healthy controls were investigated using a parallel group design. Apathy was diagnosed after clinical observation and evaluated with the apathy evaluation scale. Locomotor activity was measured with a wrist-worn actigraph over 3 days. High apathy patients showed significantly reduced locomotor activity and more episodes of inactivity (naps) during the daytime. Self-rated apathy correlated with daytime activity, nap frequency and cognitive (executive) deficits. Ambulatory actigraphy is a promising method to evaluate self-initiated action in patients with apathy.

  8. Associations of Subjective Sleep Quality and Daytime Sleepiness With Cognitive Impairment in Adults and Elders With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Eeeseung; Kim, Jinyoung; Riegel, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association of subjective nighttime sleep quality and daytime sleepiness with cognitive impairment in 105 adults (sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a neuropsychological battery measuring attention, memory, and processing speed. Multivariate logistic regression was used. In adults, daytime sleepiness was associated with cognitive impairment, whereas poor nighttime sleep quality was associated with cognitive impairment in elders. Age may play an important role in how sleep impacts cognition in persons with heart failure. Improving nighttime sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in this population may improve cognition.

  9. Sleep Disordered Breathing And Daytime Sleepiness Are Associated With Poor Academic Performance In Teenagers. A Study Using The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Chada, Daniel; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J.; Cardinali, Daniel; Bergna, Miguel A.; Fernández-Acquier, Mariano; Larrateguy, Luis; Zabert, Gustavo E.; Drake, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inadequate sleep and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can impair learning skills. Questionnaires used to evaluate sleepiness in adults are usually inadequate for adolescents. We conducted a study to evaluate the performance of a Spanish version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to assess the impact of sleepiness and SDB on academic performance. Design: A cross-sectional survey of students from 7 schools in 4 cities of Argentina. Measurements: A questionnaire with a Spanish version of the PDSS was used. Questions on the occurrence of snoring and witnessed apneas were answered by the parents. Mathematics and language grades were used as indicators of academic performance. Participants: The sample included 2,884 students (50% males; age: 13.3 ± 1.5 years) Results: Response rate was 85%; 678 cases were excluded due to missing data. Half the students slept academic performance. Citation: Perez-Chada D; Perez-Lloret S; Videla AJ; Cardinali D; Bergna MA; Fernández-Acquier M; Larrateguy L; Zabert GE; Drake C. Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS). SLEEP 2007;30(12):1698-1703. PMID:18246979

  10. Sleep Disturbance, Daytime Symptoms, and Functional Performance in Patients With Stable Heart Failure: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients with heart failure (HF) who also experience symptom burden and poor functional performance. We evaluated the extent to which sleep-related, daytime symptoms (fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms) mediate the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance among patients with stable HF. We recruited patients with stable HF for this secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, observational study. Participants completed unattended ambulatory polysomnography from which the Respiratory Disturbance Index was calculated, along with a Six-Minute Walk Test, questionnaires to elicit sleep disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Symptoms from the Sleep Habits Questionnaire), daytime symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Global Fatigue Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and self-reported functional performance (Medical Outcomes Study SF36 V2 Physical Function Scale). We used structural equation modeling with latent variables for the key analysis. Follow-up, exploratory regression analysis with bootstrapped samples was used to examine the extent to which individual daytime symptoms mediated effects of sleep disturbance on functional performance after controlling for clinical and demographic covariates. The sample included 173 New York Heart Association Class I-IV HF patients (n = 60/34.7% women; M = 60.7, SD = 16.07 years of age). Daytime symptoms mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance. Fatigue and depression mediated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and self-reported functional performance, whereas fatigue and sleepiness mediated the relationship between sleep quality and functional performance. Sleepiness mediated the relationship between the respiratory index and self-reported functional performance only in people who did not report insomnia. Daytime symptoms explain the relationships between sleep

  11. Links between sleep and daytime behaviour problems in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K; Beebe, D W; Byars, K C; Epstein, J

    2018-02-01

    In the general population, sleep problems have an impact on daytime performance. Despite sleep problems being common among children with Down syndrome, the impact of sleep problems on daytime behaviours in school-age children with Down syndrome is an understudied topic. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports of daytime behaviour problems among school-age children with Down syndrome. Thirty school-age children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Their parent and teacher completed a battery of measures to assess daytime behaviour. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, but not actigraph-measured sleep efficiency, was predictive of parent and teacher behavioural concerns on the Nisonger Child Behaviour Rating Form and the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales. Actigraph-measured sleep period and parent-reported sleep duration on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was predictive of daytime parent-reported inattention. Actigraph-measured sleep period was predictive of parent-reported hyperactivity/impulsivity. The study findings suggest that sleep problems have complex relationships to both parent-reported and teacher-reported daytime behaviour concerns in children with Down syndrome. These findings have implications for understanding the factors impacting behavioural concerns and their treatment in school-age children with Down syndrome. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The relationship between a night's sleep and subsequent daytime functioning in older poor and good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rashelle A; Lack, Leon C; Lovato, Nicole; Wright, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Those suffering insomnia symptoms generally report daytime impairments. However, research has not assessed whether this relationship holds on a nightly basis, despite the strongly held belief that a night of poor sleep impairs mood and functioning the following day. The objective of this study was to test this relationship in a group of older poor sleepers with insomnia symptoms compared with good sleepers. This study utilized a within-subjects design to investigate day-to-day subjective daytime functioning and its relation to the previous night's sleep. Seventeen older individuals (mean age: 67.5 years) were identified with a retrospective questionnaire and 2 weeks of sleep-wake diary to have poor sleep consistent with insomnia. Seventeen good sleepers (mean age: 67.8 years) were selected using the same measures. Participants reported their beliefs about sleep and daytime functioning on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS-16). One week later they commenced a 14-day period of sleep-wake diaries and concurrent responses to a modified Daytime Insomnia Symptom Scale (DISS). Results showed significant night-to-day covariation between sleep efficiency and daytime functioning for individuals with poor sleep (r = 0.34), but not for good sleepers (r = 0.08). Those poor sleepers who held this covariation belief most strongly were those who subsequently showed this night-to-day relationship the most strongly (r = 0.56). This was not true for good sleepers. For those suffering insomnia, these findings demonstrate their belief that a poor sleep is followed by an impaired daytime, consistent with their experience. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Morningness-eveningness and daytime functioning in university students: the mediating role of sleep characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakotic, Marija; Radosevic-Vidacek, Biserka; Koscec Bjelajac, Adrijana

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of sleep characteristics in the relationship between morningness-eveningness and three different aspects of daytime functioning: daytime sleepiness, depressive mood and substance use in university students. A multiple mediator model was proposed with sleep debt, poor sleep quality and bedtime delay at weekends as parallel mediators in these relationships. We analysed the data of 1052 university students aged 18-25 years who completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey, which included questions on sleep and the Composite Scale of Morningness, Sleepiness Scale, Depressive Mood Scale and Substance Use Scale. Students with more pronounced eveningness reported greater daytime sleepiness, greater depressive mood and more frequent substance use, as well as greater sleep debt, poorer sleep quality and greater bedtime delay at weekends. Mediation analyses indicated that morningness-eveningness affected daytime sleepiness and substance use both directly and indirectly through all proposed sleep-related mediators. However, the effect of morningness-eveningness on depressive mood was entirely indirect and was accounted for more by poor sleep than by sleep debt or bedtime irregularity. In conclusion, there are multiple possible mechanisms through which morningness-eveningness affects daytime functioning in university students, and sleep characteristics are a significant mechanism. Sleep debt, poor sleep quality and bedtime irregularity can, to a significant extent, explain the feeling of daytime sleepiness and greater substance use in students with eveningness preferences. However, more depressed mood in the evening-orientated students is primarily a consequence of their poor sleep quality. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. [Distributions and associations between duration of sleep, daytime naps and insomnia symptoms among Chinese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B; Lin, L L; Yu, C Q; Lyu, J; Guo, Y; Bian, Z; Tan, Y L; Pei, P; Chen, J S; Chen, Z M; Li, L M

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of sleep duration, daytime naps habits, and insomnia-related symptoms among participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study, and to examine the associations between the sleep-associated factors. Methods: A self-designed computer-based questionnaire was adopted to collect social-demographic information and lifestyle-related factors of the participants. A total of 452 829 Chinese adults aged 30-79 years, without self-reported histories of coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or cancer, were included in this study. General linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the distributions on duration of sleep, daytime naps habits, and insomnia-related symptoms in different populations, after adjusted for gender, age, and residential regions. Gender-specific logistic regression model was adopted to examine the associations between the above mentioned sleep-related factors. Results: The average sleep duration of the participants was 7.41 hours per day, with 20.3 % of them having daytime naps all year round, but 40.1 % only had daytime naps in summer, and 39.6 % had no habits of daytime naps. 11.0 % , 10.0 % , and 2.1 % of the participants reported having had symptoms as difficulty in falling asleep, waking up too early or with daytime dysfunction, respectively. There were significant differences on the distributions in sleep-related factors between participants with different gender, age, residential areas, education levels,household income, and marital status ( P insomnia-related symptoms trend ( P insomnia-related symptoms ( P insomnia-related symptoms varied according to the differences on social-demographic factors. There were associations existed between the sleeping-related factors, which would influence the promotion on optimal sleep duration and better quality of sleep.

  15. Reduced slow-wave rebound during daytime recovery sleep in middle-aged subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Lafortune

    Full Text Available Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV, is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27 y ± 5, and 34 middle-aged (51 y ± 5 subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after

  16. Diagnostic utility of daytime salivary melatonin levels in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Constance L; Rollag, Mark D; Duncan, Wallace C; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-01-01

    An inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin (MT) likely contributes to the sleep disturbance in patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Plasma MT levels have documented this altered rhythm, but daytime levels of salivary MT has not been determined. Daytime measures of salivary MT might have utility in home/outpatient settings for assessing MT levels in undiagnosed patients with clinical features of SMS. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of daytime salivary MT as a diagnostic test in SMS. Thirty individuals with confirmed SMS [28 with del 17p11.2 and 2 with the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene mutation] and five controls were studied. Single or serial daytime salivary MT levels were measured. The mean midday salivary MT level was 79.0 pg/ml in SMS patients, compared with 16.3 pg/ml in controls, with nine patients having values similar to controls. The median MT level in SMS patients was 49.0 pg/ml (first and third quartile values = 15.5 and 106.8 pg/ml). Twenty-six (90%) of 29 patients had at least one MT value >15.5 pg/ml, including 70 (78%) of 90 samples from patients with del 17p11.2 and one (20%) of five samples from the two patients with the RAI1 mutation. Neither the pattern of medication use nor age had an effect on daytime salivary MT levels. Although most SMS patients had elevated daytime salivary MT levels, multiple sampling appears necessary to distinguish patients with SMS from other conditions.

  17. Dissociating Effects of Global SWS Disruption and Healthy Aging on Waking Performance and Daytime Sleepiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To contrast the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) disruption and age on daytime functioning. Design: Daytime functioning was contrasted in three age cohorts, across two parallel 4-night randomized groups (baseline, two nights of SWS disruption or control, recovery sleep). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: 44 healthy young (20-30 y), 35 middle-aged (40-55 y), and 31 older (66-83 y) men and women. Interventions: Acoustic stimulation contingent on appearance of slow waves. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance was assessed before sleep latency tests at five daily time-points. SWS disruption resulted in less positive affect, slower or impaired information processing and sustained attention, less precise motor control, and erroneous implementation, rather than inhibition, of well-practiced actions. These performance impairments had far smaller effect sizes than the increase in daytime sleepiness and differed from baseline to the same extent for each age group. At baseline, younger participants performed better than older participants across many cognitive domains, with largest effects on executive function, response time, sustained attention, and motor control. At baseline, the young were sleepier than other age groups. Conclusions: SWS has been considered a potential mediator of age-related decline in performance, although the effects of SWS disruption on daytime functioning have not been quantified across different cognitive domains nor directly compared to age-related changes in performance. The data imply that two nights of SWS disruption primarily leads to an increase in sleepiness with minor effects on other aspects of daytime functioning, which are different from the substantial effects of age. Citation: Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S, Dijk DJ. Dissociating effects of global sws disruption and healthy aging on waking performance and daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1127-1142. PMID:24882908

  18. Gillnet and trammel net ban and buyback in St. Croix, USVI: This dataset contains data fishermen and other stakeholders views about the performance of the gillnet and trammel net buyback and ban in St. Croix, USVI (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics and fishermens perceptions about the efficacy of St. Croix gillnet ban and buyback

  19. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read Peter's story Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does Drug Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the National Institute ...

  20. Effects of daytime activity upon the timing of REM sleep periods during a night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Ishikawa, T; Arakawa, K

    1998-04-01

    The effects of mental and physical daytime activities upon REM sleep cycle (REM cycle) during 1 night was studied in five university students (aged 19-25 years). Mental activity with high tension has effects upon the timing of REM sleep periods in the later part of the night. Physical activity has effects upon the timing of REM sleep in the early part of the night. The result suggests that mental and/or physical activities during daytime modulate REM cycle during the night.

  1. Can daytime measures of lung function predict respiratory failure in children with neuromuscular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, C A; Waters, K; Jones, K J; Young, H; Fitzgerald, D A

    2015-09-01

    Neuromuscular disorders in children are a heterogeneous group of conditions with a variable age of presentation and overlapping clinical manifestations, many of which have progressive respiratory morbidity. Respiratory insufficiency occurs as a consequence of an imbalance between demands on the respiratory system and respiratory muscle capacity. Daytime measures of pulmonary function are used routinely in these children to assess respiratory status and monitor the consequences of the progression of muscle weakness. This review describes the current evidence for daytime pulmonary function tests and their ability to predict imminent respiratory morbidity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REM) associated enhancement of working memory performance after a daytime nap

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, CH; Wong, ML; Lau, EYY; Hui, FWY; Lau, KNT

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-wat...

  3. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  5. Smoking Habits and Alcohol Use. Epidemiological data and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Nanou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and smoking among adolescents worldwide is increasing without any apparent differences between developed and developing countries. Increased rates of smoking and alcohol abuse have been documented among university students worldwide. In Greece, smoking habits and alcohol consumption among university students have only been a part of wider epidemiological surveys regarding general health issues. The prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among university students in Greece is presumably high, but so far there haven’t been any targeted efforts to focus on and deal with this issue, as it happens in other countries. Some basic factors that contribute to higher tobacco and alcohol consumption are that those products are readily available, alcoholic beverages are promoted and distributed without any formal restrictions , and smoking ban laws are for the most part neglected. The international scientific community has recently focused on the issue of tobacco and alcohol abuse among young university students and the impact on their health and the health of their social circle. Health policies addressing this issue should include prevention and intervention measures and also treatment strategies aiming both individually and at the entire university student population. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific community about the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in university students, about factors determining this behavior and measures and policies that apply to control this phenomenon.

  6. The Asbestos Ban in Korea from a Grassroots Perspective: Why Did It Occur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ryong Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, asbestos was finally banned in Korea, about 70 years after the first opening of asbestos mines under Japanese control. After having presented the history of asbestos industry, together with its regulations and health effects over time, we constructed narrative analyses of how the asbestos issue under the prevailing risk system was managed by whom and for what purpose, to provide context for the change. We could identify five different phases: laissez-faire, politico-technical, economic–managerial, health-oriented cultural, and human rights-based post-cultural risk systems. The changes leading to the asbestos ban evolved over different phases, and each phase change was necessary to reach the final ban, in that, without resolving the previous issues by examining different categories of potential alternatives, either the final ban was not possible or, even if instituted, could not be sustained. An asbestos ban could be introduced when all the alternatives to these issues, including legitimate political windows, economic rationalizations, health risk protections, and human rights sensitivities, were available. We think the alternatives that we had were not in perfect shape, but in more or less loosely connected forms, and hence we had to know how to build solidarities between different stakeholders to compensate for the imperfections.

  7. Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth

    2018-05-01

    Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; pbusiness hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  9. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  10. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  11. Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Valentina; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Masocco, Maria; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Possenti, Valentina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Vasselli, Stefania; Salmaso, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3-8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI). PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18-69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008-2012. Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3% increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3% in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5% increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012. The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.

  12. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  13. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  14. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social......Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...

  15. Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and prevalence of alcohol use among Iranian psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan

    2018-01-30

    Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.

  16. Impact of a hospital smoking ban: changes in tobacco use and employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, W F; Gibertini, M; Ulschak, F; Snow-Antle, S; Hann, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of a complete smoking ban on 349 employees of a cancer treatment center. A questionnaire administered approximately 4 months after the ban was initiated queried smokers on the impact of the ban on their smoking habits, their experience of withdrawal symptoms during the workday, and changes in work habits. A separate questionnaire asked nonsmokers about changes in the work environment. Results showed that few smokers quit while a majority decreased their consumption. Withdrawal symptoms were a problem in less than half the smokers, but those reporting signs of physical dependency on nicotine tended to smoke more before and after work and reported negative changes in work performance. Nonsmokers in general reported positive effects on the work environment.

  17. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment.

  18. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  19. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... been made for daytime sedative products: “occasional simple nervous tension,” “nervous irritability,” “nervous tension headache,” “simple nervousness due to common every day overwork and fatigue,” “a relaxed... chapter is required for marketing. (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug...

  20. Sleep Patterns and Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S. E.; Malow, B. A.; Newman, K. D.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and may adversely affect daytime functioning. Children with Williams syndrome have been reported to have disturbed sleep; however, no studies have been performed to determine if these problems continue into adolescence and adulthood. Methods: This study…

  1. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  2. Increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    In patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA), increased fatigue scores on quality of life (QoL) have been reported. Because this may be related to altered sleep patterns, we evaluated daytime sleepiness and sleep patterns in patients successfully treated for NFMA in our

  3. When thinking impairs sleep : Trait, daytime and nighttime repetitive thinking in insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Eisma, M.C.; van Zanten, K.B.; Topper, M.

    2017-01-01

    We performed two studies in individuals with sleep problems to investigate trait, daytime, and nighttime repetitive thinking as risk factors for insomnia. In Study 1, 139 participants completed questionnaires on worry, rumination, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and a sleep diary. Trait rumination

  4. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference ...

  5. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a low latitude Indian ground station Jammu. K K Singh J Singh R P Patel A K Singh R P Singh Rejesh Singh P A Ganai. Volume 118 Issue 3 June 2009 pp 209-216 ...

  6. Associations between sleep duration, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis vary by sex, menopause, and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Ling; Wen, Junping; Yao, Jin; Li, Liantao; Lin, Lixiang; Tang, Kaka; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Lin, Wei; Chen, Hongjie; Li, Meizhi; Gong, Xueying; Peng, Shushan; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2014-08-01

    Associations between sleep, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis remain uncertain, and far less is even known about the influence of sex, menopause, and sleep quality on them. The objective of the study was to test the associations between sleep, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis and whether they vary by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. This cross-sectional study was based on two communities in China. A total of 8688 participants (3950 males and 4738 females) aged 40 years or older were enrolled in the study. Self-reported sleep duration, daytime nap duration, sleep quality, and calcaneus bone mineral density were recorded. Sleep duration of 8-9 h/d and nap duration of 0 min/d were regarded as reference values. In postmenopausal women, risks (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) of osteoporosis for sleep durations of 7-8 h/d, 9-10 h/d, and 10 h/d or longer were 1.531 (1.106, 2.121), 1.360 (1.035, 1.787), and 1.569 (1.146, 2.149), respectively (P osteoporosis for daytime nap durations of 30-60 min/d and longer than 60 min/d were 1.553 (1.212-1.989) and 1.645 (1.250-2.165), respectively (P osteoporosis, and this tendency is most obvious in postmenopausal women reporting good-quality sleep.

  7. Asymmetric effects of daytime and night-time warming on Northern Hemisphere vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, S.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Myeni, R.B.; Chen, A.; Chevallier, F.; Dolman, A.J.; Janssens, I.A.; Peñuelas, J.; Zhang, G.; Vicca, S.; Wan, S.; Wang, S.; Zeng, H.

    2013-01-01

    Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more

  8. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  9. The comparison of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness in patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaya, M; Otake, H; Suzuki, K; Yasuma, F; Yamamoto, H; Noda, A; Nishimura, Y; Sone, M; Nakashima, T; Nakata, S

    2017-09-01

    Residual sleepiness after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a critical problem in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, nasal surgery is likely to reduce daytime sleepiness and feelings of unrefreshed sleep. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness. This is a retrospective and matched-case control study. The participants were consecutive 40 patients with OSAS who underwent nasal surgery (Surgery group) and 40 matched patients who were treated with CPAP (CPAP group). In the Surgery group, although the nasal surgery did not decrease either apnea or hypopnea, it improved oxygenation, the quality of sleep. In the CPAP Group, the CPAP treatment reduced apnea and hypopnea, and improved oxygenation, quality of sleep. The degree of relief from daytime sleepiness was different between the two groups. The improvement of Epworth Sleepiness Scale was more significant in the Surgery Group than those in the CPAP Group (Surgery from 11.0 to 5.1, CPAP from 10.0 to 6.2). These findings suggest that the results of the nasal surgery is more satisfactory for some patients with OSAS than CPAP on daytime sleepiness.

  10. Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

  11. School Maladjustment and External Locus of Control Predict the Daytime Sleepiness of College Students With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Becker, Stephen P; Molitor, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether school maladjustment longitudinally predicts the daytime sleepiness of college students with ADHD above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and to determine whether internalizing dimensions mediate the relationship between maladjustment and sleepiness. A prospective longitudinal study of 59 college students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year. School maladjustment at the beginning of the year significantly predicted daytime sleepiness at the end of the year above and beyond symptoms of ADHD. Locus of control mediated the relationship between maladjustment and daytime sleepiness. The significant school maladjustment difficulties that students with ADHD experience following the transition to college may lead to the development of problems with daytime sleepiness, particularly for those students with high external locus of control. This pattern is likely reciprocal, whereby sleep problems in turn result in greater school impairment, reinforcing the idea that life events are outside of one's control. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...

  13. Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as daytime feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Wartenbergh, S.L.J.; Pen, I.R.; Van der Velde, G.

    Caribbean seagrass beds are important feeding habitats for so-called nocturnally active zoobenthivorous fish, but the extent to which these fishes use mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats during daytime remains unclear. We hypothesised three feeding strategies: (1) fishes feed

  14. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  15. Has the tobacco industry evaded the FDA's ban on 'Light' cigarette descriptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R

    2014-03-01

    Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the use of "Lights" descriptors or similar terms on tobacco products that convey messages of reduced risk. Manufacturers eliminated terms explicitly stated and substituted colour name descriptors corresponding to the banned terms. This paper examines whether the tobacco industry complied with or circumvented the law and potential FDA regulatory actions. Philip Morris retailer manuals, manufacturers' annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, a national public opinion survey, and market-wide cigarette sales data were examined. Manufacturers substituted "Gold" for "Light" and "Silver" for "Ultra-light" in the names of Marlboro sub-brands, and "Blue", "Gold", and "Silver" for banned descriptors in sub-brand names. Percent filter ventilation levels, used to generate the smoke yield ranges associated with "Lights" categories, appear to have been reassigned to the new colour brand name descriptors. Following the ban, 92% of smokers reported they could easily identify their usual brands, and 68% correctly named the package colour associated with their usual brand, while sales for "Lights" cigarettes remained unchanged. Tobacco manufacturers appear to have evaded a critical element of the FSPTCA, the ban on misleading descriptors that convey reduced health risk messages. The FPSTCA provides regulatory mechanisms, including banning these products as adulterated (Section 902). Manufacturers could then apply for pre-market approval as new products and produce evidence for FDA evaluation and determination whether or not sales of these products are in the public health interest.

  16. Behaviours and opinions towards outdoor smoking bans and cigarette littering in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Christine, Paul J; Zepeda-Tello, Rodrigo; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Aguilar Duque, Julian I; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz M; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor smoking bans have been implemented to reduce secondhand smoke exposure and cigarette littering. We aimed to explore outdoor smoking behaviours, cigarette littering, and support towards a recently enacted outdoor smoking ban in Baja California, Mexico. From October 2013 to April 2014 a representative sample of 800 adults from urban areas of Baja California was surveyed to obtain information on demographics, smoking status, opinion towards outdoor smoking bans in general and in specific locations, and perceptions and habits regarding cigarette littering. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% CI taking into account the complex survey design. Outdoor smoking was frequently observed, as 86.8% of the population reported having seen people smoking in parks and beaches and 94.4% in open venues such as concerts or stadiums. A smoking ban in all outdoor areas was supported by 71.8% of Baja California residents. Site-specific support ranged from 80% (stadiums) to 89% (public parks). Support for the ban was higher among never and ex-smokers than in current smokers. Cigarette littering was negatively perceived by 98% of the participants, yet 45% of all cigarettes smoked were thrown on the ground. Based on cigarette consumption and butt littering reported in the survey, we estimated that 27 million cigarette butts become litter every month in urban areas of Baja California. Outdoor smoking is still frequent in outdoor areas where people gather, and an important source of littering. We found substantial public support towards the outdoor smoking ban, which should translate into easier implementation and compliance in Baja California, Mexico. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S; Webster, D W; Hepburn, L M

    1999-12-01

    To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals.

  18. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Kendrick, Katherine; Salin, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/-2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/-1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/-0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25-35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  19. Tribal communities and coal in Northeast India: The politics of imposing and resisting mining bans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan; Kikon, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Bans on coal mining have been implemented in two tribal majority states in India's north-east frontier; Nagaland and Meghalaya. In Nagaland the state government imposed the ban in an attempt to capture control of coal extraction and trade, while in Meghalaya India's National Green Commission imposed the ban over concern for the environment and labour conditions. In both cases local communities have opposed the bans, and in some areas resumed mining under the authority of tribal councils and powerful civil society actors. In this paper we explore the politics of coal extraction that resulted in these bans and the response of communities and authorities. In doing so we made three main arguments that contribute to understanding of coal and communities in frontier regions where state control is partial and the legacy of armed conflict is powerful. First, in both locations the majority of the coal mining activity has been initiated and managed by members of tribal communities rather than profit-driven outsiders. Second, in contrast to other contexts in India (notably Orissa and Jharkhand) where large state or private enterprises seek to modify the law to enable coal extraction, in Nagaland and Meghalaya it has been communities that resent and challenge state and national laws being applied to their lands. Third, the right to extract coal is connected to the right of tribal communities to determine what happens on their lands. - Highlights: • Tribal communities initiate and manage coal mining in Nagaland and Meghalaya. • Laws banning coal extraction have been challenged and resisted by local communities. • The right to extract coal is tied to protecting tribal land rights. • Tribal autonomy in coal policy is progressive, yet enables capture by local elites. • Where there has been regulation of coal mining it has come from unexpected sources.

  20. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Setting—Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Methods—Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Results—Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Conclusions—Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals. PMID:10628912

  1. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    /1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...

  3. Sleep-Wake Cycle, Daytime Sleepiness, and Attention Components in Children Attending Preschool in the Morning and Afternoon Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belísio, Aline S.; Kolodiuk, Fernanda F.; Louzada, Fernando M.; Valdez, Pablo; Azevedo, Carolina V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Children tend to sleep and wake up early and to exhibit daytime sleep episodes. To evaluate the impact of school start times on sleepiness and attention in preschool children, this study compared the temporal patterns of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and the components of attention between children aged 4-6 years that study in the morning (n = 66)…

  4. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  5. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  6. An introduction to the BANNING design automation system for shuttle microelectronic hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrady, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The BANNING MOS design system is presented. It complements rather than supplant the normal design activities associated with the design and fabrication of low-power digital electronic equipment. BANNING is user-oriented and requires no programming experience to use effectively. It provides the user a simulation capability to aid in his circuit design and it eliminates most of the manual operations involved in the layout and artwork generation of integrated circuits. An example of its operation is given and some additional background reading is provided.

  7. Banning Ads from Prime-Time State TV: Lessons from France

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Filistrucchi; Andrea Mangani; Luigi Luini

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the advertising ban on French public television, which came into effect on the 5th of January 2009. The ban forbids commercial advertising on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00. By using a difference-in-difference approach we show that advertising which was previously broadcasted on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00 did not switch to private channels in the same time slot (nor did the price per second in that time slot on private channels rise). Rather adverti...

  8. Trade law and alcohol regulation: what role for a global Alcohol Marketing Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew D; Casben, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Following calls for restrictions and bans on alcohol advertising, and in light of the tobacco industry's challenge to Australia's tobacco plain packaging measure, a tobacco control measure finding support in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper considers what role, if any, an international alcohol marketing code might have in preventing or reducing the risk of challenges to domestic alcohol marketing restrictions under trade rules. Narrative review of international trade and health instruments and international trade court judgements regarding alcohol products and marketing restrictions. The experience of European trade courts in the litigation of similar measures suggests that World Trade Organization rules have sufficient flexibility to support the implementation of alcohol marketing restrictions. However, the experience also highlights the possibility that public health measures have disproportionate and unjustifiable trade effects and that the ability of a public health measure to withstand a challenge under trade rules will turn on its particular design and implementation. Measures implemented pursuant to international public health instruments are not immune to trade law challenges. Close collaboration between health policymakers, trade officials and lawyers, from as early as the research stage in the development of a measure to ensure a robust evidence base, will ensure the best chance of regulatory survival for an international marketing code. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Opioid antagonists for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, Susanne; Hackl-Herrwerth, Andrea; Leucht, Stefan; Vecchi, Simona; Srisurapanont, Manit; Soyka, Michael

    2010-12-08

    Alcohol dependence belongs to the globally leading health risk factors. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate and could be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene. To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL in January 2010 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compare the effects of naltrexone or nalmefene with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. Two authors independently extracted outcome data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Based on a total of 50 RCTs with 7793 patients, naltrexone reduced the risk of heavy drinking to 83% of the risk in the placebo group RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.90) and decreased drinking days by about 4%, MD -3.89 (95% CI -5.75 to -2.04). Significant effects were also demonstrated for the secondary outcomes of the review including heavy drinking days, MD - 3.25 (95% CI -5.51 to -0.99), consumed amount of alcohol, MD - 10.83 (95% CI -19.69 to -1.97) and gamma-glutamyltransferase, MD - 10.37 (95% CI -18.99 to -1.75), while effects on return to any drinking, RR 0.96 (95 CI 0.92 to 1.00) missed statistical significance. Side effects of naltrexone were mainly gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea: RD 0.10; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.13) and sedative effects (e.g. daytime sleepiness: RD 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14). Based on a limited study sample, effects of injectable naltrexone and nalmefene missed statistical significance. Effects of industry-sponsored studies, RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.05) did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials, RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91) and the linear regression test did not indicate publication

  10. Evaluation of view to women’s health and gender in television channels’ daytime programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Etiler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Daytime programmes in television channels generally target women by considering several topics including health which are points of interests for women. In this study, we studied the contents of the daytime programmes of TV channels to women’s health and gender problems and to determine the transmitted knowledge. Methods: This descriptive study applied qualitative assessment to daytime programmes in TV channels showing during May-June 2013. 11 channels which have daytime programmes about women and health, A total of 22 sessions were included in the study where 18 were health and 4 were general women programmes in 11 channels which have daytime programmes. Results: The most discussed issues are about slimming and healthy nutrition and beauty issues in those programmes. Women’s reproductive health issues (labour, menopause etc. or their musculoskeletal disorders were rarely discussed. In the discussions, gender roles of women are presented with many hidden messages. In addition, we found that women were treated as consumers with advertising of many items from health care to several materials including shoes sole and cooker pots. Conclusion: These kinds of programmes are functioning to reproduce existing gender roles in Turkey where the gender gap is already deep. The health topics discussed do not overlap with women’s health problems our society’s health problems were densely presented with beauty and esthetic contents. However these programmes could be used both as a tool in women’s health promotion and as an intervention to decrease the gender gap in our society, a gap that is increasing gradually. There is a necessity that relevant institutions of the government should plan and control these issues.

  11. Sleep and daytime function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Young Rosalia; Jain, Umesh Ravi; Shapiro, Colin Michael

    2013-07-01

    Although sleep disorders have been reported to affect more than half of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the association between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood. The aims of our study were to investigate sleep-related variables in adults with ADHD and to assess if any differences exist between ADHD of the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. We used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the fatigue severity scale (FSS) to collect data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue in 126 subjects (45 ADHD-I and 81 ADHD-C subjects). Approximately 85% of subjects reported excessive daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality. The most common sleep concerns were initial insomnia, interrupted sleep, and feeling too hot. When examining ADHD subtype differences, ADHD-I subtypes reported poorer sleep quality and more fatigue than ADHD-C subtypes. Partial correlation analyses revealed that interrelationships between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue differ between ADHD subtypes; in ADHD-I subtypes fatigue was associated with sleep quality, while in the ADHD-C subtypes fatigue was associated with both sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. There also appears to be a subtype×gender interaction that affects the perception of fatigue, as subjective fatigue was markedly higher in ADHD-I women than in ADHD-C women. Altogether our data indicate that the interplay of variables associated with daytime function and sleep varies between ADHD subtypes. This finding may have considerable relevance in the management and pathophysiologic understanding of ADHD, and thus lead to tailored treatments for ADHD subtypes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of energy: an important and distinct component of HIV-related fatigue and daytime function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerat, Bradley E; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners; Portillo, Carmen J; Lee, Kathryn A

    2013-02-01

    Fatigue is a prevalent symptom among adults living with HIV. There is increasing evidence that fatigue and energy are related, yet distinct constructs. Although HIV-related fatigue has been well studied, little is known about perceived energy and how it relates to fatigue, individual characteristics, and other symptoms. To describe the experience of perceived energy in adults with HIV and evaluate its relationship to demographic and clinical characteristics as well as symptoms of fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and daytime function. The design was descriptive, comparative, and correlational. The sample of 318 adults with HIV completed a demographic questionnaire; the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale; and measures of fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and daytime function. Medical records were reviewed for disease and treatment data. Participants who reported a lack of energy were compared with those who did not on demographic, clinical, and symptom variables. Regression models of perceived energy and its interference with daytime function also were evaluated. Perceived lack of energy was highly prevalent (65%) and more strongly related to interference with daytime function than more general measures of fatigue severity, even when controlling for other characteristics and symptoms. Like other aspects of fatigue, lack of energy was associated with sleep disturbance, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Lack of energy was more strongly related to morning fatigue than to evening fatigue. Lack of energy interferes with daytime function and is not just the inverse of fatigue but a distinct perception that differs from fatigue. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Daytime Sleepiness, Circadian Preference, Caffeine Consumption and Use of Other Stimulants among Thai College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jason; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence of daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype, and to assess the extent to which both are associated with the use of caffeinated stimulants among 3,000 Thai college students. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire were used to evaluate prevalence of daytime sleepiness and circadian preference. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between sleep disorders and consumption of caffeinated beverages. Overall, the prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 27.9 % (95% CI: 26.2-29.5%) while the prevalence of evening chronotype was 13% (95% CI: 11.8-14.2%). Students who use energy drinks were more likely to be evening types. For instance, the use of M100/M150 energy drinks was associated with a more than 3-fold increased odds of evening chronotype (OR 3.50; 95% CI 1.90-6.44), while Red Bull users were more than twice as likely to have evening chronotype (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.02-5.58). Additionally, those who consumed any energy drinks were more likely to be daytime sleepers. For example, Red Bull (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.08-2.75) or M100/M150 (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.10-2.11) consumption was associated with increased odds of daytime sleepiness. Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing educational and prevention programs targeted toward improving sleep hygiene and reducing the consumption of energy drinks among young adults.

  14. Alcohol Related Disorders in Asia Pacific Region: Prevalence, Health Consequences and Impacts on the Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Asia Pacific (AP region, the exact picture of the alcohol use problems has remained relatively obscure. In this study, the profile of alcohol consumption and alcohol related disorders in AP countries are presented.     Methods: Official statistics on average alcohol consumption (alcohol per capita consumption, APC, alcohol related health variables, income group and alcohol policy of countries geographically related to Asia and Oceania continents were extracted from the 2014 edition of World Health Organization report on global status of alcohol and health. Results: The data of 57 AP countries were analyzed. Two-third of the countries did not establish comprehensive national monitoring systems (NMSs. Median of total APC in people aged 15 years and older was 2.4 (1-4.6 L during 2003 to 2005, while this indicator was 2.8 (1-5.5 L during 2008 to 2010 which accounts for about 0.4 L (in median increase in consumption. In 13 countries which were mostly located in South-east Asia and the Pacific region, APC was higher than average global consumption. Comparing the countries with and without total ban policy, the countries with total ban policy had significantly lower APC (P = 0.003, higher rate of abstainers (P = 0.002 and lower rate of alcohol related disorders (P < 0.001. Higher APC and higher rates of alcohol related disorders were observed in higher income countries. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in AP region is comparatively lower than global average. However, the status of some countries in Southeast Asia and Pacific region is alarming and needs serious attention. Moreover, establishment of comprehensive NMSs, proper data registry and holistic harm reduction and rehabilitation programs for users should receive meaningful governmental and public support.

  15. The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that underlie the ban on off-label promotion, however, reveals that Congress was concerned that physicians were responding rationally to false and misleading promotional claims. In this Article, I explore the doctrinal questions raised by conceiving of the ban on off-label promotion not as a ban on "truthful speech to physicians" but instead as a prophylaxis against false and misleading pharmaceutical promotion. I review the evidence that false and misleading claims were commonplace before the ban's adoption and persist today, along with the enforcement challenges the FDA confronted at that time and would confront were the ban lifted, and conclude the government likely could develop the factual record necessary to establish that Congress' rejection of an after-the-fact case-by-case approach to combating false and misleading prescription drug promotion is constitutional.

  16. Substance abuse treatment counselors and tobacco use: a comparison of comprehensive and indoor-only workplace smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Boyd, Sara E; Studts, Jamie L

    2010-11-01

    While indoor smoking bans reduce employee tobacco use, less is known about whether comprehensive bans, which prohibit smoking in both indoor and outdoor areas, are associated with lower rates of tobacco use than indoor-only bans. This study integrated data collected via mailed surveys from 1,910 substance abuse treatment counselors and telephone interviews with 417 administrators of substance abuse treatment organizations. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between counselors' self-reported tobacco use and administrators' reports about organizational smoking bans while controlling for counselors' professional and demographic characteristics. In this sample, 20.3% of counselors were current tobacco users, 47.7% identified as former users, and 32.0% reported never using tobacco products. Only 19.5% of counselors worked in a treatment organization that had a comprehensive smoking ban. The likelihood of being a current tobacco user, compared with being a former user or nonuser, was significantly lower for counselors in organizations with comprehensive bans even after controlling for professional and demographic characteristics. Although relatively few substance abuse counselors worked in treatment organizations with comprehensive bans, such bans may represent a promising direction for tobacco control. Given recent research documenting how tobacco use is negatively associated with the delivery of smoking cessation services by health care workers, additional research on the impact of comprehensive environmental tobacco policies is needed.

  17. 78 FR 78349 - Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL14-15-000; ER13-2412-000 (Not consolidated)] Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay... 385.212 (2013), the Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, and Riverside, CA...

  18. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  19. Does the workplace-smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Tan, Frans E S; Willemsen, Marc C; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-01

    A workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands was introduced on January 1, 2004. Before the ban male and low educated employees were at higher risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Effective implementation of the ban should result not only in an overall decline of exposure, but also in the disappearance of systematic differences in exposure between subgroups of employees. Data from a Dutch continuous Internet survey were used. From July 2003 through June 2005, 200 respondents were randomly selected each week. The sample consisted of 11,291 non-smoking, working respondents, aged 16-65 years. ETS exposure decreased among all employees and among subgroups at higher risk before the ban. However, also after the ban, males and low educated employees were still most likely to be exposed to ETS. The workplace-smoking ban was effective in reducing ETS exposure among employees. However, after the ban still 52.2% of non-smoking workers reported to be exposed. We did not find the expected stronger effect among employees who were at higher risk. Both before and after implementation of the ban, males and lower educated employees were about two times more likely to be exposed to ETS.

  20. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  1. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Järvholm; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the

  2. The illusion of righteousness: corporate social responsibility practices of the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2013-07-03

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an integral element of how the alcohol industry promotes itself. The existing analyses of CSR in the alcohol industry point to the misleading nature of these CSR practices. Yet, research has been relatively sparse on how the alcohol industry advances CSR in an attempt to facilitate underlying business interests, and in what ways the ongoing display of industry CSR impacts public health. This paper aims to investigate the alcohol industry's recent CSR engagements and explain how CSR forms part of the industry's wider political and corporate strategies. Our study used qualitative methods to collect and analyse data. We searched for materials pertaining to CSR activities from websites of three transnational alcohol corporations, social media platforms, media reports and other sources. Relevant documents were thematically analysed with an iterative approach. Our analysis identified three CSR tactics employed by the alcohol companies which are closely tied in with the industry's underlying corporate intents. First, the alcohol manufacturers employ CSR as a means to frame issues, define problems and guide policy debates. In doing this, the alcohol companies are able to deflect and shift the blame from those who manufacture and promote alcoholic products to those who consume them. Second, the alcohol corporations promote CSR initiatives on voluntary regulation in order to delay and offset alcohol control legislation. Third, the alcohol corporations undertake philanthropic sponsorships as a means of indirect brand marketing as well as gaining preferential access to emerging alcohol markets. The increasing penetration and involvement of the alcohol industry into CSR highlights the urgent needs for public health counter actions. Implementation of any alcohol control measures should include banning or restricting the publicity efforts of the industry's CSR and informing the public of the alcohol industry's notion of social

  3. Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Several options are advocated by policy experts to mitigate alcohol-related harms, although the most effective strategies often have the least public support. While knowledge of tobacco-related health risks predicts support for relevant public health measures, it is not known whether knowledge of alcohol health risks is similarly associated with the acceptability of policies intended to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. This study aims to gauge public support for a range of alcohol policies and to determine whether or not support is associated with knowledge of a long-term health risk of alcohol consumption, specifically cancer. 2482 adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, participated in an online survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between demographic data, alcohol consumption, smoking status, knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer and support for alcohol-related policies. Most participants were supportive of health warnings, restricting access to internet alcohol advertising to young people, and requiring information on national drinking guidelines on alcohol containers. Almost half of participants supported a ban on sport sponsorship, while less than 41% supported price increases, volumetric taxation, or reducing the number of retail outlets. Only 47% of participants identified drinking too much alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer was a significant predictor of support for all policies, while level of alcohol consumption had a significant inverse relationship with policy support. The finding that support for alcohol management policies is associated with awareness that drinking too much alcohol may contribute to cancer could assist in the planning of future public health interventions. Improving awareness of the long term health risks of alcohol consumption may be one avenue to increasing public support for effective alcohol harm-reduction policies

  4. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  5. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  6. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    although sales promotions affected stu- dents from Australia and Germany, Welsh students were more likely to purchase alcohol during promotions, because of their intention to take advantage of price discounts. In the Philippines, Swahn et al. (2013) revealed that promotional ac- tivities offering free drinks to students.

  7. Sleep patterns and problems among early adolescents: Associations with alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-03-01

    Sleep and sleep-related problems are associated with alcohol use and related problems among adults. However, existing research on associations between sleep and alcohol use among early adolescents is minimal, and potential individual and family factors that may affect this association remain largely unexplored. We examined potential associations between frequency of alcohol use and initial insomnia, subjective daytime sleepiness, sleep irregularity, and disturbed sleep among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of early adolescents; we also considered whether psychopathology symptoms and/or parental monitoring accounted for any associations found. 127 youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (64 male; mean age=13.2; 71% Hispanic, 32% African-American) were assessed using self-report measures of sleep, alcohol use, psychopathology symptoms (depressive and conduct disorder), and parental monitoring; in addition, teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were used. Initial insomnia and daytime sleepiness (but not sleep irregularity or disturbed sleep) were associated with frequency of alcohol use. The association between initial insomnia and alcohol use remained significant when each form of psychopathology and parental monitoring were adjusted for. Among early adolescents, frequency of alcohol use is associated with initial insomnia, even once symptoms of psychopathology and family environment (parental monitoring) are adjusted for. Longitudinal research investigating the direction of this effect and other possible mediators and moderators would be useful in developing preventative and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  9. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  10. Three years of banning neonicotinoid insecticides based on sub-lethal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Steen, van der Sjef

    2017-01-01

    The 2013 EU ban of three neonicotinoids used in seed coating of pollinator attractive crops was put in place because of concern about declining wild pollinator populations and numbers of honeybee colonies. It was also concluded that there is an urgent need for good field data to fill knowledge gaps.

  11. Chiqui-traca-ban-tau: Movements and Creativity Expression without Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar-Vega, Vilmarie; Kozub, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Chiqui-traca-ban-tau is a creative dance activity that can be enjoyed by a wide range of children. It is also a game that provides teachers with a physical activity option that promotes higher-order thinking and remembering skills necessary to support learning in the Common Core. The game involves each child taking a turn leading a four-beat…

  12. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    OpenAIRE

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well.

  13. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  14. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  15. The ban on blood donation on men who have sex with men: time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 1980s the HIV/AIDS epidemic outbreak occurred. Due to the high prevalence of the disease on men who had sex with men (MSM) a lifetime ban on blood donations on men who had sex with men (MSM) was implemented. In the recent years, organizations like the European Union (EU) and the World Health ...

  16. H:\\PMKER 25(2)\\PDF 25(2)\\BAN KOFFI.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    159. Fermentations et qualité marchande des fèves de cacao. IMPACTS DE LA FERMENTATION DU CACAO. SUR LA CROISSANCE DE LA FLORE MICROBIENNE. ET LA QUALITE DES FEVES MARCHANDES. L. BAN KOFFI1, G. H. OUATTARA2, T. G. KAROU1-2, S. TAGRO GUEHI3, J. G. NEMLIN1 et J. K. DIOPOH2.

  17. 16 CFR 1305.4 - Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial fireplace ash and embers as... RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1305.4 Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products. On... mesothelioma to the public, artificial fireplace ash and embers containings respirable free-form asbestos are...

  18. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Esther N; Chaloupka, Milani; Heymans, Johanna J; Skilleter, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS) modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1) gradual reduction, or 2) an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i) modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii) increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii) modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  19. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...

  20. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  2. 75 FR 60264 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving... to prevent the unsafe practice of text messaging by Federal contractors while driving in connection...

  3. 76 FR 39240 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... Executive Order (E.O.) 13513, dated October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text..., entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving.'' The rule requires Government...

  4. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Jong, de J.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Tserendorj, E.; Sodnomdarjaa, R.; Cannavan, A.; Elloitt, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European

  5. 75 FR 76461 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0548; FRL-8852-8] Petition for a Ban on Triclosan... to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an antimicrobial substance used in pesticide products, hand... widespread use'' of triclosan poses significant risks to human health and the environment. In addition, the...

  6. 76 FR 5808 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0548; FRL-8863-6] Petition for a Ban on Triclosan... authority under various statutes to regulate triclosan. In a letter to the EPA dated January 22, 2011... various statutes to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an antimicrobial substance used in pesticide products...

  7. Crash testing and evaluation of TxDOT burn ban signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Texas counties expressed a desire to the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to post : advisory signs on the roadside to alert motorists when a burn ban is in effect. For obvious economic reasons, : the preferred method of implementation is to...

  8. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan, M E; DeFries, R S; Sesnie, S E; Arroyo, J P; Soto, C; Walker, W; Chazdon, R L; Sanchun, A

    2013-01-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  9. Do option markets undo restrictions on short sales? Evidence from the 2008 short-sale ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundy, B.D.; Lim, B.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of any sanction depends on the costs of avoiding its restrictions. We examine whether bearish option strategies were substitutes for short sales during the September 2008 short-sale ban. We find a significant diminution in option volumes and a significant increase in option bid-ask

  10. SISTEM INFORMASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFOKAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ainul Yaqin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Standar sarana dan prasarana adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.2. Pengelolaan sarana dan prasarana sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data-data usulan pengadaan, penerimaan, distribusi, penggunaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.2. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci : standar 6.2. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  11. The ban on reprocessing as seen from the perspective of European law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanenburg, E.; Warg, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plan of the German federal government to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power for electricity generation initially was to incorporate also a ban on reprocessing spent fuel elements. On February 22, 1999, Federal Minister for the Environment Trittin finally announced that his revised draft for the time being would contain no ban on reprocessing. That ban, as originally planned, raises a number of issues of European law which are analyzed in the article by Hanenburg and Warg, especially the question whether the ban on reprocessing constitutes a violation of the principles and objectives of the Common Market. The legal principles underlying the Common Market, especially the Euratom Treaty among the member countries, constitute the basis of the analysis in which, inter alia, aspects such as cross-border reprocessing and secondary European law or the legal consequences of the Euratom Treaty for the opting-out policy of the German federal government are dealt with. The analysis arrives at the finding that a final opt-out as planned by the German federal government in the amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, and the complete substitution of nuclear electricity by other sources of energy, violate the purpose of the Euratom Treaty at least to keep open the structural possibility of generating electricity by nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  12. Performance-Enhancing Drugs I: Understanding the Basics of Testing for Banned Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Amy B; Murray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.

  13. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  14. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther N Fondo

    Full Text Available Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1 gradual reduction, or 2 an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  15. Job satisfaction and attitudes of restaurant staff regarding the smoking ban – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudevit Pranić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While extant research on the impacts of smoke-free legislation on hospitality employees and industries has centered on developed countries, the research on the effects of smoking bans in transition countries has received very little attention. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research empirically explores the relationships among restaurant employees’ attitudes, demographics, work-related variables (WRV, and job satisfaction after the introduction of a smoke-free legislation in one transition economy, i.e. Croatia. Results revealed that gender, education, age, restaurant seating allocation, hospitality work experience, smoking status, average weekly workload, and the restaurant area served were for the most part not significant in explaining different perceptions toward a smoking ban. However, the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy somewhat influenced how respondents view the smoking ban. In terms of the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy, results revealed no significant differences in regards to demographics and WRV. With regard to job satisfaction, staff with more positive post-implementation attitudes towards the ban exhibit somewhat higher levels of satisfaction with the current job. Overall, respondents appear willing to make concessions for both pro- and anti-smoking patrons, staff, and owners/managers. Therefore, lawmakers should consider population characteristics, seating allocation, and the combination thereof when devising restaurant smoking policies.

  16. 75 FR 67386 - Policy for Banning of Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard announces release of policy letter 10-03, Banning of Foreign Vessels. This policy letter outlines U.S. Coast Guard procedures for denying entry of certain foreign flagged...

  17. Transnational Dynamics Amid Poor Regulations: Taiwan’s Asbestos Ban Actions and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Yi-Jui Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban. Correlation between asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases has already been established; however, authorities have been unable to effectively regulate the extensive application of asbestos in various light industries that support economic growth since the 1960s. More stringent regulations on asbestos use in industries and an eventual ban were caused indirectly by appeals made by visionary scholars and healthcare professionals but also due to the subsidence of asbestos-related industries. With the elucidation of factors that affect asbestos regulation and ban, a thorough long-term healthcare plan for the neglected victims of asbestos-related diseases and upstream measures for policy change must be developed.

  18. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. 1500.85 Section 1500.85 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... line, are unstable and fail to operate in a guided fashion so that they will not strike the operator or...

  19. Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Chada, Daniel; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Cardinali, Daniel; Bergna, Miguel A; Fernández-Acquier, Mariano; Larrateguy, Luis; Zabert, Gustavo E; Drake, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    Inadequate sleep and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can impair learning skills. Questionnaires used to evaluate sleepiness in adults are usually inadequate for adolescents. We conducted a study to evaluate the performance of a Spanish version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to assess the impact of sleepiness and SDB on academic performance. A cross-sectional survey of students from 7 schools in 4 cities of Argentina. A questionnaire with a Spanish version of the PDSS was used. Questions on the occurrence of snoring and witnessed apneas were answered by the parents. Mathematics and language grades were used as indicators of academic performance. The sample included 2,884 students (50% males; age: 13.3 +/- 1.5 years) Response rate was 85%; 678 cases were excluded due to missing data. Half the students slept sleep habits. Insufficient hours of sleep were prevalent in this population. The Spanish version of the PDSS was a reliable tool in middle-school-aged children. Reports of snoring or witnessed apneas and daytime sleepiness as measured by PDSS were independent predictors of poor academic performance.

  20. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  1. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-15

    Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Canadian municipalities based on level of policy innovation and nature of their adopted bylaw banning fast food drive-through services. A multiple case history methodology was utilized to identify and analyse eligible municipal bylaws, and included development of a chronological timeline and map of adopter municipalities within Canada. Grey literature and policy databases were searched for potential adopters of municipal fast food drive-through service bylaws. Adopters were confirmed through evidence of current municipal bylaws. Geographic diffusion and diffusion of innovations theories provided a contextual framework for analysis of bylaw documents. Analysis included assignment of adopter-types, extent and purpose of bans, and policy learning activities of each adopter municipality. From 2002 to 2016, 27 municipalities were identified as adopters: six innovators and twenty-one early adopters. Mapping revealed parallel geographic diffusion patterns in western and eastern Canada. Twenty-two municipalities adopted a partial ban and five adopted a full ban. Rationales for the drive-through bans included health promotion, environmental concerns from idling, community character and aesthetics, traffic concerns, and walkability. Policy learning, including research and consultation with other municipalities, was performed by nine early adopters. This study detailed the adoption of

  2. Complying with the smoking ban by students before and after introducing legislative intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rzeźnicki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.

  3. PELAKSANAAN PEMBANGUNAN BERTERASKAN ISLAM: KAJIAN KES KOMUNITI ISLAM BAN NUA, HATYAI, THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohd Shukri Hanapi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ban Nua Muslim community is a Muslim community that is smack in themiddle of the non-Muslim community (Buddhist in Hatyai, Thailand. Althoughthey are a small community and are is such a predicament, they are still able toimplement Islamic-based development (IbD. In other words, they are able todevelop an Islamic community complete with numerous infrastructures such as amosque, not only as a place for prayer but it has a clinic, a library, a conferencehall, a cooperative and a Zakat Centre (Baitul Zakat. Besides that, this Islamiccommunity has a school that adheres to the Islamic education system. They notonly have worked hard to develop the physical aspects but also the spiritualaspects. The physical aspects were developed through general religious servitudesuch as employment, seeking knowledge, stimulating the community’s economy, business and homestay services, while the spiritual aspects were developed through specific religious servitudes such as prayers, fasting, running the Zakat Centre, reciting the al-Qur’an, devotional recitations (zikr and giving alms (sadaqah. The question is what tasawwur (worldview was used to design their development? and how was the tasawwur formed? To answer both thesequestions, this article has two objectives. First, to identify the tasawwur that has designed the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community; and second, to analyse the developmental worldview of the Ban Nua Islamic community. Thefindings from the qualitative research had found that the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was designed according to altasawwur al-Islamiy (Islamic worldview. It has three main elements such asibadah (religious servitude, imarah (general or social leadership and khalifah(religious leadership. Based on this tasawwur the development of the Ban NuaIslamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was implemented.

  4. The tobacco sales ban and tobacco purchases by adolescents: a general population study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.

  5. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Poor actigraphic and self-reported sleep patterns predict delinquency and daytime impairment among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; Cuellar, Crystal R; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate associations between actigraphic sleep patterns, subjective sleep quality, and daytime functioning (ie, sleepiness, symptoms of depression, and delinquency and other conduct problems) in at-risk adolescents. Prospective, observational cohort study. Providence, RI, predominantly home and school and 2 visits to the Brown Center for the Study of Children at Risk. A diverse group of low-income 13-year-olds (n = 49) with and without prenatal drug exposure. None. Actigraphy, sleep diaries, and sleep and health questionnaires. Above and beyond the effects of prenatal drug exposure and postnatal adversity, actigraphic daytime sleep was a significant predictor of daytime sleepiness and delinquency. Subjective sleep quality was a significant predictor of daytime sleepiness, delinquency, and depressive symptoms. Later bed times predicted increased delinquency. There was a unique effect of actigraphic daytime sleep duration, subjective nighttime sleep quality, and bedtime on daytime functioning (ie, sleepiness, symptoms of depression, and delinquency and other conduct problems) of at-risk adolescents. In these vulnerable youth, these problematic sleep patterns may contribute to feeling and behaving poorly. Intervention studies with at-risk teens should be conducted to further explore the role of these sleep parameters on daytime functioning. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An exploratory study of sleep quality, daytime function, and quality of life in patients with mechanical circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus M; Brewer, Robert J; Smith, Cheryl; Davis, Jean E

    2012-07-01

    To identify and describe: (1) characteristics of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life (QOL) pre and post implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD); (2) changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and QOL at baseline and 6 months post implant; and (3) relationships among the sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and QOL variables. We employed an exploratory research design. Fifteen patients with continuous/non-pulsatile flow LVAD consented to partake in the study. However, only 12 patients completed the baseline and 6-month post-LVAD implant data. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) to measure study variables. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 19.0 software. Patients reported worse sleep quality accompanied by daytime sleepiness particularly at baseline, and persisting up to 6 months post LVAD implant. A significant improvement in QOL was observed at 6 months post implant, but remained at poor levels. Correlations among sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction components of PSQI and global daytime sleepiness (ESS) with QOL were strong (Pearson's correlations r >.60; p values sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and QOL in patients with LVADs. Our findings offer beginning evidence about the sleep-QOL connection in this population which warrants attention in clinical practice and research. Further research is required to clearly elucidate these phenomena in patients with mechanical circulatory support and other implantable artificial organs.

  8. Effects of caffeine on daytime recovery sleep: A double challenge to the sleep-wake cycle in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Julie; Paquet, Jean; Fernandez-Bolanos, Marta; Girouard, Laurence; Roy, Joanie; Selmaoui, Brahim; Filipini, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant to counteract the effects of sleepiness, but it also produces important detrimental effects on subsequent sleep, especially when sleep is initiated at a time when the biological clock sends a strong waking signal such as during daytime. This study compares the effects of caffeine on daytime recovery sleep in young (20-30 y.) and middle-aged subjects (45-60 y.). Subjects participated in both caffeine (200mg) and placebo conditions (double-blind cross-over design), spaced one month apart. For each condition, subjects initially came to the laboratory for a nocturnal sleep episode. Daytime recovery sleep started in the morning after 25h of wakefulness. Subjects were administered either one caffeine (100mg) or placebo capsule three hours before daytime recovery sleep and the remaining dose one hour before daytime recovery sleep. Middle-aged subjects showed greater decrements of sleep duration and sleep efficiency than young subjects during daytime recovery under placebo compared to nocturnal sleep. Caffeine decreased sleep efficiency, sleep duration, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep during daytime recovery sleep similarly in both age groups. Caffeine also reduced N-REM sleep EEG synchronization during daytime recovery sleep (reduced delta, theta, and alpha power, and greater beta power). The combined influence of age and caffeine made the sleep of middle-aged subjects particularly vulnerable to the circadian waking signal. We propose that lower brain synchronization due to age and caffeine produces greater difficulty in overriding the circadian waking signal during daytime sleep and leads to fragmented sleep. These results have implications for the high proportion of the population using caffeine to cope with night work and jet lag, particularly the middle-aged.

  9. The evolution of U.S. temperance movements since repeal: a comparison of two campaigns to control alcoholic beverage marketing, 1950s and 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the politics of a failed religious movement to ban alcohol advertising in the 1950s with the politics of a more secular, and partially successful, movement to regulate alcohol marketing in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the contexts of the two marketing control movements were quite different, the continuities were equally striking. Both employed arguments about youth, social order, and the power of mass media.

  10. Daytime Sleepiness in Men During Early Fatherhood: Implications for Work Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Gary; Van Vorst, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    This study measured the daytime sleepiness (DS) and work safety of fathers during the first 12 weeks of their babies' lives (i.e., early fatherhood). A questionnaire was developed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Safety Behaviour at Work Scale, a self-reported sleep history, and a work-related incident history. Of the 221 participants, the vast majority reported they experienced less than 6 hours of interrupted sleep per night during the 12 weeks of the study, and an increasing frequency and severity of DS. The study also revealed an inverse correlation between ESS and Safety Behaviour at Work scores; fathers were 14% more likely to report a near-miss accident at work at 12 weeks. This study posits that antenatal classes and assessment of fathers' sleepiness at work by occupational health practitioners could assist fathers in reducing daytime sleepiness and mitigating the risk of workplace incidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Typical disturbances of the daytime equatorial F region observed with a high-resolution HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blanc

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available HF radar measurements were performed near the magnetic equator in Africa (Korhogo 9°24'63''N–5°37'38''W during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (1993–1994. The HF radar is a high-resolution zenithal radar. It gives ionograms, Doppler spectra and echo parameters at several frequencies simultaneously. This paper presents a comparative study of the daytime ionospheric structures observed during 3 days selected as representative of different magnetic conditions, given by magnetometer measurements. Broad Doppler spectra, large echo width, and amplitude fluctuations revealed small-scale instability processes up to the F-region peak. The height variations measured at different altitudes showed gravity waves and larger-scale disturbances related to solar daytime influence and equatorial electric fields. The possibility of retrieving the ionospheric electric fields from these Doppler or height variation measurements in the presence of the other possible equatorial ionospheric disturbances is discussed.

  12. A Case Study of Chemical Characteristics of Daytime and Nighttime Ambient Particles in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshu Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient daytime and nighttime PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and TSP (the total suspended particulates samples were collected at two sites (named Pudong and Jinshan in Shanghai. The concentrations of PM2.5 and TSP were lower at Pudong than at Jinshan. Higher PM2.5 and TSP concentrations were observed during daytime than nighttime for both sites. Carbonaceous aerosol and secondary sulfate were the most abundant components. Larger enrichment factor (EFs of Zn, Pb, Cl, and S for Jinshan nighttime were observed than for other sampling periods. PM2.5 showed higher relative spatial uniformity (the coefficients of divergence, COD = 0.18 than TSP (COD = 0.23 during the sampling period. The variations of chemical components and the species ratios showed that the contributions of primary particulate emissions in Jinshan (industrial zone were more significant than in Pudong (residential zone.

  13. Effect of adjunctive perampanel on the quality of sleep and daytime somnolence in patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat González-Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective uncontrolled study evaluated the effect of low-dose adjunctive perampanel therapy (4 mg/day for 3 months on the sleep-wake cycle and daytime somnolence in adult patients (n = 10 with focal seizures. A >50% reduction in the number of seizures was reported in 80% of the study patients; treatment had no significant effect on any sleep parameters as evident by the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores. Two patients reported dizziness with treatment. In conclusion, low-dose perampanel may improve seizure control without affecting the sleep characteristics or daytime somnolence in patients with epilepsy.

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  15. Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the e...

  16. Dissociations among daytime sleepiness, nighttime sleep, and cognitive status in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Ghode, Reena A; Ouyang, Bichun; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2013-09-01

    Daytime and nighttime sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the interdependence of these non-motor complications. Thus, we examined the relationships among excessive daytime sleepiness, nighttime sleep quality and cognitive impairment in PD, including severity and specific cognitive deficits. Ninety-three PD patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients were classified as having normal cognition (PD-NC), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), or dementia (PDD) using recently proposed Movement Disorder Society PD-MCI and PDD criteria. Relationships between the sleep and cognitive measures and PD cognitive groups were examined. The PD cohort included PD-NC (n = 28), PD-MCI (n = 40), and PDD (n = 25) patients. ESS scores, as a measure of daytime sleepiness, were significantly worse (p = 0.005) in cognitively impaired PD patients, particularly PDD patients. ESS scores correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and also with cognitive domain scores for attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial function. In contrast, PSQI scores, as a measure of nighttime sleep quality, neither differed among cognitive groups nor correlated with any cognitive measures. Daytime sleepiness in PD, but not nighttime sleep problems, is associated with cognitive impairment in PD, especially in the setting of dementia, and attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial deficits. The presence of nighttime sleep problems is pervasive across the PD cognitive spectrum, from normal cognition to dementia, and is not independently associated with cognitive impairment or deficits in cognitive domains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  18. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  19. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yuet Ying Lau

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40 or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40 between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression, which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits, this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  20. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  1. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous...

  2. Circadian rhythm characteristics, poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and common psychiatric disorders among Thai college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Alazar; Gelaye, Bizu; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between common psychiatric disorders (CPDs) and sleep characteristics (evening chronotype, poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness) among Thai college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,970 undergraduate students in Thailand. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to evaluate circadian preference, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to evaluate presence of CPDs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CPDs in relation to the covariates of interest. A total of 337 students were classified as having CPDs (11.2%; 95% CI 10.1-12.3%). Evening chronotype (OR = 3.35; 95% CI 2.09-5.37), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.89; 95% CI 3.66-6.54) and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.54-2.47) were statistically significantly associated with CPDs. Our study demonstrated that CPDs are common among Thai college students. Further, evening chronotype, poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness were strongly associated with increased risk of CPDs. These findings highlight the importance of educating students and school administrators about the importance of sleep and their impact on mental health. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Daytime sleepiness and EEG abnormalities in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Lukasz; Jernajczyk, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Waliniowska, Elżbieta; Jakubczyk, Tomasz; Jarema, Marek; Wichniak, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether or not an increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or EEG abnormalities is observed in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and to compare the effects of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) on patients' daytime sleepiness level and EEG recordings. EEG recordings and self-reports of EDS, assessed with Epworth (ESS) and Stanford (SSS) Sleepiness Scales, were compared between 244 patients with SSD and 82 patients with anxiety, personality or behavioral disorders (non-psychotic disorders, NPD). To examine the effects of various SGA, patients treated in monotherapy with aripiprazole, olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone and sertindole were compared. A higher prevalence of abnormal EEG recordings was observed in SSD patients. No significant differences in average daytime sleepiness were found between patients with SSD and NPD; however, patients with SSD had longer sleep duration. Aripiprazole treatment was associated with significantly smaller and less frequent EEG abnormalities than treatment with any other SGA, while treatment with clozapine and olanzapine was related to an increased prevalence of severe EEG abnormalities. Patients with SSD treated with SGA in monotherapy were less sleepy than unmedicated patients with NPD. Although antipsychotics may have profound effects on EEG patients with schizophrenia do not have higher daytime sleepiness than patients with anxiety/personality disorders. Patients with schizophrenia may compensate sedative effects of antipsychotic treatment with sleep duration prolongation and report even less sleepiness than non-psychotic patients. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Daytime sodium airglow emission measurements over Trivandrum using a scanning monochromator: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hossain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents measurement of daytime Sodium (Na airglow emissions at 589.6 nm wavelength using a ground based 1-m scanning monochromator from Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E, 0.5° N dip latitude, a near-equatorial station in India. The Na emission intensity exhibits significant temporal variability within a day and from one day to another. The Na intensity has been compared with the daytime OH airglow intensity at 731.6 nm simultaneously measured using the unique Multiwavelength Dayglow Photometer (MWDPM. The temporal variabilities of the Na and OH intensities corroborate each other in most of the occasions without any appreciable time delay, although a small time delay up to ~10 min has been observed at times. It appears that the variability of daytime Na emissions is influenced too by the photo-chemical excitations. The observed similarities in the Na and OH intensities are believed to be due to the similar roles played by [O] and O3 (in their photo-chemical excitations and the dynamics occurring at about the same altitude region (~90 km. It has also been found that the gravity waves play significant role in producing the short-scale oscillations in these emissions.

  5. Effect of CPAP therapy on daytime cardiovascular regulations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, T; Riedl, M; Gapelyuk, A; Suhrbier, A; Bretthauer, G; Malberg, H; Schöbel, C; Fietze, I; Heitmann, J; Kurths, J; Wessel, N

    2012-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder with a high prevalence that causes pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation during the night and also during daytime. We investigated whether the treatment of OSA at night by means of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves the daytime consequences. Twenty-eight patients with OSA, 18 with arterial hypertension, 10 with normal blood pressure, were investigated at baseline and with three months of CPAP treatment. Ten age and sex matched healthy control subjects were investigated for comparisons. We recorded a resting period with 20min quiet breathing and an exercise stress test during daytime with ECG and blood pressure (Portapres). The bicycle ergometry showed a significant reduction of the diastolic blood pressure at a work load of 50W and 100W (peffect of the CPAP therapy on the baroreflex reaction in hypertensive patients where influences of the systolic blood pressure on the heart rate changed from pathological patterns to adaptive mechanisms of the normotensive patients (p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Time for bed: parent-set bedtimes associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Wright, Helen; Lack, Leon C; Dohnt, Hayley; Carskadon, Mary A

    2011-06-01

    To determine the proportion of adolescents whose bedtime is set by their parents and to evaluate whether parent-set bedtimes are associated with earlier bedtimes, more sleep, and better daytime functioning. 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.6, SD = 0.95; 60% male) from 8 socioeconomically diverse schools in South Australia. Adolescents completed the School Sleep Habits Survey during class time and then completed an 8-day Sleep Diary. The Flinders Fatigue Scale was completed on the final day of the study. 17.5% of adolescents reported a parent-set bedtime as the main factor determining their bedtime on school nights. Compared to adolescents without parent-set bedtimes, those with parent-set bedtimes had earlier bedtimes, obtained more sleep, and experienced improved daytime wakefulness and less fatigue. They did not differ significantly in terms of time taken to fall asleep. When parent-set bedtimes were removed on weekends, sleep patterns did not significantly differ between groups. Significant personal and public health issues, such as depression and accidental injury and mortality, are associated with insufficient sleep. Converging biological and psychosocial factors mean that adolescence is a period of heightened risk. Parent-set bedtimes offer promise as a simple and easily translatable means for parents to improve the sleep and daytime functioning of their teens.

  7. Nocturnal loss and daytime source of nitrous acid through reactive uptake and displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboer, Trevor C.; Young, Cora J.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Murphy, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of daytime sources and night-time sinks of nitrous acid is a key uncertainty in understanding atmospheric oxidation and radical cycling. The accumulation of nitrous acid in the air has been observed to slow down during the night, implying the presence of a night-time sink. In addition, there may be a photochemical source of nitrous acid during the daytime. We used flow tube experiments, measurements of acid displacement efficiencies, and field monitoring of nitrous acid and nitrite concentrations to study the exchange of nitrous acid with soils. Here we show that nitrous acid can react with carbonates or soil at night and subsequently be displaced from soils during the day by air-to-soil transfer of hydrogen chloride and nitric acid, which are generated in the atmosphere photochemically. These processes provide a critical link between the sink of nitrous acid at night and its emission the following day. We conclude that the acid displacement process could contribute a substantial fraction of daytime nitrous acid emissions in numerous environments, including agricultural, urban and vegetated regions, and in any location subject to deposition of soil-derived mineral dust.

  8. Daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, eveningness chronotype, and common mental disorders among Chilean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep quality characteristics, CMDs, and other lifestyle behaviors. The prevalence of CMDs was 24.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [21.5%, 27.1%]) among all students. Prevalence estimates of both excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality were higher among females (35.4% and 54.4%) than males (22.0% and 45.8%). Cigarette smoking was statistically significantly and positively associated with having CMDs (p = .034). Excessive daytime sleepiness (odds ratio [OR] = 3.65; 95% CI [2.56, 4.91]) and poor sleep quality (OR = 4.76; 95% CI [3.11, 7.29]) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Given the adverse health consequences associated with both sleep disorders and CMDs, improving sleep hygiene among college students is imperative to public health.

  9. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  10. Which diagnostic findings in disorders with excessive daytime sleepiness are really helpful? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Ute; Werth, Esther; Sturzenegger, Christian; Khatami, Ramin; Bassetti, Claudio L; Baumann, Christian R

    2016-06-01

    Due to extensive clinical and electrophysiological overlaps, the correct diagnosis of disorders with excessive daytime sleepiness is often challenging. The aim of this study was to provide diagnostic measures that help discriminating such disorders, and to identify parameters, which don't. In this single-center study, we retrospectively identified consecutive treatment-naïve patients who suffered from excessive daytime sleepiness, and analyzed clinical and electrophysiological measures in those patients in whom a doubtless final diagnosis could be made. Of 588 patients, 287 reported subjective excessive daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea is the only disorder that could be identified by polysomnography alone. The diagnosis of insufficient sleep syndrome relies on actigraphy as patients underestimate their sleep need and the disorder shares several clinical and electrophysiological properties with both narcolepsy type 1 and idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep stage sequencing on MSLT appears helpful to discriminate between insufficient sleep syndrome and narcolepsy. Sleep inertia is a strong indicator for idiopathic hypersomnia. There are no distinctive electrophysiological findings for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Altogether, EDS disorders are common in neurological sleep laboratories, but usually cannot be diagnosed based on PSG and MSLT findings alone. The diagnostic value of actigraphy recordings can hardly be overestimated. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. The effect of narrowband 500 nm light on daytime sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth M; Gorman, Michael R; Mednick, Sara C

    2011-05-03

    Naps frequently take place during the daytime under some ambient light. People are commonly advised to wear eyeshades, or use black-out curtains while sleeping, as light is thought to inhibit sleep. Little is known, however, about how light during daytime sleep may affect the quality or architecture of that sleep. The present within-subjects design administered green narrowband light via light masks to 17 young adults (23.2 ± 4.7 years) during four 90-minute afternoon naps. Subjects were exposed to each of four light conditions that approximate the intensity of 1) physiological darkness (~0 lx), 2) moonlight (~1 lx), 3) typical indoor lighting (~80 lx) and 4) indirect outdoor light (~6400 lx). All subjects were able to sleep in all lighting conditions, with no differences in sleep quality or architecture. Power analysis revealed sufficient power to detect meaningful differences. Sleep inertia measured upon waking showed a general effect of the nap, independent of condition. Although light has various alerting effects at night, 500 nm LED light presented via light mask does not appear to inhibit daytime sleep. The finding that this light had no effect on the ability of individuals to fall asleep or stay asleep during an afternoon nap may inform decisions regarding the use of the nap as a facilitator of schedule adjustment, and challenges the assumption of light as a barrier to napping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [SLEEP QUALITY, EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS AND INSOMNIA IN CHILEAN PARALYMPIC ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Arroyo Jofre, Patricio; Varas Standen, Camila; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomas; Moya Cantillana, Cristobal; Pereira Robledo, Rodolfo; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    the sleep takes part in diverse biological and physiological functions, associating his restriction, with minor performance in the sport, nevertheless the quantity and quality of sleep is not known in paralympic athletes. to determine the sleep quality, insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness in Chilean paralympic athletes. descriptive transverse Study, the sample included 33 paralympic athletes (24.2% women), those who were practicing swimming, tennis of table, football 5, powerlifting and tennis chair. The studied variables measured up across two surveys of dream: the Questionnaire of Insomnia and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. the paralympic athletes sleep were 6.9 } 1.4 hours, 27.7% presents daytime sleepiness, 69.6 % insomnia (Survey of insomnia =7), whereas 78.7 % exhibits a bad sleep quality. The age showed a positive correlation with latency to the sleep (r=0.417 *), the insomnia with latency to the sleep (r=0.462 **), the Pittsburg score was correlated negatively by the sleep duration (r =-0.323) and latency to the sleep is correlated positively by the Pittsburgh score (r=0.603 **). the chilean paralympic athletes, present a low sleep quality, insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, situation that might influence negatively the sports performance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  14. Sonolência diurna excessiva em pré-vestibulandos Excessive daytime sleepiness in senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O sono é um fenômeno que interfere nos aspectos cognitivos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE em pré-vestibulandos de Campo Grande, MS. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 378 alunos com a escala de sonolência Epworth (ESE. As variáveis foram: sexo, uso esporádico de bebidas alcoólicas e fumo, relato de sinais e sintomas depressivos, renda familiar total dos membros do lar e idade. Foram empregados os testes qui-quadrado e de análise de variância. RESULTADOS: Em relação ao gênero, 50,3% eram homens e 49,7% mulheres; 39,2% ingeriam álcool; 6,6% fumavam e 33% já tinham tido depressão na vida. Entre os alunos, 55,8% tinham SDE, 5,3% eram indicativos de ter distúrbio respiratório ou síndrome da apnéia do sono. Foram detectadas associações entre as variáveis consumo de álcool e tabagismo, em relação à ESE. CONCLUSÕES: Foi alta a prevalência de SDE, sendo detectadas associações entre as variáveis uso esporádico de álcool e fumo, em relação à ESE. Novos estudos devem ser realizados a fim de prevenir as alterações cognitivas entre os pré-vestibulandos que apresentam SDE ou outro distúrbio do sono.OBJETIVE: Sleep is a phenomenon that has influence on cognitive aspects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS prevalence. METHODS: 378 senior high school students from a school of Campo Grande-MS, Brazil, were interview with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The variables that were crosSDE with the scale were: sex, alcohol use, smoking, symptoms of depression, family income and age. For the analysis it was uSDE the chi2 test and the variance analysis test. RESULTS: Our sample consisted of 50,3% boys and 49,7% girls, 39,2% were alcohol drinkers, 6,6% were smokers and 33% had already had depression. The overall prevalence of EDS was 55,8% and of respiratory disturbance or sleep apnea was 5,3%. We found relationships

  15. Yo ban? Rape rap and limits of free speech in India : An argument analysis of the debate about banning the artist Honey Singh

    OpenAIRE

    Bergdahl, Becky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of an argument analysis of three columns published in the Indian newspaper The Indian Express in the aftermath of the gangrape and murder of a young woman in Delhi in December 2012, and the following debate about glorification of rape in Indian popular culture. One of the columnists is arguing in favour of including gender as a category in the Indian law on hate speech, thereby banning an artist called Honey Singh and his lyrics about rape. The two other columnists are ar...

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  17. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  18. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  19. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.