WorldWideScience

Sample records for bamboo

  1. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  2. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  3. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  4. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  5. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and α-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

  6. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  7. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    He Lu; Zhenran Gao; Guangzhi Di; Hongzhou Qian

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for ...

  8. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. PMID:26802362

  9. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  10. Bamboo-based Panels for Structural Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXuhe; WANGZheng

    2005-01-01

    With technical assistance from INBAR and the Research Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the construction of the Pingbian Primary School was completed in 2004,where bamboo plywood panels and laminated beams were used for the roof trusses, sheathing boards and wall panels. This is the first time that bamboo-based panels are used for structural applications.

  11. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases

  12. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  13. STUDY ON BAMBOO FIBER”PROCESS OF CREATINGPROPERTIES- APPLICATION”

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Tărăboantă

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo fiber is a cellulose fiber which is extracted from naturally grown bamboo, is the fifth-largest natural fiber after cotton, linen, wool, silk. Bamboo fiber has good air permeability, water absorption, strong wear resistance and good dyeing and other features, but also has natural antibacterial, antimicrobial, mites, antiodor and anti-ultraviolet. Bamboo fiber is a real natural environment-friendly green fiber?There are two types of fiber derived from bamboo. The first is usually descri...

  14. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for this analysis. The second to standardize ecological factors data, building Habitat distribution Factor correlation matrix to determine y1, y2, y3 as three main components. Evaluate the habitat distribution of hollow bamboo by principal component analysis.

  15. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  16. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants. PMID:26803031

  17. Socio-Economic Benefits of Bamboo-Craft Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rinconada Bamboo Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Barandon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available –Bamboo entrepreneurship is one of the key instruments in uplifting the socio-economic status of the poor and under privileged people in Rinconada area. This study evaluated the socioeconomic benefits of bamboo craft making on the entrepreneurs of the district. Using descriptive-survey, data were obtained from 60 purposely chosen bamboo entrepreneurs from a list given by the Department of Trade of Industry. A 12-item researcher-made questionnaire was the main gathering tool supported by interview and observation. Results revealed that the social benefits derived by the bamboo entrepreneurs can able to communicate to more networks, adequate support to education of children is being provided, and television sets, while economic benefits is having their own house with sanitation. The bamboo entrepreneurs can satisfy the hierarchy of needs for shelter, security and social communication.

  18. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu,; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang,; Xing’e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified includin...

  19. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Li; Benhua Fei; Zehui Jiang; Xuejun Pan,; Zhiyong Cai; Xing'e Liu,; Yan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo) dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the t...

  20. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  1. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  2. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  3. Thermal extraction of bamboo with various solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junghee

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is to describe the potential of improvement by liquefaction with various solvents in pyrolysis in terms of conversion of bamboo to gas and liquid and quality of the bio-oils and residues produced. Fluidised sand bath and pressure gauge reactor were used for pyrolysis. The reactor was coupled with bamboo and a solvent and after 1 hour of pyrolysis and liquefaction at 410°C, the gas produced was collected in gas bag. To extract compounds uniformly from the chemically decomposed...

  4. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF THREE SPECIES OF BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vargas-Hernández

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of good quality plants for mass production of bamboo is an important factor due to the conventional methods of spreading have been little studied and limited their spreading. The present paper was carried out under green house conditions, with the purpose of evaluating the effect on spreading method factors, species of bamboo (CH, V y SN, (Ga, Bo y Bv and substrate (ATC, TCE y SIC about the surviving (SPV, number of shoots (NH, number of roots (NR, length of roots (LR, number of leaves by seedlings (NHA, height (AL and diameter of stalk (DI of the first shoot of plants of de bamboo in pots of black polyethylene The treatments were random established with three fold repetition The results were evaluated at the end of the experiment.( DDT. The method by chusquin is better. than varetas and nodal segments for the variants under study. The vareta and nodal segment offer less surviving and less number of shoots. Meantime the Guadua angustifolia and Bambusa vulgaris are the best species in relation to Bambusa oldhamii for bamboo spreading , regardless the substrate used.

  5. Fabrication of unsmooth bamboo-like nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of post drawing on morphology of bubbfil-spun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers was firstly investigated. Bamboo-like nanofibers were observed after drawing. The increase of surface area of the unsmooth fibers has many potential applications in various fields.

  6. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  7. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J. (Juan); Sampson, C.; Vargas, J.; Nilsson, T; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  8. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Blended Cement Paste and Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh A.A.; Odesola I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo leaf ash as cement supplement can contribute to reduction in cost and environmental hazard associated with cement production as well as waste pollution caused by the littered bamboo leaves. Therefore, the characteristics of cement paste and mortar incorporating bamboo leaf ash were investigated. The results of the physical properties of the pastes were within the requirements stipulated by relevant standards while that of the mortar cubes indicated that the compressive stren...

  9. Ecological functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUBen-zhi; FUMao-yi; XIEJin-zhong; YANGXiao-sheng_; LIZheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo forest is an important forest type in subtropical and tropical areas. Due to its biological characteristic and growth habits,bamboo is not only an ideal economic investment that can be utilized in many different manners but also has enormous potential for alleviating many environmental problems facing the world today. This review describes ecological functions of the bamboo forest on soil erosion control, water conservation, land rehabilitation, and carbon sequestration.

  10. ANALYSIS OF BAMBOO AS A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    G. LOKESHA; M. VENKATARAMA REDDY; T. YELLA REDDY

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is an optimized natural composite that exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures such as bamboo have complicated micro-structural shapes and material distribution, and thus the use of numerical methods such as finite element method can be a useful tool for understanding the mechanical behavior of these materials. This paper explores techniques such as finite element method to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. Two-dimensional model...

  11. Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Youssefian; Nima Rahbar

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo, a fast-growing grass, has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo come from the natural composite structure of fibers that consists mainly of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have used atomistic simulations to study the mechanical properties of and adhesive interactions between the materials in bamboo fibers. With this aim, we have developed m...

  12. Can't see the (bamboo) forest for the trees: examining bamboo's fit within international forestry institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Kathleen Carmel; Wu, Liangru; Lou, Yiping

    2014-10-01

    Over the centuries, governments and international agencies have developed a wide range of institutions to manage timber resources and conserve values provided by treed lands. Concerns regarding the sustainable supply of timber have provided opportunities for the development of substitute resources; however, bamboo and other non-timber forest resources have not been a part of the development of these institutions. Bamboo is a unique Non-Timber Forest Product, as it is often classified as forest or timber, and therefore must adhere to the same regulations as timber. Given the recent global expansion of bamboo, it is timely to examine the interplay between bamboo and the traditional institutions of forest governance. This paper aims to contribute to debates regarding cognitive institutional constraints on the development of substitute natural resources using bamboo as a case study, with specific focus on the applicability of Forest Stewardship Council certification, timber legality verification and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation to bamboos. PMID:24293019

  13. Exporing bamboo products from Vietnam to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dieu

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to create a suitable export plan for the company Spring Bamboo and its potential on the Finnish market. In order to assess this potential, a market analysis and an online survey were conducted. The data was collected by case study method. While data about the company was provided by the employees of the company, information about Finnish market was gathered through a PESTLE analysis and a survey for Finnish customers. Several conclusions were reach...

  14. Electrical valorization of bamboo in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENEA releases a technical benchmark of small-scale woody biomass-to-electricity technologies, as well as its application to a project to valorize bamboo in Rwanda and Burundi. Within the framework of its voluntary consulting action, ENEA has provided technical and project management support to help INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rottin) evaluate the technical feasibility of its project and assess what would be the best available technology to fit with the project's objectives and local context. This report thus includes up-to-date description of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis technologies as well as associated power-generation engines. For each, principle, advantages and drawbacks, technical maturity, adaptation to small-scale, flexibility to a change in biomass, scale-up feasibility, economical aspects or else environmental impacts are described and compared. Unit's integration within its environment, electricity use and associated business models are also addressed, and needed bamboo crop surfaces to meet power supply objectives are assessed

  15. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmiao Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP, untreated rice straw pellets (URP, carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP, and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified including dimension, density, and strength. The inorganic ash (15.94 % and gross heat value (15375 J/g of rice straw pellets could not meet the requirement of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified (≤6.0% for PFI Utility and the minimum requirement for making commercial pellets of DIN 51731 (>17500 J/g, respectively. Rice straw pellets have been a main type of biomass solid fuel and widely used. Bamboo pellets have better combustion properties compared with rice straw pellets. It is confirmed that bamboo pellets have great potential as biomass solid fuel, especially with respect to development of commercial pellets on an industrial scale in China. The information provided by this research is useful for development and utilization of bamboo resource and pellets.

  16. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuralinah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcement. The research studies about the performance of the bridge and the effect of loading position on the strain and deformation of bamboo reinforced concrete truss bridge. The bridge whose span and width are respectively 1.5 m and 1.2 m was prepared. Load applied to the truss bridge conducted by using vehicle load changes with position. Mounting the strains gauge in bamboo reinforcement of primary truss is to observe the strain. The LVDT is used to observe the deflection of the truss bridge. The results show that the loading position influences the strain and deformation as well as a theoretical view.

  17. Flexural Properties of Injection-Molded Bamboo/pbs Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkita, Kazuya; Takagi, Hitoshi

    In recent years, from an environmental perspective, there has been increasing interest in the change to a sustainable society. The use of natural-fiber-reinforced biodegradable composites has been proposed as one solution. Bamboo is an often used renewable bio-resource; it has an inherent advantage of rapid growth. Polybutylene succinate (PBS), used as matrix resin, has biodegradable characteristics. This paper describes flexural properties of bamboo/PBS composites prepared by injection molding. The following results were obtained. The flexural modulus was improved with increasing bamboo powder contents when the cylinder temperature of the injection molder was 140°C. However, the flexural strength showed the opposite tendency to be decreased with increasing bamboo powder contents. An SEM photomicrograph of the fracture surface for bamboo/PBS composites showed typical fracture behavior of pull-out fibers without fiber fracture. Furthermore, there was no adhesion of PBS resin on the bamboo fiber surface. Processing conditions affected mechanical properties of bamboo/PBS composites, imparting higher flexural strength and flexural modulus at high cylinder temperatures such as 180°C and 200°C.

  18. Research on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the increase of the utilization of bamboo, we must find out more in bamboo properties. According to the national standard GB/T15780 -1995, this paper analyzed the air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo in different ages and stalk parts. The results showed that both the age and the stalk part have remarkable effects on air-dried density and mechanical properties. The effect of age is much more prominent than that of stalk part. The performance shows: upper > middle > down, which incr...

  19. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  20. Bamboo Fabric: A Study of Using Thick Bamboo Fiber for Producing and Developing Thai Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisika Wannajun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of life of Thai people has involved utensils or things which made of bamboo since the ancient time. Rural Thai people use bamboo for building houses, making handicrafts, basketwork and household utensils. At present, thick bamboo is used and developed to many new products especially the textile products. Three purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of Thai textile production, (2 to investigate current situations and difficulties of Thai textile production and (3 to investigate the use of thick bamboo fiber for producing and developing Thai textiles. Approach: Research processes divided into 2 phases were these: the first phase was a quantitative experimental research type of bamboo fibers, the second phase was an application of the results of the first phase research to the phase was a qualitative research. The instruments for collecting data for the second phase research were a survey, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. Research areas were Ban Lung Pra Du, Amphoe Huay Talang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Chonnaabot, Khon Kaen Province and Ban Tha Khon Yang, Amphoe Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 200 people consisted of 20 key informants, 100 casual informants and 100 general informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed by means of an interpretation within the concepts and theories involved. Research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 in terms of the background of Thai textile production, it revealed that there were human beings lived in Thailand about 7,000-8,000 years ago and they could use natural fiber from plants and animals for weaving. The evidence which confirmed this truth was the excavation of historical objects in prehistorically sites in Thailand and there were remnants clung to or filled in

  1. The potential of bamboo in the design of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an alternative sustainable material for use in product design and has been incorporated into the concepts of eco-design. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties and morphologies of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bamboo flour (BF composites that were modified with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tensile tests of the composites demonstrated poor adhesion between the filler and matrix. Contact angle measurement showed that the surface of LDPE was modified by the presence of the load. The thermal stability of the composites was studied by measuring the oxidation induction time (OIT. Preliminary bacterial penetration tests were performed using culture inoculums of E. coli and S. aureus to investigate the natural antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties attributed to bamboo. Furthermore, bamboo may have interesting antioxidant activity with potential for use in food packaging applications.

  2. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  3. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  4. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo. PMID:23015325

  5. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  6. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Naresworo Nugroho; Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR) value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct). Ct is theratio between (SR) calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bam...

  7. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, V; Tieguhong, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and sav...

  8. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  9. Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Bamboo Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Uehara Tohru; Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of solvent extracts from two main bamboo species, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and madake bamboo (P. Bambusoides) in Japan, was first evaluated by scavenging free radical of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the inhibition activity for peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the reduction power. The methanol-extracts of moso bamboo culms and madake bamboo leaves presented stronger antioxidant activity compared with DPPH scavenging activity. Methanol-extract of moso bamboo culms was further fractionated by different solvents and n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited the most significant activity in the DPPH scavenging assay. The fractionation of n-butanol soluble extract was isolated by silica gel column with gradient mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol. The isolated fractions were directed by the antioxidant activity measured by scavenging the stable DPPH free radical. It was observed that most of the eluted fractions showed the antioxidative activity. Fractions acquired from elution with the mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol (10:1-5:1) showed stronger antioxidant activity than the other fractions.

  10. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresworo Nugroho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct. Ct is theratio between (SR calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bamboo beam. This study resulted mathematical formulae to calculate the Ct value for overall range of bamboo taper based on six species namely Tali (Gigantochloa apus (Bl.Ex Schult.f Kurz, Hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae Widjaja, Andong (Gigantochloa psedorundinaceae, Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, Gombong (Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd Munro, and Mayan (Gigantochloa robusta Kurz. The first tree species were obtained from the Bogor market, while the others were harvested from bamboo clumps in Arboretum Bamboo – Bogor Agricultural University. Then the formula was applied to sketch the graphical style in order to simplify the result.

  11. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  12. Acoustic Emission from Breaking a Bamboo Chopstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Wang, Li-Min; Huang, Panpan; Yang, Zhengning; Chang, Chin-De; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic emission from breaking a bamboo chopstick or a bundle of spaghetti is found to exhibit similar behavior as the famous seismic laws of Gutenberg and Richter, Omori, and Båth. By the use of a force-sensing detector, we establish a positive correlation between the statistics of sound intensity and the magnitude of a tremor. We also manage to derive these laws analytically without invoking the concept of a phase transition, self-organized criticality, or fractal. Our model is deterministic and relies on the existence of a structured cross section, either fibrous or layered. This success at explaining the power-law behavior supports the proposal that geometry is sometimes more important than mechanics.

  13. Design of Experimentation, Artificial Neural Network Simulation and Optimization for Integrated Bamboo Processing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Mehar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research work experimentation on integrated bamboo processing machine for splitting and slicing of bamboo has been carried out. This paper presents the experimental investigation of some parameters of integrated bamboo processing machine. In this research paper simulation of experimental data using artificial neural network is carried out. An attempt of minimum-maximum principle has been made to optimize by range bound process for maximizing production rate of integrated bamboo processing machine.

  14. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  15. Identification of genes related to the development of bamboo rhizome bud

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kuihong; Peng, Huazheng; Lin, Erpei; Jin, Qunying; Hua, Xiqi; YAO, SHENG; Bian, Hongwu; Han, Ning; Pan, Jianwei; Wang, Junhui; Deng, Mingjuan; Zhu, Muyuan

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) is one of the largest members of the grass family Poaceae, and is one of the most economically important crops in Asia. However, complete knowledge of bamboo development and its molecular mechanisms is still lacking. In the present study, the differences in anatomical structure among rhizome buds, rhizome shoots, and bamboo shoots were compared, and several genes related to the development of the bamboo rhizome bud were identified. The rice cross-species microar...

  16. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  17. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Synthesized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Bamboo and Manganese-Bamboo Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon E. Shaibu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bamboo impregnated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI and nanoscale manganese (nMn were prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PIXE analysis. The synthesized nMn-bamboo and nZVI-bamboo composites were subsequently applied to the sorption of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB dye was investigated under various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the synthesized nZVI-bamboo composite was more effective than nMn-bamboo composite in terms of higher MB dye adsorption capacity of 322.5 mg/g compared to 263.5 mg/g of nMn-bamboo composite. At a concentration of 140 mg/L MB dye, 0.02 g of nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites resulted in 79.6% and 78.3% removal, respectively, at 165 rpm, contact time of 120 min and at a solution pH of 7.6. The equilibrium data was best represented by Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model better explained the kinetic data for both nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites.

  18. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BAMBOO AS A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LOKESHA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an optimized natural composite that exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Biological structures such as bamboo have complicated micro-structural shapes and material distribution, and thus the use of numerical methods such as finite element method can be a useful tool for understanding the mechanical behavior of these materials. This paper explores techniques such as finite element method to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. Two-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tensile load, compression load and bending load cases, using ANSYS 12.1 version with two material options, one with isotropic material properties (averaged Young’s modulus and the second with FGM properties (spatially varying Young’s modulus. In this study the stress obtained from FGM model are much higher than those obtained from Isotropic material model and the maximum stresses are noted at the outer diameter. This is due to the fact that the higher stiffness of that fiber-dense region and also the stress redistribution through the bamboo wall.

  20. Species and distribution of mountain bamboos in Shennongjia, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; ZHAOBen-yuan; ZHUZhao-quan

    2003-01-01

    Inventory recorded 4 genera and 11 spacies of mountain bamboss in Shennongjia,Central China.Of these,4 species (Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis,Ph,heteroclada,Ph.nidularia and Ph.Bambuskoides) beiong to the monopodial bamboo,4 species(lndocalamus latifolius,I.longiauritus,l.wilsoni and l.tessellatus)to the amphipodial barnboo,and 3 species(Fargesia spathaces,F.munelae and Yushania contusa)to the sympodial bamboo.Monopoodial bamboos grow on the gentle slopes below 1800m asl,occurring from the subtropical belt to the temperate belt in the vertical climatic spectrum of the mountain;Sympodial bamboos occur in higher elevations,ranging from the warm temperate(1200m),across the mediate temperate and cold temperate,to the mountaintops of the frigid temperate belt(3100m).Amphipodial bamboos occur in all climate types except the frigid temperate belt.three dominant species,F.spathacea,F.murielae and Y.confusa,currently cover 12%,9% and 3% of the mountain ranges in Shannongjia,respectively.

  1. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  2. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  3. Effects of Additive on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo/pbs Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Yoon, Han-Ki; Takagi, Hitoshi; Ohkita, Kazuya

    Compared with general composites which are produced from fossil fuel, biodegradable resins have received considerable attention as an environment-friendly material. Bamboo fiber has relatively high strength compared with other natural fibers. Therefore, the focus of this study is to produce bamboo fiber reinforced Poly butylene succinate (PBS) composites by injection molding and to study the effects of additive on mechanical properties of this bamboo/PBS composite. The injection-molding is a highly productive fabrication technique. Bamboo/PBS composites were examined by flexural test and Vickers hardness. Also we examined fracture surface and microstructure of the bamboo/PBS composites by microscope.

  4. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  5. Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Tommy G; Sikes, Robert S; Parsons, Jennifer L; Rude, Brian J; Bissell, Heidi A; Ouellette, John R

    2011-01-01

    Endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry. The evolutionary constraints of their digestive tract result in a low extraction efficiency from bamboo (<40% in reported studies). The goal of this study was to determine the energy digestibility of bamboo by giant pandas used in digestibility trials and through subsequent analyses with bomb calorimetry. Seven digestibility trials were conducted (three with bamboo-only diets and four with supplemental diets). Energy digestibilities ranged from 7.5-38.9% for mixed diets and 9.2-34.0% for bamboo-only diets. The bamboo-only trials summarized here represent, to our knowledge, the first empirical data available for energy digestibility on a bamboo diet for giant pandas. PMID:20814990

  6. Field Trial of Copper Treated Moso Bamboo in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The field trial of Moso bamboo treated with 9 copper preservatives was conducted in Guangzhou, China. The result showed that two formulations of ammonia-based copper azole (F17 and F18 ) and a formulation of amine copper added with boron (F10), as well as 2 kinds of ammonia-based ACQ, at the copper retention of 3.2 kg/m3 or over, were very resistant to decay and termites after the 5- year field test. And the durability of ACQ-B treated Moso bamboo was similar to that of treated Masson pine and slash pine at...

  7. Evaluation of shear strength of oil treated laminated bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R; Wahab, R; Ismail, Z A; Samsi, H W; Mohamed, A

    2006-12-01

    Studies were carried out on heat treatment of bamboo species Gigantochloa scortechinii Gamble using palm oil. The samples were laminated and glued. The adhesion results showed that the delamination of glue line increased as the temperature and duration of oil heat treatment increased. Maximum load and shear strength of the glue line reduced as the heat treatment become more severe. It was found that the palm oil used as the heating medium penetrated in some parts of the cell wall as well as in the cell lumen of the bamboo. PMID:16524726

  8. NTDC United with Jigan to Promote "TANBOOCEL"Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 27th,the National Textile Development Center and Hebei Jigao Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd united together in Beijing to announce that the"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber product R&D cooperation system has been started,aiming at promoting the industrial application of"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber markedly.Mr.Sun Reizhe,vice president of China National Textile and Apparel Council,Li Binhong,Director of National Textile Development Center,gave their key speeches during this ceremony.

  9. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  11. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China. PMID:25836664

  12. Performance and Durability Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Cement Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Singh Mehra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A big part of population in India is still homeless due to raising unaffordability of housing structures. People sleeping on roadsides and living in slums is a common sight in Indian cities. To overcome this problem India today needs millions of houses for their growing population, making concrete as the most widely to be used material in the country. Concrete has found to have excellent compressive strength but poor in tensile strength, to take care of the tensile stresses steel is commonly used as reinforcing material in concrete. Production of steel is a very costly business and its use in concrete as reinforcing material increases the cost of construction by many folds. Also production of steel emits a large amount of green house gases causing considerable deterioration of the environment. The above mentioned socio-economic and environmental factors creates a necessity for finding an appropriate environment friendly and cheap material that can successfully substitute steel as reinforcement in concrete elements of a low cost dwelling for the poor and homeless people of the country. It is here that engineered bamboo can be of great value to Civil Engineers owning to its several net worthy features. Production of every tone of bamboo consumes about a tone of atmospheric CO2 in addition to releasing fresh O2. From structural point of view bamboo has been used as a structural material from the earlier times as it possesses excellent flexure and tensile strength as well as high strength to weight ratio. All this necessitates examining bamboo-reinforced cement concrete in detail for its appropriateness as a structural material for construction of a low cost dwelling unit. The study focuses on evaluating the mechanical and durability properties of cement-concrete beams both singly and doubly reinforced with bamboo splints.

  13. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  14. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  15. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  16. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  17. Characteristics of Cells from Five Exotic Bamboos after Drywood Termites Incisitermes minor (Hagen) Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Niken Subekti; Tsuyoshi Yoshimura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between and the characteristics of five bamboos exotic in the cell walls. For this purpose, the bamboosexotic from Indonesia  were separated into cells after drywood termites Incisitermes minor (Hagen) attack. SEM observations revealed that bamboos cells. Moreover, SEM analysis showed that the cellulose isolated from parenchyma cells. These results suggest that all the cellulose microfibrils in five bamboos different characteristics of cell function after d...

  18. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI; YiJie; WANG; Sheng; QUAN; LiYan; ZHOU; ChangPing; LONG; ShiBao; ZHENG; HuaJun; JIN; Liang; ZHANG; XianYin

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  19. ROLE OF PVA MODIFICATION IN IMPROVING THE SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh K. Dwivedi; Ajoy Ghosh; Navin Chand

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to investigate the role of poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA) treatment in improving the sliding wear behaviour of pure bamboo. The effects of dipping time in PVA solution and applied load on wear behaviour of bamboo samples were determined. The wear volume of bamboo was reduced when it was treated with PVA. The wear volume during sliding was increased with increasing of applied load, whereas the coefficient of friction was reduced on PVA treatment. Worn surfaces ...

  20. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, ...

  1. Investigation into the Performance of Bamboo Using the Notched and the Un-Notched Specimen

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gyansah; S. Kwofie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) using the notched and the un-notched specimen. Double v-notched bamboo and un-notched bamboo specimens were used to carry out the experiment. Notched- angles of 20, 30, 60, 80 and 90º were made on each specimen. These were done to ascertain the effect of the notched-angle on the performance of the bamboo. Each specimen was placed in a Uniaxial Compression Machine and was crushed with respect to time. The results are plotted ...

  2. On Structure, production, and market of bamboo-based panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since bamboo has the advantages of straight grain, beautiful color, high strength and toughness, and excellent abrasion resistance, bamboo-based panels have been widely used in the fields of vehicle, construction, ship building, furniture, and decoration to partly take the place of wood, steel, plastic etc in China. This paper briefly described the basic component units, including strip, sliver, and particle, of bamboo-based panel and pointed out that to design the structure of bamboo-based panels should follow the principle of symmetric structure, surface forming method, and structuring principle of equalizing stress. According to the processing methods and formation of component units, the authors classified the bamboo-based panels in China into 13 types and presented the manufacturing technique and uses of the bamboo products, such as plybamboo, bamboo flooring, and bamboo-wood composite products in detail. In the last part of the paper, much information were offered on the output, market, and selling prospect of each type of bamboo-based panels.

  3. Simultaneous flowering of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae) at its native home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hua; Manfred DENICH; Thomas BORSCH

    2006-01-01

    Flowering pattern and seedling establishment of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae (Gamble) Yi) were studied in its native habitat, Mount Shennongjia in Central China. Here in 1996-2000, over 95% of the bamboo plants simultaneously flowered and died, extending from lower elevations to the higher mountains along the altitude and from southwest to northeast along the mountain settings. following the flowering. After a high mortality throughout the first winter, bamboo seedlings remained a stable density in following 2-4 years (1130-1230 seedlings· m-2). Seedling density positively related to the coverage of parent bamboo, but negatively to the herb layers.

  4. Fracture characterisation of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, fracture behaviour of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites is investigated. The matrix is reinforced with fibres ranging from 10 to 50, 30 to 50 and 30 to 60 vol.% at increments of 10 vol.% for bamboo fibres at 4, 7 and 10 mm lengths respectively. The results reveal that at 4 mm of fibre length, the increment in fibre content deteriorates the fracture toughness. As for 7 and 10 mm fibre lengths, positive effect of fibre reinforcement is observed. The optimum fibre content is found to be at 40 vol.% for 7 mm fibre and 50 vol.% for 10 mm fibre. The highest fracture toughness is achieved at 10 mm/50 vol.% fibre reinforced composite, with 340% of improvement compared to neat polyester. Fractured surfaces investigated through the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) describing different failure mechanisms are also reported.

  5. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length. Internationaly, NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the length mentioned above, thus, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature, such as high strength, unique surface structure, soft feeling, durability, water resistance, incombustibility, antimicrobial property, and so on. Indeed, NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research, by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries. This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT, its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  6. Optimization of Oxidator Level to Produce Binderless Bamboo Particleboard

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; Massijaya, M.Y.; Hadi, Y.S.; Santoso, A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation treatment of bamboo particle would be considered as one of the alternative methods to produce binderless particleboard. Since most of composite panels including particleboard is manufactured using formaldehyde base adhesive emission from the product is a main concern in contrast to binderless panels which don???t cause such problem. The main objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as oxidator in particleboard manufa...

  7. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Owen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social netw...

  8. Microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo pulp and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was obtained by disintegrating bleached kraft bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) pulp with a procedure of chemical pretreatment and high-pressure homogenization. The influences of sodium hydroxide dosage and homogenization times were evaluated by water retention value (WRV) of MFC. The properties, such as the surface morphology, rheological property and carboxyl acid content of MFC were also characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheometer and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) separately.

  9. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi; MAER Bisatya Widadya; ARIFIN Lilianny Sigit

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic app...

  10. Taxonomic status of the endemic South African bamboo, Thamnocalamus tessellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Soderstrom

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees Soderstrom & Ellis, comb. nov. [= Arundinaria tessellata (Nees Munro] is the only endemic South African bamboo and occurs from the eastern districts of the Cape, through Lesotho and Natal, to the eastern Orange Free State at elevations of about 1 500-2 500 m. The Mountain Bamboo, or‘Bergbamboes’ was first described by Nees in 1841 as a member of the genus Nastus because of the similarity, tohim, of the spikelets between it and N. borbonicus, but was later transferred to the all-encompassing genus of the time, Arundinaria, the type species of which is endemic to the south-eastern United States of America. Based onour present knowledge of bamboo genera, this South African species may be excluded from Nastus because the inflorescence is not a panicle but bracteate racemiform, the vegetative branches do not arise in a verticillate manner but are a series of subequal branches that are borne in a row above the nodal line and T. tessellatus has anandroecium of three stamens and not six as in Nastus. The Bergbamboes, with sympodial rhizomes and branchcomplement of several subequal branches, can also not be maintained in Arundinaria, for monopodial rhizomesand a single branch at the node are typical of this genus. The simple, ebracteate, and exserted inflorescence ofArundinaria is also quite distinct from that of the Bergbamboes. In order to place the South African bamboo more precisely we have made comparative studies of its leaf anatomy and epidermis, gross morphology, and analyses of its inflorescence and spikelets. The results of all thesestudies reveal a striking resemblance to members of the Sino-Himalayan genus, Thamnocalamus, to which we haveaccordingly transferred the species. The results are presented, together with an interpretation of the phylogeneticposition of the Bergbamboes and possible events that led to the disjunction of species in the genus.

  11. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1 control (CK, without N added, (2 low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, (3 medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, and (4 high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+, NO3(-, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease and phosphorus (acid phosphatase and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities. Results suggest that (1 this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2 the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  12. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  13. Elastic Buckling of Bionic Cylindrical Shells Based on Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-feng Ma; Wu-yi Chen; Ling Zhao; Da-hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    High load-bearing efficiency is one of the advantages of biological structures after the evolution of billions of years.Biomimicking from nature may offer the potential for lightweight design. In the viewpoint of mechanics properties, the culm of bamboo comprises of two types of cells and the number of the vascular bundles takes a gradient of distribution. A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the elastic modulus. Results show that the elastic modulus of bamboo decreases gradually from the periphery towards the centre. Based on the structural characteristics of bamboo, a bionic cylindrical structure was designed to mimic the gradient distribution of vascular bundles and parenchyma cells. The buckling resistance of the bionic structure was compared with that of a traditional shell of equal mass under axial pressure by finite element simulations. Results show that the load-bearing capacity of bionic shell is increased by 124.8%. The buckling mode of bionic structure is global buckling while that of the conventional shell is local buckling.

  14. The effect of elementary fibre variability on bamboo fibre strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fibre diameter was found to have a significant effect on bamboo fibre strength. • The average fibre strength decreases with increasing quantity of elementary fibres. • A new model can be used for predicting fibre strength at different fibre diameters. - Abstract: Tensile strength of brittle fibres exhibits statistical distribution and size dependence. In this work, the average strength of bamboo fibre is found to decrease from 568 to 483 MPa as mean diameter increases from 196.6 to 584.3 μm. The morphologies of bamboo fibres with increasing diameters were investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to demonstrate variations in the quantity of elementary fibres. The influence of elementary fibre distributions on the fibre strength was also studied. A modified Weibull model based on number of elementary fibres is proposed to perform scaling predictions for the fracture strength of the fibres at different between-fibre diameters. It was shown that the predicted results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data, highlighting the adequacies of the new analytical model for describing the diameter dependence of tensile strength

  15. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  16. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  17. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  18. PREPARATION OF BAMBOO DISSOLVING PULP FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION; PART 1. STUDY ON PREHYDROLYSIS OF GREEN BAMBOO FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysis was used as the first treatment of bamboo materials for producing high dissolving pulp for textile applications. In this paper, green bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami was hydrolyzed in water, and the hydrolysis process was optimized. The morphology and super-molecular structures of the raw material and prehydrolyzed material were studied by SEM and XRD, respectively. Based on the optimum conditions, a study of the kinetics and mechanism showed that pentosan dissolution during the hydrolysis process was a first order reaction. When cooking temperature was 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC, and 180 oC, the corresponding reaction rate constants were 0.00411h-1, 0.00495h-1, 0.00730h-1, and 0.00925h-1, respectively. The activation energy was 44.94 kJ/mol based on the Arrhenius empirical equation. SEM results revealed that after the pre-hydrolysis process, the bamboo structure became loose because of hemicellulose dissolution, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity was increased from 45.43% to 57.06% during the prehydrolysis. Both the treated and the untreated fibers were assumed to be cellulose I.

  19. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  20. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  1. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  2. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively. PMID:19947221

  3. Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion in Bamboo Polymer Composite Enhanced with Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru; Yamashita, Naoya

    Current study presents one of effective techniques to improve mechanical properties of PLA (Poly-Lactic Acid)-based bamboo fiber composite. Commercially available Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) obtained from wood pulp was applied as an enhancer to the composite. The bamboo fibers were extracted by steam explosion method and they were also rubbed in water to remove xylem (soft-wall cells). The liquid-based MFC, PLA and the bamboo fiber were mixed in water for several minutes and they were filtrated under vacuum pressure. To fabricate the composite, remained sheets were then hot pressed after dry. Three-point bending strength and Mode I fracture toughness of the composite were significantly improved, even when 10% of the MFC was added into the PLA/BF composite in weight. If small amount of MFC added into the bamboo fiber composite, tangled MFC fibers prevented the growth of micro crack along the interface between bamboo fiber and matrix.

  4. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  5. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem's SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  6. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage. PMID:27267405

  7. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781

  8. Amido a partir de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Em colmos de bambu da espécie tida como Guadua flabellata, determinaram-se os teores de amido e das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos colmos processados foram também determinados. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de amido extraído foi 8,53% (base seca, representando cerca de 59% da fração solúvel em água e 32% do total de amido existente no colmo. Os teores médios das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água foram, respectivamente, 61,76%, 23,05% e 15,18%, Quanto às dimensões do colmo, a espécie em estudo pode ser considerada de porte mediano, em comparação com as espécies mais difundidas em nossas condições.In bamboo culms of the species reported as Guadua flabellata were determined the contents of starch, fibrous fraction, parenchymatous fractions and water soluble fractions. The height and diameter of the bamboo culms were also determined. The results showed that the average content of extracted starch was 8.53% (over dry material. This content corresponds to about 59% of the fractions and 32% of the total starch present in the bamboo culm. The fibrous fractions and water soluble fractions were, respectively 61.76% and 23.05%. Regarding to culm dimensions, this species can be considered as a middle sized culm.

  9. The anatomy of dreams and bamboo-reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy of dreams and bamboo reality Hemingway used to say "if you want your people to build a boat, don't give them hammers, saws and tools – give them a longing for the sea." Today, we have lots of tools. We have computers, software, virtual reality, smart facades and offices, and various attractive systems... but we're somewhat lacking in longing ... In order to have longings, one has to have dreams, and to have dreams, one has to have courage. Antoon had it. Wanting to design with the...

  10. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  11. SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL, AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTIVATED BAMBOO (GIGANTOCHLOA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad ul Haq Bhat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spectroscopic, thermal, and morphological properties of two bamboo species viz. Gigantochloa brang and Gigantochloa wrayi. The nature of cell wall structure and distribution of vascular bundles in G. brang and G. wrayi were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Gigantochloa spp. at various positions and locations showed identical thermal stability and are stable up to 200 °C. The decomposition of cellulose and hemicelluloses component of the culm occurred between 220 °C and 390 °C, while the degradation of lignin takes place above 400 °C.

  12. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  13. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS OF MOSO BAMBOO (Phyllostachys heterocycla AT DIFFERENT MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia Liu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a type of biomass materials that has great potential as a bio-energy resource in China. The thermal-mechanical behavior of bamboo plays an important role in the formation process of pellets. To investigate the effect of moisture content (MC on thermal-mechanical behavior of bamboo, the storage modulus and loss factor of moso bamboo was determined using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA from -50 to 150 oC. The experimental results showed that the general feature of bamboo thermal-mechanical properties with temperature is similar to other cellulosic materials, and they are affected by MC. A substantial decrease of storage modulus over the entire temperature range implies that bamboo underwent a glass to rubber transition. Bamboo, at lower MC, has a higher storage modulus, which decreases the mechanical strength of pellets. The loss factor exhibited two major transitions for all samples. There was an α-transition (α1, attributed to glass transition of lignin, peaking in a higher temperature range. The second major relaxation (α2, located in a lower temperature range, was attributed to glass transition of hemicelluloses. Activating lignin and hemicelluloses using moisture and temperature in the temperature range of glass transition can be very helpful to achieve durable particle-particle bonding.

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the potential of sodium silicate modification on moso bamboo particles as reinforcements for thermoplastic. Moso bamboo particles were modified with sodium silicate aqueous solutions (of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% concentrations). The mechanical properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites (BPPC) were calculated and compared with raw bamboo particles filled samples. The thermal characteristics of the BPPC were studied to investigate the feasibility of sodium silicate treatment on moso bamboo particles. The particle morphology and BPPC microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the BPPC increased before the concentration of sodium silicate solution reached 5% and got their maximum values of 15.72 MPa and 2956.80 MPa, respectively at 5% concentration. The modulus of rupture obtained the maximum value of 27.73 MPa at 2% concentration. The mechanical curve decreased as the concentration of solution went higher. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis illustrated that the sodium silicate solution treated BPPC possesses a better compatibility. More uniform dispersion of moso bamboo particles in PVC matrix was obtained after the sodium silicate treatment. Hence, the sodium silicate was a feasible and competitive agent of creating moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites.

  15. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  16. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  17. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  18. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  19. Chemical properties of bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Kohnosu, Taku; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Yoon, Seung-Lak; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo powder was analytically pyrolyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), and the effects of fast pyrolysis conditions on the product distribution of bio-oil were evaluated. 4-Vinylphenol (4VP) was identified as a major product of bamboo fast pyrolysis by ^1H-NMR and ^C-NMR spectrometry. The formation pathway of 4VP demonstrated that p-coumarate esters are present in bamboo lignin, and 4VP is likely to be derived from these p-coumarate structures. The evaluation of the effect of fa...

  20. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.; Jiang, Zehui; Sun, Zhengjun; Chen, Xuhe

    2009-01-01

    paper includes an overview of the laminate construction and initial data for the monotonic tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior and tension-tension fatigue life of panels formed by hot-pressing. In addition, a discussion of fracture resistance of the bamboo-poplar laminate, under Mode I and......Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided in this...

  1. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an electrical power plant, and 10% will end-up in landfill, which is considered to be a realistic scenario for the Netherlands (NEN 8006) and Western Europe. In addition to the standard LCA (ISO 14040 and...

  2. Guadua chacoensis in Bolivia : - an investigation of mechanical properties of a bamboo species

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Maria; Palm, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis has been performed at CTD- the Centre for Wood Technology and Design at the University of Linköping and has been carried out in Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia. The objective of this thesis is to study the mechanical properties and uses of Guadua chacoensis, a bamboo native to Bolivia. Throughout history, bamboo has been used in many countries for a variety of purposes. In Asia bamboo is an important raw-material for buildings and furniture. It is also used for making pa...

  3. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  4. Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Structural Laminated Bamboo Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANGLiang; WANGZheng; GAOLi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of laminated bamboo lamber were studied by testing moisture content, delamination ratio, horizontal shear strength, MOE and MOR of the structure-use material, in the same time, these subjects of finger-joint were tested too. The results showed that, the horizontal shear strength, MOR, MOE of laminated bamboo were superior to the ordinary structure-use timber in architecture, such as Pinus. The performance of aging test was not extraordinary, although the physical and mechanical properties of laminated bamboo lamber decreased after aging test, these properties were beyond Pinus yet.

  5. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  6. Effects of surface performance on bamboo by microwave plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanben DU; Zhaobin SUN; Linrong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Surface treatment of bamboo was carried out by microwave plasma (MWP), surface contact angle of the sample was measured using glycerin and urea-form-aldehyde resin (UFR) liquid, and the effects on the surface performance of the bamboo sample was evaluated. The results show that the surface contact angle of the sample presented a generally decreasing trend when prolonging the MWP treatment time and shortening the distance between the sample and the resonance cavity. The surface contact angle of the sample decreased by 49%-59% under the following conditions: MWP treatment for 30 s, the distance between the sample and resonance cavity at 40 mm, and measurement at 15 s after dripping with gly-cerin. The surface contact angle of the sample measured with the glycerin was lower than that with UFR. No mat-ter whether we used glycerin or UFR, the contact angle of the sample at 15 s after dripping was lower than that at 5 s after dripping. The grinding treatment had little effect on the surface contact angle of the sample after MWP treat-ment, and the modification effect of MWP treatment after grinding was better than that of sole MWP treatment.

  7. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A and J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase. (paper)

  8. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  9. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  10. Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Yu Zhi-ming; Wu Wen-qiang; Wu Qing-li

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescense) vinegar, with different diluents, on the growth of lettuce, cole and cucumber based on field tests. The results show that moso bamboo vinegar with 500-800 times dilution had good effect on the growth of tested vegetables. The harvest of vegetables increased from 18.8%-20.2% compared with a control. The height and the weight of the average single vegetable tested also increased. The main components of moso bamboo vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS and the positive effect on the growth was, in the first instance, attributed to a synergistic effect of trace amounts of the main components of bamboo vinegar.

  11. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  12. Self-adaptive formation of uneven node spacings in wild bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Motohiro; Inoue, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Bamboo has a distinctive structure wherein a long cavity inside a cylindrical woody section is divided into many chambers by stiff diaphragms. The diaphragms are inserted at nodes and thought to serve as ring stiffeners for bamboo culms against the external load; if this is the case, the separation between adjacent nodes should be configured optimally in order to enhance the mechanical stability of the culms. Here, we reveal the hitherto unknown blueprint of the optimal node spacings used in the growth of wild bamboo. Measurement data analysis together with theoretical formulations suggest that wild bamboos effectively control their node spacings as well as other geometric parameters in accord with the lightweight and high-strength design concept.

  13. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. PMID:27311789

  14. Biological effects of turf bamboo by 137Cs γ-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs γ-rays was used to treat bamboo rhizome or culture of turf bamboo, and to evaluate the biological was studied. It showed that low dose of irradiation had no effect on bud germination, high dose of irradiation delayed the bud germination. Sasa pygmaea was more resistant to γ-rays irradiation, and the lethal dose of Sasa culture was 20 ∼ 30 Gy. For Sasa fortunei culture the lethal dose was less than 20 Gy; and the lethal dose of bamboo rhizome for Indocalamus latifolius was 10 ∼ 20 Gy, for other 3 species of bamboo, the lethal dose was more than 80 Gy. The morphological feature of Sasa pygmaea, or Indocalamus latifolius, or Indocalamus decorous after irradiation was not obvious, but the white strip in its green leaves of Shibataea chinensis irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy was observed. (authors)

  15. A NEW METHOD FOR MAKING CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM BAMBOO BY HIGH BOILING SOLVENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiansu CHENG; Weijian CHEN; Yunping CHEN; Huashu FANG; Mianjun LI; Yuexian CHEN

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from bamboo, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with aqueous solvent of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Bamboo chips were pulped with 70~90% aqueous solution of 1,4-butanediol containing a small amount of catalyst at 180~200℃ for 30-90 min.. HBS bamboo cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. Recovery high boiling solvents (RHBS) is able to recycle as a pulping solvent indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of bamboo with saving energy, saving resources and non-pollution. HBS lignin has better chemical activity and lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  16. A NEW METHOD FOR MAKING CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM BAMBOO BY HIGH BOILING SOLVENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiansuCHENG; WeijianCHEN; YunpingCHEN; HuashuFANG; MianjunLI; YuexianCHEN

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from bamboo, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with aqueous solvcnt of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Bamboo chips were pulped with 70~90% aqueous solution of 1. 4-butanediol containing a small amount of catalyst at 180~200℃ for 30~90 min. HBS bamboo cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. Recovery high boiling solvents (RHBS) is able to recycle as a pulping solvent indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of bamboo with saving energy, saving resources and non-pollution. HBS lignin has better chemical activity and lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  17. Synthesis of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes by ethanol catalytic combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin; ZOU Xiao-ping; LI Fei; ZHANG Hong-dan; REN Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) technique with combustion method. Copper plate was employed as substrate,ethanol as carbon source,and iron chloride as catalyst precursor. The as-grown black powder was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the thinner bamboo-like carbon nanotubes have a relatively good structure that the compartment layers are more regular,while the thicker carbon nanotubes have a relatively irregular bamboo-like structure:the proposed method is simple to synthesize bamboo-like carbon nanotubes and has some advantages,such as flexible synthesis conditions,simple setup,and environment-friendly.

  18. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-11-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2 x a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2 x a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26x10(10) kg of silicon in the

  19. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen-ji; LIN Peng; HE Jian-yuan; YANG Zhi-wei; LIN Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts ofmoso bamboos, and the underaboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%,3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26× 1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China.

  20. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world. PMID:26696605

  1. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    OpenAIRE

    K.Sudha Madhuri,; H.Raghavendra Rao

    2016-01-01

    The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber ...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of bamboo-shaped nanosheet KNb3O8 with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet was synthesized by using a two-step hydrothermal method. In addition, the photocatalytic degradation performances of the bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet and a rod-like KNb3O8 prepared by using molted salt method were also investigated and compared in terms of degradation of Rhodamine B, and the results indicated that the bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet had higher photocatalytic activity. Importantly, the crystal structure and morphology diagram of KNb3O8 nanosheet and their photocatalytic degradation performances as well as a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation are shown below. - Highlights: • A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet was synthesized. • The effect of potassium content on the KNb3O8 phase formation has been studied. • The specific surface area, structural and optical characteristics were studied. • The bamboo-shaped nanosheet KNb3O8 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet was synthesized by using a two-step hydrothermal method. In particular, an effect of potassium content on the phase formation of KNb3O8 in the second-step hydrothermal process at pH = 5–6 was investigated. Specific surface area, structural properties and optical characteristics of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–visible diffuse reflectance. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation performances of the bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet and a rod-like KNb3O8 prepared by using molted salt method were also investigated and compared in terms of degradation of Rhodamine B, and the results indicated that the bamboo-shaped KNb3O8 nanosheet had a higher photocatalytic activity

  3. The Fracture Behaviour of Fresh Bamboo Under Uniaxial Compressive Loading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    LAWRENCE GYANSAH; A.S. Akinwonmi and M. Affam

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the development of the crushing strength of fresh Bamboo samples (Bambusa vulgaris). Crushing strength experiment was performed using Uniaxial Compression Machine. The data is plotted as crushing stress versus height, load versus time of failure and crushing stress versus thickness. Microstructures were also analyzed. Moisture content of bamboo was carried out to know the effect of moisture on the crushing strength. Results show that, increase in height reduces the str...

  4. Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose and Lignin in Moso Bamboo by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Li; Chanjun Sun; Binxiong Zhou; Yong He

    2015-01-01

    The contents of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are important for moso bamboo processing in biomass energy industry. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was investigated in this study. Initially, the linear relationship between bamboo components and their NIR spectroscopy was established. Subsequently, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to detect characteristic wavelengths for establishing th...

  5. Application of bamboo for flexural and shear reinforcement in concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nathan Alan

    As the developing world is industrializing and people migrate to cities, the need for infrastructure is growing quickly and concrete has become one of the most widely used construction materials. One poor construction practice observed widely across the developing world is the minimal use of reinforcement for concrete structures due to the high cost of steel. As a low-cost, high-performance material with good mechanical properties, bamboo has been investigated as an alternative to steel for reinforcing concrete. The goal of this research is to add to the knowledge base of bamboo reinforced concrete (BRC) by investigating a unique stirrup design and testing the lap-splicing of flexural bamboo reinforcement in concrete beams. Component tests on the mechanical properties of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) were performed, including tensile tests and pull-out tests. The results of the component tests were used to design and construct 13 BRC beams which were tested under monotonic gravity loading in 3 and 4-point bending tests. Three types of beams were designed and tested, including shear controlled, flexure controlled, and lap-spliced flexure controlled beams. The test results indicated that bamboo stirrups increased unreinforced concrete beam shear capacities by up to 259%. The flexural bamboo increased beam capacities by up to 242% with an optimal reinforcement ratio of up to 3.9%, assuming sufficient shear capacity. Limitations of the bamboo reinforcement included water absorption as well as poor bonding capability to the concrete. The test results show that bamboo is a viable alternative to steel as tensile reinforcement for concrete as it increases the ultimate capacity of the concrete, allows for high deflections and cracks, and provides warning of impending structural failure.

  6. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  7. EXPLORING THE MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE RHIZOSPHERES OF EXOTIC BAMBOOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhaya Garg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : We need to believe that our atmosphere is changing- uneven climate patterns will draw us to the cliff of alarming situation of global warming. With this shift of climatic patterns, it has influenced the above and below ground entities of ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to quantify mycorrhizal association and glomalin content in seven exotic bamboo species raised in bambusetum of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. The study further addresses activities of soil microbial community in terms of moisture, respiration, enzymes (dehydrogenase and phosphatase, carbon, aggregation and their inter-relationship besides their possible role in carbon sequestration in relation to bamboo-mycorrhizae. The study observed that Melocanna baccifera (40.91µg/gm/hr recorded significantly maximum soil respiration. The dehydrogenase activity was measured highest of 92.95 µg/25ml/g/24hr in Dendrocalamus gigantius while lowest of 12.61 µg/25ml/g/24hr was quantified for M. baccifera. The maximum acid phosphatase activity was recorded in D. gigantius (18.914mg/g/hr. The alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded highest in Cephalostachyum pergracile (0.1502mg/g/hr while lowest was registered in Bambusa multiplex (0.0432mg/g/hr. The highest microbial biomass carbon was quantified in Bambusa polymorpha (518.97mg/kg and lowest was in D. gigantius (102.89mg/kg. Maximum root colonization was found in Bambusa tulda (59.05% with maximum spores were counted in the soil collected from the root zone of D. gigantius (52.56/ml and the lowest spore count was recorded in B. multiplex (13.22/ml. The maximum value of glomalin content was recorded in C. pergracile (84.09µg/ml and minimum was found in B. multiplex (48.24µg/ml. The study explored the potential of soil microbes and mycorrhizae along with these exotic bamboos in mitigating the elevated CO2, which probably becomes a suitable candidate in sequestering the carbon dioxide.

  8. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from bamboo charcoal and the roles of minerals on their growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized from bamboo charcoals by chemical vapor deposition in the presence of ethanol vapor. Fresh bamboo culms were first heat treated at 1000–1500 °C to form charcoals. The elemental composition and structure of mineral phases in the bamboo charcoal treated at different temperatures were analyzed. The results showed that Mg2SiO4 and particularly calcium silicate were responsible for the nucleation and growth of MWCNTs at 1200–1400 °C. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer observations indicated that the tips of nanotubes synthesized at 1200–1400 °C consist mainly of calcium silicate. Such silicate tips acted as effective catalysts for nanotubes. The growth of MWCNTs followed the vapor–liquid–solid model including an initial decomposition of ethanol vapor into carbon, dissolution of carbon inside molten silicate and final nucleation of nanotubes. -- Graphical abstract: Calcium silicate spheres formed on the surface of the bamboo charcoal after thermal treatments. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol chemical vapor deposition. The growth of CNTs follows the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism. Uploading of CNTs could increase the specific surface area and the N2 adsorption capacity. Highlights: ► The evolution of minerals in bamboo charcoal under heat treatment is found. ► The roles of minerals in bamboo charcoal in the growth of CNTs are proposed. ► The upload of CNTs increases the specific surface area and the adsorption capacity.

  9. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Bamboo Accessions of India Using Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Gami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important grass with wide scale applications in paper industries, medicines, constructions industries. It is potential feedstock for advanced biofuel production due to its favourable characteristics, natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and higher CO2 sequestration. The objective of this study is to understand genetic diversity between the bamboo accessions with respect to geographical origin to correlate molecular information with feedstock characterization and adaptation to abiotic stress. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from twenty bamboo accessions collected from different regions of India and genetic variations were assessed by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR based molecular marker approach using 8 primers. Maximum genetic distance was observed between Bambusa wamin-Itanagar & B. ventricosa-Durg (0.48221 & minimum genetic distance between Bambusa balcooa-Modasa & Bambusa balcooa-Tripura (0.00787. Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris were genetically similar as compared to other accessions. The genetic distance is independent of geographical distance for the bamboo accessions considered in this study. The findings of this study will help to understand the degree of differences between bamboo accessions under the same environmental conditions and to identify the representative accessions that can be used for abiotic stress resistance studies. The information can be explored for screening of closely related bamboo accessions for abiotic stress resistance screening trials.

  10. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PANELS MANUFACTURED WITH BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.-WOOD COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of derived products from bamboo for some countries and the wood shortage in some areas of Brazil, this work analyzed the quality of boards composed by particles of Eucalyptus sp. and bamboo strips (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.. The panels were produced with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ and 10% of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The influence of the epidermis on the properties of the panels was also evaluated. The panels were constituted by five layers: core (Eucalyptus sp. or bamboo particles, layers of reinforcement (bamboo strips and finish faces (particles of same nature as the core. The press time was 8 minutes, at 120ºC. None of the treatments satisfied the quality patterns established by A208.1 (ANSI, 1987 and DIN 68761 (1-1961, (3-1971 (GERMAN STANDARDS COMMITTEE, 1971 codes. However, particleboards produced exclusively by bamboo or combined with wood presented a similar behavior to those produced exclusively of wood, showing to be a viable alternative. The modulus of rupture (MOR and elasticity (MOE were approximately the same in all treatments due to the irregular distribution of the layers in the mattress. The absence of epidermis tended to reduce the thickness swelling (2 and 24 hours and internal bond strength, however, without significant statistical difference. Therefore, other parameters of production of boards using bamboo, such as density and adhesive content, should be investigated in order to check whether the removal of epidermis is a really advantageous procedure.

  11. Effect of 60Co radiation-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate on mechanical properties of bamboo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of radiation grafting on mechanical properties of bamboo, the original and carbonized bamboo soaked with monomer MMA were radiation grafted by 60Co γ rays with the doses of 60-220 kGy. The results showed that compared with original blanks, treated with MMA and irradiated with the dose of 180 kGy the specific gravity, bending strength modulus of elasticity of original bamboo increased by 6.7%, 4.4%, and 28%, meanwhile its oven-dried radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage decreased by 38.9%, 47.4%, and 32.9%, respectively. What is more, treated with MMA and irradiated with the doses of 140 kGy the specific gravity and modulus of elasticity of carbonized bamboo increased by 6.8% and 20%, while its oven-dried radial, tangential, volumetric shrinkage decreased by 11%, 4.6% and 12%, respectively. The study reveals that mechanical properties of original and carbonized bamboo can be enhanced by radiation grafting copolymerization with suitable absorbed doses, which may be valuable for the further research of developing new bamboo plastic composites. (authors)

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Zhao, Hansheng; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to play a major role in maintaining water and hydraulic conductivity balance in the plant system. Numerous studies have showed AQPs execute multi-function throughout plant growth and development, including water transport, nitrogen, carbon, and micronutrient acquisition etc. However, little information on AQPs is known in bamboo. In this study, we present the first genome-wide identification and characterization of AQP genes in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) using bioinformatics. In total, 26 AQP genes were identified by homologous analysis, which were divided into four groups (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, and SIPs) based on the phylogenetic analysis. All the genes were located on 26 different scaffolds respectively on basis of the gene mapped to bamboo genome. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Ph. edulis was more close to Oryza sativa than Zea mays in the genetic relationship. Besides, qRT-PCR was used to analyze gene expression profiles, which revealed that AQP genes were expressed constitutively in all the detected tissues, and were all responsive to the environmental cues such as drought, water, and NaCl stresses. This data suggested that AQPs may play fundamental roles in maintaining normal growth and development of bamboo, which would contribute to better understanding for the complex regulation mechanism involved in the fast-growing process of bamboo. Furthermore, the result could provide valuable information for further research on bamboo functional genomics. PMID:26993482

  13. Gamma radiation-processed bamboo-polymer composites. II. Mechanical properties, moisture content and water absorption characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo-polymer composites were prepared by vacuum-impregnation followed by in situ polymerization technique using four different bamboo species and a monomer system containing styrene, unsaturated polyester, acrylonitrile and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The polymerization was carried out by gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The composites were tested for mechanical properties, moisture content, water absorption and dimensional stability. The results are compared with those for the corresponding untreated bamboo samples [zero polymer loading] and are analyzed. 5 figures, 1 table

  14. Soil respiration and carbon balance in a Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forest in subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang X.; Fan S; Qi L; Guan F; Cai C; Du M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in soil respiration (RS) in different forest ecosystems is crucial to estimate the global carbon balance. Bamboo forest is a special forest type in southern China covering an area of 5.38 million ha, 70% of which are Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forests. Bamboo forests contribute more than 10% to the whole carbon stock of forest ecosystems in China, and therefore play a critical role in the regional and nati...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brownbanded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Zhiming; Pichai, Sonchaeng; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huawei

    2014-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the brownbanded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum was obtained for the first time in this study. The mitogenome is 16,703 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one control region. The gene order and direction of transcription of C. punctatum is identical to most vertebrates. The strong codon usage bias against the G was found in the third codon positions of H-strand-encoded protein genes. The tRNA-Ser2 lost dihydrouridine arm and could not be fold into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure. In the control region, the termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence blocks domain were identified. PMID:23594278

  16. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  17. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll) and Pb(ll) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam; Francis Kalu Onwu; Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde; Mgbeahuruike A. Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo dust (BD) and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed ...

  18. Diversity and biogeography of neotropical bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae Diversidade e biogeografia de bambus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G Clark

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the distribution of bamboos in New World. For convenience, bamboos are divided into two broad groups, the woody bamboos and the herbaceous bamboos. These categories do not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships among bamboo groups. The Bambuseae includes all of the woody bamboos and is probably monophyletic, whereas the herbaceous bamboos are classified into eight tribes. In the New World (including underscribed taxa, 45-46 genera and approximately 515 species are represented; only two genera: Arundinaria and Streptogyna are not exclusively neotropical. The area of greatest endemism and diversity is the humid coastal forests of Bahia, Brazil. 22 genera have been found in this relatively small area, representing 48% of all New World genera. Five of the 22 genera are endemic to the Bahia coastal forests.O presente trabalho analisa a distribuição geográfica dos bambus do Novo Mundo. Por questões práticas, os bambus foram divididos em dois grupos: os bambus lenhosos e os herbáceos, essas categorias entretanto, nem sempre refletem relacionamentos filogenéticos, pois embora as Bambuseae incluam todos os bambus lenhosos, sendo portanto provavelmetne monofiléticos, os bambus herbáceos são classificados em oito tribos. No Novo Mundo, (incluindo os taxa ainda não descritos existem cerca de 45-46 gêneros e aproximadamente 515 espécies. Desses gêneros, apenas dois: Arundinaria e Streptogyna não são exclusivamente neotropicais. A área de maior endemismo e diversidade do grupo, está nas florestas costeiras da Bahia, Brasil. Nesta região são encontrados 22 gêneros, representando 48% de todos os gêneros neotropicais e desses, 5 são exclusivos desta região da Bahia.

  19. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  20. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C. The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  1. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    OpenAIRE

    Anísio Azzini; Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado; João Paulo Feijão Teixeira; Roberto Machado de Moraes

    1981-01-01

    Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier) was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C). The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  2. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  3. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg−1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg−1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg−1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology. PMID:26337551

  4. Catalytic synthesis of bamboo-like multiwall BN nanotubes via SHS-annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo-like multiwall boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were synthesized via annealing porous precursor prepared by self-propagation high temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The as-synthesized BN nanotubes were characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These nanotubes have uniform diameters of about 60 nm and an average length of about 10 μm. Four growth models, including tip, base, based tip and base-tip growth models, are proposed based on the catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism for explaining the formation of the as-synthesized bamboo-like BN nanotubes. Chemical reactions and annealing mechanism are also discussed. -- Graphical Abstract: A novel and effective annealing porous precursor route to bulk synthesis of bamboo-like multiwall BN nanotubes. Four growth models of VLS growth mechanism for these nanotubes are proposed. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Bulk bamboo-like BN nanotubes were synthesized by SHS-annealing method. → Boron-containing, porous precursor played a crucial role in bulk synthesis process. → Four possible growth models were proposed to explain the formation of the bamboo-like BN nanotubes.

  5. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL PMID:24933901

  6. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg-1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg-1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg-1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology.

  7. Change of free radicals and chemical structure of Moso bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 60Co γ radiation, absolutely dry bamboo powder produced free radicals and its chemical composition and structure changed. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to measure the spectrum of the free radicals and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the γ-ray radiated bamboo powder. The test results reveal that when the spectral splitting factor (g) of the bamboo free radicals is 2.0033, and the intensity of free radicals increase with the absorbed dosage of irradiation according to exponential law. After irradiation of 200 kGy, the O/C atomic number ratio in the bamboo surface increases slightly, C-C and C-H content increases, C-O and C=O content decreases, and -O-C=O content increases to 1.5 times over that of the original, which indicates some oxygen-containing functional groups occur and oxidation state of carbon increases in the bamboo surface. (authors)

  8. Production and characterization of charcoal from species and varieties of bamboos; Producao e caracterizacao do carvao vegetal de especies e variedades de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Tomazello Filho, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Barros Salgado, A.L. de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Samples of bamboo culms (B. vulgaris var. vittata, B vulgaris, B. tuldoides. Dendrocalamus, Guandua angustifolia) were collected in three longitudinal positions from adult culms and carbonized in laboratory conditions. Eucalypt (E. urophilla hybrid) wood was used as a comparative parameter. Differences between the charcoal from the bamboo species and Eucalypt were observed. The bamboo culms presented higher values of lignin and holorcelulose in relation to wood samples. The bamboo culms provided higher charcoal yields and non-condensable gases.The bamboo charcoal was denser and with higher ash content in relation to wood charcoal. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Molecular Phylogeny of the Bamboo Sharks (Chiloscyllium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haslina Masstor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiloscyllium, commonly called bamboo shark, can be found inhabiting the waters of the Indo-West Pacific around East Asian countries such as Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List has categorized them as nearly threatened sharks out of their declining population status due to overexploitation. A molecular study was carried out to portray the systematic relationships within Chiloscyllium species using 12S rRNA and cytochrome b gene sequences. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian were used to reconstruct their phylogeny trees. A total of 381 bp sequences’ lengths were successfully aligned in the 12S rRNA region, with 41 bp sites being parsimony-informative. In the cytochrome b region, a total of 1120 bp sites were aligned, with 352 parsimony-informative characters. All analyses yield phylogeny trees on which C. indicum has close relationships with C. plagiosum. C. punctatum is sister taxon to both C. indicum and C. plagiosum while C. griseum and C. hasseltii formed their own clade as sister taxa. These Chiloscyllium classifications can be supported by some morphological characters (lateral dermal ridges on the body, coloring patterns, and appearance of hypobranchials and basibranchial plate that can clearly be used to differentiate each species.

  10. Multiple disturbances accelerate clonal growth in a potentially monodominant bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Paul R; Platt, William J

    2008-03-01

    Organisms capable of rapid clonal growth sometimes monopolize newly freed space and resources. We hypothesize that sequential disturbances might change short-term clonal demography of these organisms in ways that promote formation of monotypic stands. We examined this hypothesis by studying the clonal response of Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane, a bamboo) to windstorm and fire. We studied giant cane growing in both a large tornado-blowdown gap and under forest canopy, in burned and unburned plots, using a split-block design. We measured density of giant cane ramets (culms) and calculated finite rates of increase (lamda) for populations of ramets over three years. Ramet density nearly doubled in stands subjected to both windstorm and fire; the high ramet densities that resulted could inhibit growth in other plants. In comparison, ramet density increased more slowly after windstorm alone, decreased after fire alone, and remained in stasis in controls. We predict that small, sparse stands of giant cane could spread and amalgamate to form dense, monotypic stands (called "canebrakes") that might influence fire return intervals and act as an alternative state to bottomland forest. Other clonal species may similarly form monotypic stands following successive disturbances via rapid clonal growth. PMID:18459325

  11. Nitrogen-mediated Carbon Nanotube Growth: Diameter reduction, metallicity, bundle dispersability, and bamboo formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotube growth in the presence of nitrogen has been the subject of much experimental scrutiny, sparking intense debate about the role of nitrogen in the formation of diverse structural features, including shortened length, reduced diameters, and bamboo-like multilayered nanotubules. In this letter, the origin of these features is elucidated using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, showing that N acts as a surfactant during growth. N doping enhances the formation of smaller diameter tubes and it can also promote tube closure which includes a relatively large amount of N atoms into the tube lattice, leading to bamboo-like structures. Our findings demonstrate that the mechanism is independent of the tube chirality and suggest a simple procedure for controlling the growth of bamboo-like nanotube morphologies.

  12. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  13. Study on change of free radicals of bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo samples collected in mountain areas of Fujian province were mechanically pulverized into saw dust. This breaks the covalent bonds of bamboo molecules and free radicals are formed. ESR characterization of the bamboo saw dust samples of 20, 200 and 500 mesh showed that the relative intensity of the 500 mesh saw dust was the highest, and that of the 20 mesh was the lowest(g=2.0033). After 60Co γ-ray irradiation,the intensity of free radicals increased sharply. At>100 kGy, the free radicals tended to be saturated at about 40 times of the free radicals produced mechanically. The intensity of free radicals increased exponentially with the dose below 100 kGy, and decay coefficients of the free radicals in the three samples were different. (authors)

  14. Influence of Laundering on the Quality of Sewn Cotton and Bamboo Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija DAUKANTIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the effect of laundering on the quality of sewn cotton and bamboo plain woven fabrics was investigated considering both the textile parameters and the type of chemical treatment. Quality parameters of sewn cotton and bamboo woven fabrics such as: fabric strength, seam strength and seam slippage at the moment of 4 mm seam opening were evaluated before and after washing with “Tide” washing powder without softeners or with softeners: “Surcare” and “Pflege Weicspuler”. There was also determined surface density, warp and weft densities as well as thicknesses under the pressures 0.625 kPa and 3.125 kPa, and calculated the comparative thickness that was considered as softness or porosity of fabrics. Notwithstanding that both the investigated fabrics were cellulosic their behavior after laundering was different. Under the tested conditions, unwashed and laundered with or without chemical softeners cotton fabric didn’t demonstrate seam slippage. The seam slippage resistance of laundered without or with softener specimens of bamboo fabric was increased in respect to control fabric. The larger changes in seam efficiency and seam strength because of laundering were determined for bamboo woven fabric then for cotton fabric. They could be influenced by the higher changes in bamboo fabric’s structure. The highest difference between the structure parameters of both fabrics was determined for comparative thickness. It was significantly increased for cotton fabric and decreased for bamboo fabric after chemical softening comparing to untreated fabrics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3831

  15. Removal of nitrate using Paracoccus sp. YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Paracoccus sp. immobilized on bamboo carbon used for the denitrification. ►The rate of denitrification increased using the immobilized cells. ► 99.8% denitrification was maintained after 10-cycle reuse. ► Demonstrating an excellent reusability and a potential technique. - Abstract: Paracoccus sp. strain YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon was developed for the denitrification. The results show that denitrification was significantly improved using immobilized cells compared to that of free cells, where denitrification time decreased from 24 h (free cells) to 15 h (immobilized cells). The efficiency of denitrification increased from 4.57 mg/(L h) (free cells) to 6.82 mg/(L h) (immobilized cells). Kinetics studies suggest that denitrification by immobilized YF1 cells fitted well to the zero-order model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that firstly, the bacteria became stable on the inside and exterior of the bamboo carbon particles and secondly, they formed biofilm after adhesion. Various factors and their influences on biological denitrification were investigated, namely temperature, pH, initial nitrate concentrations and carbon sources. The immobilized cells exhibited more nitrate removal at various conditions compared to free cells since bamboo carbon as a carrier protects cells against changes in environmental conditions. Denitrification using the YF1 immobilized in bamboo carbon was also maintained 99.8% after the tenth cycle reuse, thus demonstrating excellent reusability. Finally, wastewater was treated using the immobilized cells and the outcome was that nitrogen was completely removed by bamboo-immobilized YF1.

  16. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Application of Carbon Dioxide Injection Technology in Bamboo Cement Board Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri; Sanusi, Djamal; Muin, Musrizal; Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the appropriate bamboo species to be used as raw material for cement board manufacturing and (2) to determine the best phase of C O2 and the most optimum of CO2 injection time to produce the best characteristics of cement board. For the first objective, mixtures of bamboo culm particles, cement, and water on the ratio by weight of 1 : 2.5 : 1.25 were casted in iron plate mold of 25 x 25 x 1 cm3, pressed and then hold for 24 h...

  18. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  19. Research on Bamboo Charcoal Bonded Grinding Wheel and Its Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Minjie; Zhan, Fangyong; Jin, Mingsheng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of grinding wheel and its manufacturing production process are introduced. The new BCB (Bamboo Charcoal Bond) grinding wheel was made of bamboo charcoal, phenolic resin and abrasive powder with higher press and temperature. To investigate its mechanical features, such as Rockwell hardness, resistance to abrasion, and resistance to pressure, some experiments on three BCB samples with different Resin weight ratios 20%, 25%, 30%, were carried out. The results showed that the BCB sample with proper moulding process and Resin weight ratio had better performance.

  20. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Widya Fatriasari; Wasrin Syafii; Nyoman J Wistara; Khaswar Syamsu; Bambang Prasetya

    2014-01-01

    The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained gr...

  1. Gamma radiation processed bamboo polymer composites. III. Possible applications for tensile reinforcement of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three species of bamboo were converted to bamboo-polymer composites by vacuum impregnation with monomer and in situ polymerization using gamma irradiation. Resistance of the composites to various chemicals present in concrete was tested. Resistance to termites, fungus and other forms of biological attack was examined. Strength-to-weight ratios were calculated based on mechanical tests performed earlier (paper II of this three-part series). Possible application for tensile reinforcement of concrete is discussed in considerable detail. 2 figures, 4 tables

  2. A new genus of bamboo coral (Octocorallia: Isididae) from the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    A bamboo coral collected during a deep-sea expedition to the Bahamas in 2009 proved to have a unique combination of features for a member of the bamboo coral subfamily Keratoisidinae: the structure and shape of the polyps, the sclerites consisting entirely of rods, some of which extend the length of the polyp, the delicateness of the branches with solid internodes, and the deep funnel construction of the peristomal region into which the tentacles can contract. The specimens are described as a new genus and species. PMID:25781091

  3. Impact resistance performance of green construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced bamboo concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced with different thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter for a constant spacing for various slab thickness using 0.45 OPS and 0.6 OPS bamboo reinforced concrete. The increment in bamboo diameter has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Increment in slab thickness of the slab has more effect on the crack resistance as compare to the increment in the diameter of the bamboo reinforcement.

  4. Impact resistance performance of green construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced bamboo concrete slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Z. C.; Usman, F.; Beddu, S.; Alam, M. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Saadi, S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced with different thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter for a constant spacing for various slab thickness using 0.45 OPS and 0.6 OPS bamboo reinforced concrete. The increment in bamboo diameter has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Increment in slab thickness of the slab has more effect on the crack resistance as compare to the increment in the diameter of the bamboo reinforcement.

  5. An optimal proportion of mixing broad-leaved forest for enhancing the effective productivity of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Shi, Pei-Jian; Hui, Cang; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-04-01

    Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys edulis) are important forestry plants in southern China, with substantial roles to play in regional economic and ecological systems. Mixing broad-leaved forests and moso bamboos is a common management practice in China, and it is fundamental to elucidate the interactions between broad-leaved trees and moso bamboos for ensuring the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. We examine how the proportion of broad-leaved forest in a mixed managed zone, topology, and soil profile affects the effective productivity of moso bamboos (i.e., those with significant economic value), using linear regression and generalized additive models. Bamboo's diameter at breast height follows a Weibull distribution. The importance of these variables to bamboo productivity is, respectively, slope (25.9%), the proportion of broad-leaved forest (24.8%), elevation (23.3%), gravel content by volume (16.6%), slope location (8.3%), and soil layer thickness (1.2%). Highest productivity is found on the 25° slope, with a 600-m elevation, and 30% broad-leaved forest. As such, broad-leaved forest in the upper slope can have a strong influence on the effective productivity of moso bamboo, ranking only after slope and before elevation. These factors can be considered in future management practice. PMID:25937902

  6. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  7. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  8. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles.

  9. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development from bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Longfei Zhu; Yan Shi; Qiaolu Zang; Quan Shi; Shinan Liu; Yingwu Xu; Xinchun Lin

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo flowering owns many unique characteristics and remains a mystery. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a PISTILLATA homologue named BoPI from Bambusa oldhamii (bamboo family). Expression analysis showed that BoPI was highly expressed in flower organs and gradually increased during flower development stage, suggesting that BoPI played an important role in flower development. Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs, BoPI was also expressed in leaf and branch, which revealed that BoPI may involve in leaf and branch development. Similar to other MIKC-type gene, BoPI contained the Cterminal sequence but its function was controversial. Ectopic expression of the C-terminal deletion construct (BoPI-C) in Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length construct. The result implied that the C-terminal sequence may not be absolutely required for organ identity function in the context of BoPI.

  10. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development from bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longfei; Shi, Yan; Zang, Qiaolu; Shi, Quan; Liu, Shinan; Xu, Yingwu; Lin, Xinchun

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo flowering owns many unique characteristics and remains a mystery. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a PISTILLATA homologue named BoPI from Bambusa oldhamii (bamboo family). Expression analysis showed that BoPI was highly expressed in flower organs and gradually increased during flower development stage, suggesting that BoPI played an important role in flower development. Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs, BoPI was also expressed in leaf and branch, which revealed that BoPI may involve in leaf and branch development. Similar to other MIKC-type gene, BoPI contained the Cterminal sequence but its function was controversial. Ectopic expression of the C-terminal deletion construct (BoPI- ∆C) in Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI- ∆C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length con struct. The result implied that the C-terminal sequence may not be absolutely required for organ identity function in the context of BoPI. PMID:27019434

  11. Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  12. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  13. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products. PMID:26950755

  14. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B.; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003–2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  15. Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; Deepak Jain; Archana Nigrawal

    2006-04-01

    Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

  16. Sustainable value chains for bamboo working communities: Integrating the tenets of sustainability through the Rhizome Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reubens, R.R.R.; Brezet, J.C.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand globally for products which impact sustainability positively. Bamboo fulfills these criteria, since it is a highly renewable timber replacement material which does not cause deforestation. It simultaneously has the potential to create livelihood opportunities for both the u

  17. Improvement of the computing speed of the FBR fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNC has developed a coupled analysis system of a fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO' and a thermal hydraulics analysis code ASFRE-IV' for the purpose of evaluating the integrity of a subassembly under the BDI condition. This coupled analysis took much computation time because it needs convergent calculations to obtain numerically stationary solutions for thermal and mechanical behaviors. We improved the computation time of the BAMBOO code analysis to make the coupled analysis practicable. 'BAMBOO' is a FEM code and as such its matrix calculations consume large memory area to temporarily stores intermediate results in the solution of simultaneous linear equations. The code used the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) for the virtual memory area to save Random Access Memory (RAM) of the computer. However, the use of the HDD increased the computation time because Input/Output (I/O) processing with the HDD took much time in data accesses. We improved the code in order that it could conduct I/O processing only with the RAM in matrix calculations and run with in high-performance computers. This improvement considerably increased the CPU occupation rate during the simulation and reduced the total simulation time of the BAMBOO code to about one-seventh of that before the improvement. (author)

  18. Measuring leaf necrosis and chlorosis of bamboo induced by typhoon 0613 with RGB image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; Haruhiko Yamamoto; Yasuomi Ibaraki

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of leaf necrosis or chlorosis of bamboo induced by Typhoon 0613 (T0613) were analyzed using RGB image analysis in Yamaguchi city, Japan. Results showed a closely positive relationship between Green/Red (G/R) value for indoor taking images of bamboo individual leaves and chlorophyll meter value (SPAD) with regression coefficient of 0.961. The relation between G/R value of room taking images and Necrotic Area Percentage (NAP) for bamboo individual leaves showed an inverse logistic function relationship, with the correlated coefficient equaling to 0.958. Both leaf chlorosis and necrosis can be quantitatively estimated by RGB image analysis. Moreover, the variance of Green/Luminance (G/L) value for the same leaf was less than that of G/R for images taken in the conditions with large light difference, especially for green leaves. G/L value also exhibited a closer relationship with SPAD value of leaves with chlorosis than that of G/R values at the same condition. The relationship between G/L value for bamboo canopies and the Distance from Coastline (DC) was also closer than that of the G/R value for the images taken at field sites with big light difference.

  19. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a five-year period (2003-2007 after a mast flowering event (2003. We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the five years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves. Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  20. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability and integration in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Werger, M.J.A.; Kroon, de H.; During, H.J.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2000-01-01

    The age structure of adult shoots, the nutrient availability of the habitat, and their interaction, are important factors influencing the productivity of bamboo groves. In a field fertilization experiment over two years we examined the impact of physiological integration on the emergence, growth, an

  1. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  2. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  3. Remembering or Misremembering? Historicity and the Case of "So Far from the Bamboo Grove"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ae

    2008-01-01

    A recent controversy in the USA centres on classroom use of Yoko Kawashima Watkins's semi-autobiographical "So Far from the Bamboo Grove" (1986), a novel focused on the flight of Japanese settler families to Japan after the liberation of Korea at the end of World War II. Taught in a literary and historical vacuum under the thematic umbrella of…

  4. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Light Weight Rice Husk Concrete with Bamboo Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Beddu, Salmia; Syamsir, Agusril; Sigar Ating, Joshua; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight rice husk concrete (LWRHC) with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced with varied slab thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.65 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter and slab thickness. 5% RH content exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 1.80 times and up to 1.72 times respectively against 10% RH content.

  5. Bamboo and Poison Gas: Take-Off Points for Developing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, James

    1986-01-01

    Shows how to use common topics within area studies to develop important social studies skills. The example provided illustrates how to develop data analysis, data evaluation, problem solving, and map skills using the topics of bamboo and the Bhopal, India, chemical disaster. (JDH)

  6. Running Bamboo: A Mentoring Network of Women Intending to Thrive in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Unterreiner, Ann; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Esnard, Talia; Wu, Ke; Beck, Makini

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the authors' experiences as women academics who engage in informal peer mentoring to persist in the cultural milieus of their respective institutions. The authors draw on poststructural perspectives and the metaphor of the rhizome "running bamboo" to illustrate the connections they forged in a mentoring network…

  7. Bioconversion of bamboo to bioethanol using the two-stage organosolv and alkali pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo’s ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils, with little requirement of silvicultural management, easy harvesting characteristics, vegetative propagation, fast growth, and a host of other desirable characteristics, make it a good candidate as an energy crop. Energy crops are cultivated solely for use as sources of energy through their conversion into alcohols. This study set out to determine the potential of moso bamboo to be used in the two-stage organosolv and alkali pretreatment for the production of bioethanol. Moso bamboo contains 63.3% (w/w holocellulose and can serve as a low-cost feedstock for bioethanol production. After organosolv pretreatment (2% w/w H2SO4 in 75% w/w ethanol, 160 °C for 30 min, the bamboo was further delignified through pretreatment of sodium hydroxide (10% and 20% w/w or calcium hydroxide (10% w/w, which resulted in about 96.5% (NaOH and 85.7% (Ca(OH2 lignin removal. The enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified cellulosic bamboo substrate with cellulase (15 FPU/g glucan and β-glucosidase (30 IU/g glucan showed 80.9% to 95.5% saccharification after 48 h incubation at 50 °C and pH 4.8. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 89.1% to 92.0% of the corresponding theoretical ethanol yield after 24 h.

  8. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  9. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: mitsutoshi.ume@gmail.com; Takenaka, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  10. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  11. Seasonal variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical bamboo plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emissions and environmental conditions were measured over a six month period in a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) forest in a subtropical region in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system on an above-canopy tower. From July to November of 2012, isoprene contributed 99.1% of terpenoid emissions. α-pinene, constituting 0.8% of total observed terpenoid emissions, was the only monoterpene for which a significant flux was detected. Emissions of the sesquiterpenes longifolene and α-cedrene were observed at very low rates. Isoprene and α-pinene emissions exhibited strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak and coincided with the daily temperature peak. This behavior can be described reasonably well by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic emission model. During the campaign (i.e., from 7 July, 2012 to 19 Jan., 2013), the mean (and maximum) emission fluxes (mg m-2 h-1) were 0.95 (10.32) for isoprene, 0.010 (0.176) for α pinene, 0.001 (0.063) for longifolene, and 2.6 × 10-4 (0.009) for α-cedrene, respectively. During the winter season, when the ground was covered by organic mulch to increase soil temperature and to increase the yield of bamboo shoot, there was no evident impact on BVOC emissions. The observed seasonal variation followed the general behavior predicted by the MEGANv2.1 model, with lower emissions associated with cooler conditions, but the magnitude of the emission decrease was greater than expected indicating driving variables are missing from the model. Emission factors, representing the emission expected for a Leaf Area Index of 5 at a temperature of 30 °C and PAR of 1500 μmol m-2 s-1, during the peak growing season for this site were 0.008 mg m-2 h-1 for α-pinene and 3.3 mg m-2 h-1 for isoprene. The isoprene emission

  12. Evidence of sulfur-bound reduced copper in bamboo exposed to high silicon and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined copper (Cu) absorption, distribution and toxicity and the role of a silicon (Si) supplementation in the bamboo Phyllostachys fastuosa. Bamboos were maintained in hydroponics for 4 months and submitted to two different Cu (1.5 and 100 μm Cu2+) and Si (0 and 1.1 mM) concentrations. Cu and Si partitioning and Cu speciation were investigated by chemical analysis, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Copper was present as Cu(I) and Cu(II) depending on plant parts. Bamboo mainly coped with high Cu exposure by: (i) high Cu sequestration in the root (ii) Cu(II) binding to amino and carboxyl ligands in roots, and (iii) Cu(I) complexation with both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands in stems and leaves. Silicon supplementation decreased the visible damage induced by high Cu exposure and modified Cu speciation in the leaves where a higher proportion of Cu was present as inorganic Cu(I)S compounds, which may be less toxic. - Highlights: • We examine the role of Si supplementation in mitigating Cu toxicity in bamboos. • In all plant parts, Cu was present under two oxidation states Cu(I) and Cu(II). • In stems and leaves, Cu(I) was bound to both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands. • Si supplementation decreased visible damages and modified Cu speciation. • The formation of an inorganic Cu(I)S compound may be involved in Cu storage. - Si supplementation modifies Cu speciation in a bamboo species used in phytoremediation

  13. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  14. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Ye; Cheng, Yan-Lin; Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  15. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses. PMID:27170010

  16. Microscopic determination of bamboo fiber in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Javůrková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, a suitable additive to meat products with water-holding capacity, reduces curing losses and maintains juiciness of the meat. The risk is the use of excessive amounts of flour or other ingredients of vegetable origin, in which the fiber is contained. In some cases, sensory characteristics of products can be affected. Detection of fiber may be prevention of adulteration in some meat products. It is therefore very important to regularly detect the amount of fiber in meat products and check its contents. Fiber in meat products can be detected by various methods, applied are for example gravimetric, spectroscopic, histochemical, and microscopic methods. For this reason, a model meat product (Vysočina salami was prepared in our experiment with the addition of bamboo fiber of selected concentrations of 0%, 2%, and 3%. Subsequently, a series of microscopic sections was made on different days of curing (day no. 7, 14 of the drying phase and 28, 42 of storage. Individual sections were examined and captured using a polarization microscope, the amounts of fiber in individual sections were analyzed by means of image analysis software and the values obtained were compared with each other. Also the influence of drying on the measured area of fiber in sections was monitored. The results indicate a noticeable reduction in the area of fiber until the seventh day of ripening, which is caused by the rapid loss of water in the product. In contrast, sections of products from the following days of drying contained mildly increased concentrations of fiber, which was caused by gradual drying of the products, while the area of fiber refrained form becoming smaller. Between the individual days of drying, a difference that was statistically significant was demonstrated from the 14th day of (storage or drying. Correlation was observed between the date of (storage or drying and amount of added fiber. Among the tested mean values for the sample with the addition of

  17. Storage Effect of Konjak(Amorphophallus)Polysaccharose and Bamboo Leaves on Green Bamboo Shoots%魔芋多糖和竹叶汁对绿竹笋保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾竞华; 庞杰; 谢建华; 林启训; 邹少强; 李艺雄

    2001-01-01

    以易变质的绿竹笋为试材,通过天然产物魔芋多糖和竹叶中的有效成分对绿竹笋进行涂膜处理,并在3℃低温下贮存。结果表明:经涂膜的绿竹笋,其失重率,老化程度大大低于未经涂膜的。涂膜的绿竹笋在低温下贮存至第20天时,其木质纤维化程度低,有效地阻止绿竹笋的老化变质,延长了贮藏期,且外观品质良好。%Green bamboo shoots, which is to go wrong , was treated with hatural material elephant taro polysaccharose and bamboo leaves and stored under 3℃. Results showed that weight loss rate and aged degree of treated green bamboo shoots were lower than that of untreated green bamboo shoots .When the treated green bamboo shoots were stored under low temperature for 20 days, with low lignification degree, it inhibited effectively aged and deterioration of green bamboo shoots, lengthened the stored period with good appearance quality .

  18. Pretreatment of bamboo by ultra-high pressure explosion with a high-pressure homogenizer for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Li, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo shoots, 2- and 5-year-old bamboo were treated by using a homogenizer in a constant suspended state, a process termed as ultra-high pressure explosion (UHPE). The bamboo powder was heated in 2% NaOH solution at 121°C, and then 100MPa UHPE-treated through a homogenizer. The results verified that UHPE changed the suspension solution of powder into a stick fluid. The contents of lignin were decreased significantly. The bamboo shoots and 2-year-old bamboo were completely hydrolyzed to glucose within 48h by enzymes loading of 15 FPU of cellulase and 30IU of β-glucosidase per gram glucan. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 89.7-95.1% of the theoretical ethanol yield after 24h. Therefore, NaOH+UHPE is argued to be a potential alternative technology for pretreatment of bamboo. PMID:27189535

  19. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  20. 竹在园林设计中的审美效应%Aesthetic Effect of Bamboos in Landscape Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伏虎

    2012-01-01

    In the perspective of dominant and recessive beauty, the aesthetic effect of bamboos in landscape design has been illustrated from four aspects, which are "bamboo leading to a secluded spot" and "simplicity and magnificence" , "bamboos at windows" and "bamboos shadows on white walls" , bamboos, waters, rocks and plants setting each other off and literati' s feeling about bamboos. On this basis, by combining with different characteristics of Chinese and western landscapes, the paper has proposed the application tendency of bamboos in landscape design, and emphasized integrating the essence of Chinese traditional landscape with western rational theory, so as to create more vivid bamboo landscapes.%以显性美和隐性美为视角,分别从4个方面论述了竹子在园林设计中的审美效应,即“竹里通幽”与“淳朴壮观”之美,“移竹当窗”与“粉墙竹影”之美,竹与水、石和其他植物掩映之美,以及竹子的文人情怀美.在此基础上,结合中西方园林的不同特征,提出了今后竹子在园林设计中的应用走向,强调了将中国传统园林的精华与西方的理性理论相互融合,创造更为动人的竹子造景的发展方向和思路.

  1. 竹子在使用过程中的保护%Protection of Bamboo in Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter Liese

    2003-01-01

    Bamboo culms are an excellent material for countless applications. Their wider use for construction is encouraged by the growing scarcity of timber. Since bamboo has a low natural resistance, protection against biological degradation is of vital importance for long term service.Protective measures without chemicals are preferable , but often limited in their effectiveness.When using preservatives, the restricted permeability of culm tissue, choice of preservative and treatment method and environmental effects as well as economical aspects have to be considered.

  2. Functional traits enhance invasiveness of bamboos over co-occurring tree saplings in the semideciduous Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I.; Gatti, M. Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Many woody bamboo species are forest understory plants that become invasive after disturbance. They can grow rapidly forming a dense, nearly monospecific understory that inhibits tree regeneration. The principal aim of this study was to understand what functional traits of bamboos allow them to outcompete tree seedlings and saplings and become successful species in the semideciduous Atlantic Forests of northeastern Argentina. We studied leaf and whole-plant functional traits of two bamboo species of the genus Chusquea and five co-occurring saplings of common tree species growing under similar solar radiation and soil nutrient availabilities. Nutrient addition had no effect on bamboo or tree sapling survival and growth after two years. Tree species with high-light requirements had higher growth rates and developed relatively thin leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area and short leaf life-span when growing in gaps, but had lower survival rates in the understory. The opposite pattern was observed in shade-tolerant species that were able to survive in the understory but had lower photosynthetic capacity and growth than light-requiring species in gaps. Bamboos exhibited a high plasticity in functional traits and leaf characteristics that enabled them to grow rapidly in gaps (e.g., higher photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass and clonal reproduction in gaps than in the understory) but at the same time to tolerate closed-canopy conditions (they had thinner leaves and a relatively longer leaf life-span in the understory compared to gaps). Photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass was higher in bamboos than in trees. Bamboo plasticity in key functional traits, such as clonal reproduction at the plant level and leaves with a relatively low C cost and high photosynthesis rates, allows them to colonize disturbed forests with consequences at the community and ecosystem levels. Increasing disturbance in some forests worldwide will likely enhance bamboo

  3. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Katayama

    Full Text Available Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvesting on bamboo shoot productivity by conducting an experimental manipulation of bamboo shoot harvesting. Twenty experimental plots were prepared in the Teshio Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University and were assigned into two groups: a harvest treatment, in which newly emerged edible bamboo shoots were harvested (n = 10; and a control treatment, in which bamboo shoots were maintained without harvesting (n = 10. In the first year of harvesting (2013, bamboo shoot productivities were examined twice; i.e., the productivity one day after harvesting and the subsequent post-harvest productivity (2-46 days after harvesting, and we observed no difference in productivity between treatments. This means that there was no difference in original bamboo shoot productivity between treatments, and that harvesting did not influence productivity in the initial year. In contrast, in the following year (2014, the number of bamboo shoots in the harvested plots was 2.4-fold greater than in the control plots. These results indicate that over-compensatory growth occurred in the harvested plots in the year following harvesting. Whereas previous research has emphasized the negative impact of harvesting, this study provides the first experimental evidence that harvesting can enhance the productivity of a wild edible plant. This suggests that exploiting compensatory growth, which really amounts to less of a decline in productivity, may be s a key for the effective use of wild edible

  4. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  5. Characterization of the floral transcriptome of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis at different flowering developmental stages by transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an arborescent and perennial plant, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J. Houzeau, synonym Phyllostachys heterocycla Carrière is characterized by its infrequent sexual reproduction with flowering intervals ranging from several to more than a hundred years. However, little bamboo genomic research has been conducted on this due to a variety of reasons. Here, for the first time, we investigated the transcriptome of developing flowers in Moso bamboo by using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing and mapping short reads to the Moso bamboo genome and reference genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis on four important stages of flower development, and obtained extensive gene and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of this key bamboo species. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library using equal amounts of RNA from Moso bamboo leaf samples from non-flowering plants (CK and mixed flower samples (F of four flower development stages. We generated more than 67 million reads from each of the CK and F samples. About 70% of the reads could be uniquely mapped to the Moso bamboo genome and the reference genes. Genes detected at each stage were categorized to putative functional categories based on their expression patterns. The analysis of RNA-seq data of bamboo flowering tissues at different developmental stages reveals key gene expression properties during the flower development of bamboo. CONCLUSION: We showed that a combination of transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis was a powerful approach to identifying candidate genes related to floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of Moso bamboo flowering and ageing. This transcriptomic data also provides an important gene resource for improving breeding for Moso bamboo.

  6. A novel xylogenic suspension culture model for exploring lignification in Phyllostachys bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogita Shinjiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some prominent cultured plant cell lines, such as the BY-2 cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. ‘Bright Yellow 2’ and the T87 cell line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh., ecotype Columbia are used as model plant cells. These suspension cell culture systems are highly applicable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, no such prominent cultured cell lines exist in bamboo species. Results We standardized a novel xylogenic suspension culture model in order to unveil the process of lignification in living bamboo cells. Initial signs of lignin deposition were able to be observed by a positive phloroglucinol-HCl reaction at day 3 to 5 under lignification conditions (LG, i.e., modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (m1/2MS containing 10 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA and 3% sucrose. Two types of xylogenic differentiation, both fiber-like elements (FLEs with cell wall thickening and tracheary elements (TEs with formation of perforations in the cell wall, were observed under these conditions. The suspension cells rapidly formed secondary cell wall components that were highly lignified, making up approximately 25% of the cells on a dry weight basis within 2 weeks. Detailed features involved in cell growth, differentiation and death during lignification were characterized by laser scanning microscopic imaging. Changes in transcript levels of xylogenesis-related genes were assessed by RT-PCR, which showed that the transcription of key genes like PAL1, C4H, CCoAOMT, and CCR was induced at day 4 under LG conditions. Furthermore, interunit linkage of lignins was compared between mature bamboo culms and xylogenic suspension cells by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The presence of the most common interunit linkages, including β-aryl ether (β-O-4, phenylcoumaran (β-5 and resinol (β-β structures was identified in the bamboo cultured cell lignin (BCCL

  7. Silica distribution in various bamboos species and its effects on plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, B.; Meunier, J.; Keller, C.; Doelsch, E.; Panfili, F.

    2010-12-01

    Bamboos are distributed throughout the world’s temperate, tropical and subtropical regions. They are widely used in industry, as fresh edible shoots, paper maker, building and even in medicine. Bamboos also play multiple ecologic functions such as soil and water conservation and erosion control. Bamboos have generally high silicon (Si) content. Silicon is known to have beneficial effects on plants and alleviate various stresses. The aim of this study is to quantify the Si uptake and distribution in various bamboos species and to investigate the effects of Si on the plant growth. Two complementary studies were carried out, one under natural conditions and one under controlled conditions. First of all, we performed an inventory of Si tissue content in 16 bamboos species growing in a non-polluted tropical soil at the Reunion Island (France, Indian ocean). We determined Si content in leaf and in stem tissues sampled at several heights for each plant. One of these species Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » was grown for 3 months in nutrient solution at five Si concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.75, 1.15, 1.5 mM Si). Silica deposition was examined in leaves using a cryo-SEM equipped with EDS. The Si concentration varies significantly between species, depending on rhizome morphology. Bamboos having leptomorph rhizomes show significantly higher leaf and stem Si content than that of species having pachymorph rhizomes. The distribution of Si in the plant has the same trends for all species. Leaves are the most concentrated organs (10.9 %), and within the stem Si concentration significantly increases from the bottom (0.32%) to the top of the plant (2.1%). Plant Si content increases with the Si supply. Leaves of Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » accumulate 15.2 % of Si under natural conditions and up to 24 % when exposed to the highest Si treatment. Unlike previous studies, our experiment shows that the concentration of Si had no significant effect on nutrient uptake and biomass

  8. Dynamic allocation and transfer of non-structural carbohydrates, a possible mechanism for the explosive growth of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Gu, Honghao; Li, Quan; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Moso bamboo can rapidly complete its growth in both height and diameter within only 35-40 days after shoot emergence. However, the underlying mechanism for this "explosive growth" remains poorly understood. We investigated the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in shoots and attached mature bamboos over a 20-month period. The results showed that Moso bamboos rapidly completed their height and diameter growth within 38 days. At the same time, attached mature bamboos transferred almost all the NSCs of their leaves, branches, and especially trunks and rhizomes to the "explosively growing" shoots via underground rhizomes for the structural growth and metabolism of shoots. Approximately 4 months after shoot emergence, this transfer stopped when the leaves of the young bamboos could independently provide enough photoassimilates to meet the carbon demands of the young bamboos. During this period, the NSC content of the leaves, branches, trunks and rhizomes of mature bamboos declined by 1.5, 23, 28 and 5 fold, respectively. The trunk contributed the most NSCs to the shoots. Our findings provide new insight and a possible rational mechanism explaining the "explosive growth" of Moso bamboo and shed new light on understanding the role of NSCs in the rapid growth of Moso bamboo. PMID:27181522

  9. Comparison between the Direct Dyeing Kinetics of Bamboo and Conventional Viscose Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ji-liang; TANG Ren-cheng; CHEN Wen-jang

    2010-01-01

    Two direct dyes were applied to conventional viscose(CV)and bamboo viscose(BV)fibers,which were prepared from bamboo cellulose pulps,and the dyeing kinetics of two fibers were compared.Three kinetic equations,namely Chrastil,Cegarra-Puente,and Vickerstaff,were used to fit the experimental dyeing rate points,showing that the best result was obtained by the Chrastil equation.BV fibers displayed slightly higher dyeing rates and dye adsorption values at initial stages,but a bit lower dye adsorption values at equilibrium than CV fibers.Furthermore,the dyeing of BV fibers exhibited lower activation energies and higher dyeing rate constants than that of CV fibers,and therefore showed slightly lower dependence on temperature.

  10. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe2+ and Fe3+in NaOH or NH4OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  11. [A brief introduction to the disease-syndrome names in bamboo slips of Qin Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, Y L; Ma, Y D

    2016-05-01

    There are plenty of names of disease-syndrome from the four kinds of unearthed Qin bamboo slips, namely Fangmatan, Shuihudi, Zhoujiatai, and Liye. Altogether, these names number to 85. According to statistics, nomenclature of 34 disease-syndromes are derived from the location of the lesion, 8 from symptoms, 1 from etiology, 12 from location of lesion plus symptom, 3 from location plus etiology, and 25 are for special diseases. Through comparison of these names, with those from oracle bones and Han bamboo slips, Prescriptions for Hundred Kinds of Disease, it is summarized that, as time passes, nomenclature simply named by the location of the lesion was gradually reduced, and named by etiology and special diseases gradually increased. To some extent, it reflects the historical process of knowledge of the disease gradually deepened in ancient times. PMID:27485863

  12. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  13. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  14. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Lou; Shu-bin Wu; Gao-jin Lv

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrol...

  15. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 1...

  16. Binderless Particleboard made from Andong Bamboo and Sengon Wood Using Oxidation treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, particleboard is manufactured using formaldehyde based adhesive as a binder. Formaldehyde emission from particleboard is a main concern in contrast to binderless particleboard (BP) which doesn???t cause such problem. The objective of this research was to find out BP production method using oxidation pretreatment. Materials used in this study were andong bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae), and sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria) particles. The target density of BP was 0.75 ...

  17. Weibull statistics of bamboo fibre bundles: methodology for tensile testing of natural fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo De Los Rios, Efrain Eduardo; Moesen, Maarten; Osorio Serna, Lina Rocío; Van Vuure, Aart Willem; Ivens, Jan; Verpoest, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize bamboo (Guadua angustifolia) fibres mechanically, single fibre (SFT), dry fibre bundle (DFB) and impregnated bundle (IFB) tests were performed. It was found that the strength of the fibres follows a Weibull distribution, furthermore showing that the variability of the material (obtained from the shape parameter m=8.3) is relatively low. The tensile strength of the fibres was around 800 MPa (SFT). In order to determine experimentally the two Weibull parameters from loa...

  18. A study on bamboo ridge deformation induced by pelled-cladding interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study was made on bamboo ridge deformation. Attention was concentrated on the phenomenon of fuel ''pushing out'' which occured at the mid pellet location during pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). It was revealed by computer code simulation with FEMAXI-III that the basic mechanism of the phenomenon might be attributed to the different stress and strain conditions between mid pellet and pellet-to-pellet interface location. (orig.)

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF BAMBOO LEAF ASH AS FLY ASH ON PHYSICAL PROPERTY OF CONCRETE CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlaela Rauf; Dahlang Tahir; Iin Roswansari

    2012-01-01

    Abu daun bambu digunakan sebagai abu terbang pada semen, karena alasan ramah lingkungan. Abu daun bamboo (blash) ditambahkan pada bahan dasar semen (klinker, gipsum, tras dan batu kapur). Persentasi berat dari abu daun bambu yang digunakan adalah 0%, 3%, 4% and 6%. Penentuan komposisi kimia ditentukan dengan menggunakan fluresensi sinar-x (XRF). Sifat fisis dari sampel semen diukur menggunakan alat otomatik Blaine, Vikat, dan Autoclave. Didapatkan sifat fisisnya sesuai yang disyaratkan Standa...

  20. Flowering, die-back and recovery of a semelparous woody bamboo in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.

  1. Visualization of the flow and its vibration in Japanese traditional bamboo flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

    2006-11-01

    Any wind instrument can sound due to the vibration of the air, expiration flow inside of the wind instrument. In case of a trumpet or a clarinet, a mouth or a reed helps to sound variable tones. In case of a flute, there is no mechanical vibration. The basic mechanism of the sound, i.e., the vibration, is well-known. A hot wire type flowmeter may be applied to measure the vibration and its frequency, but it can measure only at a certain point. We would like to investigate more detail about the flow and the vibration with sound inside and outside of the flute, in order to understand the mechanism of the wind instrument and to aid in the manufacture of the good instrument. In this report, a Japanese traditional bamboo flute was used in the experiment. We tried to measure the vibration multi-dimensionally by the Dynamic PIV. 2 kinds of experiments were done. At first, we measured the Argon-gas flow with different tone inside/outside of the bamboo flute at 5000Hz using a high frequency pulse laser. Oil mist was used as the tracer particles. Then, we also tried to measure the flow of bamboo flute when a human player played, using a CW-laser and the water-mist as the tracers. As a result, we successfully measured the oscillating flow. The flow near a hole of the bamboo flute went out from and came into the flute at about 500Hz dependent on the tone. The flow outside of the labium of flute was also measured.

  2. Small scale commercial production of tilapia fingerlings in floating bamboo net-hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The inadequate supply of tilapia seed is considered as one of the major present constraints to the development of the culture industry in Nigeria. The floating bamboo net-hapa hatchery/nursery system was observed to be very efficient in the mass production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry and fingerlings at Kainji Lake Research Institute. This system was therefore, recommended for small-scale (artisanal) commercial operators consisting of fishermen families in order to increase their pr...

  3. Severe Hypernatremia by Excessive Bamboo Salt Ingestion in Healthy Young Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Hyun Jun; Bae, Hong Jin; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Young Tai

    2013-01-01

    Severe hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that has serious effects. The patient had no medical history. A. 20-year-old ingested bamboo salt for digestion and weight reduction according to the folk remedies posted on an internet website. She presented with vomiting and diarrhea over ten times per day. Her initial serum sodium concentration was 174mEq/L. Her symptoms improved rapidly with hypotonic saline infusion. She recovered completely without any sequelae in three days. Sev...

  4. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  6. Standardization of harvesting age of bamboo shoots with respect to nutritional and anti-nutritional components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok K.Pandey; Vijayalakshmi Ojha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shoots can be harvested at different ages but the data on the changes in nutritional composition with age are scanty.We standardized harvesting age of bamboo shoots in central India to obtain best quality produce with respect to nutritional composition.The shoots harvested on different days (2-20 days after emergence from ground)were analyzed for their nutritional (dietary fibres,carbohydrates,proteins,total phenols,ascorbic acid,sodium,potassium,phosphorus,calcium,magnesium and phenolic acids) and anti nutritional (cyanogen) constituents.A significant variation (at p ≤ 0.5) was observed in the nutritional composition of shoots of Dendrocalamus asper,D.strictus and Bambusa tulda harvested at different days.An overall decrease was observed in proteins and total phenols while dietary fibres and carbohydrates increased with ages.Significant variation (atp ≤ 0.5) was also observed in phenolic acids while minerals did not vary significantly.Results revealed that the optimum harvesting age for D.asper,D.strictus and B.tulda was on 10-14 days,6-10 days and 10-16 days (after emergence from the ground) respectively.These results can be used to obtain quality bamboo shoots.

  7. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  8. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid bamboo/glass fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Stanly Jones Retnam; M Sivapragash; P Pradeep

    2014-08-01

    The usage of natural fibre as reinforcement in polymer composites have widely increased because of its enhanced properties. The usage of plant fibre cannot alone satisfy all the needs of the composites. Hence, introduction of hybrid plays a vital role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. Fibre orientation contributes significant role in improving the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. In this proposal, hybrid bamboo/glass fibre woven in different orientations such as 0°/90° and ± 45° was used and its effect on mechanical properties were studied. Composites containing hybrid fibres found to possess better mechanical properties, when compared to pure bamboo. In order to justify this, the following mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact and hardness were investigated. SEM analysis shows the bonding between the matrix and reinforcement. All the above test results indicate that the introduction of natural bamboo fibre in glass reduces the overall cost of the composites with no compromise in strength and also attracted several studies covering green technologies.

  9. Bamboo shoot fiber prevents obesity in mice by modulating the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufen; Guo, Juan; Ji, Kailong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been shown to prevent high-fat diet induced obesity through modulating the gut microbiota; however, quality difference in fiber type is largely unknown. We performed a 6 week study on C57BL/6J mice fed a macronutrient matched high-fat diet with different fiber types including cellulose (HFC), bamboo shoot fiber (HFBS) and several other commonly consumed fibers. Our results showed that the HFBS group exhibited the lowest weight gain among all diet groups and had improved lipid profiles and glycemic control compared with the HFC group. As revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, loss of diversity in the gut microbiota induced by the HFC diet was largely prevented by the HFBS diet. Moreover, compared with the HFC diet, the HFBS diet resulted in markedly increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and strong inhibition of Verrucomicrobia, two divisions strongly correlated with body weight. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of a quality difference among different types of dietary fibers and shows that bamboo shoot fiber is the most effective in suppressing high-fat diet induced obesity. Our findings indicate that bamboo shoot fiber is a potential prebiotic fiber which modulates the gut microbiota and improves host metabolism. PMID:27599699

  10. Evidence of sulfur-bound reduced copper in bamboo exposed to high silicon and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Blanche; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Keller, Catherine; Cazevieille, Patrick; Tella, Marie; Chaurand, Perrine; Panfili, Frédéric; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2014-04-01

    We examined copper (Cu) absorption, distribution and toxicity and the role of a silicon (Si) supplementation in the bamboo Phyllostachys fastuosa. Bamboos were maintained in hydroponics for 4 months and submitted to two different Cu (1.5 and 100 μm Cu(2+)) and Si (0 and 1.1 mM) concentrations. Cu and Si partitioning and Cu speciation were investigated by chemical analysis, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Copper was present as Cu(I) and Cu(II) depending on plant parts. Bamboo mainly coped with high Cu exposure by: (i) high Cu sequestration in the root (ii) Cu(II) binding to amino and carboxyl ligands in roots, and (iii) Cu(I) complexation with both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands in stems and leaves. Silicon supplementation decreased the visible damage induced by high Cu exposure and modified Cu speciation in the leaves where a higher proportion of Cu was present as inorganic Cu(I)S compounds, which may be less toxic. PMID:24418975

  11. Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose and Lignin in Moso Bamboo by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Chanjun; Zhou, Binxiong; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    The contents of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are important for moso bamboo processing in biomass energy industry. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was investigated in this study. Initially, the linear relationship between bamboo components and their NIR spectroscopy was established. Subsequently, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to detect characteristic wavelengths for establishing the convenient models. For hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, 22, 22 and 20 characteristic wavelengths were obtained, respectively. Nonlinear determination models were subsequently built by an artificial neural network (ANN) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) based on characteristic wavelengths. The LS-SVM models for predicting hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin all obtained excellent results with high determination coefficients of 0.921, 0.909 and 0.892 respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy combined with SPA-LS-SVM is a useful, nondestructive tool for the determinations of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in moso bamboo.

  12. Synthesis of boron carbide nanoflakes via a bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: B4C nanoflakes were synthesized via a facile and cost-effective bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. Highlights: •Boron carbide nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. •A fluoride-assisted VLS nucleation and VS growth mechanism were proposed. •We studied the resistivity of boron carbide nanoflakes via in situ TEM techniques for the first time. -- Abstract: Boron carbide nanoflakes have been successfully synthesized by a facile and cost-effective bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. The majority of the boron carbide products exhibited a flake-like morphology with lateral dimensions of 0.5–50 μm in width and more than 50 μm in length, while the thickness was less than 150 nm. The structural, morphological, and elemental analyses demonstrated that these nanoflakes grew via the fluoride-assisted vapor–liquid–solid combined with vapor–solid growth mechanism. The corresponding growth model was proposed. In addition, the electrical property of individual boron carbide nanoflake was investigated by an in situ two point method inside a transmission electron microscope. The resistivity of boron carbide nanoflakes was measured to be 0.14 MΩ cm

  13. Seasonal, diurnal and vertical variation in photosynthetic parameters in Phyllostachys humilis bamboo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goethem, Davina; Potters, Geert; De Smedt, Sebastiaan; Gu, Lianhong; Samson, Roeland

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, temperate bamboo species have been introduced in Europe for multiple uses such as renewable bio-based materials (wood, composites, fibres, biochemicals…) and numerous ecological functions (soil and water conservation, erosion control, phytoremediation…). Despite their interesting potential, little is known on the ecophysiology of these plants in their new habitat. Therefore, we studied gas exchange parameters on a full soil bamboo plantation of Phyllostachys humilis on a test field in Ireland (Europe). We evaluated the seasonal, diurnal and vertical variation of the parameters of two commonly used photosynthetic models, i.e. the light response curve (LRC) model and the model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB). Furthermore, we tested if there were environmental effects on the photosynthetic parameters of these models and if a correlation between photosynthetic parameters and fluorescence parameters was present, fluorescence parameters can be easily and fast determined. Our results show that the gas exchange parameters do not vary diurnally or vertically. Only seasonal variations were found and should, therefore, be taken into account when using the LRC or FvCB model when modelling canopy growth. Therefore, a big-leaf model or a sunlit-shade model can be used for modelling bamboo growth in Western Europe. There is no straightforward relation between environmental variables and the photosynthetic parameters. Although fluorescence parameters showed a correlation with the photosynthetic parameters, application of such correlation may be limited. PMID:24585025

  14. Grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo, a lignocellulosic biopolymer material, is of interest as feedstock for production of cellulose derivatives by chemical functionalization. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material (average Degree of Polymerization 816, isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus stictus was performed by varying the process parameters such as duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration, polymerization time, temperature of reaction and acrylonitrile concentration to study their influence on percent grafting and grafting efficiency. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus in heterogenous medium can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The optimum reaction conditions obtained for grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material were: duration of dipping cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution 1 hr, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration 0.02 M, acrylonitrile concentration 24.6 mol/anhydroglucose unit, temperature of reaction 40°C and polymerization time 4 hrs. The percent grafting for optimized samples is 210.3% and grafting efficiency is 97%. The characterization of the grafted products by means of FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy furnished the evidence of grafting of acrylonitrile onto the cellulosic material.

  15. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  17. Above ground standing biomass and carbon storage in village bamboos in North East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jyoti Nath, Arun; Das, Ashesh Kumar [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Das, Gitasree [Department of Statistics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)

    2009-09-15

    Bamboo forms an important component in the traditional landscape of North East India. For biomass estimation of village bamboos of Barak Valley, North East India, allometric relationships were developed by harvest method describing leaf, branch and culm biomass with DBH as an independent variable using a log linear model. The culm density of the stand was 8950 culms ha{sup -1} during 2005 of which 67% of growing stock was represented by Bambusa cacharensis, 17.88% by Bambusa vulgaris and 15.12% by Bambusa balcooa. Above ground stand biomass was 121.51 t ha{sup -1} of which 86% was contributed by culm component followed by branch (10%) and leaf (4%). With respect to species, B. cacharensis made up to 46% of total stand biomass followed by B. vulgaris (28%) and B. balcooa (26%). Carbon storage in the above ground biomass was 61.05 t ha{sup -1}. Allocation of C was more in culm components (53.05 t ha{sup -1}) than in branch (5.81 t ha{sup -1}) and leaf (2.19 t ha{sup -1}). Carbon storage in the litter floor mass was 2.40 t ha{sup -1}, of which leaf litter made up the highest amount (1.37 t ha{sup -1}) followed by sheath (0.86 t ha{sup -1}) and branch (0.17 t ha{sup -1}). Carbon stock in the soil up to 30 cm depth was 57.3 t ha{sup -1}. Gross C stock in the plantation was estimated to be 120.75 t ha{sup -1}. Carbon storage estimated in the bamboo stand of present study offers insights into the opportunity of village bamboos in the rural landscape for carbon storage through carbon sequestration. Management and utilization of village bamboos as a potential source of carbon sink by smallholder farmers are discussed in the context of their livelihood security and the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. (author)

  18. Dimensões das fibras em bambusáceas Fiber dimensions of bamboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados das medições de comprimento e largura das fibras de 27 espécies alienígenas de bambus, compreendendo 12 gêneros, das quais apenas 4 foram anteriormente estudados pelos autores. O material usado nos exames biométricos das fibras de 19 das novas espécies estudadas, foi coletado do "bambusetum" localizado na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, sendo que o dos 4 restantes do base do côlmo de mudos importadas do estrangeiro, mas que não vingaram. Os resultados dos medições mostram que as dimensões das fibras, em comprimento e largura, variaram grandemente segundo as espécies de bambu. O comprimento médio de fibra variou de 1,33 a 2,74 mm, enquanto que a largura variou de 8,39 a 20,90 microns. A relação entre o comprimento e a largura das fibras situou-se entre 63:1 a 264:1. Os resultados encontrados nas medições de comprimento das fibras confirmam, de modo geral, o valor dos bambus como matéria-prima para produção de celulose de fibras longas.This article gives fiber dimensions and derived values obtained for 23 bamboo species, besides similar data for 4 species previously reported by the authors. The average fiber dimensions found for the 27 bamboo species ranged as follows (in milimeters: length, from 1.325 for Bambusa beecheyana to 2.744 for Gigantcchloa apus; width, from 0.00839 for Pleioblastus simoni to 0.02090 for Bambusa beecheyana. The length diameter ratio ranged from 63:1 to 264:1, the shortest ratio being that of Bambusa beecheyana and the highest one of Bambusa vulgaris. The coefficient of variation for fiber length ranged from 26.50% to 42.32% and for fiber width from 17.80% to 60.09%. Considering the ease of bamboo cultivation, the high and rapid production per area, and the quality of the fiber, bamboos areunquestionably the most promising source for cellulose production in the tropical and subtropical regions. As in many other countries where bamboo is being used on a

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  20. 丛生竹秆基各笋目的出笋成竹生物学特性研究%Study on Biological Characteristics of Bamboo Shooting from Base of Sympodial Bamboo Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益权; 顾小平; 吴晓丽; 郑仁红; 朱维双

    2011-01-01

    调查了西南地区人工栽培的梁山慈竹、撑绿竹、硬头黄竹着生于秆基两侧的4对大型芽(又叫笋目、芽眼、芽目)的出笋成竹生物学特性,计算各年龄母竹和各笋目位置的出笋率、成竹率、新竹相对生长率.结果表明:随着母竹年龄的增加,出笋成竹能力明显下降,1年生母竹出笋成竹能力最强,2年生母竹迅速下降,3年生母竹基本丧失繁殖能力;各笋目的出笋成竹能力为2目>头目>3目>4目,3目、4目显著低于头目、2目.综合分析母竹年龄和笋目位置表明:1年生母竹的头目、2目萌发力最强,是留笋长竹的最佳笋芽.通过有序样本聚类分析,将3个竹种的出笋期划分为初期、盛期和末期,初期出笋数少但成竹率高,中后期出笋数增加,但成竹率却明显下降;笋目萌发年龄和出笋时间与笋目位置有关,分布在秆基中下部的头目、2目萌发年龄较早,在出笋期的出笋时间也较早,而位于秆基中上部的3目、4目萌发年龄较迟,出笋时间也较晚.根据各笋目的出笋成竹特性,从抚育、间伐和水肥管理等方面提出了调控林分出笋的经营管理对策.%Sympodial bamboo is an important bamboo resource in China. Three sympodial bamboo plantations (Dendrocalamus farinosus, Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii, and Bambusa rigida ) planted in Southern Sichuan province were studied. Four pairs bamboo buds which located at stem basal were named at first bud, second bud, third bud and fourth bud from bottom to top in sequence, bamboo shooting and growth of four pairs bamboo buds were surveyed. The survival rate of bamboo shoots, shooting rate and relative growth rate of mother bamboos with different ages and buds location were calculated respectively. The result showed that the reproductive capacity decreased rapidly with increasing age, one-year-old mother bamboo had the best reproductive capability, but decreased quickly in the second

  1. Fabrication of Robust Superhydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nanosheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nanosheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS-17. The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (pH = 3 with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust superhydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  2. The Decay Resistance and Hyphae Penetration of Bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii Decayed by White and Brown Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norul Hisham Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance and hyphae penetration of bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii decayed by white and brown rot fungi were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The bamboo grown in natural stand from three different age classes of 0.5, 3.5, and 6.5 years was harvested, oven dried, sterilised, and exposed to agar media containing 4% malt extract and 2% agar technical (no. 3 under laboratory condition for 8 weeks. The deterioration was expressed as percentage of weight loss, and the decay resistance classes were measured according to ASTM D 2017-81 (1986. This study found that the percentage weight loss was greatly reduced with the bamboo ageing. Regardless of age, the G. scortechinii was classified as highly resistant to decay by white and brown rot fungi. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observation showed that the fungi hyphae mostly penetrated into the vessel and proceeded to the pit and parenchyma cells.

  3. Life cycle of bamboo frame construction in purple bamboo park%紫竹院公园竹框架房屋生命周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国; 肖岩

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同结构体系建筑物对环境负荷的影响,以1 m2的相同布置的混凝土结构、钢结构、砌体结构及竹结构建筑为研究对象,采用全生命周期法量化分析了原材料的获取、建筑材料的运输、建筑构件的生产、建筑物的施工等阶段的能耗和主要污染物排放。结果表明:建筑物产生的环境污染主要来自于建材的运输和生产阶段,主要表现为电力和汽油消耗以及排放了大量的温室气体。竹结构房屋是最适合人居的绿色住宅。%To study the influence of different structural systems on environmental resistance, the life cycle of concrete, steel, masonry and bamboo structures with the same arrangement per square meter was evaluated. The main stages, such as the acquisition and transportation of raw materials, the pro-duction of building materials and the construction of buildings, were analysis quantitatively by the method of life cycle. The results show that the main pollution stages of the buildings are the trans-portation and production of building materials. Specifically, the principal impact on the environment is the consumption of power and gasoline, as well as the emissions of large amounts of greenhouse gases. The study shows that bamboo frame house is the most suitable habitat green residential for hu-man beings.

  4. A refined method for calculating paleotemperatures from linear correlations in bamboo coral carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Casey; Watkins, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo corals represent an emerging paleoclimate archive with the potential to record variability at intermediate depths throughout much of the global ocean. Realizing this potential has been complicated by biologically mediated vital effects, which are evident in linear correlations of skeletal carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope composition. Previous efforts to develop a bamboo coral δ18O paleothermometer by accounting for such vital effects have not been completely successful as they still rely on empirical calibrations that are offset from the temperature dependence of abiogenic experiments. Here we describe an approach that better corrects for bamboo coral vital effects and allows paleotemperatures to be calculated directly from the abiogenic temperature dependence. The success of the method lies in calculating apparent equilibrium carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation at the temperature, pH, and growth rate of each coral, as well as in the use of model II regressions. Rigorous propagation of uncertainty suggests typical errors of ±2-3°C, but in select cases errors as low as ±0.65°C can be achieved for densely sampled and strongly correlated data sets. This lower limit approaches the value attributed to uncertainty in pH and growth rate estimates alone, as predicted by a series of pseudoproxy experiments. The incorporation of isotopically light metabolic CO2 appears to be negligible in most Pacific corals, but may be significant in Atlantic specimens, potentially requiring an additional correction. The success of the method therefore hinges on how well complex environmental systems and biomineralization strategies are constrained, with the most reliable temperatures occurring when calcifying fluid pH, growth rate, and incorporation of metabolic carbon into skeletal calcite are constrained using multiple geochemical proxies.

  5. The hemic response of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) with inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Parkinson, Lily A; Grant, Krystan R; Carlson, Eric; Campbell, Terry W

    2016-05-01

    As elasmobranch medicine becomes more commonplace, there continues to be confusion with techniques and evaluation of the shark hemogram and it remains unknown if they are able to mount an inflammatory hemic response. The aims of this study were to compare two total white blood cell (WBC) count techniques, establish a reference interval for captive white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), and determine if elasmobranchs are capable of mounting an inflammatory hemic response. Correlation statistics were performed on hematologic results for healthy female bamboo sharks to assess the use of Natt-Herrick's and phloxine methods. Total WBC counts and differentials were obtained from males with severe traumatic clasper wounds and compared to the healthy females. We elected clasper amputation as the preferred treatment intervention and post-operative hematology was performed one month later. There was poor correlation of leukocyte counts between the two WBC count methods. Hematologic values were established for the females and males pre- and post-operatively. Males with wounds had a marked leukocytosis and heterophilia. Post-operative blood work showed a resolution of total WBC count and a trend toward resolution of the heterophilia. This study provides hematologic values for white-spotted bamboo sharks and confirms that the Natt-Herrick's method is preferred for lymphocytic species. Hematologic differences present in males with clasper wounds suggests that elasmobranchs do mount an inflammatory hemic response. Treatment via clasper amputation proved to be a safe and efficient means for clinical treatment that led to a trend toward resolution of the inflammatory leukogram. Zoo Biol. 35:251-259, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970476

  6. Temperature and vital effect controls on Bamboo coral (Isididae) isotopegeochemistry: A test of the "lines method"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T M; Spero, H J; Guilderson, T P; LaVigne, M; Clague, D; Macalello, S; Jang, N

    2011-03-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals hold promise as long-term climatic archives, yet little information exists linking bamboo coral geochemistry to measured environmental parameters. This study focuses on a suite of 10 bamboo corals collected from the Pacific and Atlantic basins (250-2136 m water depth) to investigate coral longevity, growth rates, and isotopic signatures. Calcite samples for stable isotopes and radiocarbon were collected from the base the corals, where the entire history of growth is recorded. In three of the coral specimens, samples were also taken from an upper branch for comparison. Radiocarbon and growth band width analyses indicate that the skeletal calcite precipitates from ambient dissolved inorganic carbon and that the corals live for 150-300 years, with extension rates of 9-128 {micro}m/yr. A linear relationship between coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C indicates that the isotopic composition is influenced by vital effects ({delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope of 0.17-0.47). As with scleractinian deep-sea corals, the intercept from a linear regression of {delta}{sup 18}O versus {delta}{sup 13}C is a function of temperature, such that a reliable paleotemperature proxy can be obtained, using the 'lines method.' Although the coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope is maintained throughout the coral base ontogeny, the branches and central cores of the bases exhibit {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C values that are shifted far from equilibrium. We find that a reliable intercept value can be derived from the {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C regression of multiple samples distributed throughout one specimen or from multiple samples within individual growth bands.

  7. Characterization and pollutant removal efficiency of biochar derived from baggase, bamboo and tyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, S; Mishra, T; Rana, G; Srivastava, R K

    2014-12-01

    Conversion of broad-spectrum organic waste into carbonaceous biochar has gained enormous interest in past few years. The present study aims to characterize feedstock (FS), i.e. bagasse (Bg), bamboo (Bm) and biochar (BC), i.e. baggase biochar (BBg), bamboo biochar (BBm) and tyre biochar (Ty). Significant changes in elemental composition, atomic ratio, proximate analyses, mineral content and heavy metal content were observed which was well supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Impregnation with ferric hydroxide was done, and resultant modified biochars (MBC), i.e. iron-impregnated baggase biochar (FeBBg), iron-impregnated bamboo biochar (FeBBm) and iron-impregnated tyre biochar (FeTy), along feedstock and biochar were used for PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. In general, BBg, FeBBg, BBm, FeBBm, Ty and FeTy were found to adsorb PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu better than Bg and Bm, except in few cases. Results from adsorption experiments were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of isotherms and pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models of kinetics. Result of batch study adsorption revealed that maximum adsorption of PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu was done by FeBBg (adsorption mechanism explained by Freundlich model), FeTy (Temkin model), Ty (Langmuir model) and BBm (Langmuir model) respectively. According to R (2) values, pseudo-first-order reaction was well suited to PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption was observed to be 7.4 for PO4 (3-), 5 for Cu and 6 for Pb and Hg respectively. PMID:25287188

  8. Testing four candidate barcoding markers in temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ming CAI; Yu-Xiao ZHANG; Li-Na ZHANG; Lian-Ming GAO; De-Zhu LI

    2012-01-01

    Bambusoideae is an important subfamily of the grass family Poaceae that has considerable economic,ecologic and cultural value.In addition,Bambusoideae species are important constituents of the forest vegetation in China.Because of the paucity of flower-bearing specimens and homoplasies of morphological characters,it is difficult to identify species of Bambusoideae using morphology alone,especially in the case of temperate woody bamboos (i.e.Arundinarieae).To this end,DNA barcoding has shown great potential in identifying species.The present study is the first attempt to test the feasibility of four proposed DNA barcoding markers (matK,rbcL,trnH-psbA,and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) in identifying 27 species of the temperate woody bamboos.Three plastid markers showed high levels of universality,whereas the universality of ITS was comparatively low.A single plastid marker provided low levels of discrimination success at both the genus and species levels (< 12%).Among the combinations ofplastid markers,the highest discriminatory power was obtained using the combination of rbcL + matK (14.8%).Using a combination of three markers did not increase species discrimination.The nuclear region ITS alone could identify 66.7% of species,although fewer taxa were included in the ITS analyses than in the plastid analyses.When ITS was integrated with a single or combination of plastid markers,the species discriminatory power was significantly improved.We suggest that a combination ofrbcL + ITS,which exhibited the highest species identification power of all combinations in the present study,could be used as a potential DNA barcode for temperate woody bamboos.

  9. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  10. Surface evolution in bare bamboo-type metal lines under diffusion and electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irregularities such as voids and cracks often occur in bamboo-type metal lines of microelectronic interconnects. They increase the resistance of the circuits, and may even lead to a fatal failure. In this work, we analyze numerically the electromigration of an unpassivated bamboo-type line with pre-existing irregularities in its top surface (also called a grain-void interface). The bamboo line is subjected to surface diffusion forces and external electric fields. Under these forces, initial defects may either heal or become worse. The grain-void interface is considered to be one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of an electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled, fourth order, one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs, with the boundary conditions imposed at the electrode points and at the triple point, which belongs to two neighboring grains and the void. These equations are discretized by finite differences on a regular grid in space, and by a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and solved simultaneously with a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout each grain, when the substrate conductivity is neglected. Since the voltage distribution is required only along an interface line, the two-dimensional discretization of the grain interior is not needed, and the static problem is solved by the boundary element method at each time step. The motion of the interface line is studied for different ratios between diffusion and electric field forces, and for different initial configurations of the grain-void interface. We study plain and tilted contour lines, considering positive and negative tilts with respect to the external electric field, a stepped contour with field lines entering or exiting the 'step', and a number of modifications of the classical Mullins problem of thermal grooving. We also consider a two-grain Mullins problem with a normal and tilted boundary between the grains, examining positive and negative

  11. Ba/Ca Reproducibility and Growth Banding in Gulf of Alaska Bamboo Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato Marks, G.; LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sauthoff, W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Roark, E. B.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals have been proposed as deep-ocean paleoceanographic archives because of their longevity and radial growth bands. Previous work has shown that bamboo coral Ba/Ca is a promising proxy for seawater barium, however, validation of Ba/Ca reproducibility is required. In addition, the growth band formation mechanism is uncertain, with some proposing that crystal orientation causes banding visible under light microscopy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Ba/Ca reproducibility and characterize growth band crystal orientation. Visible bands measured with a petrographic microscope were used to align LA-ICP-MS data collected along three replicate radii of the calcitic internodes of two well-dated corals from the Gulf of Alaska (collected live at 720m and 643m; 48°3'N, 132°44'W). Ba/Ca signals smoothed to ~annual resolution were reproducible within each coral (r=0.6-0.7; p<0.0001; n=3 radii/coral), suggesting that Ba/Ca varies in response to the external environment on annual timescales. Ba/Ca in the 720m coral increased from 1977 to 1998, a warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) regime, possibly due to increased export production. The shallower coral (634m) revealed the inverse trend, suggesting variability in seawater barium dynamics with depth. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of visible growth bands showed a preferred crystal orientation that does not correspond to location of visible bands or elemental composition, suggesting that crystal orientation does not cause bamboo coral banding. Overall, results show that regional oceanic signals are recorded as reproducible Ba/Ca variability in these corals. Comparison of these data to other well-dated records from the northeast Pacific would determine whether the relationship between Ba/Ca and PDO is regional. Additional archives of trace element variability will strengthen our understanding of how rapid climate change impacts intermediate ocean biogeochemistry.

  12. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  13. Florescimento e frutificação em bambu Flowering and seeding of bamboo (Melocanna baccifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Anísio Azzini; Condorcet Aranha; Rose Mary Pio

    1982-01-01

    Em fevereiro de 1977, foi observado o florescimento e frutificação da espécie tida como Melocanna baccifera Kurz, da coleção de bambu existente no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico. Tanto os estudos morfológicos realizados como os caracteres botânicos observados se enquadram perfeitamente às diagnoses da tribo e gênero da espécie Melocanna baccifera Kurz.In February 1977 the flowering and seeding of bamboo specie Melocanna baccifera Kurz was observed at the Campinas Exp...

  14. Tensile properties of thin Cu-wires with a bamboo microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Displacement controlled tensile tests have been performed on high purity Cu wires of thickness 20, 50 and 125 μm in bamboo grain structure making use of a laser speckle extensometer. Scanning electron micrographs of the wire surface after fracture revealed large grains deformed in single slip, in double slip, undeformed ones, and sample parts which have remained fine grained being nearly undeformed. Stress-strain curves of the deformed material are obtained inserting the sample length being active in deformation. They are discussed with respect to single crystal deformation curves of bulk wires. The comparably smaller fracture strains can be explained from surface inhomogeneities by wire drawing and slip steps

  15. Influence of irradiation on creep velocity of polycrystals with bamboo structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation on the creep rate in polycrystalline materials having the bamboo structure, when proper grain-boundary slip is the process controlling deformation is considered. The grain boundaries of a mixed type are considered in the framework of the theory of grain boundary dislocations. Information on the boundary structures is obtained on the basis of experiments on nickel, copper and aluminium thermal creep; dependence of the creep rate in these materials on neutron radiation intensity is calculated when using it. Conditions, under which a radiation-induced component of creep exceeds the thermal one and determines deformation process, are detected

  16. Synthesis and characterization of bamboo-like turbostratic boron nitride tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bamboo-like turbostratic boron nitride (tBN) tubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. The as-prepared tBN tubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscope, Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one broad band gap (4.5-4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm (λex = 230 nm)

  17. Physical-Mechanical Properties of Sympodial Bamboo and Influence on Architecture Material Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZheng; GUOWenjing

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of big sympodial bamboo, D.Yunnanicus Hsueh and Whangee (D. Membranaceus Munro) and their physical and mechanical properties have been studied in the paper. The results showed that the whangee has better physical properties than that of the Yunnanicus, such as higher density, lower tangential and longitudinal dry shrinkages. That also showed that Whangee has stronger mechanical properties in MOR and MOE, compressive strength and shear strength parallel to the grain. Compared with some wood species used in architecture, the physical and mechanical properties of the two kinds have reached the requirement of some wood architecture structure materials.

  18. Plantation future of bamboo in China%中国竹子的种植前途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆华; 小林干夫

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edible-shoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.%在过去,中国竹类资源主要被农户作为林副产品自用,很少与市场关联.近年来,由于谷物供应的过剩和农业环境的恶化,大家都在寻找既能够保护环境又能满足市场需求的替代作物.竹子紧密关联着农、林二业,完全有可能用以应对中国农业面临的新挑战.在有记载的534种中国竹子中,153种生产可食竹笋,其中56种为优秀种;139种竹子可用于木材生产,其中58种为优秀种;116种竹子可生产优质竹篾,其中22种为优秀种;88种竹子适用于公园种植,其中34种为优秀种;45种竹子可生产纸浆,其中18种为优秀种.图5附录5参32.

  19. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  20. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  1. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kenneth Grace

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann. Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009. Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers; and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10 were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  2. A comparison of selected classification algorithms for mapping bamboo patches in lower Gangetic plains using very high resolution WorldView 2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, P. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bamboo is used by different communities in India to develop indigenous products, maintain livelihood and sustain life. Indian National Bamboo Mission focuses on evaluation, monitoring and development of bamboo as an important plant resource. Knowledge of spatial distribution of bamboo therefore becomes necessary in this context. The present study attempts to map bamboo patches using very high resolution (VHR) WorldView 2 (WV 2) imagery in parts of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India using both pixel and object-based approaches. A combined layer of pan-sharpened multi-spectral (MS) bands, first 3 principal components (PC) of these bands and seven second order texture measures based Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) of first three PC were used as input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), recursive feature elimination (RFE) based feature selection was carried out to identify the most important input variables. Results of the feature selection indicate that the 10 most important variables include PC 1, PC 2 and their GLCM mean along with 6 MS bands. Three different sets of predictor variables (5 and 10 most important variables and all 32 variables) were classified with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) algorithms. Producer accuracy of bamboo was found to be highest when 10 most important variables selected from RFE were classified with SVM (82%). However object-based image analysis (OBIA) achieved higher classification accuracy than PBIA using the same 32 variables, but with less number of training samples. Using object-based SVM classifier, the producer accuracy of bamboo reached 94%. The significance of this study is that the present framework is capable of accurately identifying bamboo patches as well as detecting other tree species in a tropical region with heterogeneous land use land cover (LULC), which could further aid the mandate of National Bamboo Mission and related programs.

  3. Genome-wide characterization of the biggest grass, bamboo, based on 10,608 putative full-length cDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chuanrang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the availability of rice and sorghum genome sequences and ongoing efforts to sequence genomes of other cereal and energy crops, the grass family (Poaceae has become a model system for comparative genomics and for better understanding gene and genome evolution that underlies phenotypic and ecological divergence of plants. While the genomic resources have accumulated rapidly for almost all major lineages of grasses, bamboo remains the only large subfamily of Poaceae with little genomic information available in databases, which seriously hampers our ability to take a full advantage of the wealth of grass genomic data for effective comparative studies. Results Here we report the cloning and sequencing of 10,608 putative full length cDNAs (FL-cDNAs primarily from Moso bamboo, Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological and economic values of all bamboos. This represents the third largest FL-cDNA collection to date of all plant species, and provides the first insight into the gene and genome structures of bamboos. We developed a Moso bamboo genomic resource database that so far contained the sequences of 10,608 putative FL-cDNAs and nearly 38,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated in this study. Conclusion Analysis of FL-cDNA sequences show that bamboo diverged from its close relatives such as rice, wheat, and barley through an adaptive radiation. A comparative analysis of the lignin biosynthesis pathway between bamboo and rice suggested that genes encoding caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase may serve as targets for genetic manipulation of lignin content to reduce pollutants generated from bamboo pulping.

  4. An Increase in Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Bamboo-Type TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Oriented bamboo-type TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by AV anodization of Ti for DSSCs. •Increased dye loading in inner and outer walls due to bamboo structure were estimated. •Electron transfer time of TiO2 NT arrays was unaffected by the bamboo structure. •Cell efficiency of 7.36% was achieved due to higher dye loading. -- Abstract: Highly ordered, bamboo type TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were prepared by anodization of Ti foils in an electrolyte of 0.5 wt% NH4F in ethylene glycol using square-wave voltage. The morphology of obtained arrays consisting of closely packed TiO2 NTs with inner diameter of 90 nm, wall thickness of 20 nm and length of 26 μm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Poly-crystalline anatase structure with crystallites of 28 nm in average size was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) was employed to study the electron transport properties of TiO2 NT arrays used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Dye molecules were found to cover both the inner and outer surface of the bamboo type TiO2 NT arrays. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed reduced interfacial resistance and increased interfacial capacitance for the bamboo type TiO2 NT arrays compared with the smooth type arrays, indicating an increase in surface area of the bamboo type TiO2 NT arrays, which resulted in the higher dye loading. An increased conversion efficiency of 7.36% was achieved for the DSSCs based on the bamboo type TiO2 NT arrays attributing to the significant increase of dye loading resulted from the bamboo structure

  5. FOSTERING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MSMEs A CASE STUDY OF THE BARPETA CANE AND BAMBOO CRAFT CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Dutta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs have emerged as a dynamic and vibrant sector of the Indian economy. They have been playing a significant role in the economic and social development of the country. Over the years, these small enterprises have evolved as leaders in the industrial sector in India. They have great potential in terms of production, export and generation of sustainable employment opportunities. In recognition of their significance and stature, the Government has introduced the “Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006”, which aims to facilitate the promotion and development and to enhance the competitiveness of MSMEs. In this context, the Cluster approach is one of the thrust areas of the Ministry in the Eleventh Plan. The Barpeta Cane and Bamboo Craft Cluster is one such approved cluster under the Ministry of MSME. The recognition of the five villages, namely, Raipur, Bhaluki, Joshihatigaon, Charjoshihati and Dhupguri as the Barpeta Cluster has been instrumental in the socio-economic upliftment of this entire area. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the contribution of the Barpeta Cane and Bamboo Craft Cluster in the economic development and to throw light on the Government initiatives and actions for the promotion and development of this cluster. The study is based on both primary and secondary data.

  6. Induction and inhibition of film yeast from fermented bamboo shoot by seasoning plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Maneesri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of fermented bamboo shoot taken from a village in Amphur Kokpho, Pattani Province, were microbiologically examined. Total viable count was between at 104-105 cfu/ml while pH range was between 3.4-4.4. Isolation and identification of film yeast on surface of fermented liquid revealed Saccharomyces cerevisiae J1, Candida krusei J2 and Candida krusei J3. When film yeast was cultivated in liquid culture with different NaCl concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% (w/v, all species tolerated 2.5% NaCl addition. However, growth decreased depending on NaCl concentration. S. cerevisiae J1 grew faster than C. krusei J2 and C. krusei J3. The cultivation of film yeast in medium with different agar concentrations (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/v within 24 h showed that 0.3% was the optimal agar concentration. Seasoning plants (garlic, ginger, galangal, lemon grass, lesser galangal, clove, kaffir lime, garcinia and shallot were extracted with water (3% (w/v and tested for growth inhibition. Results showed the clove extract inhibited all yeast strains within 12 h and after that the efficiency of inhibition was decreased. At low concentration of 0.75% (w/v clove extract could inhibit film yeast in fermented bamboo shoot.

  7. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  8. Morphological Responses Explain Tolerance of the Bamboo Yushania microphylla to Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of tolerance of the bamboo Y. microphylla to ungulate herbivory were investigated by measuring above- and belowground morphogenetic traits and biomass allocation patterns of the bamboo Y. microphylla under grazed and ungrazed conditions in a Himalayan mixed conifer forest. Data were collected from 5 populations consisting of 10 ramets each in adjacent grazed and ungrazed plots. Compared with ungrazed ramets, the aboveground morphological modifications of grazed ramets were higher culm density, shorter and thinner culms, shorter internode, and shorter top leaf. The belowground morphological modifications for the grazed ramets were thinner rhizomes, lower rhizome biomass and dry matter, more nodes, and shorter internodes. Despite the lower biomass and dry matter, the root-to-shoot ratio was higher for grazed ramets. Results suggest that Y. microphylla subjected to herbivory shows aboveground overcompensation in terms of densification at the cost of belowground biomass, but at the same time maintains a higher proportion of belowground reserves, as compared to ungrazed conditions. These responses provide adequate evidence to conclude that Y. microphylla tolerates ungulate herbivory through above- and belowground morphological modifications.

  9. Effect of Management Practices on Seasonal Dynamics of Organic Carbon in Soils Under Bamboo Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Mo; XU Jian-Ming; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples for conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM) practices were taken over a year at2-month intervals to determine the effect of management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) and to quantify seasonal dynamics in SOC for bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie) stands. The results with IM compared to CM showed large decreases in total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the MBC/TOC ratio in the soils. With all IM plots in the 0-20 cm depth across sampling periods,average decreases compared with CM were: TOC, 12.1%; MBC, 26.1%; WSOC, 29.3%; the MBC/TOC ratio, 16.1%;and the WSOC/TOC ratio, 20.0%. Due to seasonal changes of climate, seasonal variations were observed in MBC and WSOC. Soil MBC in the 0-20 cm depth in September compared to May were 122.9% greater for CM and 57.6% greater for IM. However, due primarily to soil temperature, soil MBC was higher during the July to November period, whereas because of soil moisture, WSOC was lower in July and January. This study revealed that intensive management in bamboo plantations depleted the soil C pool; therefore, soil quality with IM should be improved through application of organic manures.

  10. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-05-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting.

  11. Improvement in Tensile Strength of Bamboo Knitted Fabric by Sol-Gel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Textiles made of bamboo regenerated fibre are reported to have lower tensile strength than the other cellulosic fibres, due to high porosity of the fibre. This paper was aimed to modify the bamboo knitted fabric by the sol-gel coating to improve the tensile strength with minimum effect on its inherent morphology and ultimate relevant properties such as good absorbency and air permeability. The paddry- bake process was employed for the coating where tetraethyl-orthosilicate and nano-titanium-dioxide were used as the active ingredients. The treated fabrics were tested for the tensile behaviour in terms of breaking strength and elongation and the sol-gel process recipe and parameters were optimised. The absorbency, air-permeability and washing durability of the coating were also tested for the optimised process. Results showed the increase in tensile strength of the fabric by sol-gel coating, whereas absorbency and air-permeability were almost unaffected. The coating results were unaffected even after a washing treatment (equivalent to 5 industrial washings. Additionally, the wrinkle recovery angle of the coated fabric was also tested and found improved.

  12. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  13. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45-50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  14. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  15. Improvement in Tensile Strength of Bamboo Knitted Fabric by Sol-Gel Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textiles made of bamboo regenerated fibre are reported to have lower tensile strength than the other cellulosic fibres, due to high porosity of the fibre. This paper was aimed to modify the bamboo knitted fabric by the sol-gel coating to improve the tensile strength with minimum effect on its inherent morphology and ultimate relevant properties such as good absorbency and air permeability. The pad-dry-bake process was employed for the coating where tetraethyl-orthosilicate and nano-titanium-dioxide were used as the active ingredients. The treated fabrics were tested for the tensile behaviour in terms of breaking strength and elongation and the sol-gel process recipe and parameters were optimised. The absorbency, air-permeability and washing durability of the coating were also tested for the optimised process. Results showed the increase in tensile strength of the fabric by sol-gel coating, whereas absorbency and air-permeability were almost unaffected. The coating results were unaffected even after a washing treatment (equivalent to 5 industrial washings). Additionally, the wrinkle recovery angle of the coated fabric was also tested and found improved. (author)

  16. Palladium-free catalytic electroless copper deposition on bamboo fabric: Preparation, morphology and electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo fabric is subjected to solvent treatment with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) before metal deposition. Raman and IR analyses indicate that MPTS is successfully grafted on the fabric. Copper is deposited on the pretreated fabric by a palladium-free catalytic electroless process, and then copper/bamboo fabric (Cu/BF) composite is obtained. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation reveals that copper is uniformly covered on the fabric. Chemical composition and crystal structure of the composite are detected by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements, peaks for Cu0 are found in these patterns. The water absorption ratio for the title composite is about 162% by immersion in water, or 8.9% by putting in an environmental condition (humidity of 65 ± 2%). The Cu/BF composite is firm and can pass a Scotch®-tape peel adhesion test. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite (copper on fabric: 39 g/m2) is more than 48 dB at frequency ranging from 0.2 to1000 MHz.

  17. Palladium-free catalytic electroless copper deposition on bamboo fabric: Preparation, morphology and electromagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liang Qian; Xue Longlong [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo fabric is subjected to solvent treatment with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) before metal deposition. Raman and IR analyses indicate that MPTS is successfully grafted on the fabric. Copper is deposited on the pretreated fabric by a palladium-free catalytic electroless process, and then copper/bamboo fabric (Cu/BF) composite is obtained. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation reveals that copper is uniformly covered on the fabric. Chemical composition and crystal structure of the composite are detected by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements, peaks for Cu{sup 0} are found in these patterns. The water absorption ratio for the title composite is about 162% by immersion in water, or 8.9% by putting in an environmental condition (humidity of 65 {+-} 2%). The Cu/BF composite is firm and can pass a Scotch{sup Registered-Sign }-tape peel adhesion test. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite (copper on fabric: 39 g/m{sup 2}) is more than 48 dB at frequency ranging from 0.2 to1000 MHz.

  18. Palladium-free catalytic electroless copper deposition on bamboo fabric: Preparation, morphology and electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yinxiang; Liang, Qian; Xue, Longlong

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo fabric is subjected to solvent treatment with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) before metal deposition. Raman and IR analyses indicate that MPTS is successfully grafted on the fabric. Copper is deposited on the pretreated fabric by a palladium-free catalytic electroless process, and then copper/bamboo fabric (Cu/BF) composite is obtained. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation reveals that copper is uniformly covered on the fabric. Chemical composition and crystal structure of the composite are detected by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements, peaks for Cu0 are found in these patterns. The water absorption ratio for the title composite is about 162% by immersion in water, or 8.9% by putting in an environmental condition (humidity of 65 ± 2%). The Cu/BF composite is firm and can pass a Scotch®-tape peel adhesion test. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite (copper on fabric: 39 g/m2) is more than 48 dB at frequency ranging from 0.2 to1000 MHz.

  19. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  20. Generation of hydrophilic, bamboo-shaped multiwalled carbon nanotubes by solid-state pyrolysis and its electrochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Sangaraju; Gedanken, Aharon

    2006-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and novel method was developed for the direct preparation of hydrophilic, bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate in a Swagelock cell is reported. The obtained product exhibits mostly bamboo-shaped, straight, periodic twisted, multiwalled carbon nanotubes possessing diameters of 50-80 nm and lengths of around 10 microm. The pyrolyzed product was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman, and cyclic voltammetric techniques. HRTEM studies showed that the walls of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes consisted of oblique grapheme planes with respect to the tube axis. The interlayer spacing between two graphitic layers was found to be 0.342 nm. XPS measurements have suggested that as-prepared carbon nanotubes consist the surface functional groups on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes have been evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), IR, and cyclic voltammetric studies showed the presence of oxygen functionalities. Raman studies revealed the presence of disorder in the graphitic carbon and the presence of exposed edge plane defects in the generated carbon nanotubes for influencing the surface behavior and electrochemical properties. The electrochemical behavior of electrodes made of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes served for an oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:16471780

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLUED LAMINATED PANELS PRODUCED WITH STRIPS OF BAMBOO (Guadua magna) NATIVE FROM THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Divino Eterno; Bastos, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Almeida, Sergio Alberto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Panels were produced with strips of bamboo (Guadua magna) in layers crossed at angles of 90° and bonded with phenol-formaldehyde or PVA based resin, glued in three and five plies. The panels were tested and the physical and mechanical properties determined. The tests were primarily related to the...

  2. [Effect of seasonal high temperature and drought on carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem in subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Hong; Niu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Jin-meng; Liu, Yu-li; Fang, Cheng-yuan

    2016-02-01

    The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (Psoil moisture, Re and GEP had different responses, that was, GEP was more vulnerable by the decrease of the soil moisture compared with Re. Besides, the raising of saturation vapour pressure promoted the Re modestly but inhibited the GEP, which was supposed to be the main reason for NEP decrease of bamboo forest ecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013. PMID:27396103

  3. Enhancement of mechanical properties of carbon fabric/epoxy composites using micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils (MBFs) were fabricated from raw bamboo. ► The fracture toughness of epoxy resin significant increased by 84.6%. ► The fatigue life of the CF/EP composites dramatically increased 12–25 times. ► MBF delayed the onset of matrix crack. ► MBF reduced the crack growth in the CF/EP composites. - Abstract: Micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils (MBFs) were fabricated from raw bamboo using the alkaline treatment technique and the mechanical extraction method (micro-grinding). The fracture toughness of epoxy resin significantly increased by 84.6% from 0.639 MPa m1/2 to 1.18 MPa m1/2 due to 0.8 wt.% MBF inclusion into the resin in comparison with the epoxy resin without MBF. Both mode-I interlaminar fracture toughness of carbon fabric/epoxy (CF/EP) composites at crack initiation and propagation also improved by 35.3% and 47.3%, respectively when 0.8 wt.% MBF was dispersed in the epoxy matrix. The fatigue life of modified composites at all of MBF content up to 0.8 wt.% dramatically increased 12–25 times longer than those of unmodified composites at high cycle fatigue while the tensile strength slightly increased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that MBF delayed the onset of matrix crack, and reduced the crack growth in the CF/EP composites

  4. Distribution of Main Nutrients in Seedlings of Umbrella Bamboo (Fargesia murielae) at Its Native Home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling WANG; Kun LI; Yinping MENG; Liya ZHAO; Zhaohua LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] seedlings of umbrella The paper was to study the distribution of main nutrients in bamboo (Fargesia murielae) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. [Method] The study was conducted in Liangfengya of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. In the field investigation, six clumps of umbrella bamboo grown in- dependently were randomly selected and sampled. The total nitrogen, total phospho- rus and total potassium of umbrella bamboo were detected by regular plant analysis method. The age classes of bamboo seedlings were ascertained by age grade backtracking method. [Result] In different organs, N, P, K contents in branches and leaves were significantly higher that than in stems. Along age grades, N and P contents performed "M" shape in branches and leaves, while K content approxi- mately performed as normal distribution. [Conclusion] The nutrients distribution pattern of these seedlings is likely formed by its nutrition mechanism which allocates nutri- ents according to different needs or by external interference of environmental fea- tures. However, the specific causes still need further investigation.

  5. Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent-Bamboo charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted for the adsorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution by bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the adsorption of Cd (II) ions was very fast initially and the equilibrium time was 6 h. High pH (≥8.0) was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Cd (II) ions. Higher initial Cd concentrations led to lower removal percentages but higher adsorption capacity. As the adsorbent dose increased, the removal of Cd increased, while the adsorption capacity decreased. Adsorption kinetics of Cd (II) ions onto bamboo charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Cd (II) ions fitted Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms well, but followed Langmuir isotherm most precisely, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.08 mg/g. EDS analysis confirmed that Cd (II) was adsorbed onto bamboo charcoal. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Cd (II) ions in water treatment.

  6. 毛竹竹青和竹黄半纤维素的提取与结构表征%Isolation and Characterization of Hemicellulose from Moso Bamboo Green and Bamboo Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曹兴; 何娟; 闵斗勇; 李鑫; 勇强

    2015-01-01

    以毛竹加工剩余物为原料,分离出竹青和竹黄。经粉碎过筛、苯/乙醇脱蜡和次氯酸钠脱木质素3个过程得到相应的综纤维素,然后用1%、5%和10%的KOH依次提取综纤维素得到半纤维素,竹青、竹黄半纤维素的总提取率分别为81.74%和85.36%。对所提取的半纤维素进行成分分析、分子量测定、红外光谱和核磁共振分析,结果表明,竹青、竹黄半纤维素成分主要为木糖,分别占61.02%~73.76%和65.22%~80.00%。竹黄半纤维素的重均分子质量为44870~48560 g/mol,高于竹青半纤维素的重均分子质量(43970~46245 g/mol)。竹青、竹黄碱溶半纤维素都是典型的阿拉伯糖基木聚糖结构,主链为β-D-吡喃木糖形成的木聚糖,在木糖基的C-2位连接着4-O-甲基-α-D-葡萄糖醛酸,C-3位连有α-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖,同时部分木质素通过苯苷键与半纤维素中的糖基相连。%Bamboo green and bamboo yellow separated from Moso bamboo residues were delignified by NaClO2 after grinded, sifted and dewaxed by toluene-ethanol to achieve holocellulose. The resulted holocellulose was constantly extracted with 1%, 5%and 10% KOH to obtain hemicellulose. The yields of hemicellulose acquired from bamboo green and bamboo yellow were calculated as 81. 74% and 85. 36%, respectively. Then, the chemical compositions and structures of these hemicelluloses were characterized by HPAEC, GPC, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 2D HSQC techniques. The results indicated that the proportions of xylose in the bamboo green and bamboo yellow hemicellulose preparations were 61. 02% - 73. 76% and 65. 22% - 80. 00%, respectively. The weight average molecular weight of hemicellulose preparations of bamboo yellow were 44 870-48 560 g/mol, which were higher than that of bamboo green hemicellulose preparations (43 970-46 245 g/mol). It was demonstrated that the back chain of hemicelluloses were composed ofβ-D-xylan. Meanwhile,α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O

  7. 浅谈唐代才女薛涛与竹文化%A Brief Discussion on Tang Dynasty Talented Lady Xue Tao and Bamboo Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景艳

    2013-01-01

    In the history of Chinese culture, the special contribu-tion of bamboo fully expresses the style of bamboo culture, while bamboo carries a totally new spiritual connotation in the history of Chinese psychology. This paper analyzes and researches the Tang female poet Xue Tao and her life of bamboo culture.%  在中国文化史中,竹的特殊贡献尽显了竹文化的风采;竹,在中国思想史上,承载了一种全新的精神意蕴。本文分析研究了唐代女诗人爱竹、咏竹,用她的生命流程诠释竹文化的一生,概述了竹文化内涵和现实意义。

  8. [The Use of FTIR Coupled with Partial Least Square for Quantitative Analysis of the Main Composition of Bamboo/Polypropylene Composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wan-li; He, Yu-chan; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The biomass to plastic ratio in wood plastic composites (WPCs) greatly affects the physical and mechanical properties and price. Fast and accurate evaluation of the biomass to plastic ratio is important for the further development of WPCs. Quantitative analysis of the WPC main composition currently relies primarily on thermo-analytical methods. However, these methods have some inherent disadvantages, including time-consuming, high analytical errors and sophisticated, which severely limits the applications of these techniques. Therefore, in this study, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least square (PLS) has been used for rapid prediction of bamboo and polypropylene (PP) content in bamboo/PP composites. The bamboo powders were used as filler after being dried at 105 degrees C for 24 h. PP was used as matrix materials, and some chemical regents were used as additives. Then 42 WPC samples with different ratios of bamboo and PP were prepared by the methods of extrusion. FTIR spectral data of 42 WPC samples were collected by means of KBr pellets technique. The model for bamboo and PP content prediction was developed by PLS-2 and full cross validation. Results of internal cross validation showed that the first derivative spectra in the range of 1 800-800 cm(-1) corrected by standard normal variate (SNV) yielded the optimal model. For both bamboo and PP calibration, the coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.955. The standard errors of calibration (SEC) were 1.872 for bamboo content and 1.848 for PP content, respectively. For both bamboo and PP validation, the R2 values were 0.950. The standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 1.927 for bamboo content and 1.950 for PP content, respectively. And the ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) were 4.45 for both biomass and PP examinations. The results of external validation showed that the relative prediction deviations for both biomass and PP contents were lower than ± 6

  9. Impacts of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) invasion on dry matter and carbon and nitrogen stocks in a broad-leaved secondary forest located in Kyoto, western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Keitaro; Usui, Nobuaki; Ogawa, Ryo; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In western and central Japan, the expansion of exotic moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz.) populations into neighboring vegetation has become a serious problem. Although the effects of bamboo invasion on biodiversity have been well studied, shifts in nutrient stocks and cycling, which are fundamental for ecosystem functioning, are not fully understood. To explore the effects of P. pubescens invasion on ecosystem functions we examined above- and below-ground dry matter and c...

  10. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  11. A review of pipe and bamboo artificial refugia as sampling tools in anuran studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial pipe-like refugia have been used for more than 40 years in anuran studies, and have captured 28 species, primarily (82%) hylid treefrogs. Early pipe-like refugia were made using cut pieces of bamboo in the tropical forests of Puerto Rico, but most recent studies have used synthetic pipes and have occurred primarily in the southeastern United States. Characteristics of artificial refugia (e.g., color, length, and diameter), and their placement in the environment have varied greatly among studies, making comparisons difficult. Here, we summarize and evaluate different pipe designs and placement, address potential concerns when using artificial pipe-like refugia, and suggest studies necessary to better interpret the data gained from this technique in anuran studies.

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  13. The activity time of the lesser bamboo bat, Tylonycteris pachypus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Biao Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity time of the lesser bamboo bat, Tylonycteris pachypus (Temminck, 1840, was investigated at two observation locations in southern China: Longzhou and Guiping. Two bouts of activity (post dusk and predawn, with an intervening period of night roosting at diurnal roosts, were identified. The period of activity within each bout was usually less than 30 minutes. The activity periods of individuals belonging to the Longzhou population right after dusk and just before dawn lasted longer than those of the the Guiping population. We also found that the nocturnal emergence time of T. pachypus from the Longzhou population happened earlier than in the Guiping population. These findings indicate that the activity time of T. pachypus was quite short at night, and that different locations may affect the nocturnal activity rhythm of this species.

  14. Radiocarbon-Based Ages and Growth Rates of Bamboo Corals from the Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Flood-Page, S; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L; Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M

    2004-12-12

    Deep-sea coral communities have long been recognized by fisherman as areas that support large populations of commercial fish. As a consequence, many deep-sea coral communities are threatened by bottom trawling. Successful management and conservation of this widespread deep-sea habitat requires knowledge of the age and growth rates of deep-sea corals. These organisms also contain important archives of intermediate and deep-water variability, and are thus of interest in the context of decadal to century-scale climate dynamics. Here, we present {Delta}{sup 14}C data that suggest that bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska are long-lived (75-126 years) and that they acquire skeletal carbon from two distinct sources. Independent verification of our growth rate estimates and coral ages is obtained by counting seasonal Sr/Ca cycles and probable lunar cycle growth bands.

  15. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites.

  16. Florescimento e frutificação em bambu Flowering and seeding of bamboo (Melocanna baccifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Em fevereiro de 1977, foi observado o florescimento e frutificação da espécie tida como Melocanna baccifera Kurz, da coleção de bambu existente no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico. Tanto os estudos morfológicos realizados como os caracteres botânicos observados se enquadram perfeitamente às diagnoses da tribo e gênero da espécie Melocanna baccifera Kurz.In February 1977 the flowering and seeding of bamboo specie Melocanna baccifera Kurz was observed at the Campinas Experimental Station. The morphological and botanical characteristics observed showed that the material belongs to the above mentioned specie.

  17. [On the etiological concept in the literature from unearthed documents of bamboo slips and silk scrolls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Zhang, Ruqing

    2014-03-01

    There is a substantial number of medical literature in the unearthed bamboo slips and silk scroll literature, the vast majority of which came into being earlier than medical books handed down from the ancient time, and are the documents of the origin of Chinese medicine dated back to the earliest time known thus far. In these documents, the contents of not a few of them deals with the etiology of disease which, by textual criticism and analysis, can be classified into seven different aspects, namely, six climatic pathogenic factors, emotional factors, injury caused by falling, traumatic damage; frostbite and burns, insect or animal bites, drug poisoning, evil spirit haunting, and constitutional factors, reflecting the contemporary etiological concept truthfully. PMID:24989802

  18. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  19. Occurrence situation and control countermeasures of bamboo diseases in Nanjing%南京地区竹类病害发生状况及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 吉静; 叶建仁

    2011-01-01

    To study the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo disease in Nanjing, this research carried out investigations on kinds of disease, damaged status on scattered and mixed bamboo by the way of field route reconnaissance and sample plot investigation from May 2007 to March 2009, as well as analyzed the main factors of the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo diseases. A total of 18 generas including 107 kinds of bamboo species had been investigated. The results showed that there were 15 kinds of bamboc diseases, among them, 13 kinds were fungal diseases, one kind was mite disease and one kind was non-infectious disease. Some bamboo diseases, such as bamboo witches' broom disease (Aciculosporium take), leaf withered type witches broom disease(Phaeosphaeria bambusae), bamboo stalk brown rot( Fusarium spp. ),Bamboo leaf rust(Puccinia spp. , Uredo ignava) and bamboo leaf rust brown spot(Schizotetranychus nanjingensis) were relatively serious. These diseases had great impact on bamboo production. The occurrence epidemic of bamboo diseases were closely related to bamboo species, environmental conditions and operational management. Based on this study, we proposed that the countermeasures, such as pay attention to matching tree species with site, proper management and bamboo diseases research as well as strengthen the plant quarantine, scientifically cultivate bamboo and intensify research efforts, should be exerted to improve the bamboo productivity.%为查清南京地区竹类病害发生流行状况,笔者通过野外路线踏查和标准地调查相结合,于2007年5月至2009年3月对该地区主要散、混生竹种系统开展了病害发生种类和危害状况调查,并对竹类病害发生流行的主导因子进行了分析.共调查竹种18属107种(含种下等级),发现竹类病害15种,其中真菌性病害13种、非侵染性病害1种和螨害1种.发生较严重的病害为竹丛枝病(Aciculosporium take)、竹叶枯型丛枝病(Phaeosphaeria bambusae

  20. Physicochemical Characterization of various Vietnamese Biomass Residue-derived Biochars (wood, bamboo and risk husk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien

    2016-04-01

    This study compares the physico-chemical characteristics of various biocchars produced from biomass residues in Vietnam such as fired wood, rice husk, and bamboo. Wood biochar (WBC), rice husk biochar (RHBC), and bamboo biochar (BBC) were produced under limited oxygen conditions using equipment available locally in Vietnam, known as a Top-Lift Updraft Drum (TLUD). The three biochars are alkaline with pH around 10, but were found to have quite significantly different physico-chemical characteristics. Surface areas (measured by BET) were found to be very significantly higher for WBC and BBC with 479.34 m2/g and 434.53 m2/g, respectively, compared to RHBC (3.29 m2/g). The SEM images correspond with the BET surface area, showing a smooth surface for RHBC, a hollow surface for BBC, and a rough surface for WBC. Total carbon (TC) of WBC and BBC are above 80%, while RHBC has only 47.95% TC. Despite having different TC, the content of hydrogen among the biochars is similar, ranging from 2.07% to 2.34%, and the ratio of H/C also follows the same trend. Thus, although the biochars are produced by the same method, the various feedstocks lead to different physico-chemical properties. Ongoing work is linking these physico-chemical properties to fertiliser efficiencies in terms of nitrate and ammonia adsorption and retention capacities, in order to design optimal biochar properties for use in fertilisation. Key words: physico-chemical characteristic, biochar, surface area, SEM, total carbon, feedstock

  1. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  2. Analysis of the Bundle Duct Interaction using the FBR fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PNC has been developing a computer code 'BAMBOO' to analyze the wire spaced FBR fuel pin bundle deformation under the BDI (Bundle Duct Interaction) condition by means of the three dimensional F.E.M. This code analyzes fuel pins' bowing and oval deformations which are dominant deformation behaviors of the fuel pin bundle under the BDI condition. In this study the 'BAMBOO' code is validated on the out-of-pile compression test of the FBR bundle (compression test) by comparing the results of the code analysis with the compression test results, and the highly irradiated (≥2.1x1027 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV) bundle deformation behaviors are investigated from the viewpoint of the similarity to those in the compression test based on the analytical results of the code. (1) The calculated pin-to-duct minimum clearances as a function of the BDI levels in the compression test analysis agree with the experimental values evaluated from the CT image analysis of the bundle cross-section in the compression test within ±0.2 mm. And the calculated values of the fuel pins' oval deformations agree with the experimental values based on the pin diameter measurements done after the compression test within ±0.05 mm. (2) By comparing the irradiation induced bundle deformation with the bundle deformation in the compression test based on the code analysis, it is confirmed that the changes of the pin-to-duct minimum clearances with the BDI levels show equivalent trends between the both bundle deformations. And in this code analysis of the irradiation induced bundle deformation, contact loads between the fuel pins and the pacer wires are extremely small (below 10 kgf) even at about 3 dw of the BDI level compared to those in the compression test analysis. (J.P.N.)

  3. Experimental and Theoritical Analysis of Thermal Properties in Zephyr Bamboo Tali (Gigantochloa apus Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mudiastuti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Bamboo panel are usable to support the Programming of Design and Planning in the Structure of the Agricultural Building Construction. The Specific heat of Bamboo’s fiber, sheet and panel using the method of mixtures varied from 1.585-2.789 J/gr oC, with a mean value of 2.227 J/gr oC in the temperature difference range of 9 ± 0.1oC . It was found it will increase linearly with an increase in the sample temperature. Thermal conductivity values of Bamboo’s fiber based on the transient line heat source technique varied from 0.1035 x 10-3-0.1322 x10-3 J/ cm2 sec oC in the sample temperature 22 to 30 oC on thermal diffusivity of bamboo fiber in 22-30 oC was found to be 0.0823 x 10-3J/cm secoC. The sorption Isotherm and the water activity in the bamboo’s panel is depend on the chemical composition, glue laminated, additive and the porosity. There are related with the absorbing of the water into the bounded water and the diffusivity of the water in and out the panel. The moisture equilibrium range are 7.89 to 19.22 percent in the control of the circumstances and 11 to 75 % of the environment.relative humidity.

  4. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10−3, 2.9·10−3, 3.1·10−3 K·m2·W−1·g−1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10−3 and 0.89·10−3 K·m2·W−1·g−1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index Ai based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power generation as coal

  5. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of sorption of 2.4-dichlorophenol onto 2 mixtures: bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (BC and hydroxyapatite plus bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (HBC, in a fluidized bed circulation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamin Ahmed Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorption studies were carried out to investigate removal of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP from aqueous solution in a fluidized bed by two types of adsorbent mixtures: BC (Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate, and HBC (Hydroxyapatite plus Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate; both manufactured in ball shape. The main material bamboo char was characterized by FTIR, DTA and SEM. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed circulation column. Adsorption, isotherms and kinetic studies were established under 180 min operating process time, at different initial 2.4-DCP solution concentrations ranging from 5–10 mg/L, and at different flow rates ranging from 0.25–0.75 L/min. The data obtained fitted well for both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; indicating favorable condition of monolayer adsorption. The kinetics of both adsorbents complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. BC was proven a new effective composite and low cost adsorbent which can be applied in the field of wastewater treatment, and it can also play an important role in industry water treatment.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  7. Separation of Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide in Waste Water with Ion Exchange Using Activated Carbon Prepared by Bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    Activated carbon is prepared by bamboo for the selective recovery of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), contained in waste water from semiconductive industry, at the end of pipe of the plant. The adsorption ability of the activated carbon from bamboo (BAC) is comparable to the commercial activated carbons. The adsorption of TMAH with BAC in batchwise system increases with increase in pH value of the aqueous solution, and the effective adsorption and elution yield is also obtained in column system. Quantitative adsorption-elution processing can be achieved with the present BAC, and thus indicating the BAC is effective material as the adsorbent of TMAH at the end of pipe of the plant.

  8. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Shangbin Bai; Guomo Zhou; Yixiang Wang; Qianqian Liang; Juan Chen; Yanyan Cheng; Rui Shen

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences ...

  9. Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Activated Carbon Prepared from Locally Available Waste of Bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dula, Tamirat; Siraj, Khalid; Kitte, Shimeles Addisu

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) waste by KOH activation heating in an electrical furnace at 1073 K for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption experiments were also carried out as a function of pH, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate, adsorbent dosage, and temperature of the solution. Kinetic studies of the data showed that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order k...

  10. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  11. Theoretical and experimental analysis of structural joints of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua for a housing project

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Patricia; Olarte, Ana Milena; Takeuchi, Caori

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of connections between elements of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) for a housing project is presented in this article. The analysis was carried out in four stages: design, load test, numerical simulation and finite element modeling. Design connection was developed using the allowable stresses method. In load test, displacements were measured in order to identify the behavior of connections for different load increments. Numerical simulation was p...

  12. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic) Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Nurul Fazita; Krishnan Jayaraman; Debes Bhattacharyya; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Mohamad Haafiz, M. K.; Abdul Khalil H.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic) acid (BF-PLA) composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength), thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial...

  13. Phylogenetic inference and SSR characterization of tropical woody bamboos tribe Bambuseae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on complete plastid genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Dos Anjos, Karina Goulart; Faoro, Helisson; Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Greco, Thiago Machado; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Rogalski, Marcelo; de Souza, Robson Francisco; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2016-05-01

    The complete plastome sequencing is an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary studies, as well as may greatly facilitate the use of plastid DNA markers in plant population genetic studies. Merostachys and Guadua stand out as the most common and the highest potential utilization bamboos indigenous of Brazil. Here, we sequenced the complete plastome sequences of the Brazilian Guadua chacoensis and Merostachys sp. to perform full plastome phylogeny and characterize the occurrence, type, and distribution of SRRs using 20 Bambuseae species. The determined plastome sequence of Merostachys sp. and G. chacoensis is 136,334 and 135,403 bp in size, respectively, with an identical gene content and typical quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of IRs separated by the LSC and SSC regions. The Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses produced phylogenomic trees identical in topology. These trees supported monophyly of Paleotropical and Neotropical Bamboos clades. The Neotropical bamboos segregated into three well-supported lineages, Chusqueinae, Guaduinae, and Arthrostylidiinae, with the last two forming a well-supported sister relationship. Paleotropical bamboos segregated into two well-supported lineages, Hickeliinae and Bambusinae + Melocanninae. We identified 141.8 cpSSR in Bambuseae plastomes and an inferior value (38.15) for plastome coding sequences. Among them, we identified 16 polymorphic SSR loci, with number of alleles varying from 3 to 10. These 16 polymorphic cpSSR loci in Bambuseae plastome can be assessed for the intraspecific level of polymorphism, leading to innovative highly sensitive phylogeographic and population genetics studies for this tribe. PMID:26643654

  14. A cell sorter with modified bamboo charcoal for the efficient selection of specific antibody-producing hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chen; Ni, Mei-Hui; Chang, Yu-Chung; Yeh, Hsiu-Lun; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been proven useful in research and clinical applications. However, the generation of mAbs by conventional hybridoma technology is time-, cost- and labor-consuming. Here we developed a simplified procedure for efficient generation and selection of antibody-producing hybridomas within 1 h, using a particular cell sorter design, a cytoflow reactor-based cell sorter (CBCS) which consists mainly of the "cytoflow reactor" that comprises two components, a reaction chamber and a glass tubing for air and medium exchange by gravity, and the "sorting material", human EGFR-conjugated bamboo charcoal, for specific B-cell enrichment. The high surface area and porous structure of bamboo charcoal greatly increased cell density and protein production. Moreover, from Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and IFA analysis, the carboxylation and immobilization of bamboo charcoal can be introduced easily by nitric acid treatment and conjugated handily with human EGFR using EDC/NHS. Other evidences, such as IFA, showed that the specific hybridomas generated in this study could secrete specific anti-human EGFR antibodies. Our design allows the production of mAbs while avoiding time-consuming steps, such as large numbers of limiting dilutions and screening assays, and demonstrates that the CBCS could be a powerful tool for monoclonal antibody production. PMID:20708791

  15. Multi-locus plastid phylogenetic biogeography supports the Asian hypothesis of the temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Haevermans, Thomas; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Na; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the biogeography of the temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) using a densely-sampled phylogenetic tree of Bambusoideae based on six plastid DNA loci, which corroborates the previously discovered 12 lineages (I-XII) and places Kuruna as sister to the Chimonocalamus clade. Biogeographic analyses revealed that the Arundinarieae diversified from an estimated 12 to 14Mya, and this was followed by rapid radiation within the lineages, particularly lineages IV, V and VI, starting from c. 7-8Mya. It is suggested that the late Miocene intensification of East Asian monsoon may have contributed to this burst of diversification. The possibilities of the extant Sri Lankan and African temperate bamboo lineages representing 'basal elements' could be excluded, indicating that there is no evidence to support the Indian or African route for migration of temperate bamboo ancestors to Asia. Radiations from eastern Asia to Africa, Sri Lanka, and to North America all are likely to have occurred during the Pliocene, to form the disjunct distribution of Arundinarieae we observe today. The two African lineages are inferred as being derived independently from Asian ancestors, either by overland migrations or long-distance dispersals. Beringian migration may explain the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunction. PMID:26723898

  16. 安吉竹编手工业考察记%Report of Bamboo Weaving Handicraft Industry in Anji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力丽; 陈恺恺

    2012-01-01

    通过对安吉县岭西村竹编艺人的追踪调研,了解其生活现状,总结竹编加工制作的工艺与要领,并对竹编器具的文化属性进行一定的分析,进而初步探寻其保存、发展的模式,这对于实现人、社会与物的和谐共生具有一定的启示意义.%A tracking survey on bamboo weaving handicraftsmen in Lingxi Village, Anji County was made to study their living situations, and to gather the techniques and skills applied in bamboo weaving. Moreover, various cultural attributes of bamboo utensils were analyzed so as to explore their conservation and development mode, which might provide some important inspirations for achieving a harmonious coexistence of human beings, the society and material world.

  17. Adsorptive Removal of Formaldehyde by Chemically Bamboo Activated Carbon with addition of Ag nanoparticle: Equilibrium and Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pita Rengga Wara Dyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon was prepared from dried waste bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper using chemical activation with KOH. The carbon was prepared with the activating agent in a mass ratio of KOH and dried bamboo (3:1 at 800oC. Using impregnation technique, the bamboo-based activated carbon has developed with modified Ag nanoparticle (Ag-AC to capture formaldehyde. The Ag-AC has characteristics of moderate surface area of 685 m2/g and average pore size of 2.7 nm. The adsorption equilibriums and kinetics of formaldehyde on Ag-AC measured. The influences of initial formaldehyde on adsorption performance have measured in a batch system. The equilibrium data were evaluated by isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin. The Langmuir model well describes the adsorptive removal of formaldehyde on Ag-AC in this study. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations were applied to test the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order exhibited the best fit for kinetic study.

  18. Microwave-assisted conversion of biomass derived hemicelluloses into xylo-oligosaccharides by novel sulfonated bamboo-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemicelluloses are the major constituent of biomass and their hydrolysis products xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are of great importance to the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, catalytic conversion of bamboo hemicelluloses into XOS was developed using novel solid acid catalysts of sulfonated bamboo-based carbon material (BCS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy characterization of BCS confirmed the successful introduction of acid groups (including –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH) onto its surface. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time and solid acid-to-water ratio on the performance of catalytic conversion were investigated. The maximum XOS yield of 54.7 wt% based on xylan content was obtained at 150 °C for 45 min with a solid acid to water mass ratio of 1:200. The use of water solvent with BCS provides a green and efficient process for hemicellulose conversion. - Highlights: • Sulfonated bamboo-based carbon (BCS) with active groups was synthesized. • Microwave irradiation was adopted to increase the reaction efficiency. • XOS with higher DP was preferentially obtained under mild conditions. • Xylose and XOS with lower DP were preferentially obtained under severe conditions. • Limited byproducts were detected in the hydrolysis reaction

  19. 基于竹展开技术的毛竹竹板材碳转移分析%Carbon Transfer During Manufacturing of Moso Bamboo Plank Using the Bamboo Unfolding and Flattening Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇峰; 顾蕾; 刘红征; 周国模; 李翠琴; 施拥军; 韩笑

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bamboo plank using unfolding and flattening technology is a thirteen-step process including softening,seamless veneer flattening,molding and drying,etc.This paper investigated bamboo unfolding planks processd from 209 various bamboo stems and their carbon transfer ratio,and analyzed the carbon transfer characteristics of five specifications without green bark and two specifications with green bark.There were four important results.First,the average carbon transfer rate for bamboo plank with green bark was 73.49% and for the one without green bark was 61.24%,and the total carbon transfer rate for 840 mm length bamboo plank without green bark was significantly higher than the pieces of 1 300 mm length(P < 0.05).Second,the aggregate carbon transfer rate of different bamboo diameters varied from 52.37% to 74.44%,with an average of 62.57%,the fitting equation was:y =2.886 5x + 29.641,R2 =0.376 4.Third,the carbon transfer ratio of unfolded planks out of whole stem with different diameters ranged from 22.25% to 67.84%,the fitting equation was:y =8.646 2x-60.375,R2 =0.645 5,which indicated that the carbon transfer rate and diameter were positively linearly related.Fourth,the estimated relationship between carbon storage of moso bamboo unfolding planks and diameter was projected as:y =0.0001x4 1377,R2 =0.694 3.%全程跟踪209株不同胸径分布的毛竹利用竹展开技术生产去青(5种规格)和带青(2种规格)2类竹板材的过程,探讨竹展开板材生产过程的碳转移特征.结果表明:1)2种不同规格带青竹板材的总计碳转移率平均为73.49%;5种不同规格去青竹板材的总计碳转移率平均为61.24%,其中长度840 mm比1 300 mm段竹材总计碳转移率高,且二者有显著性差异(P<0.05);2)不同胸径毛竹展开板材(去青和带青)的综合碳转移率为52.37% ~ 74.44%,平均为62.57%,其拟合方程为y=2.866 5x+ 29.641,R2 =0.3764;3)不同胸径毛竹展开板材的

  20. 促进竹房屋系统及近期发展%Promotion of bamboo Housing system & Recent Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shri K.Shyamasundar; Jagadish Vengala

    2006-01-01

    竹房屋系统的建造与实用建筑的方法有很大的区别.(1)原竹的利用和构架椽子作为主要的承载元素;(2)劈蔑竹和竹片胶合作为剪切壁,它能起到透风的作用,并能为其结构提供整体的稳定性;(3)根据危害和公共条件的程度作适当的竹子防腐处理;(4)在屋顶结构上,用于承载的接合点与软钢螺丝相结用于竹子的三角架;(5)竹席皱纹片用于顶部的包层.根据房屋的设计、内部的修饰和当地的条件,建造房屋时可采用低成本,在印度,每张板的价格为300~500卢比/m2.为了改进技术,印度胶合板工业研究与培训所近几年修建了几个样板建筑.活动房的具体建筑、创新理念以及观点在本文进行了阐述.%The Bamboo Housing system differs significantly from other established bamboo construction practices in many ways viz. - (a) Use of round bamboo columns and trussed rafters as main load bearing element, (b)Use of split bamboo grids/chicken mesh and plastered with cement mortar to act as shear walls for transmitting wind loads and to provide overall stability to the structure, (c) Application of appropriate preservative treatment of bamboo depending on the degree of hazard and service conditions, (d) Use of BMB gussets in combination with mild steel bolts for load bearing joints in roofing structure, and (e) Use of BMCS as roof claddings. The technology evolved 'can be effectively adopted for construction of low-cost (single storied) houses with cost ranging from Rs.300 to 500 per square feet depend upon the design of the house and nature of interior finish, and also upon the local conditions. To promote this technology, IPIRTI had put several demonstrate structures throughout India during the last few years. The details of the above structures and an innovative idea of pre-fab housing and its conceptual are discussed in brief.

  1. Communication From the Unique Perspective of Bamboo Floating Miao%从传播学视角看贵州苗族独竹漂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗刚

    2012-01-01

    The drift of Guizhou Province, Guizhou Miao Miac Bamboo alone people in long-term production practice and social practice, created a water feature with a fitness program sports skills, set sports, entertainment, and watch the people in one of . For Miac drift alone has long-term vitality of bamboo, with the help of various mass media to promote, introduce unique cultural value of drift characteristics of bamboo, bamboo float fully demonstrate their own unique charm. Bamboo should drift alone dovetails with the red revolutionary tradition, unique bamboo drift show long history and rich cultural connotations, and enhance the general public on the unique cultural identity of bamboo floating and self-confidence. From original water sports challenges unique nature of projects and inspire the fighting spirit and courage to get the transmission power, building bamboo drift alone the basic theory of cultural transmission in order to guide the independence theory of bamboo floating communication practice. Use of educational channels to amass this unique bamboo floating tangible and intangible "cultural treasures", soluble in improving the education system to go. Bamboo floating on the independence to conduct their own culture of innovation to meet the requirements of different audiences. Making a positive factor for the new sports culture. Good planning the operation to separate bamboo drift, so that the audience through the full participation and inclusion, independence, full understanding of the meaning and characteristics of bamboo float.%贵州省苗族独竹漂是贵州苗族人民在长期的生产实践和社会实践中,创造出来的一项具有健身特点的水上体育技能项目,集体育性、娱乐性、群众性和观赏性于一体。要使贵州苗族独竹漂具有长久生命力,要借助各种大众传播媒介来宣传、介绍独竹漂的文化价值特性,充分彰显独竹漂自身魅力。要把独竹漂与红色革命传统相契合,展现

  2. [Movement-adsorption and its mechanism of Cd in soil under combining effects of electrokinetics and a new type of bamboo charcoal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hui; Luo, Qi-Shi

    2007-08-01

    The characteristics of migration and its influencing factor of cadmium in sandy loam soil by uniform electrokinetics as well as the adsorption property by a new material-bamboo charcoal were investigated through bench-scale experiments, and the feasibility of using electrokinetic technique combined with the newly developed bamboo charcoal for remediation of cadmium contaminated soils was analyzed as well. The results show that the bamboo charcoal is good adsorption material which has comparably strong adsorption effect on Cd, bearing potential in future use, which could be simulated by both Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.96). The migration rates of cadmium in sandy loam were high up to 0. 6786 - 0.6875cm/h under an electric gradient of 1.0V/cm, depending upon the concentration of cadmium and the distribution of electric field density. Electrokinetics effectively transported the heavy metal in the soil. In the new electrokinetic tech combining the bamboo charcoal with the same electric gradient above under the polarity reversal period of 48 hours, the cadmium in the soil could be wiped off with high efficiency (removal efficiency 79.6% in 12 days) and the pH together with water content could be well retained. The electric current in the process changed periodically according to the reversal. As a new technique, the electrokinetic movement-bamboo charcoal adsorption holds high potential in future use. PMID:17926419

  3. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidants and detection of intracellular cadmium in organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chen, Junren; Islam, Ejazul; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Yan, Wenbo; Peng, Danli; Liu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz.) is recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant due to its huge biomass and high tolerance to environmental stresses. The objectives of this study were to investigate mechanism related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and to evaluate Cd accumulation capacity of moso bamboo. The results of the pot experiment showed that Cd accumulation by bamboo increased with increasing the Cd levels in soil and the values in stem ranged from 28.51 to 132.13 mg kg(-1). Meanwhile chlorophyll in leaves and total biomass showed a decreasing trend. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for roots and stem in all the treatments were more than 1.0 and the translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.70 to 1.06. In hydroponics experiment, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased in Cd treated plants as compared with control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced at initial stage and then decreased consistently with the increase of Cd addition. The proline concentrations were also increased due to the presence of Cd, particularly at 25 μM Cd treatment. According to TEM-EDX analysis, the cytoplasm was the main site for accumulation of Cd in moso bamboo. On the basis of overall results, it is suggested that moso bamboo could be successfully used for the remediation of low Cd (no more than 5 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soils. PMID:27015570

  4. 南竹北调及北方竹造景的研究%Study on Planting Southern Bamboo Species in Northern China and Their Landscaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芸

    2011-01-01

    根据竹子的生态、文化及园林价值,在研究南北方地区不同竹种特性的基础上,借鉴江南园林的竹造景优势,提出了南竹北调的建议;分析了适宜北方园林的竹造景设计,为丰富北方地区的竹景观贡献微薄之力。%Based on the ecological, culture and gardening value of bamboo, the paper studied the characteristics of different bamboo species in southern and northern China and proposed to plant southern bamboo species in northern China to learn the landscaping advantage of gardens at the south of the Yangtze River. The paper analyzed the bamboo landscaping designs that are suitable for gardens in the north, which would make contribution to enrich bamboo landscaping in northern China.

  5. Local Bamboo and Earth Construction Potential for Provision of Affordable Structures in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJI ACHUKA NWOKE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria and other developing countries where reinforced concrete in construction is widely used, the high and steadily increasing cost of steel has made construction very expensive. This, coupled with the political will, usually christened “Nigerian Factor” has made any conceived affordable mass housing program by successive governments a mirage. This development has triggered off the search for alternative and suitable replacement for steel reinforcement in concrete works. This search for a cheaper alternative has led to the exploration of abundant, naturally occurring materials such as bamboo, coconut fibres, sisal and oil palm fibres  which can be obtained locally at low cost and low levels of energy using local manpower and technology. The use of these locally available materials as substitute for the conventional materials in reinforced concrete elements can cut construction costs by as much as between 30% and 80%. Interest in these local materials is heightened by the facts that not only are they considered cheap; they are also “eco-friendly”. Also, the rising level of pollution in the construction industry has called for the adoption of “Eco-structures”, which are constructions that are in harmony with the surroundings and do not violate the environment neither through the chosen building materials nor through the construction methods. Several studies  have shown that contemporary  earth construction has the potentials to address the urban housing crisis in the developing countries. On the other hand there is a wrong perception among the users and the professionals that, ‘earth houses are only used by the poor people’. This paper investigates the information available on bamboo and earth material and their possible use as a low cost sustainable building material in Nigeria  in the light of problem of affordable structure. The findings of  this paper shows that more research has to be done to come up with reasonable

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Yu, Xinzhi; Song, Chao; Pang, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Li, Yanjun

    2016-10-01

    Biochar produced by biomass pyrolysis has the advantage of carbon sequestration. However, some of the carbon atoms in biochar are not very stable. In this study, the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar was investigated using the atomic ratios of H/C and O/C, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation spectrophotometric method. The results show that the carbon yield and ratios of H/C and O/C decreased from 71.72%, 0.71, and 0.32 to 38.48%, 0.22, and 0.06, respectively, as the temperature was increased from 300°C to 700°C. Moreover, the main oxygen-containing functional groups gradually decreased, while the degree of aromatization increased accordingly. The biochar showed a better stability at a higher pyrolysis temperature. The proportion of carbon loss, i.e., the amount of oxidized carbon with respect to the total carbon of the biochar, decreased from 16.52% to 6.69% with increasing temperature. PMID:27481469

  7. Electrical conductivity of oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets obtained from bamboo: effect of the oxygen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.; Prías Barragán, J. J.; Sangiao, S.; De Teresa, J. M.; Lajaunie, L.; Arenal, R.; Ariza Calderón, H.; Prieto, P.

    2016-09-01

    The large-scale production of graphene and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) requires low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis methods. We employed a new, simple, cost-effective pyrolytic method to synthetize oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets (OGNP) using bamboo pyroligneous acid (BPA) as a source. Thorough analyses via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides a complete structural and chemical description at the local scale of these samples. In particular, we found that at the highest carbonization temperature the OGNP-BPA are mainly in a sp2 bonding configuration (sp2 fraction of 87%). To determine the electrical properties of single nanoplatelets, these were contacted by Pt nanowires deposited through focused-ion-beam-induced deposition techniques. Increased conductivity by two orders of magnitude is observed as oxygen content decreases from 17% to 5%, reaching a value of 2.3 × 103 S m‑1 at the lowest oxygen content. Temperature-dependent conductivity reveals a semiconductor transport behavior, described by the Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. From the localization length, we estimate a band-gap value of 0.22(2) eV for an oxygen content of 5%. This investigation demonstrates the great potential of the OGNP-BPA for technological applications, given that their structural and electrical behavior is similar to the highly reduced rGO sheets obtained by more sophisticated conventional synthesis methods.

  8. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrolysis temperature had a distinct impact on yields of pyrolysis products. As pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran rapidly decreased; however, yields of phenols increased smoothly. It can be obtained that, at the low temperatures (250-400oC, pyrolysis products were mainly 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, and the highest yield was 66.26% at 320oC; at the high temperatures (400-800oC, pyrolysis products were mainly phenols, and yields hit their highest level of 56.43% at 600 oC. A minor amount of acetic acid only emerged at 800°C. Knowledge of pyrolysis products releasing from EMAL and the pyrolysis mechanism could be basic and essential to the understanding of thermochemical conversion of EMAL to chemicals or high-grade energy.

  9. Deformation patterns in cross-sections of twisted bamboo-structured Au microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate an almost pure extrinsic size effect we propose an experimental approach to investigate the deformation structure within single crystalline cross-sections of twisted bamboo-structured Au microwires. The cross-sections of individual 〈1 0 0〉 oriented grains of 25 μm thick Au microwires have been characterized by Laue microdiffraction. The diffraction data were used to calculate the misorientation of each data point with respect to the neutral fiber in the center of the cross-section as well as the kernel average misorientation to map the global and local deformation structure as function of the imposed maximum plastic shear strain. The study is accompanied by crystal plasticity simulations which yield the equivalent plastic strain distributions in the cross-section of the wire. The global deformation structures are directly related to the activated slip systems, resulting from the real orientations of the investigated grains. When averaging the degree of deformation along ring segments, an almost continuous but non-linear increase of misorientation from the center toward the surface is observed, reflecting the overall strain gradient imposed by torsion. For the local deformation structure, pronounced and graded deformation traces are observed which often pass over the neutral fiber of the twisted wire and which are obviously reflecting domains of high geometrically necessary dislocations content

  10. Co-combustion performance of coal with rice husks and bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Philip C. W.; Chao, Christopher Y. H.; Wang, J. H.; Cheung, C. W.; Kendall, Gail

    Biomass has been regarded as an important form of renewable energy due to the reduction of green house gas emission such as carbon dioxide. An experimental study of co-combustion of coal and biomass was performed in a laboratory-scale combustion facility. Rice husks and bamboo were the selected biomass fuels in this study due to their abundance in the Asia-Pacific region. Experimental parameters including the biomass blending ratio in the fuel mixture, relative moisture content and biomass grinding size were investigated. Both energy release data and pollutant emission information were obtained. Due to the decrease in the heating value from adding biomass in the fuel mixture, the combustion temperature and energy output from the co-firing process were reduced compared with coal combustion. On the other hand, gaseous pollutant emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were reduced and minimum energy-based emission factors were found in the range of 10-30% biomass blending ratio. With an increase in the moisture content in the biomass, decreases in combustion temperature, SO 2, NO x and CO 2 emissions were observed, while an increase in CO emissions was found. It has also been observed that chemical kinetics may play an important role compared to mass diffusion in the co-firing process and the change in biomass grinding size does not have much effect on the fuel burning rate and pollutant emissions under the current experimental conditions.

  11. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  12. Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C, gasifying medium (air and air/steam, and catalyst to biomass ratio (0 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1.5 : 1 on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5% v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion.

  13. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

  14. Acoustical properties of particleboards made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper as building construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic panels are used to overcome noise problems; the purpose of this study was to determine the acoustical properties of particleboard made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper. The acoustic parameters measured were the transmission loss (TL value and sound absorption coefficient. Particleboards of two different densities (0.5 g/cm3 and 0.8 g/cm3 that were made with three particle sizes (fine, medium, and wool or excelsior were used in this study. The sound TL value was measured in a reverberation room, while the sound absorption coefficient was determined using the impedance tube method. A single-number rating of sound transmission class (STC was determined based on TL measurements. The results showed that sound TL and STC values of medium-density particleboard (0.8 g/cm3 were better than low-density (0.5 g/cm3 board. However, low-density particleboard performed well as sound absorber panels. Generally, the boards absorbed sound at low ( 1000 Hz and reflected sound at middle frequencies. The sound absorption coefficient was better with the fine- and medium-sized particles than with the wool size; meanwhile, boards made from wool- or excelsior-sized particles possessed higher TL and STC values.

  15. Electrical conductivity of graphite oxide nanoplatelets obtained from bamboo: Effect of the deoxidation degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.; Prias-Barragan, J. J.; Sangiao, S.; de Teresa, J. M.; Lajaunie, L.; Arenal, R.; Ariza-Calderón, H.; Prieto, P.

    Given the high interest in the fabrication and application of carbon-based materials, we present a new and cost-effective method for the synthesis of graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONP) using bamboo pyroligneous acid (BPA) as source. GONP-BPA present lateral dimensions of 5-100 micro-meter and thickness less than 80 nm, as confirmed by TEM. EEL spectra show that locally the carbon is mainly in sp2 bonding configuration and confirm a short/medium range crystalline order. Elemental analysis by EDX confirms the presence of oxygen in an atomic percentage ranging from 17 to 5%. For electrical characterization, single platelets were contacted by focused-ion-beam-induced deposition of Pt nanowires. The four-point probe electrical conductivity shows a direct correlation with the oxygen percentage. Three orders of magnitude conductivity rise is observed by the oxygen reduction, reaching a value of 2.3x103 S/m at the final deoxidation degree. The results suggest that GONP-BPA could be used in the development of advanced devices and sensors.

  16. Development of Methodology to Assess the Failure Behaviour of Bamboo Single Fibre by Acoustic Emission Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Saiful; Gulshan, Fahmida; Ahsan, Qumrul; Wevers, Martine; Pfeiffer, Helge; van Vuure, Aart-Willem; Osorio, Lina; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used as a tool for detecting, evaluating and for better understanding of the damage mechanism and failure behavior in composites during mechanical loading. Methodology was developed for tensile test of natural fibres (bamboo single fibre). A series of experiments were performed and load drops (one or two) were observed in the load versus time graphs. From the observed AE parameters such as amplitude, energy, duration etc. significant information corresponding to the load drops were found. These AE signals from the load drop occurred from such failure as debonding between two elementary fibre or from join of elementary fibre at edge. The various sources of load at first load drop was not consistent for the different samples (for a particular sample the value is 8 N, stress: 517.51 MPa). Final breaking of fibre corresponded to saturated level AE amplitude of preamplifier (99.9 dB) for all samples. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the exact AE energy value for final breaking. Same methodology was used for tensile test of three single fibres, which gave clear indication of load drop before the final breaking of first and second fibre.

  17. Superelasticity by reversible variants reorientation in a Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with bamboo grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated for a superelastic Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with 226 μm diameter, created by solidification via the Taylor method. The wire, which consists of bamboo grains with tetragonal martensite matrix and coarse γ precipitates, exhibits fully reversible superelastic behavior up to 4% tensile strain. Upon multiple tensile load–unload cycles, reproducible stress fluctuations of ∼3 MPa are measured on the loading superelastic stress plateau of ∼50 MPa. During cycles at various temperatures spanning −70 to 55 °C, the plateau stress decreases from 58 to 48 MPa near linearly with increasing temperature. Based on in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, we conclude that this superelastic behavior is due to reversible martensite variants reorientation (i.e., reversible twinning) with lattice rotation of ∼13°. The reproducible stress plateau fluctuations are assigned to reversible twinning at well-defined locations along the wire. The strain recovery during unloading is attributed to reverse twinning, driven by the internal stress generated on loading between the elastic γ precipitates and the twinning martensite matrix. The temperature dependence of the twining stress on loading is related to the change in tetragonality of the martensite, as measured by X-ray diffraction

  18. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  19. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  20. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough. PMID:25063973

  1. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles. PMID:27113084

  2. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for bamboo industry wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wu, Donglei

    2013-12-01

    Bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW) poses severe environmental problems because of its high organic matter content. In this study, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was applied for BIWW treatment. During the start-up stage, the system presented an effective degradation with a final COD removal of 91%. Compared to the intermittent mode, a higher membrane rejection (45% COD, 60% NH3-N) was obtained when the system was operated continuously. N2 flushing was applied for membrane cleaning, and the cleaning efficiency was significantly influenced by the hydraulic retention time (HRT). While operated under HRT ≥ 5 d, membrane fouling could be effectively controlled. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis indicated the membrane top area suffered the most serious fouling. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed most organic matter in BIWW was eliminated by AnMBR. However, benzene and fluoro derivatives were detected in the permeate as the by-products. PMID:24121371

  3. Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Nie, Yao; Du, Ziwen; Huang, Qian; Meng, Pingping; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-23

    A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C. PMID:24721493

  4. Effects of bamboo salt and its component, hydrogen sulfide, on enhancing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Nam, Sun-Young; Ryu, Ka-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-08-01

    Korean bamboo salt (BS) is known to have therapeutic effects in the treatment of diseases, including viral disease, dental plaque, diabetes, circulatory organ disorders, cancer and inflammatory disorders. However, the effect of BS on immune functions remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to determine the immune‑enhancing effect of BS and its component, hydrogen sulfide, using RAW264.7 macrophages and a forced swimming test (FST) animal model. BS and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH), a hydrogen sulfide donor, significantly increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α through the activation of nuclear factor‑κB in the RAW 264.7 cells. In an in vivo experiment, BS and NaSH were administered orally once a day for 28 days. After the 28 days, the immobility times in the FST were significantly decreased in the BS and NaSH‑fed groups, compared with the control group. In addition, BS and NaSH induced significant increases in the levels of interferon‑γ, interleukin‑2 and TNF‑α, compared with the control group. Taken together, these results indicated that BS and NaSH may improve immune function. PMID:27315400

  5. 移植母竹造林技术及造林成效分析%Mother Bamboo Transplantation Planting Technology and Planting Effect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍丙芳

    2012-01-01

    Through basic work praetice for many years, mother bamboo transplantation planting and teeding management technology were summarized, compared with afforestation by seedling, effect of mother bamboo transplantation planting in forestry produetion in mountain area was analyzed including higher survival rate, lower total cost. Therefore, mothor bamboo trarsplantation planting was suitable for popularization and application for large scale in mountain area.%通过多年的基层工作实践,总结了母竹移植造林及抚育管理技术,通过与实生苗造林相比,母竹移植造林在山区林业生产中具有造林成活率高、造林总成本低的特点,因此移植母竹造林适宜在山区大面积推广应用。

  6. Evidence for benthic-pelagic food web coupling and carbon export from California margin bamboo coral archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea bamboo corals (order Gorgonacea, family Isididae are known to record changes in water mass chemistry over decades to centuries. These corals are composed of a two-part skeleton of calcite internodes segmented by gorgonin organic nodes. We examine the spatial variability of bamboo coral organic node 13C/12C and 15N/14N from thirteen bamboo coral specimens sampled along the California margin (37–32° N; 792 to 2136 m depth. Radiocarbon analyses of the organic nodes show the presence of the anthropogenic bomb spike, indicating the corals utilize a surface-derived food source (pre-bomb D14C values of ∼ −100‰, post-bomb values to 82‰. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data from the organic nodes (13C = −15.9‰ to −19.2‰ 15N = 13.8‰ to 19.4‰ suggest selective feeding on surface-derived organic matter or zooplankton. A strong relationship between coral 15N and habitat depth indicate a potential archive of changing carbon export, with decreased 15N values reflecting reduced microbial degradation (increased carbon flux at shallower depths. Using four multi-centennial length coral records, we interpret long-term 15N stability in the California Current. Organic node 13C values record differences in carbon isotope fractionation dictated by nearshore vs. offshore primary production. These findings imply strong coupling between primary production, pelagic food webs, and deep-sea benthic communities.

  7. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  8. The Bamboo-Eating Giant Panda Harbors a Carnivore-Like Gut Microbiota, with Excessive Seasonal Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhihe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five ca...

  9. Effect of Ratio of Face to Core Particles on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Particleboard Manufactured from Ethiopian Highland Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork; PARIDAH; Md.Tahi; WONG; Ee; Ding; RAHIM; Sudin

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of ratio of face to core particles on mechanical and physical properties of oriented strand board produced from Ethiopian highland bamboo.Three-layered oriented particleboards were manufactured with 4 proportions of face to core particles at 750 kg/m~3 target density.Ten percent urea formaldehyde resin was used as a binder.Strength and dimensional stability performances of all boards were assessed based on ISO standards.The results showed that modulus of rupture...

  10. Effects of seawater-pH and biomineralization on the boron isotopic composition of deep-sea bamboo corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Hönisch, Bärbel; Robinson, Laura F.; Hill, Tessa M.

    2015-04-01

    The ocean is currently absorbing excess carbon from anthropogenic emissions, leading to reduced seawater-pH (termed 'ocean acidification'). Instrumental records of ocean acidification are unavailable from well-ventilated areas of the deep ocean, necessitating proxy records to improve spatio-temporal understanding on the rate and magnitude of deep ocean acidification. Here we investigate boron, carbon, and oxygen isotopes on live-collected deep-sea bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis) from a pHtot range of 7.5-8.1. These analyses are used to explore the potential for using bamboo coral skeletons as archives of past deep-sea pH and to trace anthropogenic acidification in the subsurface North Atlantic Ocean (850-2000 m water depth). Boron isotope ratios of the most recently secreted calcite of bamboo coral skeletons are close to the calculated isotopic composition of borate anion in seawater (δ11Bborate) for North Atlantic corals, and 1-2‰ higher than δ11Bborate for Pacific corals. Within individual coral skeletons, carbon and oxygen isotopes correlate positively and linearly, a feature associated with vital effects during coral calcification. δ11B variability of 0.5-2‰ is observed within single specimens, which exceeds the expected anthropogenic trend in modern North Atlantic corals. δ11B values are generally elevated in Pacific corals relative to δ11Bborate, which may reflect pH-driven physiological processes aiding coral calcification in environments unfavorable for calcite precipitation. Elevated δ11B values are also observed proximal to the central axis in multiple Atlantic and Pacific specimens, relative to δ11Bborate, which might reflect ontogenetic variability in calcification rates. Although the observed boron isotope variability is too large to resolve the present anthropogenic ocean acidification signal at the studied depths in the North Atlantic (∼0.03-0.07 pH units), pH changes ⩾0.1 units might still be reconstructed using δ11B measurements in

  11. 竹材料在产品包装低碳设计中的应用分析%Application Analysis of Bamboo Material in Product Packaging Design of Low-carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东

    2012-01-01

    对竹材料在日常生活中的应用进行了梳理,分析了低碳经济时代竹材料的发展趋势。在此基础上,针对人们对产品包装设计的新要求,提出可以用竹材人造板材料、竹纤维复合材料、竹炭和原竹材料等为产品包装低碳设计的新材料,有效降低碳排放量,实现生态环境和产品包装设计发展的双赢。%It combed the application of bamboo material in the daily life, analyzed the development trend of bamboo material in low carbon economy. On this base, with the new demands of the product packaging design with people, it advanced new materials of low carbon bamboo in product packaging design, including bamboo man-made board material, bamboo fiber composite material, bamboo charcoal and bamboo materials, which can effectively reduce the carbon emissions and realize the win-win in the ecological environment and the development of product packaging design.

  12. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  13. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, E

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing

  14. Fluid dynamics of feeding behaviour in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Wilga, Cheryl D; Lauder, George V; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    Although the motor control of feeding is presumed to be generally conserved, some fishes are capable of modulating the feeding behaviour in response to prey type and or prey size. This led to the 'feeding modulation hypothesis', which states that rapid suction strikes are pre-programmed stereotyped events that proceed to completion once initiated regardless of sensory input. If this hypothesis holds true, successful strikes should be indistinguishable from unsuccessful strikes owing to a lack of feedback control in specialized suction feeding fishes. The hydrodynamics of suction feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) was studied in three behaviours: successful strikes, intraoral transports of prey and unsuccessful strikes. The area of the fluid velocity region around the head of feeding sharks was quantified using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The maximal size of the fluid velocity region is 56% larger in successful strikes than unsuccessful strikes (10.79 cm2 vs 6.90 cm2), but they do not differ in duration, indicating that strikes are modulated based on some aspect of the prey or simply as a result of decreased effort on the part of the predator. The hydrodynamic profiles of successful and unsuccessful strikes differ after 21 ms, a period probably too short to provide time to react through feedback control. The predator-to-prey distance is larger in missed strikes compared with successful strikes, indicating that insufficient suction is generated to compensate for the increased distance. An accuracy index distinguishes unsuccessful strikes (-0.26) from successful strikes (0.45 to 0.61). Successful strikes occur primarily between the horizontal axis of the mouth and the dorsal boundary of the ingested parcel of water, and missed prey are closer to the boundary or beyond. Suction transports are shorter in duration than suction strikes but have similar maximal fluid velocity areas to move the prey through the

  15. Co-combustion performance of coal with rice husks and bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, P.C.W.; Chao, C.Y.H.; Wang, J.H.; Cheung, C.W.; Kendall, G. [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biomass has been regarded as an important form of renewable energy due to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission such as carbon dioxide. An experimental study of co-combustion of coal and biomass was performed in a laboratory-scale combustion facility. Rice husks and bamboo were the selected biomass fuels in this study due to their abundance in the Asia-Pacific region. Experimental parameters including the biomass blending ratio in the fuel mixture, relative moisture content and biomass grinding size were investigated. Both energy release data and pollutant emission information were obtained. Due to the decrease in the heating value from adding biomass in the fuel mixture, the combustion temperature and energy output from the co-firing process were reduced compared with coal combustion. On the other hand, gaseous pollutant emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were reduced and minimum energy-based emission factors were found in the range of 10-30% biomass blending ratio. With an increase in the moisture content in the biomass, decreases in combustion temperature, SO{sub 2}, NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions were observed, while an increase in CO emissions was found. It has also been observed that chemical kinetics may play an important role compared to mass diffusion in the co-firing process and the change in biomass grinding size does not have much effect on the fuel burning rate and pollutant emissions tinder the current experimental conditions.

  16. The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

  17. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P < 0.01) except acid-detergent lignin. All chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P < 0.01), and obviously increased acid detergent fiber (ADF) content (P < 0.01) except ammoniation. The predicted organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and net energy for lactation of BSS were greatly increased by chemical treatments (P < 0.01), the highest for ammoniation, followed by Ca(OH)2 , NaOH and AHP. Ammoniation had higher (P = 0.03) ammonia-N concentration than the other four treatments. There were significant differences among all treatments on total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.03), propionate (P = 0.01), butyrate concentration (P < 0.01) and C2 /C3 ratio (P = 0.02). Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P < 0.01) and ED of NDF (P = 0.06) and ADF (P = 0.07) numerically. Ammoniation got a higher ED of crude protein than control. In conclusion, all chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization. PMID:26953064

  18. Microbial Development in Soils Under Intensively Managed Bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-Fang; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Phyllostachys praecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao, a favored bamboo shoot species, has been widely planted in recent years. Four stands with different historical management practices were selected for this study to understand the evolution of soil microbial ecology by determining the effects of a new mulching and heavy fertilization practice on soil quality using microbiological parameters. Compared with the traditional practice (index 1), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial respiration carbon (MRC) with the new management practice significantly decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05,respectively) with 1-2 years of mulching (index 2) and then for continued mulching significantly increased (P < 0.05). The ratios of MBC/TOC (total organic carbon) and MRC/TOC also significantly diminished (P < 0.05) with mulching. The average well color development (AWCD) and Shannon index decreased with mulching time, and the significant decrease(P < 0.05) in Shannon index occurred from index 2 to index 3. The results from a principal components analysis (PCA)showed that the scores of the first principal component for indexes 1 and 2 were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than soils mulched 3-4 years or 5-6 years. Also, the second principal component scores for index 1 were larger than those for index 2, suggesting that the ability of soil microorganisms to utilize soil carbon was decreasing with longer use of the new management practice and causing a deterioration of soil biological properties.

  19. Decomposition of Different Litter Fractions in a Subtropical Bamboo Ecosystem as Affected by Experimental Nitrogen Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-Hua; HU Hong-Ling; HU Ting-Xing; ZHANG Jian; LIU Li; LI Ren-Hong; DAI Hong-Zhong; LUO Shou-Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an important component of the global carbon (C) budget,litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is greatly affected by the increasing nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally.We hypothesized that different litter fractions derived from a single tree species may respond to N deposition differently depending on the quality of the litter substrate.To test the hypothesis,a two-year field experiment was conducted using the litterbag method in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in the rainy region of Southwest China.Four N treatment levels were applied:control (no N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),medium-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and high-N (300 kg N ha-1 year-1).We observed different patterns of mass loss for the three P.amarus litter fractions (leaves,sheaths,and twigs) of varying substrate quality in the control plots.There were two decomposition stages with different decay rates (fast rate in early stages and slow rate in the later stages) for leaves and sheaths,while we did not observe a slower phase for the decay of twigs during the 2-year study period.The annual decomposition rate (k) of twigs was significantly lower than that of leaves or sheaths.Addition of N slowed the decomposition of leaves and twigs in the later stages of decomposition by inhibiting the decay of lignin and cellulose,while addition of N did not affect the mass loss of sheaths during the study period.In the decomposition of all three litter fractions,experimental N deposition reduced the net N accumulation in the early stages and also decreased the net N release in the later stages.The results of this study suggest that litter substrate quality may be an important factor affecting litter decomposition in a bamboo ecosystem affected by N deposition.

  20. Comparison of nanocrystals from tempo oxidation of bamboo, softwood, and cotton linter fibers with ultrasonic-assisted process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fully bleached kraft bamboo pulp (BPFs, fully bleached kraft softwood pulp (SPFs, and bleached cotton linter pulp (CPFs, which have different crystallinities, were oxidized in the TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system with ultrasonic treatment for producing nanocrystals. The carboxylate content of nanocrystals made from BPFs, SPFs, and CPFs were 2.10, 2.02, and 1.66 mmol/g, respectively. Nanocrystals of BPFs and SPFs had widths of 5 to 15 nm and lengths of 400 to 800 nm. The length and width of CPFs nanocrystals were 200 to 400 nm and 15 to 25 nm. The oxidizing rates of BPFs, SPFs, and CPFs were different. These differences could be attributed to crystallinity. Crystallinity affected microstructures, chemical process, and the efficiency of ultrasonication. Crystallinity also shaped the nanocrystals, since nanocrystals consist of the residual crystalline regions after chemical oxidation and ultrasonication. Fibers of lower crystallinity (such as bamboo showed a higher reactivity, and the nanocrystals made from low crystallinity materials were longer, thinner, more rapidly formed, and required less energy in their preparation.

  1. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  2. Growth of Y-junction bamboo-shaped CNx nanotubes on GaAs substrate using single feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped Y-junction bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition of monoethanolamine/ferrocene mixture on GaAs substrate at 950 deg. C. The use of monoethanolamine as the C/N feedstock simplifies the experimental arrangement by producing ammonia during the growth process. The structure, morphology and graphitization of as-grown nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNx) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis. TEM analysis indicates that nanotubes have a bamboo-like structure. The nitrogen concentration on as-grown CNx nanotube was found to be 7.8 at.% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XPS analysis also indicated that there are two different types of nitrogen atoms (pyridinic and graphitic) in these materials. The possible growth mechanism of formation of Y-junction CNx nanotubes was briefly discussed. Field emission measurement suggested that as-grown CNx nanotubes are excellent emitters with turn-on and threshold fields of 1.6 and 2.63 V/μm, respectively. The result indicated that monoethanolamine proves to be an advantageous precursor to synthesize Y-junction nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and such nanotubes might be an effective material to fabricate various field emission devices.

  3. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha‑1•yr‑1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  4. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  5. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  6. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves

  7. Anti-fatigue activity of a triterpenoid-rich extract from Chinese bamboo shavings (Caulis bamfusae in taeniam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yao, Xiaobao; Bao, Bili; Zhang, Ying

    2006-10-01

    The anti-fatigue activity of a pentacyclic triterpenoid extract from bamboo shavings (EBS) from the bark of bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides Munro), was evaluated in BALB/c mice. EBS, isolated by the supercritical CO(2) fluid extraction (SFE) technique, was given to mice at concentrations of 0.04 (low-dose group), 0.08 (middle-dose group) and 0.25 g/kg body weight (high-dose group). The anti-fatigue activity of EBS was estimated by the change in body weight, weight-loaded swimming test and climbing test, and corresponding parameters including serum urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid were measured. The results showed that an appropriate level of EBS could prolong the weight-loaded swimming and climbing time, and had an active effect on the serum urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid level in BALB/c mice, which significantly embodied the anti-fatigue activity of EBS. Overall, it is predicted that EBS, being a composition mainly containing a group of pentacyclic triterpenoids, and its main triterpenoid components have great potential for application in relevant fields for its anti-fatigue activity. PMID:16886233

  8. RAPID IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION OF FLAVONOIDS COMPOUNDS FROM BAMBOO LEAVES BY LC-(ESI-IT-TOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Lv,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an applicable approach to identifying flavonoid compounds from bamboo leaves extracts, based on the use of the powerful Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization source in combination with hybrid Ion Trap and high-resolution Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-(ESI-IT-TOF/MS. The strategy involves four procedural steps including searching flavonoid components based on an ultraviolet spectrum scan, getting the accurate mass of flavonoid components parent ion, retrieving the corresponding formula by software, and speculating as to the chemical structure according to mass spectrum decomposition rules. The presently developed methodology has been well proven to be useful and valuable by successful application to the identification of flavonoid components from Dendrocalamopsis oldham leaves. All of the 13 flavonoid components detected have been successfully identified by this approach, except that it failed to confirm 3 flavonoid component chemical structures. The calibration curves of two flavonoid components (orientin and vitexin that had been identified in bamboo leaves showed a good linear fit (R2≥0.9998 in the concentration range of 6.25 to 200 mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD were less 0.02 mg/L (S/N=3, and the estimated limits of quantification (LOQ were less 0.06 mg/L (S/N=10. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 1.04 and 1.82%, respectively.

  9. 竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究%Studies of Cultivation Technique on Bamboo Powder Ganoderma Lucidum Planted by Imitating Wild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德峰; 涂建生; 叶财旺; 邱思锋; 蒙绍权; 韩娜

    2016-01-01

    采用竹制品下脚料诸如竹粉等作为培养基主要原料,替代木材进行仿野生栽培灵芝,结果表明,仿野生栽培的竹粉灵芝所含的有效成分与纯天然野生灵芝相似,竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究为灵芝人工栽培节约了大量的林木资源,对于保护自然资源,开发野生灵芝产业有着广阔的前景和意义。%Abstrct:The cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was an fungus planting technology imitating wild condition, which are drawn from bamboo products waste as culture medium to replace wood for producing Ganoderma lucidum. The result showed that effective components of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was very similar to that of pure natural wild Ganoderma lucidum, which also save a lot of forest resources in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation. There was the wide prospects and important significance in cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum, which also opened up a new way in development of wild Ganoderma lucidum industry.

  10. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from a normalized cDNA library of young leaf from Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z M; Li, C L; Peng, Z H

    2011-11-01

    Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) belongs to Dendrocalamus genus, Bambusease tribe, Bambusoideae subfamily, Poaceae family. It is a representative species of clumping bamboo, and a principal commercial species for various construction purposes using mature culms and for human consumption using young shoots. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from young leaves of Ma bamboo and 9,574 high-quality ESTs were generated, from which 5,317 unigenes including 1,502 contigs and 3,815 singletons were assembled. The unigenes were assigned into different gene ontology (GO) categories and summarized into 13 broad biologically functional groups according to similar functional characteristics or cellular roles by BLAST search against public databases. Eight hundred and ninety-one unigenes were assigned by KO identifiers and mapped to six KEGG biochemical pathways. The transcripts involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as cytochrome 450, flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase, and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase were well represented by 14 unigenes in the unigene set. The candidate genes involved in phytohormone metabolism, signal transduction and encoding cell wall-associated receptor kinases were also identified. Sixty-seven unigenes related to plant resistance (R) genes, including RPP genes, RGAs and RDL/RF genes, were discovered. These results will provide genome-wide knowledge about the molecular physiology of Ma bamboo young leaves and tools for advanced studies of molecular mechanism underlying leaf growth and development. PMID:21713530

  11. Responses of seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes to land-use change from paddy fields to Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yongfu; Chang, Scott X.; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Liu, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change often markedly alters soil carbon (C) dynamics such as soil surface CO2 efflux. This study aims to test the hypotheses that converting paddy fields to bamboo stands would markedly reduce soil CO2 efflux and their temperature sensitivity (change of soil CO2 efflux rate by increasing 10 °C of temperature), and change the relationship between soil CO2 efflux and other environmental factors. A 12-month field study was conducted to measure the seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes in three adjacent paddy field-bamboo forest pairs with the automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-8100). Results showed that soil CO2 effluxes from both of the two land-uses had distinct seasonal patterns, and were reduced from 45.4 to 34.7 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 in cumulative CO2 emissions when paddy fields were converted to bamboo stands. About 80% of the variation in soil respiration in the bamboo stands was explained by soil temperature; however, a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature in the paddy field was observed only when the soil was not submerged under water, indicating that soil water saturation in the paddy fields altered the soil CO2 efflux-temperature relationship. A negative relationship (P stands. The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was dependent on the depth of the soil temperature measurement and was increased by converting paddy fields to bamboo stands, rejecting the hypothesis. In Lei bamboo stands, the R2 for the soil respiration-temperature regression was higher using seasonal and diurnal CO2 efflux data together than using the seasonal data alone. We conclude that the conversion of paddy fields to Lei bamboo stands decreased the annual soil CO2 efflux but increased its temperature sensitivity, and altered the relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. When calculating the Q10, the soil temperature measurement depth and data with diurnal timescale should be taken into account. If such land

  12. 原竹预制构件房屋设计与制造技术%Design and manufacture technology of prefabricated bamboo house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高黎; 王正; 王戈; 程海涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and manufacture technology of prefabricated modular bamboo house, which can meet the modern residential requirements. Firstly,Moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens) was conditioned to approximate constant mass in atmospheric conditions,then main physical-mechanical properties were tested and design stresses were calculated. After that,modular construction components including trusses and walls were assembled by using special connections and joints to combine and reinforce bamboo together. The truss was tested safe enough under specified load; lateral bearing capacity of the wall was 0. 78 t and could be used as load-bearing wall in two-storey building. Based on the experiments,a modular bamboo house was built up with the designed components. The results show that it is technically feasible to use bamboo as main materials in modern prefabricated house.%以原竹为主要原料设计与制造符合现代居住要求的预制构件房屋,内容包括毛竹的处理与设计强度计算,建筑构件的连接、模块化设计与性能测试,以及预制构件房屋的建造等。结果表明:屋架在实际使用载荷下具有足够的安全性能;墙体的抗侧承载力为0.78t,可用作1—2层住宅承重墙体。通过建设示范房屋证明利用原竹进行现代房屋的设计建造是完全可行的。

  13. Effects of phosphorus application on photosynthetic carbon and nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency and growth of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) subjected to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenggang; Wang, Yanjie; Pan, Kaiwen; Jin, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), one of the staple foods for the endangered giant pandas, is highly susceptible to water deficit due to its shallow roots. In the face of climate change, maintenance and improvement in its productivity is very necessary for the management of the giant pandas' habitats. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant responses to water deficit are poorly known. To investigate the effects of P application on photosynthetic C and N metabolism, water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of dwarf bamboo under water deficit, a completely randomized design with two factors of two watering (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P regimes (with and without P fertilization) was arranged. P application hardly changed growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (P(n)) and WUE in well-watered plants but significantly increased relative growth rate (RGR) and P(n) in water-stressed plants. The effect of P application on RGR under water stress was mostly associated with physiological adjustments rather than with differences in biomass allocation. P application maintained the balance of C metabolism in well-watered plants, but altered the proportion of nitrogenous compounds in N metabolism. By contrast, P application remarkably increased sucrose-metabolizing enzymes activities with an obvious decrease in sucrose content in water-stressed plants, suggesting an accelerated sucrose metabolism. Activation of nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes in water-stressed plants was attenuated after P application, thus slowing nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation. P application hardly enlarged the phenotypic plasticity of dwarf bamboo in response to water in the short term. Generally, these examined traits of dwarf bamboo displayed weak or negligible responses to water-P interaction. In conclusion, P application could accelerate P(n) and sucrose metabolism and slow N metabolism in water-stressed dwarf bamboo, and as a result improved RGR and alleviated damage from soil

  14. 氧气含量对竹材炭化特性的影响%Impact of Oxygen Content on Carbonization Characteristics of Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志威; 潘一凡; 王美玲; 周飞

    2012-01-01

    竹材炭化过程中,炭化温度和炭化时间是两个十分重要的工艺参数,同时炉内的氧气含量对竹材炭化也会产生较大影响。通过传感器实时测定并控制炉内氧分压,研究炉内氧含量对竹材炭化的影响。结果表明,随着炉内氧分压增加,得炭率下降。用电子显微镜和能谱仪分析观察竹炭的微观结构和残留物成份,揭示竹炭蜂窝状的微观结构;随着炉内氧分压增加,竹炭孔径变大,表明炭化过程中氧含量影响竹材炭化过程中细胞的收缩。%Carbonization temperature and time are two essential parameters during bamboo carbonization, and the oxygen content in the furnace also has a greater impact on bamboo carbonization. In this paper, the oxygen partial pressure was controlled and tested by measurement sensors in real time. And the impact of furnace oxygen content on bamboo charcoal was studied. Results show that char yield was decreased with the increasing of the oxygen partial pressure in furnace. The microstructure and composition of the bam- boo charcoal were analyzed and observed by field-emission scanning electronic microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, which revealed the microscopic structure of bamboo charcoal honeycomb. The average diameter of holes inside of bamboo charcoal becomes larger with the increasing of oxygen partial pressure in furnace, showing that the cell contraction are influenced by the oxygen partial pressure.

  15. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m2/g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m2/g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m2/ g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m2/ g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  16. 脱水竹笋加工新工艺研究%Study on new processing technology for dried bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐; 王洪新

    2011-01-01

    通过对脱水竹笋加工的研究,确定笋干新工艺如下:将清洗切分好的竹笋于0.15%柠檬酸(W/V)中热烫护色,然后于5%氯化钠(W/V)+10%葡萄糖(W/V)渗透处理60min,最终选择在50℃下热风干燥。通过验证实验可知,采用上述工艺干燥竹笋14h左右,可得到贮藏期较长、护色效果良好的笋干。与一般加工方式相比,采用此法加工笋干可得到更加安全卫生、营养美味的产品。%The new processing technology of dried bamboo shoots was established as follows:after color protection blanching by 0.15% citric acid(W/V),the clean bamboo shoots was done osmotic treatment in 5% sodium chloride(W/V)+10% glucose(W/V)for 60min,and at last,the bamboo shoots was drying by hot air at 50℃.It was showed that,after 14h treatment by above processing technology,the dried bamboo shoots could get a longer storage period and a good color protection.Compared with the general processing methods,the new technology could product more safe and nutritious and delicious dried bamboo shoots.

  17. 竹类旅游资源的分类与评价体系构建%The Establishment of the Classification and Evaluation System of Bamboo Tourism Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡碧凡

    2011-01-01

    在评述竹类资源、旅游资源分类和评价的相关研究基础上,对竹类旅游资源进行了界定和特征分析,将竹类旅游资源划分为3个主类、7个亚类和53个基本类型,构建了竹类旅游资源分类体系.通过层次分析法,构建了竹类自然和人文景观资源评价体系和等级评价标准.采用国家相关标准对竹林生态环境资源进行评价,确立了相应的等级评价标准.研究将为科学分类和评价竹类旅游资源,设计竹类旅游产品、确定资源开发强度与规模提供依据.%Based on the review of bamboo resources, the classification and evaluation of tourism resources, the bamboo tourism resources were defined and their characteristics were analyzed. A classification system of bamboo tourism resources was established, which includes three main categories, 7 sub-categories and S3 basic types. Using AHP method, an evaluation system and the standard of natural and cultural bamboo tourism resources was established. Furthermore, related national standards were adopted to establish corresponding evaluation standard for bamboo ecological resource. Finally, the quality of bamboo tourism resources was divided into five levels in reference to related national standards. This research may provide a certain basis for the design of bamboo tourism product and the determination of the intensity and scale of bamboo resources development.

  18. Avaliação físico-mecânica de colmos de bambu tratados Physico-mechanical evaluation of treated bamboo culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. C. Espelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O bambu é um material renovável e de baixo custo, encontrado em abundância em regiões tropicais e subtropicais; no entanto, a maior parte das espécies de bambu é altamente suscetível ao ataque de fungos e insetos. Basicamente, pode-se aumentar a durabilidade dos colmos de bambu; de duas maneiras: por procedimentos culturais (naturais e pelo tratamento dos colmos com produtos químicos. Neste trabalho, testou-se a eficiência da aplicação do Método de Boucherie Modificado, comparando-se o aumento na durabilidade das amostras tratadas (taliscas de bambu com amostras não tratadas ou testemunhas. Para tal, avaliaram-se os efeitos de algumas variáveis, tais como: posição da amostra no colmo, tipos de preservativo e sua concentração, duração do tratamento e tempo de exposição das taliscas em dois ambientes (protegido e exposto e se realizaram ensaios não destrutivos - END (visual, pesagem das amostras e de ultra-som e destrutivo (flexão estática. Verificou-se a ineficiência do uso de soluções com baixa concentração, principalmente quando elas foram combinadas com tratamentos de curta duração. Os ensaios de ultra-som e de flexão estática foram suficientemente sensíveis para detectar a melhor combinação do efeito dos parâmetros avaliados.Bamboo is a renewable raw material and is available in tropical and subtropical regions, where it is considered as an inexpensive material. Nevertheless, most bamboo species are highly susceptible to insect and fungi attacks. Basically, bamboo culm protection can be obtained by means of two types of treatment: natural protection and chemical protection. In this study the performance of a Boucherie Modified Method was evaluated, comparing treated bamboo samples (bamboo splits with untreated samples (control. The effects of the sample position in the culm, chemical solution type and its concentration, treatment duration and the exposition period in two environments (protected and

  19. Effect of Growth Temperature on Bamboo-shaped Carbon–Nitrogen (C–N Nanotubes Synthesized Using Ferrocene Acetonitrile Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobal PramodSingh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation deals with the effect of growth temperature on the microstructure, nitrogen content, and crystallinity of C–N nanotubes. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS study reveals that the atomic percentage of nitrogen content in nanotubes decreases with an increase in growth temperature. Transmission electron microscopic investigations indicate that the bamboo compartment distance increases with an increase in growth temperature. The diameter of the nanotubes also increases with increasing growth temperature. Raman modes sharpen while the normalized intensity of the defect mode decreases almost linearly with increasing growth temperature. These changes are attributed to the reduction of defect concentration due to an increase in crystal planar domain sizes in graphite sheets with increasing temperature. Both XPS and Raman spectral observations indicate that the C–N nanotubes grown at lower temperatures possess higher degree of disorder and higher N incorporation.

  20. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  1. Simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol and Cd from soils by electrokinetic remediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Wei; Wang, Fa Yuan; Huang, Zheng Hong; Wang, Hui

    2010-04-15

    An in situ electrokinetic remediation technique was designed by combining the uniform electrokinetic technology with a new-type of bamboo charcoal as adsorbent. A bench-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the application of this technique for simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and Cd from a sandy loam at different periodic polarity-reversals. The contaminated soil was artificially spiked with 100 mg/kg 2,4-DCP and 500 mg/kg Cd. Two modes of polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h were included. After 10.5 d of operation, about 75.97% of Cd and 54.92% of 2,4-DCP were removed from soil at intervals of 24 h, whilst only 40.13% of Cd and 24.98% of 2,4-DCP were removed at intervals of 12 h. Soil water contents under two operation modes both significantly decreased, but evenly distributed spatially. Soil pH values under two operation modes were all maintained in the range from 7.2 to 7.4, close to the initial value. The electricity consumption per day was 12.24 and 11.61 kWh/m(3)/d, respectively at polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, at polarity-reversal interval of 24 h, electroremediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal was effective in simultaneous removal of 2,4-DCP and Cd from soil. Our results indicate a promising potential in in situ electroremediation of soils co-contaminated with organics and heavy metals. PMID:20006426

  2. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects. PMID:24950959

  3. Predominance of a single clone of the most widely distributed bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isagi, Yuji; Oda, Takashi; Fukushima, Keitaro; Lian, Chunlan; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Phyllostachys edulis, one of the most dominant bamboo species with the leptomorph rhizome system, has been asexually expanding its range into adjacent natural forest sites by shooting new culms. The resulting ecological problems include simplification of stand structure and decline in the species diversity of local flora. In this study, the genetic diversity of P. edulis for the entire distribution range from Japan to China was analyzed using 16 microsatellite markers. Among these, 12 loci were fixed by a single allele, whereas only two alleles were detected for each of the remaining 4 loci; all adult samples shared the same genotype at all loci including the four heterozygous loci. These observations indicate that all current samples from Japan and China comprise an identical clone. The clone is distributed over more than 2,800 km with an estimated biomass of approximately 6.6 × 10(11) kg, which is exceptionally large. Among seedlings from flowering events in 2005 and 2006, 20 different genets were generated by recombination through selfing of a single flowering genet. Predominance of a single clone in the wild and a diverse composition of genets among seedlings suggest that the intermittent flowering of P. edulis in the wild has produced a variety of clones through recombination. However, the resulting seedlings cannot compete with other tree species or adult P. edulis, and almost all adult P. edulis growing in Japan and China likely propagated through vegetative reproduction of a single clone by human transplantation, and subsequently expanded into adjacent forest sites by shooting young sprouts. The relatively small size of the flowering area and rapid culm reproduction has led to the stability of P. edulis communities. However, the low genetic diversity is an important consideration for the long-term management of this prevailing bamboo species. PMID:26582068

  4. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND CONSTRUCTION OF PREFABRICATED BAMBOO POLE DEMONSTRATION HOUSE%圆竹装配式房屋的试验研究和实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单波; 高黎; 李智; 肖岩

    2015-01-01

    圆竹材因其特殊的外形和结构性不适应建筑工程的要求,因而在建筑结构领域内的研究和应用基本上处于空白状态。以我国丰富的毛竹作为结构材料,对其进行大量的材性试验和分析。研究结果表明,经过合理选材,圆竹的基本力学指标高于TC13级针叶木材,可以作为结构材料使用。通过设计的几种圆竹构件和结构的金属连接件,基本实现了圆竹构件加工的标准化和施工的预制化。对2个圆竹墙体进行抗侧力试验,圆竹墙体的抗侧向承载能力约为同类型轻型木结构墙体的65%。对3个圆竹屋架进行了静载试验,屋架的极限承载力由变形控制,平均值为12.3 kN。根据试验结果和GB/T 50329—2002《木结构设计规范》,设计和建造了一个约50 m2的圆竹预制房屋示范建筑,验证了圆竹预制房屋技术的可行性和适用性。%Because of the special shape and structure, bamboo pole is not fit to the requirements of construction industry and therefore its research and use are rare in the field of building structures.Moso bamboo, a kind of rich forest resource in China, was selected as building material and tested.The test results showed that the main mechanical properties of bamboo pole were better than those of coniferous wood of TC13 grade and could be used as structural material.Several types of metal connections were presented for connecting bamboo poles with other materials and it was realized basically the manufacture standardization and prefabrication of bamboo members.The lateral resistance tests of two pieces of shear walls made by bamboo poles were conducted.The lateral resistance capacity of this kind of shear wall was about 65%of that of the same wall of light wood structure.The static tests of three pieces of bamboo pole roof trusses were done and the average ultimate loading capacity was 12.3 kN.A prefabricated bamboo pole demonstration house with

  5. 独竹漂运动的传承与发展策略研究%Strategy Research of Heritance and Development of Single Bamboo Drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云杰

    2014-01-01

    加大宣传力度独竹漂的健身价值,适度开发独竹漂的经济价值,大力开发独竹漂的文化价值和教育价值;抓住各项有利政策的大好机遇,理清思路,确保独竹漂运动快速、稳步发展。%This paper thinks that strengthen the propaganda about fitness values of the single bamboo drift movement,and developing the economic value of it should be moderate, and strengthen the developing of its cultural value and educational value. To make sure the single bamboo drift's fast, steady development,governments should seize the excellent opportunity of the favorable policy and manage our thinking clearly.

  6. [Investigation of characteristic microstructures of adhesive interface in wood/bamboo composite material by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guan-Yun; Wang, Yu-Rong; Ren, Hai-Qing; Yang, Shu-Min; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xie, Hong-Lan; Deng, Biao; Du, Guo-Hao; Xiao, Ti-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast microscopy(XPCM)can be used for obtaining image with edge enhancement, and achieve the high contrast imaging of low-Z materials with the spatial coherence peculiarity of X-rays. In the present paper, the characteristic microstructures of adhesive at the interface and their penetration in wood/bamboo composite material were investigated systematically by XPCM at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). And the effect of several processing techniques was analyzed for the adhesive penetration in wood/bamboo materials. The results show that the synchrotron radiation XPCM is expected to be one of the important precision detection methods for wood-based panels. PMID:23705464

  7. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  8. Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India

    OpenAIRE

    Sonar, Nitin R; Halami, Prakash M.

    2014-01-01

    Fermented bamboo shoots such as Soibum, Soidon, Eup, Hirring, Hecche and Ekung etc. are non-salted acidic products obtained by natural fermentation predominantly with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we have characterized 11-representative LAB that includes, Lactobacillus sp. (n = 2), Lactobacillus plantarum (n = 3), and one each of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus xylosus. Subsequently, these c...

  9. Comfort and Functional Properties of Far-Infrared/Anion-Releasing Warp-Knitted Elastic Composite Fabrics Using Bamboo Charcoal, Copper, and Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Ting Li; Yi-Jun Pan; Chien-Teng Hsieh; Ching-Wen Lou; Yu-chun Chuang; Yu-Tien Huang; Jia-Horng Lin

    2016-01-01

    Elastic warp-knitted composite fabrics with far-infrared emissivity and an anion-releasing property were prepared using bamboo charcoal (BC), copper (Cu), and phase-change material (PCM). The functional composite fabric, which was composed of self-made complex yarns with various twisting degrees and material composition, were created using a rotor twister and ring-spinning technique. The fabric structure was diversified by the feeding modes of weft yarn into a crochet-knitting machine. The tw...

  10. Effects of dwarf-bamboo understory on tree seedling emergence and survival in a mixed-oak forest in northern Japan: a multi-site experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Jiří; Matsuki, S.; Hara, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2009), s. 225-235. ISSN 1585-8553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0119; GA AV ČR IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Dwarf-bamboo understory * Forest regeneration * Seedling recruitment and survival Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2009

  11. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  12. Preparation of Solid Beverage of Effervescent Tablet from Bamboo Leaf and Barley Powder%竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娜; 游玥菲; 赵英英; 张宏康

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of solid beverage of effervescent tablet from bamboo leaf and barley powder was developed. Bamboo leaf, barley powder, Aspartame and etc. were used as raw materials. The best formula of effervescent tablets was determined through orthogonal test as follows: bamboo leaf and barley powder 19.1%, Aspartame 8.9%, citric acid 28%, sodium bicarbonate 40%, PVP 2% and PEG 6 000 2%. The effervescent tablet drinks had good taste and unique bamboo and barley flavour.%开发了一种新型竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料。以竹叶、大麦粉为主要原料,辅以蛋白糖等辅料,采用单因素试验和正交试验法优选主辅料配比。试验结果表明竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的最佳配方为:竹叶大麦茶粉19.1%,蛋白糖8.9%,柠檬酸28%,碳酸氢钠40%,聚乙烯吡咯烷酮2%,聚乙二醇60002%。该泡腾片溶于水后所得饮料呈棕褐色,酸甜适口,有刹口感,稍有竹叶大麦的香气,伴有竹叶的清香。

  13. Evaluating the Environmental Health Effect of Bamboo-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds through Analysis the Metabolic Indices of the Disorder Animal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming; HU Zheng Qing; STRONG P James; SMIT Anne-Marie; XU Jian Wei; FAN Jun; WANG Hai Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the bamboo VOCs (volatile organic compounds) effect on animal physiological indices, which associated with human health. Methods GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol,β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels. Conclusion Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants.

  14. Determination of fluorine by PIGE analysis on bovine tooth enamel treated with bamboo salt SMFP toothpaste and fluoride mouth rinsing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a toothpaste containing bamboo salt on fluorine uptake in bovine enamel and to compare the efficiency of fluorine uptake between sodium monofluorophosphate(SMFP) toothpaste and sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthrinsing solution using proton induced γ-ray emission analysis. 30 bovine tooth enamel specimens were prepared and assigned to 5 groups as follows: specimens without any treatment, specimens which were treated with a toothpaste containing dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) only, specimens which were treated with a toothpaste containing DCPD and SMFP, specimens which were treated with a toothpaste containing DCPD, SMFP and 2% bamboo salt, specimens which were treated with 0.05% NaF mouthrinsing solution. After 5 and 10 hours of treatment, fluorine concentration was measured at the depth of 263, 625, 2530 nm from the surface of the specimens. The surface concentration of fluorine was markedly increased using SMFP dentifrice. Bamboo salt did not encourage the uptake of fluorine into the enamel surface. NaF mouthrinsing solution showed a considerably higher uptake of fluoride in the intact enamel surface than the SMFP dentifrices. (author)

  15. 4种防霉剂对重组竹性能的影响%Effects of Four Mold Inhibitor on Properties of Reconsolidated Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏万姝; 覃道春

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the anti-mould effect of Dendrocalamus affinnis reconsolidated bamboo bonded with phenolic resin. Four fungicides, IPBC, DDAC, TCMTB and IPBC+DDAC, were incorporated with bamboo lumber during processing at three loading levels. The PCP-Na was used as the control fungicide. Result shows that IPBC is a potential reconsolidated bamboo fungicide based on the comprehensive consideration of its physical and mechanical properties as well as anti-mold effects.%以慈竹(Dendrocalamus affinnis)为原料,酚醛树脂(PF)为胶黏剂,有机碘化物(IPBC)、二癸基二甲基氯化铵(DDAC)、苯噻氰(TCMTB)、有机碘化物+二癸基二甲基氯化铵(IPBC+DDAC)为防霉剂制备防霉重组竹,以五氯酚钠(PCP-Na)作为对照药剂,并通过室内抗菌试验比较5种防霉剂的性能.结果表明:综合物理力学性能、防霉效果,IPBC是一种有潜力的重组竹防霉剂.

  16. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL FOAMING AGENTS ON THE PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO POWDER-POLYPROPYLENE FOAMED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxing Zhou,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To make full use of bamboo resources in China and explore the foaming mechanism of bamboo powder-polypropylene (PP foamed composites, a foamed composite of 54 wt% PP and 13 wt% HMSPP containing 33 wt% bamboo powder blends was prepared by injection moulding. Effects of chemical foaming agents (CFA on the mechanical properties and rheological behavior of foamed composites were investigated. The mechanical measurements and ESEM test results indicated that the composite with 1% modified exothermic FA had smaller cell size and better cell distribution compared with endothermic FA. It also had better physico-mechanical properties, with a decrease of 14.2% in density and an increase of 16.8% to 40.2% in the specific tensile, bending, and notched impact strength compared with the non-foamed composite. The frequency sweep results indicated that all composites had a shear- thinning behavior, and both the modulus and complex viscosity of composite with 1% exothermic FA decreased compared with those of the non-foamed composite. The shear rate scans revealed that the non-Newtonian fluid index increased with the increase of exothermic FA content. The viscous activation energy of the modified composite with 1% exothermic FA was 46.41KJ•mol-1. This was an increase of 8.9% compared with that of the non-foamed analogue.

  17. SWOT Analysis of Bamboo Industry Development in Jianyang District Nanping City, Fujiang%福建南平市建阳区竹产业发展SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛昌华

    2015-01-01

    运用 SWOT方法系统分析了福建省南平市建阳区竹产业发展所具有的优势、劣势及面临的机遇与威胁,提出南平市建阳区竹产业发展的战略、对策与建议。研究结果表明:南平市建阳区竹产业发展优势比较明显,同时具有前所未有的机遇,但也存在着劣势和外在威胁;应结合本区域自身特点,扬长避短,实现竹产业经济的可持续发展。%The strengths, weaknesses, external opportunities and threats of bamboo industry in Jianyang District had been systematically analyzed using SWOT method. And then the strategies, advises and countermeasures were pro-posed. The research results showed that the bamboo industry development had obvious advantages with unprecedented opportunities in Jianyang while there were also some weakness and external threats. Therefore, the district needs to fos-ter strengths and circumvent weaknesses based on its own characteristics aos as to achieve the sustainable development of bamboo industry.

  18. 利用扫描电镜原位拉伸研究竹材增韧机制%Toughness mechanism of bamboo by in-situ tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田根林; 江泽慧; 余雁; 王汉坤; 安晓静

    2012-01-01

    为了阐明竹材优良韧性的力学原理,以毛竹为研究对象,使用扫描电镜联用原位加载设备观察了竹材薄片纵向拉伸过程的裂纹扩展规律,并对断裂表面进行了组织水平、细胞水平、亚细胞水平的多尺度显微观察。结果表明:竹材纵向拉伸断裂裂纹拓展一般呈阶梯型展开。维管束与基本组织之间、竹纤维与薄壁组织细胞之间、纤维和薄壁细胞的壁层之间均有明显的分层现象,表明竹材断裂过程中存在从组织到细胞,乃至亚细胞水平的多级弱界面。这些弱界面可以有效阻碍裂纹扩展,增加断裂消耗功,从而显著增强竹材的韧性。%In order to reveal the toughening mechanism of bamboo,micro-tensile test combined with scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) was used to observe its in-situ crack propagation process during tension. Furthermore,high resolution field emission gun ( FEG) SEM was applied to study the consequent fracture surface with different magnification. The results showed that the micro-crack in the bamboo followed the way of "zigzag"during longitudinal tension,in addition to the frequently observed delamination located between vascular bundles and parenceymal cells,among bamboo fibers or parenchymal cells,and even between the lamellae in the cell wall of fibers or parenchymal cells. All the above observations pointed to the existence of multi-scale weak interface from tissue,cell to sub-cellular level in bamboo,which could increase the toughness of bamboo by blocking the growth of cracks and maximizing the work to fracture.

  19. Análise mecânica de pilares mistos bambu-concreto Mechanical analysis of hybrid bamboo-concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de pilares de bambu da espécie Dendrocalamus giganteus com e sem o preenchimento interior de concreto. Foram ensaiados, a compressão axial, 18 pilares com comprimentos de 1, 1,5 e 2 m e, para cada comprimento, tal como 6 pilares, sendo 3 mistos de bambu-concreto e 3 formados apenas por colmos de bambu. Os resultados foram analisados através da teoria da instabilidade de casca cilíndrica e das propriedades mecânicas dos materiais. Curvas força vs. deformação, teóricas e experimentais, são apresentadas e a influência do comprimento dos pilares sobre as últimas forças resistentes foi avaliada por meio de análise de variância. Os pilares mistos bambu-concreto apresentaram comportamento não-linear e, em média, suas últimas forças resistentes mostraram valor da ordem de 50% da obtida pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais; já os pilares formados apenas por colmos de bambu, indicaram comportamento linear e suas últimas forças diferiram apenas 5% das teóricas, calculadas pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais. Verifica-se que a utilização de pilares de bambu sem preenchimento de concreto apresenta maior viabilidade estrutural e econômica, podendo ser utilizada em obras de pequeno porte e de baixo custo.This work aimed to investigate the mechanical behaviour of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo columns filled with concrete. Eighteen columns were tested under axial compression. The columns were 1, 1.5 and 2 m high and, for each height, 6 columns were studied, in which three were filled with concrete and three were made only with the bamboo culms. The results were analysed by the instability theory of cylindrical shell and by the mechanical properties of the material. Theoretical and experimental load versus strain curves are presented and the influence of column height on the columns load capacity were evaluated by variance analysis. The bamboo-concrete columns presented a

  20. 卧龙自然保护区拐棍竹(Fargesia robusta)无性系种群的空间分布格局%The Spatial Distribution Pattern of Umbrella Bamboo ( Fargesia robusta ) Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巅; 周世强; 黄金燕; 李仁贵; 李德生; 黄炎; 张和民

    2012-01-01

    通过计算种群空间分布格局的经典指数对拐棍竹(Fargesia robusta)无性系种群在不同取样尺度上的空间分布格局和聚集强度进行了研究。利用地理信息系统计算了不同龄级分株与其他龄级分株的平均距离,探讨了分株年龄与空间分布的关系。结果表明:①拐棍竹无性系种群呈聚集分布;②种群的聚集分布的强度随着取样尺度的增大而减弱;③分株间的平均距离随龄级差距的增大而增大。%Umbrella bamboo (Fargesia robusta) is one of the major species of bamboos on which giant pandas feed in Wolong Nature Reserve. In this article, studies were made of the distribution pattern of umbrella bamboo clones by using a t test of Dispersal Index ( c), F test of Morisita's Index ( I), Negative Binomial index (K), Lloyd's Index (m) and Patch Area Index (PAI) across different block sizes. Analysis was also made of clumping intensity of umbrella bamboo clones in different block sizes by using Negative Binomial Index, Lloyd's Index and Patch Area Index. Then the average distance was computed be- tween different age classes of umbrella bamboo ramets by using GIS software, and the relationship was an- alyzed between age and distribution of umbrella bamboo ramets. The results indicated that:(1) umbrella bamboo clones were distributed in a clumped pattern, (2) the clumping intensity of umbrella bamboo clones decreased with increasing block size, (3) the average distance between different age classes of umbrella bamboo ramets increased with increasing age gap.

  1. Experimental Research and Application of Prefabricated Bamboo Pole House%预制装配式圆竹结构房屋的试验与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单波; 高黎; 肖岩; 王正

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo,a kind of rich forest resource in China,was selected as the building material and tested.The physical and mechanical properties have been tested,and the results show that the main mechanical properties of bamboo pole are better than those of TC13 grade of coniferous wood.So Moso bamboo poles can be used as a structural material.Several types of metal connections were presented to connect bamboo poles with other materials,and the processing standardization has been almost fulfilled by utilizing the metal connections.Two pieces of shear walls made of bamboo poles were conducted through lateral resistance tests.The lateral resistance capacity of this kind of shear wall is about 65 %,compared with the same wall of light wood structure.Three pieces of bamboo pole trusses were tested,and the ultimate loading capacity is 12.3 kN.A prefabricated bamboo pole demonstration house with a construction area of 50 m2 was designed and constructed according to the testing results and the code for the design of timber structures.The demonstration house has been used for about three years and its condition is desirable.%选用我国丰富的毛竹作为结构材料,对圆竹的主要物理力学指标进行了试验与分析.研究结果表明,圆竹的基本力学指标高于TC13级针叶木材,可以作为结构材料使用.设计了几种圆竹构件和结构的金属连接件,基本实现了圆竹构件加工的标准化和施工的预制化.设计了基于墙板模数的圆竹墙体单元,并对2片墙体进行了抗侧力试验,圆竹墙体的抗侧力性能与U型连接件密切相关,抗侧向能力约为同类型轻型木结构墙体的65%.进行了3个圆竹屋架的静载试验,结果表明屋架的极限承载力由变形控制,平均值为12.3 kN.根据试验结果和木结构设计规范,设计和建造了一个约50 m2的预制装配式圆竹房屋示范建筑,验证了该技术的可行性和适用性.示范建筑已使用3年多,目前状况良好.

  2. Pondering over the Development of Cuhural Resources about "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" in Yuntaishan%云台山“竹林七贤”文化资源开发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙

    2012-01-01

    The cuhure of "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" is the rare historical and cultural resources of Yuntaishan, so we must in- crease the scenic construction of "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" relics in Baijiayan, vigorously publicize Yuntaishan's "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" culture, deepen to develop tourist souvenirs concerning "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" so that "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" culture and the Yuntaishan harmonious blend harmoniously and make them a bright calling card of enhancing the Yuntaishan culture.%“竹林七贤”文化是云台山不可多得的历史文化资源,要加大百家岩“竹林七贤”相关遗址景区建设,大力宣传云台山的“竹林七贤”文化,深度开发与“竹林七贤”相关的旅游纪念品,使“竹林七贤”文化与云台山和谐相融,成为提升云台山文化品位的亮丽名片。

  3. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, ruminal condition and blood metabolites in wethers fed ground bamboo pellets cultured with white-rot fungus (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) and mixed with soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Michimasa; Okano, Kanji; Ieki, Hajime; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Tadokoro, Osamu; Sano, Yoshinori; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2013-09-01

    Three types of bamboo pellets as a ruminant feed: P1 (ground bamboo (GB) cultured with the fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CGB) : soybean curd residue (T) : soy sauce cake (S) in a 5:4:1 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis); P2 (GB : T : S = 5:4:1 on a DM basis); and P3 (CGB : T : S = 5.5:0.8:3.7 on a DM basis) were prepared. Four wethers were assigned in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of the bamboo pellets. The experimental treatments were C (control): fed alfalfa hay cubes (AC) only, and T1, T2 and T3: fed P1, P2, and P3 with AC by 1:1 on a DM basis, respectively. The digestibility of the DM, organic matter and acid detergent fiber of P1 were significantly higher than those of P2 and P3 (P bamboo pellets cultured with C. subvermispora and mainly mixed with soybean curd residue improved nutritional quality of ground bamboo because of its high digestibility and TDN content. PMID:23607929

  4. Improvement of computer programs 'BAMBOO' and 'ASFRE-IV' for coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a high burn-up fuel subassembly of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation system of a deformed fuel subassembly is being developed for the structure integrity of high burn-up wire-spacer-type fuel subassemblies of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report describes a computer program improvement work for coupling analyses of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a fuel subassembly as part of the simulation system development. In this work, a function of data conversion as an interface between a bundle deformation analysis program BAMBOO and a thermal hydraulic analysis program ASFRE-IV was incorporated to each program. BAMBOO was improved to accept the coolant temperature data from ASFRE-IV and to offer bundle deformation data to ASFRE-IV. ASFRE-IV was also improved to offer the coolant temperature data to BAMBOO and to obtain the bundle deformation data from BAMBOO. Improved BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV were applied to an analysis of 169-pin bundle for the program verification. It was confirmed that the coupling analysis gave the physically reasonable results on both deformation and thermal hydraulic behaviors in the fuel subassembly. (author)

  5. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. PMID:25879277

  6. Microscopy Characterization of Silica-Rich Agrowastes to be used in Cement Binders: Bamboo and Sugarcane Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, Josefa; Soriano, Lourdes; Santamarina, M Pilar; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José Luiz P; Payá, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Agrowastes are produced worldwide in huge quantities and they contain interesting elements for producing inorganic cementing binders, especially silicon. Conversion of agrowastes into ash is an interesting way of yielding raw material used in the manufacture of low-CO2 binders. Silica-rich ashes are preferred for preparing inorganic binders. Sugarcane leaves (Saccharum officinarum, SL) and bamboo leaves (Bambusa vulgaris, BvL and Bambusa gigantea, BgL), and their corresponding ashes (SLA, BvLA, and BgLA), were chosen as case studies. These samples were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Spodograms were obtained for BvLA and BgLA, which have high proportions of silicon, but no spodogram was obtained for SLA because of the low silicon content. Different types of phytoliths (specific cells, reservoirs of silica in plants) in the studied leaves were observed. These phytoliths maintained their form after calcination at temperatures in the 350-850°C range. Owing to the chemical composition of these ashes, they are of interest for use in cements and concrete because of their possible pozzolanic reactivity. However, the presence of significant amounts of K and Cl in the prepared ashes implies a limitation of their applications. PMID:26343378

  7. Cestodes of the Brown-banded Bamboo Shark Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae from the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of cestode parasites were collected from 120 brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected from Chon Buri province, in the Gulf of Thailand. All fish specimens were found to be infected with cestodes. Eight species in 4 genera of cestodes were recorded, Caulopatera pagei, Orectolobicestus tyleri, Spiniloculus mavensis, Yorkeria hilli, Y. kelleyae, Y. saliputium, Y. yubodohensis and Y. chonburiensis. In this study, 3,834 specimens of cestodes were found in C. punctatum of which 1,539 specimens (40.14 % were Yorkeria spp. O. tyleri (51.41 % with Y. chonburiensis the lowest (0.05 %. The prevalence of the cestode infection was highest in August (61.9 parasites per fish followed by October (57.9 parasites per fish and July (57.6 parasites per fish, whereas infection was lowest in February (21.6 parasites per fish. O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. hilli, Y. kelleyae and Y. yubodohensis were found in all seasons. Five species; C. pagei, O. tyleri, S. mavensis, Y. saliputium and Y. yubodohensis were the first records in Thailand.

  8. Parametric and non-parametric species delimitation methods result in the recognition of two new Neotropical woody bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The Neotropical woody bamboo genus Otatea is one of five genera in the subtribe Guaduinae. Of the eight described Otatea species, seven are endemic to Mexico and one is also distributed in Central and South America. Otatea acuminata has the widest geographical distribution of the eight species, and two of its recently collected populations do not match the known species morphologically. Parametric and non-parametric methods were used to delimit the species in Otatea using five chloroplast markers, one nuclear marker, and morphological characters. The parametric coalescent method and the non-parametric analysis supported the recognition of two distinct evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock estimates were used to estimate divergence times in Otatea. The results for divergence time in Otatea estimated the origin of the speciation events from the Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene. The species delimitation analyses (parametric and non-parametric) identified that the two populations of O. acuminata from Chiapas and Hidalgo are from two separate evolutionary lineages and these new species have morphological characters that separate them from O. acuminata s.s. The geological activity of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec may have isolated populations and limited the gene flow between Otatea species, driving speciation. Based on the results found here, I describe Otatea rzedowskiorum and Otatea victoriae as two new species, morphologically different from O. acuminata. PMID:26265258

  9. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  10. Efficient strategy to Cu/Si catalyst into vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with bamboo shape by CVD technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V MOHANA KRISHNA; T SOMANATHAN

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo-shaped vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (bs-VACNTs) were fabricated on Cu/Si catalyst by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique under the atmospheric pressure. The catalytic material (Cu/Si) playeda vital role in attaining bs-VACNTs, which is synthesized by drop cast method in a cost-effective manner. Using this catalytic support, we have achieved the tip growth bs-VACNTs at low temperature with well graphitization. The as-grown carbon material was then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyzer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD technique confirms the formation of hexagonal graphitic carbon planes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The surface morphology of the material was characterized by SEM, which clearly infervertically aligned CNTs. The nature, diameter and crystallinity were noticed by HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Further, we have also studied the electrochemical properties of the bs-VACNTs and it seems to be proved as highly electroconductive when compared to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

  11. Review on Bamboo Slips and Silk Book "Wuxing"(五行)%简帛《五行》述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘信芳

    2001-01-01

    “Wu Xing”(五行), an epistemological literature written on bamboo slips and Silk, is fully configurated and carefully designed . The oringin of its thought may trace back to Confucius and Zi You(子游). Its content directly affected the theory of Xin (心 mind) and Xing (性 nature) which appeared in late Warring States. In the course of writing the article, Zi Si's(子思) theory affected the part Explanation of “Wu Xing”, and the part Commentaries on “Wu Xing” were finished by the students of Shi Zi(世子) no later than the period of Mencius(孟子). It has been spent a long period finishing the literature which is a whole system consistes of Scripture(经), Explain on Classics(说) and Commentaries on Classics (传). “Wu Xing” had been lost after Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), and the reason for which attributed mainly to the thought despotism.

  12. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinshang, E-mail: sanmaosound@163.com; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao2000@gmail.com; Chen, Yeyu, E-mail: cyyleaf@126.com; Luo, Huiying, E-mail: luohuiying@caas.cn; Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@caas.cn

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  13. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  14. Retinal neurogenesis and ontogenetic changes in the visual system of the brown banded bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum (Hemiscyllidae, Elasmobranchii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahush, Blake K; Hart, Nathan S; Green, Kathryn; Collin, Shaun P

    2009-03-01

    The development of the eye of the oviparous brown banded bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum, was monitored from egg deposition through adulthood. The order and timing of retinal cell differentiation were assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. As in other vertebrates, the ganglion cells are the first to differentiate, in this case by 81 days post-egg deposition (dpd). The order then deviates from what is typically quoted for vertebrates, with the Müller and amacrine cells differentiating morphologically around the same time, followed by the bipolar cells (101 dpd) and finally the horizontal cells and photoreceptors (124 dpd). The neural retina is fully differentiated and synaptic connections are formed approximately 1 month prior to hatching, which occurs at about 158 dpd. The mature retina is duplex, with a peak rod to cone ratio of approximately 12:1. The eye and lens of C. punctatum continue to grow throughout life and become less aspherical with growth; the equatorial (nasotemporal) lens diameter is 12% larger than the axial (anterior-posterior) lens diameter in embryos and 8% larger in adults. Access to developmental stages and the protracted gestational period of C. punctatum make it a highly valuable model for developmental studies of the visual system. This study also provides an evolutionary perspective on retinal neurogenesis in an elasmobranch. PMID:19107847

  15. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish

  16. Porous Pt Nanotubes with High Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalytic Activity Based on Original Bamboo-Shaped Te Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yue; Li, Chunguang; Gao, Xuedong; Bai, Tianyu; Chen, Cailing; Huang, He; Liang, Chen; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-06-29

    In this report, a facile and general strategy was developed to synthesize original bamboo-shaped Te nanotubes (NTs) with well-controlled size and morphology. On the basis of the as-prepared Te NTs, porous Pt nanotubes (NTs) with excellent property and structural stability have been designed and manufactured. Importantly, we avoided the use of surface stabilizing agents, which may affect the catalytic properties during the templated synthesis process. Furthermore, Pt NTs with different morphology were successfully prepared by tuning the experimental parameters. As a result, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study shows that both Te NTs and Pt NTs have uniform size and morphology. Following cyclic voltammogram (CV) testing, the as-prepared porous Pt NTs and macroporous Pt NTs exhibited excellent catalytic activities toward electrochemical methanol oxidation reactions due to their tubiform structure with nanoporous framework. Thus, the as-prepared Pt NTs with specific porous structure hold potential usage as alternative anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). PMID:27310183

  17. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  18. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pHpzc) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pHpzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  19. Alouatta seniculus: density, home range and group structure in a bamboo forest fragment in the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Posada, Carolina; Londoño, Jorge Mario

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated population density, group structure and home range of red howler monkeys in a bamboo forest fragment in the Cordillera Central mountain range of Colombia. We estimated a density of 377.7 individuals/km(2), which is a higher density than normally reported for this species. The average home range size was 3.6 ± 1.1 ha. We found large groups (15.1 ± 4.0 individuals) with subgrouping behavior (daily divisions in foraging subgroups), and a high number of adult and subadult individuals of both sexes per group (mean of 5 males and 7 females per group). The small home range and large group size observed may be related to the high density of howler monkeys in this fragment, which we suggest could be the result of limited dispersal opportunities for these monkeys. The results illustrate the great plasticity of the genus Alouatta, which enables the monkeys to live in a wide range of conditions. PMID:22889946

  20. A Study on Bamboo Resources and Development in Nanping City, Fujian Province%福建省南平市竹类资源开发利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方栋龙

    2011-01-01

    The current shortages of bamboo business in Nanping citylie in two aspects: extensive operation and management and insufficient processing and utilizing. Therefore, innovative ideas have been proposed both theoretically and technically in Nanping City. The ideas were raised according to the developing reality of mountainous area, and it also took the advantage of and based on the geographical, environmental resources, and business features of Nanping city. They will definitely contribute to the establishment of a sustainable bamboo ecosystem and the development of a vigorous bamboo industry.%针对南平市竹类种质资源丰富、经营管理比较粗放、加工利用尚存在不足的现状,提出了竹资源开发利用的措施和建议。

  1. 丛生竹生长特性及管理技术研究进展%Research Advances in the Growth Characteristics and Management Technology of Sympodial Bamboo Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广路; 范少辉; 苏文会

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the growth characteristics of sympodial bamboo is critical for structure adjustment and soil management of bamboo forests. Recently, great progresses have been made in the researches of growth characteristics and management technology of sympodial bamboo forests. The growth characteristics of clonal genet and modular population were summarized. The technology of structure adjustment, scattered cultivation and soil management of the sympodial bamboo stands were reviewed. Some problems, e. G. The number of available bamboo species was fewer, cultivation area increased slowly, and interaction between the growth characteristics and technology were less understood, hindered the development of the sympodial bamboos. Their researches should be strengthened.%丛生竹生长特性是丛生竹林结构调整和林地管理的依据.当前有关丛生竹生长特性和经营技术的研究取得了较大进展,该文对丛生竹种群基株、分株克隆生长特性进行概述,并对基于丛立竹数与根盘面积比的丛生竹林分结构调整、丛生竹散生化栽培、林地管理等技术进行了总结.指出了丛生竹发展过程中还存在着可利用的丛生竹种较少、优良丛生竹种资源扩展缓慢、丛生竹生长特性与经营管理技术互动关系研究缺乏等问题,在今后应加强研究.

  2. 丝胶蛋白改性对氧化竹原织物染色性能的影响%Effect of sericin protein modification on dyeing properties of oxidized raw bamboo fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储咏梅; 张红宽; 陈宇岳

    2011-01-01

    The raw bamboo fabric was selectively oxidized with NalO4. Then the oxidized raw bamboo fabric was modified by sericin protein. The dyeing characteristic of sericin protein modified raw bamboo fabric was studied. The effects of sericin protein concentration, modification time and temperature, pH on dye uptake of reactive dyed raw bamboo fabric were discussed. The optimal modification condition of oxidized raw bamboo fabric was: 25 g/L of sericin protein, modified at 40 ℃ for 60 min,pH 6. The dye uptake of oxidized and sericin protein modified raw bamboo fabric was increased, and the color fastness was also improved.%采用高碘酸钠对竹原织物进行选择性氧化,再利用丝胶蛋白对氧化竹原织物进行改性整理.研究了丝胶改性竹原织物的染色性能,探讨了丝胶蛋白用量、改性时间、改性温度、pH对竹原织物活性染料上染百分率的影响.优化了改性氧化竹原织物染色工艺条件:丝胶蛋白25 g/L,40℃改性60 min,pH=6.竹原织物经过氧化及丝胶蛋白改性后,上染百分率提高,染色牢度增加.

  3. 决不能把伪简当作“中华文明的根脉”%The Fake Bamboo Slips should not be Regarded as“the Roots of Chinese Civilization”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房德邻

    2014-01-01

    《清华大学藏战国竹简》第1辑中有一篇《耆夜》,使用若干汉代以后才出现的词语,其中有些词语是长期演化生成的,这证明清华简是现代人的伪作。清华简整理者也看出《耆夜》有些词语有作伪的嫌疑,但未实事求是地指出来,反而用掩饰性的注释为之遮掩,把伪简注释成真简。有人把这样一部清华简称为“中华文明的根脉”,岂不荒唐?%The Bamboo Manuscripts Qiye(耆夜)found in Volume 1 of Tsinghua University Warring States Bamboo Manuscripts.In this article there exist some words which used after Han Dynasty,and some words had a very long historical evolution process,from this aspect,it could testify that Tsinghua bamboo Manuscripts was forged by the present-day people.The researcher of Tsinghua bamboo manu-scripts had already suspected the forgery of words in Qiye(耆夜).However,they did not point out their doubts honestly.On the contrary,they applied the masked annotations to distort the truth and made the bamboo manuscripts seemed to be genuine.How ridiculous it is for some people to regard the Tsinghua bamboo Slips as “the roots of Chinese civilization”!

  4. 锌氨改性竹浆纤维的抗紫外性能研究%Research on Anti-ultraviolet Capability of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Modified by Zinc Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦中悦; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    用锌氨溶液处理竹浆纤维使其功能化,得到锌氨改性竹浆纤维.对改性的竹浆纤维织物进行水洗牢度实验,从锌氨溶液的配制质量浓度、处理试样的烘干条件及抗紫外效果的耐久性等3个方面研究了锌氨改性竹浆纤维的抗紫外性能.结果表明:通过锌氨溶液处理,赋予了竹浆纤维很好的抗紫外性能,完成了功能化改进;同时改性的竹浆纤维具有一定的水洗牢度;锌氨溶液的浓度在0.1mol/L以上时,处理后的改性竹浆纤维的抗紫外性能较佳,其UPF值超过50,水洗240min后,抗紫外性能基本保持不变.由于锌无味无害,且改性后的锌氨竹浆纤维织物呈白色,对染色也不会有影响.%This paper uses zinc ammonia solution to process bamboo pulp fiber to functionalize it and obtains bamboo pulp fiber modified by zinc ammonia; conducts washing fastness test on modified bamboo pulp fiber fabric and studies the anti-ultraviolet capability of bamboo pulp fiber modified by zinc ammonia from the mass concentration of zinc ammonia solution,stoving conditions of processing sample and durability of anti-ultraviolet effect.The result shows that bamboo pulp fiber is provided with a good anti-ultraviolet capability through zinc ammonia solution processing and functional improvement is completed.Meanwhile,modified bamboo pulp fiber has a certain washing fastness.When the mass concentration of zinc ammonia solution is over 0.1 mol/L,modified bamboo pulp fiber after processing has a good anti-ultraviolet capability.Its UPF value exceeds 50.After washing for 240 min,its anti-ultraviolet capability basically remains the same.As Zn is tasteless and harmless and modified zinc ammonia bamboo pulp fiber fabric is white,dyeing will not be influenced.

  5. Sustainable fertilizer management for reduction of greenhouse gases emission in bamboo forest%基于温室气体减排的竹林施肥可持续管理方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建惠; 张建英; 胡宏

    2014-01-01

    针对竹林施肥中的温室气体( greenhouse gases ,GHG)排放问题,评估不同施肥管理模式对竹林温室气体排放及毛竹生长的综合影响.结合调查统计法、反硝化分解( denitrification-decomposition ,DNDC)模型过程模型法和情景分析方法,以2000-2010年间浙江省安吉县毛竹林为案例进行剖析.结果显示,在不同用量有机农家肥和无机氮肥的7种施用情景模式下,有机农家肥能有效增加土壤有机碳含量从而降低土壤CO2净排放量,3倍于常规用量下的有机农家肥可将CO2、N2 O 2种温室气体净排放的综合增温潜势( global warming potential ,GWP)从1.7 t/( hm2.a)降至-11.3 t/( hm2.a),具有最高的GHG减排效应;无机氮肥对CO2排放无明显影响但对N2 O有明显增排作用,其中3倍于常规用量的高用量无机氮肥模式下GWP较不施肥时高12.2倍,具有最高的GHG增排效应;在维持竹林高产前提下,以高有机肥模式下单位质量竹林生物质增长的同时温室气体净排放量-2.4 kg/kg为最小,最有利于减少竹林GHG排放.从温室气体减排效应的竹林可持续发展角度,推广有机农家肥并控制无机含氮化肥施用,可实现产量保证与GHG减排的双重目标.%Excessive fertilizer use has been recognized as a key factor in increasing agricultural and forestry greenhouse gases ( GHG) emission . Previous studies found that proper fertilizer using control strategy can reduce agricultural CO2 , N2 O , CH4 emission , however , influence crop yields as well . Bamboo is an important economic plant in China , which has been intensively cultivated in recent years to satisfy increasing social demands of bamboo products . To maintain rapid growth of bamboo , the fertilizer using amount in bamboo forest is significantly higher than other human-planted forests such as Pinus massoniana and eucalyptus forest . Therefore , it is necessary to explore a sustainable fertilizer management approach which

  6. Study on fire-retardant of bamboo footboard of scaffold used in building construction%建筑用竹制脚踏板的防火阻燃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠平; 朱鹏; 刘章蕊; 周波

    2012-01-01

    以自制硅溶胶和铝溶胶为阻燃体系,研究阻燃浸注处理压力、处理时间、阻燃成分含量及样品不同处理方式等对建筑用竹制脚踏板防火阻燃性能的影响.试验结果表明:硅溶胶比铝溶胶更易渗入到竹片内部;在真空条件下以硅溶胶对竹片进行阻燃浸注处理时,浸注时间越长、阻燃体系中阻燃组分含量越高,所得样品的载药率和氧指数越高;样品的不同阻燃处理方式对其载药率和氧指数有较大影响.%Utilize the self-making silica sol and aluminum sol, the effects of fire-retardant impregnating pressure, impregnating time, the content of fire-retardant component and the different treatment styles on the fire-retardant property of bamboo footboard used in building construction have been studied. The experimental results show that: compare with the aluminum sol, silica sol is more easily to be impregnated into the bamboo; fire-retardant treatment of bamboo footboard under vacuum, longer time of the fire-retardant treatment and higher content of fire-retardant component in fire-retarding system are favorable to improve the drug-loading rate and oxygen index of the samples; in addition, different fire-retardant treatment styles have great effect on the drug-loading rate and the oxygen index of the samples.

  7. Reconnaissance 14C Dating and the Evaluation of Mg/Li as a Temperature Proxy in Bamboo Corals from the California Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, M. M.; LaVigne, M.; Miller, H.; Hill, T. M.; McNichol, A. P.; Lardie Gaylord, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of anthropogenically induced climate changes, it is becoming increasingly important to develop high-resolution paleoceanographic records that may elucidate how ocean conditions may shift in coming decades. Recently, bamboo corals (gorgonian octocorals) have been proposed as archives of intermediate ocean conditions. This study used 'reconnaissance' radiocarbon analysis to identify the nuclear bomb 14C spike in the proteinaceous nodes of bamboo corals and to quantify radial growth rates and ages of corals spanning the eastern Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) (790-2055 m). Preliminary data suggest that these corals exhibit a wide range of growth rates (9.4-350 μm/yr) that are non-linear over time and decrease with coral age and depth. Records of Mg/Li were investigated in these corals, given that previous studies have demonstrated positive correlations between Mg/Li and temperature in benthic foraminifera and surface and deep-sea aragonitic corals, with a reduced influence of vital effects over Mg/Ca. Intracoral reproducibility observed for replicate Mg/Li timeseries within each sample (p=0.6±0.2, n=6) and strong correlations between Mg/Ca and Li/Ca (0.9±0.1, n=6) indicate similar environmental or biological drivers of Mg and Li incorporation in bamboo corals. Given the strong positive correlations between Mg/Li and water temperature across a depth transect (r2=0.87, n=6), increasing Mg/Li observed over the growth history of each of the corals more likely reflects declining growth rates resulting in decreased Li incorporation over time rather than cooling of California Margin intermediate waters. Reductions in growth rate over the lifespan of each coral (~100+ years) may be a function of natural coral growth patterns or changes in carbonate chemistry, oxygen, or food supply in a sensitive OMZ coral ecosystem.

  8. 竹叶黄酮护肤霜功效的研究%Study of efficacy of skin care cream formulated with flavonoids from bamboo leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文渊; 蔡民; 李玉婷; 龙红萍; 罗航

    2011-01-01

    Skin care cream formulated with flavonoids from bamboo leaves was prepared by addition of refined extract from bamboo leaves into substrate of skin care cream. Performance tests and evaluation of the product were carried out in accordance with relevant standards. Results showed that average absorbance in UVB region of the product containing mass fraction of 1. 5% of flavonoids from bamboo leaves achieves 1. 273 ,and its sun screening efficacy in UVA region achieves three - star level. The product displays rather good sun screening efficacy, and excellent moisturizing effect. Furthermore, it can reduce melanin content in the human skin significantly thus to whiten the skin, as well as improve texture of human skin, lower the harshness and increase flexibility of skin. Safety test and evaluation results showed that the product is safe to human body and no irritation occurs.%将竹叶黄酮添加到护肤霜基质中制得竹叶黄酮护肤霜,按有关标准对产品进行了性能测试和评价.护肤功效检测表明,含质量分数为1.5%的竹叶黄酮护肤霜在UVB区的平均吸光度为1.273,在UVA区的防晒效果达到三星级,具有较好的防晒功效;有优良的保湿功效;能显著降低皮肤黑色素含量而美白皮肤;可改善皮肤纹理度,降低皮肤粗糙度;增加皮肤弹性;且人体试验安全、无刺激性,是一种天然的化妆品功能性成分添加剂.

  9. 炭化预处理对毛竹化学组成的影响%Influence of Carbonized Pretreatment on Bamboo Chemical Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维伟; 高慧; 张利萍

    2013-01-01

    以毛竹为原料,探讨经炭化温度(160~220℃)和时间(0.5~2.0 h)处理后,质量损失率和苯-醇抽提物、酸不溶木质素、α-纤维素、戊聚糖、综纤维素质量分数的变化,以及毛竹FTIR和XRD特征的变化规律。研究结果表明:随着炭化温度的升高和炭化时间的延长,质量损失率和苯-醇抽提物、戊聚糖、α-纤维素、综纤维素的质量分数均呈现不同程度的下降,酸不溶木质素质量分数呈现增长趋势。炭化后毛竹的纤维素结晶度较对照材均有不同程度的增加。%The experiment was conducted to study the change of chemical composition ofbamboo before and aftercarbonization and explore the characteristics of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( FTIR) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD) for car-bonization treated bamboo .With the increasing of carbonization temperature and carbonization time, the rate of bamboo weight loss, the contents of alcohol benzene solubles, hemicellulose, α-cellulose, holocellulos show a different degree of decline, and the contents of acid insoluble lignin show a growing trend.Compared with the control, the crystallinity of car-bonization treated bamboo shows the rising tendency .

  10. Effect of oxygen concentration in furnace on carbonization of bamboo%炉内氧气含量对竹材炭化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一凡; 吴志威; 王远亮

    2011-01-01

    竹材炭化过程中,炭化温度和炭化时间是两个重要的工艺参数,但还必须考虑炉内的氧气含量.通过调节进入炉内的氮气和空气流量,并采用氧传感器实时测定并控制炉内氧分压,研究了炉内氧含量对竹材炭化的影响.结果表明:炉内氧分压增加,得炭率下降.因此传统土窑炭化时应严格控制进入炉内的氧气含量,形成缺氧的高温热解环境,防止竹炭自燃,使竹材在平衡氧分压(中性)或还原性高温气氛中炭化.%Carbonization temperature and carbonization time are two important parameters during the carbonization of bamboo, but the concentration of oxygen in the furnace must also be considered. Effects of oxygen concentration in furnace on carbonization of bamboo were examined by controlling and detecting the oxygen partial pressure with an oxygen sensor and regulating the flow of nitrogen and air. The results showed that charcoal yield decreased with the increase of oxygen partial pressure in furnace. Therefore, the concentration of oxygen should be strictly controlled, to form high temperature pyrolysis in hypoxic environment in the traditional process of carbonization. To prevent spontaneous combustion of charcoal, the atmosphere in which the process of carbonization of bamboo should be either neutral and in accordance to the equilibrium diagram of oxygen partial pressure or a high temperature reductive atmosphere.

  11. 三种激素对竹柳扦插生根的影响%Effects of Three Hormones on Cuttage Rooting of Bamboo-Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓霞

    2013-01-01

    To study effects of hormones on cuttage rooting of bamboo-willow (Salix maizhokung garensis),three plant growth hormones,i.e.NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid),IAA (indole acetic acid) and IBA (indole butyric acid) were used to study.Under the effect of a single hormone,the rooting effect treated with 100 mg/L IBA for 40 min was the best,rooting percentage reached 90%; the rooting effect treated with 100 mg/L NAA for 40 min was better.However,the rooting percentage of bamboo-willow treated with the mixture of 100 mg/L IBA and 100 mg/L NAA reached 93.3%,which higher than those treated with a single hormone.Thus,IBA is most suitable for cutting propagation of bamboo-willow.In addition,the mixture of IBA and NAA can improve cutting rooting rate of bamboo-willow,the effect of cutting rooting treated with IAA is not desirable.%研究了3种植物生长激素NAA(α-萘乙酸)、IAA(吲哚乙酸)和IBA(吲哚丁酸)对竹柳(Salixmaizhokung garensis)扦插生根效果的影响.结果表明,单一激素作用时,100 mg/L IBA处理40 min生根效果最佳,生根率达90%;100 mg/L NAA处理40 min生根效果也较好.100 mg/L IBA和100 mg/LNAA混合处理竹柳插条,生根率达93.3%,高于单一激素的作用结果.结果表明,IBA最适合竹柳的扦插繁殖.IBA和NAA的混合液能提高竹柳扦插生根率,IAA对促进竹柳扦插生根的效果不理想.

  12. Pseudogenization of the Umami Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r1 in the Giant Panda Coincided with its Dietary Switch to Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huabin; Yang, Jian-Rong; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-01

    Although it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda is a vegetarian with 99% of its diet being bamboo. The draft genome sequence of the giant panda shows that its umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 is a pseudogene, prompting the proposal that the loss of the umami perception explains why the giant panda is herbivorous. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all six exons of Tas1r1 in another individual of the giant panda and five other carnivores. We found that the open reading frame (OR...

  13. Preparation and Properties of Vegetable-Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Complex FilmsЦ Water Bamboo-CMC,Chinese Cabbage-CMC etc.Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymers have been researched[1].In our previous papers,cellulose-alginic acid[2],cellulose-agar[3],vegetable-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) etc.complex films have been researched.Recently,some other kinds of vegetable such as water bamboo,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,spinach,naked oats,and basella,asparagus and pumpkin were used to perpare vegetable-CMC complex films.Every kind of vegetable has different content of water,cellulose,protein,carbohydrate and a small amou...

  14. 粘贴竹片加固混凝土梁的试验研究%Strengthening RC Beams with Externally Bonded Bamboo Strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雷; 许清风; 陈建飞

    2012-01-01

    竹材是一种可再生的低碳环保材料,具有抗拉强度高、稳定性好等优点.混凝土梁老化损伤或使用荷载增加均可能导致受弯承载力不能满足要求,影响结构的正常安全使用.介绍5根RC梁粘贴竹片加固的对比试验研究,其中2根为对比试件,3根为分别粘贴1层、2层和3层的竹片加固试件.研究结果表明,粘贴竹片加固RC梁的极限承载力提高22%~25%,平均提高24%;粘贴竹片加固RC梁的初始弯曲刚度提高33%~49%,平均提高39%;粘贴竹片加固RC梁在相同荷载下弯曲裂缝的裂缝宽度明显小于对比试件.粘贴竹片加固RC梁是一种低碳高效的加固技术,值得进一步深入研究.%Bamboo is a renewable, low-carbon and environmentally-friendly natural material with high tensile strength and good stability. Many RC beams need to be strengthened due to either accumulative damage or an increase of loading. This paper presents an experimental study in which 5 RC beams were tested, including two unstrengthened RC beams used to compare, three RC beams strengthened with one, two and three layers of 5mm bamboo strips, respectively. The test results show that the ultimate flexural strength of RC beams was increased by 22% ~25% with an average of 24% after strengthened by a few externally bonded small bamboo strips. The flexural stiffness of the strengthened beams was also significantly increased by 33% ~49% with an average of 39%. The flexural crack width of the strengthened RC beams was smaller than that of the control beams at the same loading levels. The tests confirm that strengthening RC beams with bamboo strips is a promising effective and low-carbon technique worth further research.

  15. Características hidráulicas de tubos de bambu gigante Hydraulic parameters of bamboo pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adolfo de Almeida Neto

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a falta de estudos e pesquisas que possibilitem o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o aproveitamento de bambu gigante (Dendrocalamus giganteus como conduto de água procurou-se, com este trabalho, verificar a validade das equações de Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams e Manning, na estimativa da perda de carga em tubulações de bambu submetidos a dois processos de remoção de nós dos colmos: ao método de impacto por lâminas circulares e ao de um dispositivo mecânico desenvolvido especialmente para este fim, foram estimados os seguintes parâmetros hidráulicos: coeficientes das equações de Hazen-Williams (C, Manning (η, e rugosidade absoluta (ε, estimada através das equações de Hopf e Colebrook. A análise foi realizada sob as seguintes condições operacionais: pressão de trabalho variando de 146,6 a 195,5 kPa, intervalo de vazão de 3 a 12,9 L s-1 e diâmetros de tubulação de 90 a 130 mm, cujos resultados demonstraram que a remoção dos nós pelo processo mecânico proporcionou melhor acabamento no tubo e, conseqüentemente, menor perda de carga por atrito. Os valores obtidos para os parâmetros hidráulicos foram: ε = 0,0013 m (Hopf, ε= 0,0022 m (Colebrook, C = 89 e η= 0,014, para os tubos perfurados mecanicamente, e, C = 43 e η = 0,027 para os tubos perfurados por impacto. Não se constatou diferença significativa na estimativa da perda de carga para os tubos perfurados mecanicamente, pelas equações de Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams e Manning.The present study reviewed the available information about pressurized and non-pressurized bamboo pipes. A mechanical node-removing process was developed to perforate stalks of giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus, which allowed an analysis of some hydraulic parameters required by a water conveyance system. Two node-removing processes were studied: a traditional one - a circular steel blade impact method, and a new developed system - the mechanical perforator

  16. Trace metals and organochlorines in the bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Andrew S; Ng, W C; Ho, Valerie C M; Wong, H L; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2007-04-15

    The bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum is an abundant benthic species along the shallow continental shelf of Southeast Asia. It is commonly taken by fishermen in China, India, Taiwan and Thailand for human consumption. This study measured trace metal and organochlorine concentrations in C. plagiosum collected from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China. Metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in three different tissues: dorsal muscle, spleen and liver. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in the dorsal muscle were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Metal concentrations varied among the three different tissues, with liver having higher levels of Ag and Cd, and spleen possessing higher levels of Cu and Mn. Both Ni and Pb in all tissues were below the detection limit. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn generally decreased with increasing body weight whilst no significant concentration-size relationship was found for other metals. In muscle tissues, total PCBs ranged from 1.056-4.771 ng/g (wet wt.) with a median of 1.801 ng/g, while total DDTs ranged from 0.602-23.55 ng/g with a median of 1.109 ng/g, in which p,p'-DDE was the predominant metabolite. Levels of total hexachlorohexanes and cyclodienes were low. The pesticide p,p'-DDT was the only compound found to be positively correlated with body weight, indicating temporal bioaccumulation of this compound. Zn concentrations in the muscle of C. plagiosum were comparatively higher than recorded in other shark species, however, concentrations of other metals and organochlorines were relatively low. C. plagiosum feeds primarily on polychaetes, shrimps and small fishes, and thus is unlikely to contain levels of contaminants of human health concern. PMID:17320935

  17. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  18. 竹屑黄酮的工艺初探%Study on Extraction Process of Flavonoids from Bamboo Sawdust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉梅; 陶文亮; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    以贵州竹屑为原料,分别采用乙醇浸提法与闪式提取法两种方法提取黄酮,通过正交试验筛选出较优工艺参数。乙醇浸提法提取竹屑黄酮的优惠工艺:乙醇浓度50%,提取温度80℃,固液比1:20,提取时间4h,最终竹屑黄酮的提取率为4.970mg/g;采用闪式提取法提取竹屑黄酮的最佳工艺为:乙醇浓度50%,料液比1:45,提取时间180s,得到竹屑黄酮的提取率为3.943mg/g。结果表明乙醇浸提竹屑黄酮效果优于闪式提取法。%Flavonoids were manufactured from bamboo saw -dusts by means of ethanol extraction and flash extraction device respectively. Results showed ethanol extraction of preferential process: ethanol concentration 50%, extraction temperature 80 ℃, solid - liquid ratio 1:20 and extraction times 4h obtain 4. 970mg/g flavonoids content. The flash type extraction of preferential process: ethanol concentration 50% ,solid -liquid ratio 1:45 and extraction times 180s obtain 3. 943mg/g flavonoids content. It turns out that ethanol extraction is better than flash extraction.

  19. Bamboo leaf derived ultrafine Si nanoparticles and Si/C nanocomposites for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Biao; Peng, Changjian; Peng, Xiang; Fu, Jijiang; Chu, Paul K; Huo, Kaifu

    2015-09-01

    Silicon-based nanomaterials are promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity of 4200 mA h g(-1), more than 10 times that of commercial graphite. Si nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of or below 10 nm generally exhibit enhanced lithium storage properties due to their small size and large surface area. However, it is challenging to generate such ultrafine Si NPs by a facile and scalable method. This paper reports a scalable method to fabricate ultrafine Si NPs 5-8 nm in size from dead bamboo leaves (BLs) by thermally decomposing the organic matter, followed by magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of NaCl as a heat scavenger. The ultrafine Si NPs show a high capacity of 1800 mA h g(-1) at a 0.2 C (1 C = 4200 mA g(-1)) rate and are thus promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. To achieve better rate capability, the BLs-derived ultrafine Si NPs are coated with a thin amorphous carbon layer (Si@C) and then dispersed and embedded in a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) network to produce Si@C/RGO nanocomposites by a layer-by-layer assembly method. The double protection rendered by the carbon shell and RGO network synergistically yield structural stability, high electrical conductivity and a stable solid electrolyte interface during Li insertion/extraction. The Si@C/RGO nanocomposites show excellent battery properties with a high capacity of 1400 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 2 C and remarkable rate performance with a capacity retention of 60% when the current density is increased 20 times from 0.2 to 4 C. This work provides a simple, low cost, and scalable approach enabling the use of BL waste as a sustainable source for the production of ultrafine Si NPs towards high-performance LIBs. PMID:26098990

  20. An interactive effect of simultaneous death of dwarf bamboo, canopy gap, and predatory rodents on beech regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M; Miguchi, H; Nakashizuka, T

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the interactive effect of the simultaneous death of dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis), forest canopy gap formation, and seed predators on beech (Fagus crenata) regeneration, we analyzed beech demography from seed fall until the end of the first growing season of seedlings in an old-growth forest near Lake Towada, northern Japan. The simultaneous death of S. kurilensis took place in 1995. We established four types of sampling site differing in forest canopy conditions (closed or gap) and Sasa status (dead or alive). Beech seed survival and emergence ratio were both highest in gaps with dead Sasa (gap-dead), because rate of predation was lowest. Seedling survival during the first growing season was also highest in the gap-dead treatment, because of less predation and less damping off. As a result, even though density of seed fall was lowest in the gap-dead treatment, the living seedling density there was highest at the end of the first growing season. Predation, which caused the greatest mortality during the seed and seedling stages, was significantly lower at both sites in gaps and sites with dead Sasa. This was probably due to changes in the behavior of rodents in response to the structure of the forest canopy and undergrowth. Both the death of Sasa and canopy gap formation allowed seedlings to avoid damping off because of the high light availability. The indirect effect of the simultaneous death of Sasa and canopy gap formation in reducing predation contributed more to beech regeneration than their direct effect in increasing light for the seedlings. PMID:24577661

  1. Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Nitin R; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-12-01

    Fermented bamboo shoots such as Soibum, Soidon, Eup, Hirring, Hecche and Ekung etc. are non-salted acidic products obtained by natural fermentation predominantly with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we have characterized 11-representative LAB that includes, Lactobacillus sp. (n = 2), Lactobacillus plantarum (n = 3), and one each of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus xylosus. Subsequently, these cultures were studied for their technological and functional properties. Different isolates exhibited variation in their activities. L. brevis showed maximum phytic acid degradation ability (19.33 U ml (-1) ). L. xylosus had highest protease activity (64.2 nmol/ml) and also exhibited lipolytic activity. In addition, degree of cell hydrophobicity among these cultures ranged between 12.5 and 93.48 % with L. plantarum (SM2) showing highest degree of activity. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most common species found in the product studied. Results indicated that most of the LABs showed putative probiotic as well as antagonistic properties against the selected pathogenic bacteria. Characteristic aroma, flavour and texture in the fermented bamboo shoot products could be attributed to presence of these new LAB isolates. PMID:25477695

  2. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  3. Some Hot Points of Bamboo and Rattan in the World%世界竹藤发展的几个热点领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinping

    2004-01-01

    Bamboo and rattan are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa and South America and are widely used in industrial and agricultural production, and have a broad prospect in whole national economy and people's daily life in the world. Some hot points in their development trend are mentioned in the paper, such as bamboo charcoal, textiles, health food and ecological tourism.%竹子和藤类在植物王国中是一个大家族,是森林资源的重要组成部分.世界竹藤植物主要分布在亚洲、非洲和南美洲的热带和亚热带地区,竹藤产品及其副产品在世界的农业生产乃至整个国民经济及人民生活中有着广泛的用途和发展前景.对目前竹藤开发的几个热点领域--竹炭、保健食品、竹纤维和生态旅游的发展趋势进行了阐述.

  4. Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks anchored with bamboo-like tungsten oxide nanorods as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinyuan; Wu, Feilong; Lei, Bingbing; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ziliang; Xie, Kai; Song, Yun; Sun, Dalin; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Huaiying; Fang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Bamboo-like WO3 nanorods were anchored on three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks (r-WO3/3DNGF) by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis plus heating processes. There is a strong dependence of the obtained r-WO3/3DNGF nanostructures on the content of 3DNGF. The composite with 20 wt% 3DNGF content shows the most favorable structure where bamboo-like WO3 nanorods lie flat on the surface of fungus-like 3DNGF, and exhibits a high discharge capacity of 828 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at 80 mA g-1 with the largest capacity retention of 73.9% for WO3 and excellent rate capacities of 719, 665, 573, 453 and 313 mAh g-1 at 80, 160, 400, 800 and 1600 mA g-1, respectively. The electrochemical performance is better than most of reported WO3-based carbonaceous composites, which can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the following actions: i) WO3 nanorods effectively shorten the diffusion path of Li+; ii) mechanically strong 3DNGF alleviates the huge volume change of WO3 upon Li+ intercalation/extraction; and iii) nitrogen-doping in 3D graphene frameworks improves electronic conductivity and provides large numbers of lithium ion diffusion channels.

  5. Development of a FBR fuel bundle-duct interaction analysis code-BAMBOO. Analysis model and verification by Phenix high burn-up fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bundle-duct interaction analysis code ''BAMBOO'' has been developed for the purpose of predicting deformation of a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle of a fast breeder reactor (FBR). The BAMBOO code calculates helical bowing and oval-distortion of all the fuel pins in a fuel subassembly. We developed deformation models in order to precisely analyze the irradiation induced deformation by the code: a model to analyze fuel pin self-bowing induced by circumferential gradient of void swelling as well as thermal expansion, and a model to analyze dispersion of the orderly arrangement of a fuel pin bundle. We made deformation analyses of high burn-up fuel subassemblies in Phenix reactor and compared the calculated results with the post irradiation examination data of these subassemblies for the verification of these models. From the comparison we confirmed that the calculated values of the oval-distortion and bowing reasonably agreed with the PIE results if these models were used in the analysis of the code. (author)

  6. Coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a FBR fuel pin bundle using BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bundle-duct interaction may occur in sodium cooled wire-wrapped FBR fuel subassemblies in high burn-up conditions. JNC has been developing a bundle deformation analysis code BAMBOO (Behavior Analysis code for Mechanical interaction of fuel Bundle under On-power Operation), a thermal hydraulics analysis code ASFRE-IV (Analysis of Sodium Flow in Reactor Elements - ver. IV) and their coupling method as a simulation system for the evaluation on the integrity of deformed FBR fuel pin bundles. In this study, the simulation system was applied to a coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in the fuel pin-bundle under a steady-state condition just after startup for the purpose of the verification of the simulation system. The iterative calculations of deformation and thermal-hydraulics employed in the coupling analysis provided numerically unstable solutions. From the result, it was found that improvement of the coupling algorithm of BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV is necessary to reduce numerical fluctuations and to obtain better convergence by introducing such computational technique as the optimized under-relaxation method. (author)

  7. [Retrieval of crown closure of moso bamboo forest using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remotely sensed imagery based on geometric-optical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Xu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Shao-bo; Gao, Guo-long

    2015-05-01

    This research focused on the application of remotely sensed imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with high spatial resolution for the estimation of crown closure of moso bamboo forest based on the geometric-optical model, and analyzed the influence of unconstrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) on the accuracy of the estimated results. The results demonstrated that the combination of UAV remotely sensed imagery and geometric-optical model could, to some degrees, achieve the estimation of crown closure. However, the different SMA methods led to significant differentiation in the estimation accuracy. Compared with unconstrained SMA, the fully constrained linear SMA method resulted in higher accuracy of the estimated values, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.63 at 0.01 level, against the measured values acquired during the field survey. Root mean square error (RMSE) of approximate 0.04 was low, indicating that the usage of fully constrained linear SMA could bring about better results in crown closure estimation, which was closer to the actual condition in moso bamboo forest. PMID:26571671

  8. Axial compression behavior of square thin-walled steel tube-laminated bamboo composite hollow columns%薄壁方型钢管/竹胶板组合空芯柱轴心抗压性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫锋; 张武东; 周靖; 曹勇龙; 龙志林

    2014-01-01

    研究方形薄壁型钢管/多层竹胶板组合空芯柱(Square, thin-walled steel tube/multi-layered bamboo plywood composite hollow column,SBCC)的轴心抗压性能,揭示其受力破坏机理,为其工程应用提供试验和理论基础。考虑试件的截面尺寸、空心率及长细比对SBCC抗压承载力的影响,设计制作了15根轴心抗压试件,通过SBCC的抗压性能测试,考察测试过程中的破坏形态和变形特征,分析各因素对试件轴心抗压力学性能的影响规律。试验结果表明:SBCC轴心抗压失效主要有竹胶合板材料破坏、基体胶结面开胶破坏以及整体失稳破坏3种形态,总体上胶结面间的胶粘强度及长细比是决定破坏模式的主要因素。SBCC的轴心抗压承载力随组合柱竹净截面面积、空心率的增大而显著提高,随长细比的增大而降低。通过试验数据的非线性回归分析,建立了SBCC的轴心抗压承载力计算公式,公式估算结果与试验测试结果的误差在20%以内。该研究结果表明SBCC是一种轴心抗压性能较优异的钢/竹组合结构单元,可实现“以竹代木”,作为工程结构用材的应用前景广阔。%The development of laminated-bamboo has broadened the application range of bamboo material in the field of structural engineering. A new type of steel/laminated bamboo composite column was developed based on the existing bamboo composite element for constructing multi-story, pre-fabricated, column-supported, and bamboo-framed buildings, and named as square thin-walled steel tube/multi-layered bamboo plywood composite hollow column (SBCC). The core of the SBCC is a square thin-walled steel tube, and the exterior column consists of several high-strength bamboo plywood pieces (such as bamboo mat plywood) that are bonded together using a structural adhesive to form a composite hollow column. SBCCs are a new type of steel/bamboo composite with excellent physical and

  9. Current Situation and Countermeasure of Bam-boo Grass Products En-terprises in Wuyishan and Jianyang Areas%武夷山、建阳地区竹木草制品企业现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英莹; 过赋文

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the rising of labor cost, export sales of many bamboo grass enterprises have declined or even shut down because of the techni-cal trade barrier of Europe and America on China's export bamboo grass prod-ucts. In this paper, current situation and existing problem of bamboo grass prod-ucts enterprises in Wuyishan and Jianyang areas were investigated, coun-termeasures of bamboo grass products enterprises and CIQ (China Inspection and Quarantine) in the current situation were proposed.%近年来,随着劳动力成本的上升,欧美等发达国家对我国出口竹木草制品的技术性贸易壁垒等原因,造成很多竹木草出口企业出口额下降甚至停产。在调研了武夷山、建阳地区竹木草企业现状及存在问题的基础上,提出了当前形势下我国竹木草制品企业及检验检疫部门的应对措施。

  10. Enzymatic saccharification conditions of bamboo cellulose%竹质纤维素的酶解糖化条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 温忠文; 涂国全

    2011-01-01

    为探明竹质纤维素的酶解糖化较优工艺条件,先将竹粉与2.0%稀硫酸比例1:15,80℃水浴20h成竹粉稀酸水解液,再用烧碱分别调节不同起始pH值,进行不同酶解温度、纤维素酶与木聚糖酶配比、摇床转速和酶解时间的单因素酶解糖化试验,测定并计算过滤清液中还原糖和总糖含量与得率.结果表明:竹粉酸解液中溶出还原糖和总糖得率比室温时分别提高5.20倍和6.43倍.初步探明竹粉酸解液的酶解条件:竹粉酸解液起始pH值5.5,纤维素酶与木聚糖酶配比为1:1,摇床转速100r/min,温度50℃,时间24h,酶解后还原糖和总糖得率分别提高4.4倍和3.0倍,均超过50.88%.%The optimal conditions for enzymatic saccharification of bamboo cellulose were studied. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the acid hydrolysate of bamboo powder was prepared by adding bamboo powder in 2.0% H2SO4 at the ratio of 1:15 for a water bath at 80℃ for 20 h. Then, the initial pH of the acid hydrolysate for enzymatic saccharification was regulated by NaOH. Single factor tests for the optimization of enzymatic saccharification of bamboo cellulose were performed on different treating conditions such as initial pH, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, cellulase-xylanase ratio, rotational speed and hydrolysis time. The reducing sugar and total sugar contents and yields in filtrate were detected. The results showed that the yields of reducing sugar and total sugar in the acid hydrolysate treated at 80℃ were 5.20 times and 6.43 times higher than those of the hydrolysated prepared under room temperature, respectively. The enzymatic saccharification conditions of the acid hydrolysate of bamboo powder were as follows: initial pH 5.5, cellulase-xylanase ratio 1:1, rotational speed 100 r/rmin, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 50℃ and enzymatic hydrolysis time 24h. The yields of reducing sugar and total sugar under the optimal conditions were improved by 4.4 times and 3.0 times aft

  11. 农户毛竹经营意愿影响因素的实证研究∗%Experimental Research on Factors Influencing Farmers’ Management Willingness of Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潜; 刘伟平; 彭婵娟

    2014-01-01

    基于401户福建省毛竹种植户的问卷调查数据,采用二分类logistic回归模型对农户毛竹经营意愿的影响因素进行实证分析的结果表明:家庭劳动力数量、家庭是否以毛竹种植为主业、毛竹种植面积、林地使用年限、毛竹种植直接年收入、是否是示范户、是否有农技人员指导等7个变量对农户毛竹经营意愿具有显著影响,而年龄、性别、受教育年限、林地是否有林权证、是否加入合作社等5个变量对农户毛竹经营意愿的影响不显著。%The results, analysed factors influencing farmers’ management willingness of bamboo by u-sing binary logistic regression model, basing on questionnaire survey data of 401 farmers planting bam-boo of Fujian province, show that 7 variables including the number of family labor force, whether bamboo planting is the family’s main occupation, bamboo planting area, useful life of forest land, di-rect income of bamboo planting, whether it is the leading farmer and whether guided by agricultural technicians, etc have a significant effect on farmers’ management willingness. However, these 5 vari-ables including age, gender, years of education, whether forest land has a Forest Right Certificate and whether joining the cooperatives don’t have a significant effect on farmers' management willingness.

  12. Propriedades físicas e mecânicas do colmo inteiro do bambu da espécie Guadua angustifolia Physical and mechanical properties of the whole culm of bamboo of the Guadua angustifolia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Ghavami

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de recentes pesquisas sobre o bambu da espécie Guadua angustifolia, realizadas na Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio, no qual foram determinadas as propriedades físicas, mecânicas e meso-estruturais dos colmos inteiros. O principal objetivo deste estudo é apresentar, aos profissionais, a possibilidade de usarem o bambu como elemento estrutural. Os resultados apresentados permitirão aos engenheiros e arquitetos selecionar, em seus projetos, as dimensões requeridas, como diâmetro, espessura e distância internodal, tensões de flexão, tensões máximas de tração, compressão e cisalhamento. Estão apresentadas a variação da fração volumétrica ao longo da espessura do bambu e suas propriedades mecânicas ao longo do comprimento total do colmo estudado.This work presents recent research results concerning the bamboo Guadua angustifolia carried out at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, in which the physical, mechanical and meso-structural properties of the whole bamboo culms were determined. The main objective of this study is to make it possible for professionals to use bamboo more frequently as a structural element. The obtained results allow the engineers and architects to choose for their projects the required dimensions such as diameter, thickness and internodal distance, bending stresses, maximum tensile, compression and shearing stresses. The changing of the volumetric fraction along the bamboo thickness and their mechanical properties along the total length of the studied bamboo culms are presented.

  13. 毛竹半纤维素热解特性研究%Pyrolysis Characteristics of Hemicelluloses from Bamboo Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余紫苹; 彭红; 林妲; 胡铮瑢; 王娜; 张锦胜; 刘玉环; 阮榕生

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble hemicelluloaes Hw and four alkali-soluble hemicellulosic fractions H1~ H4 were sequentially extracted from six-month-old bamboo stem by distilled water, 2% NaOH and 5% KOH. The thermal pyrolysis behavior of the five hemicellulosic fractions was characterized by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) at the heating rate of 10℃min, and the first-order reaction models were established in the fast pyrolysis temperature ranges. The fast decompositions of the five fractions happened in between 180 ~400℃ with weight losses 33.91% -42.54%. The residue percentages were 34.52% ~51.31% at the final temperature of 700℃. The activity energies of all the hemicelluloses fractions were quite low with the values of 26.068 -51. 938 kJ/mol. The activity energies of alkali-soluble fractions were higher than that of water-soluble fraction. The hemicellulosic fractions containing higher lignin residue exhibited higher activity energy and residue rate at the final temperature of pyrolysis.%采用蒸馏水、2% NaOH和5%KOH从6月龄毛竹竹竿中分级抽提得到水溶性半纤维素HW和碱溶性半纤维素H1~H4.通过热重分析法在升温速率10℃/min条件下分析了这5种半纤维素的热解特性,并对快速热解区建立了一级反应动力学模型.毛竹半纤维素热解主要发生在180~400℃,失重33.91% ~42.54%.在终止温度700℃时残渣率均较高,达到34.52%~51.31%.毛竹半纤维素组分活化能均较小,为26.068~51.938 kJ/mol.碱溶性组分的活化能大于水溶性组分的活化能,残留木素越多,半纤维素的活化能和终止温度时的残渣率就越高.

  14. Enraizamento de propágulos de bambu em diferentes substratos Rooting of bamboo cutting in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, determinou-se a porcentagem de enraizamento de três tipos de material meristemático de bambu (placas de colmos, gemas primárias brotadas e gemas secundárias em diversos substratos contendo misturas de composto orgânico, cinzas e areia. Esse material foi obtido em colmos de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad com aproximadamente dois anos de idade, provenientes de plantações localizadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas (IAC. O experimento foi realizado sob telado de sombrite, durante 110 dias, estando os substratos acondicionados em caixas plásticas com as seguintes dimensões: 50 x 30 x 10 cm, respectivamente, para comprimento, largura e altura. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida com as placas de colmo (59,7%, seguidas pelas gemas primárias brotadas (41,0% e gemas secundárias (3,5%. As placas de colmo podem ser obtidas em grande quantidade durante a colheita normal dos colmos e, em função de suas dimensões e forma, são facilmente armazenadas e transportadas. Sua utilização representa um novo método de propagação assexuada do Bambusa vulgaris, com amplas vantagens em comparação com os métodos convencionais.This study determined the rooting level of three meristematic materials of bamboo culm (culm plaques, primary sprout buds and secondary buds planted in different substrates, prepared with a misture of organic material, ashes and fine sand. The meristematic materials were obtained from two years culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, collected at a plantation at the "Centro Experimental de Campinas", State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was carried out under a plastic metting during 110 days. The containers for substrates were of the following dimensions: 50 x 30 x 10 cm, respectively by length, width and height. The highest rooting percentage was obtained in the culm plaque (59.7% followed by primary sprout buds (41.0% and secondary buds (3.5%. The culm plaques can be easily obtained in great

  15. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature on photosynthesis and leaf traits of an understory dwarf bamboo in subalpine forest zone, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongping Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Xiaolu Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Korpelainenc, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Berningerd, F. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Forest Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    The dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), growing understory in subalpine dark coniferous forest, is one of the main foods for giant panda, and it influences the regeneration of subalpine coniferous forests in southwestern China. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, temperature and their combination, the dwarf bamboo plantlets were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient and double ambient CO{sub 2} concentration) and two temperatures (ambient and +2.2 deg. C) in growth chambers. Gas exchange, leaf traits and carbohydrates concentration were measured after the 150-day experiment. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate (A{sub net}), intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE{sub i}) and carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) and decreased stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and total chlorophyll concentration based on mass (Chl{sub m}) and area (Chl{sub a}). On the other hand, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased specific leaf area (SLA), which was increased by elevated temperature. Elevated CO{sub 2} also increased foliar carbon concentration based on mass (C{sub m}) and area (C{sub a}), nitrogen concentration based on area (N{sub a}), carbohydrates concentration (i.e. sucrose, sugar, starch and non-structural carbohydrates) and the slope of the A{sub net}-N{sub a} relationship. However, elevated temperature decreased C{sub m}, C{sub a} and N{sub a}. The combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature hardly affected SLA, C{sub m}, C{sub a}, N{sub m}, N{sub a}, Chl{sub m} and Chl{sub a}. Variables A{sub net} and N{sub a} had positive linear relationships in all treatments. Our results showed that photosynthetic acclimation did not occur in dwarf bamboo at elevated CO{sub 2} and it could adjust physiology and morphology to enable the capture of more light, to increase WUE and improve nutritional conditions. (Author)

  16. Development of Bamboo Charcoal Modified Polyester Combed Cotton Blended Fabric%竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺织物的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈理; 易冬芳; 刘月梅; 姚金怀

    2012-01-01

    探讨竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺织物的生产技术措施.通过测试竹炭改性涤纶纤维的性能,分析竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺纱的特点,指出:竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺纱强力低、毛羽多,浆纱工序宜采用PR-Su浆料,遵循“小张力、小伸长、重加压、湿分绞、分层预烘、后上蜡、复分绞”的工艺原则;织造工序采用“大张力、早开口、小开口、中引纬、低后梁”的工艺原则,适当增大车间相对湿度.结果在喷气织机上成功生产了该织物,织机效率达到84%以上,产品质量达到了开发及生产要求.%Production technology measures of bamboo charcoal modified polyester combed cotton blended fabric were discussed. Properties of bamboo charcoal modified polyester fiber were tested, characteristics of bamboo charcoal modified polyester combed cotton blended yarn were analyzed. It is pointed out that the blended yarn strength is lower, the hairiness is much more. PR-Su size mixture should be adopted, processing of smaller tension and elongation, heavier pressure,wet lease,split-sheet predrying, later waxing and lease twice were adopted. In weaving process,processing of larger tension,earlier shed,smaller shed,middle weft-inserting,lower back beam were adopted,related humidity in workshop was increased properly. Finally the blended fabric can be produced on the air jet loom successfully, loom efficiency can be reached above 84% ,demands of production development can be reached.

  17. Aluminum modified bamboo charcoal for enhanced adsorption of phosphorous from water%铝改性竹炭的磷吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国文; 章北平; 丁兴辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the performance of phosphorous (P) adsorption onto bamboo charcoal (BC) ,a novel aluminum modified bamboo charcoal (Al-BC) was fabricated with aluminum chloride solution by aluminum salt hydrolysis coprecipitation method .The physicochemical properties before and after modified bamboo charcoal were determined .And the characteristics of P adsorption onto Al-BC and BC were investigated in batch tests .The results show that the P adsorption process can be de-scribed well as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms ,and Freundlich equation is better fitted than Langmuir equation .Adsorption capacity of Al-BC is 10 .0 mg · g -1 ,w hich is about 1 .3 times that of BC .The adsorption well follows Lagergren-second order models .The effect of pH on P adsorption is distinct and the acidic conditions are favor for P adsorption .Humid acid has obviously negative influ-ence on P adsorption ,while NO3 -has no obvious inhibitory effect on P adsorption .%为了改善竹炭的磷吸附性能 ,以氯化铝为改性剂 ,采用铝盐水解共沉法对竹炭进行改性 ,并对改性前后竹炭物化特性进行表征 .通过批次吸附实验对比研究了改性竹炭对水溶液中磷的吸附特性 .结果表明 :Lang-muir和Freundlich等温方程能很好地描述竹炭磷吸附等温特性 ,Freundlich等温方程拟合效果更优 ,改性后竹炭磷吸附容量为10 .0 mg · g -1 ,是改性前竹炭的1 .3倍 ;铝改性竹炭磷吸附过程符合Lagergren二阶动力学模型 ;溶液pH值对磷吸附影响显著 ,酸性条件有利于磷吸附 ,腐植酸对吸附磷有明显负面作用 ,而NO3 -对吸附磷无明显抑制作用 .

  18. Preservation of a Bamboo Culm in Relation to its Structure%竹材结构的防腐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prof. Dr. Walter Liese

    2005-01-01

    由于在露天环境中遭遇生物腐蚀,竹秆的持久性差,所以需要采取化学手段增强其耐力.但是它的解剖构造使化学物质难以像木材那样容易进入竹材.竹秆的外部由其表皮保护防水,不像木材那样有径向渗透的途径.而其内部腔隙也有保护性纤维.化学物质的主要渗透途径位于竹秆根部微管束的后生木质部.这些渗透途径分布于横剖面,很不均匀,且少,只占总面积的8~10%,而且在通过竹节时改变方向.由于在采伐时砍伤竹秆,通向导管的细胞腔被堵塞,渗透途径也受影响.周围的薄壁细胞是竹秆组织的主要部分,它们通过微小的纹孔互相连接,只能通过弥散进入.它们所含的淀粉是昆虫和某些真菌的食品.对纤维的保护也有赖于弥散.用化学物质进行保护,对于新鲜的含水量高的竹秆效果最好.就像简单的根部处理,或技术性较强的细胞液改善.新鲜竹秆的薄壁组织和纤维也能通过垂直弥散的方法得到保护.如进行滴渍和浸渍工作,最好在竹材含水分时劈开,因为薄壁组织容易接受弥散.技术措施如竹秆的水分储存和熏蒸的过程,与竹秆的自然结构,尤其是薄壁组织有关.%The low durability of a bamboo culm towards biodeterioration in an exposed environment requires mostly a protection with chemical solutions for long time use. Its anato mical structure, however, makes an efficient treatment difficult as bamboo provides more resistance to penetration than wood. At its outside the culm is protected by an epidermis as a water-tight seal. No pathways for radial penetration exist, like the ray cells in wood. Also on its inner side towards the lacuna a special tissue acts protective. Main avenues for penetration are the metaxylem vessels of the vascular bundles at the ends of the culm. They are unevenly distributed over the cross-section with only about 8~10% of the total area. Their strongly axial orientation is

  19. Comparison for the properties of ring spun yarns blended from cotton and regenerated bamboo%棉/再生竹纤维环锭纺纱线的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAMIR Ahmed Abro; SOHAIL Yasin; 祝成炎

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortage of cotton fiber and cotton fiber production in China and Pakistan,the study on how to achieve the desired quality parameters for yarn blended from cotton and regenerated bamboo was carried out.In this paper,seven kinds of blended yarn with different blended ratios and same linear density and twist levels were developed.It can be found that the yarn unevenness characteristic was affected by the blended ratio of cotton and regenerated bamboo fiber.If the content of the bamboo fiber is increased,then the unevenness of the yarns will decrease.For the tenacity and the tensile strength of the yarns,the affection of the fiber content is not very obvious.The morphological structures of the blended yarns were also indentified with different blended ratio of cotton and bamboo fibers.The thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the weight loss of the blended yarns decreases with the increasing of the bamboo fiber portion.It can be further observed by the FR-IR spectrometers that the reflectance percentage of yarns increases as decreasing of the bamboo fiber portion.%为了克服棉纱及棉纺织品在中国和巴基斯坦产量的缺乏,本文研究了如何提高棉竹混纺纱的质量参数,开发了7种相同线密度及捻度但具有不同混纺比的纱线.可以得出,纱线的不均匀性受混纺比影响.若竹纤维的比例增加,则纱线的不均匀性降低;就纱线的强度及拉伸强力而言,混纺比的影响并不是十分明显.热重分析显示,随着竹纤维成分的增加,混纺纱线的重量损失减少.这可以进一步通过FR-IR光谱仪观测得到,随着竹纤维成分的减少,纱线反射率增加.

  20. Sacarificação da serragem de bambu visando ao estabelecimento de um método de determinação de amido Saccharification of bamboo sawing for starch determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, determinaram-se as condições de hidrólise da serragem de colmo de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad., visando ao estabelecimento de um método de determinação de amido. Os resultados obtidos mostram que as condições mais adequadas de sacarificação de amido na serragem foram obtidas em solução de ácido sulfúrico na concentração de 2% (v/v, após 60 minutos de reação sob refluxo, empregando-se uma relação de 1:30, entre a quantidade de serragem e o volume da solução. Nessas condições, o teor de amido no colmo (A foi calculado em função do rendimento em glicose proveniente da hidrólise do amido (Gh, do teor de glicose na serragem (Ga e do fator de conversão de glicose para amido (0,9, através da seguinte expressão: A = (Gh - Ga x 0,9.Saccharification conditions of bamboo sawing (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. were determined for the stablishment of an analytic method for starch determination in bamboo culm. The results showed that the best conditions for sawing saccharification were obtained with a 2.0% (v/v sulfuric acid solution after 60 minutes of reaction under heating, using the relationship 1:30 (w/v between the quantity of bamboo sawing and the volume of the acid solution. In this conditions the starch content in the bamboo culm was calculated by the following expressions: A = (Gh - Ga x 0.9, where: A = starch content in the bamboo sawing, expressed in percentage (oven dry; Gh = glucose yield, obtained from starch saccharification, expressed in percentage (oven dry; Ga = glucose content in the bamboo sawing, expressed in percentage (oven dry; 0.9 = conversion factor from glucose to starch.

  1. 超声波辅助碱分离毛竹半纤维素%Extraction of hemicelluloses from bamboo with ultrasound-assisted alkaline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红; 胡铮瑢; 余紫苹; 阮榕生

    2012-01-01

    该文以高效分离毛竹半纤维素为出发点,采用超声辅助碱分离法分离毛竹半纤维素.在固定固液比1∶20 g/mL、总浸提时间120 min的条件下,分析了KOH溶液质量分数,浸提温度及超声时间对毛竹半纤维素得率的影响.在单因素试验的基础上,采用Box-Behnken试验设计和通过响应面分析对分离工艺进行了优化.结果表明,超声辅助碱分离毛竹半纤维素的最佳分离工艺参数为KOH溶液质量分数3.1%、浸提温度54℃、超声时间56 min,此时半纤维素实际总得率为19.28%.浸提温度和KOH溶液质量分数对半纤维素总得率影响显著,超声波作用时间对总得率影响不显著.在相同条件下超声辅助碱分离时半纤维素提取率比无超声辅助时提高4.06%.结果可为毛竹半纤维素分离的工业化提供参考.%The ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction method was used to investigate the efficient extractability of hemicelluloses from bamboo obtained. The influences of KOH mass concentration, extraction temperature and ultrasonic irradiation time on yield of bamboo hemicelluloses were evaluated under the conditions of constant material/ liquid ratio of 1:20 g/mL and total extraction time of 120 min. On the basis of single factor experiments, the extraction conditions were optimized with Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimal conditions for bamboo hemicelluloses extraction by ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction method were KOH mass concentration of 3.1%, temperature of 54 ℃, and ultrasonic treatment time of 56 min, under which the actually total yield of hemicelluloses was 19.28%. The extraction temperature and KOH mass concentration were the most significant factors affecting the total hemicelluloses yield, while ultrasonic irradiation time was the least significant factor. Compared with the alkaline extraction without ultrasound assistance, the hemicelluloses

  2. Irrespective of size, scales, color or body shape, all fish are just fish: object categorization in the gray bamboo shark Chiloscyllium griseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Duengen, D

    2015-03-01

    Object categorization is an important cognitive adaptation, quickly providing an animal with relevant and potentially life-saving information. It can be defined as the process whereby objects that are not the same, are nonetheless grouped together according to some defining feature(s) and responded to as if they were the same. In this way, knowledge about one object, behavior or situation can be extrapolated onto another without much cost and effort. Many vertebrates including humans, monkeys, birds and teleosts have been shown to be able to categorize, with abilities varying between species and tasks. This study assessed object categorization skills in the gray bamboo shark Chiloscyllium griseum. Sharks learned to distinguish between the two categories, 'fish' versus 'snail' independently of image features and image type, i.e., black and white drawings, photographs, comics or negative images. Transfer tests indicated that sharks predominantly focused on and categorized the positive stimulus, while disregarding the negative stimulus. PMID:25385574

  3. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media

  4. 腐朽过程中毛竹主要化学成分的变化%Main Chemical Components Changes of Moso Bamboo during Decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红玲; 陆方; 张禄晟; 覃道春

    2013-01-01

    The Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys pubescens) are infected by one white-rot fungus and two brown-rot fungi. The samples are taken out every five days,and the weight loss rate, relative crystallinity and chemical functional groups are analyzed by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The results indicate that the weight loss increases and the crystallinity reduces as time goes by, and the brown-rot fungi cause larger weight loss. Changes of the main functional groups of bamboo show that the white-rot fungi can rapidly degrade the three main components especially the lignin, while the brown-rot fungi mainly decomposing the holocellulose.%以毛竹为原料,选择1种白腐菌和2种褐腐菌对竹材进行腐朽试验,利用X射线衍射和傅里叶红外光谱等手段,测定竹材的失重率、相对结晶度和化学官能团.结果表明,随腐朽时间的延长,竹材的失重率不断增加,结晶度不断下降.通过对腐朽竹材主要官能团的观察,发现白腐菌的侵蚀能造成竹材主成分的分解,其中对木质素的分解能力更强.褐腐菌的侵蚀主要破坏竹材综纤维素.

  5. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  6. Novel bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod@hollow carbon fibers derived from plant biomass for efficient and nonenzymatic glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Xiaotian; Xiong, Yueping; Han, Ce; Zhang, Yufan; Bo, Xiangjie; Guo, Liping

    2015-09-21

    The present paper reports on the preparation of novel bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod dispersed hollow carbon fibers (denoted as CuO NR@PCFs). Specially, the new-type hollow carbon fibers (containing abundant micro/meso/macropores and a large specific surface area) were prepared only by simple and fast pyrolysis of the natural product catkins without using any template or surfactant. Meanwhile, a facile method was used to prepare the bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod covered PCFs. Thanks to the abundant micro/meso/macropores, large specific surface area, and excellent electrical conduction efficiency of the PCF matrix, the as-prepared CuO NR@PCFs could also afford more catalytic sites, show more excellent reactant transport efficiency, and display more excellent electron transport rates compared with those for the pure CuO balls. Above all, these advantages will result in the excellent oxidation and detection efficiency of the CuO NR@PCF sample to glucose. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the CuO NR@PCF modified electrode can directly catalyze glucose oxidation and display an enhanced current response compared with the pure CuO balls (such as a response time within 4 s, wide linear ranges of 5 × 10(-3)-0.8 mM and 0.8-8.5 mM, good reproducibility, considerable stability, and excellent anti-interference to electroactive molecules and Cl(-)). The superior catalytic activity and selectivity make the CuO NR@PCF catalyst very promising for application in direct detection of glucose. PMID:26280029

  7. Estudio exploratorio de los laminados de bambú Guadua angustifolia como material estructural Exploratory study of the glued laminated bamboo Guadua angustifolia as a structural material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental, desarrollado en la Universidad de los Andes en Bogotá D.C., Colombia, acerca del potencial de los laminados de guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunt como material estructural. La influencia de la dirección de las fibras y de la ubicación de las láminas de guadua en las propiedades mecánicas es discutida en detalle. Los esfuerzos de diseño a compresión, tracción, corte y flexión de los laminados de guadua son comparados con los respectivos esfuerzos de las maderas estructurales Andinas. Además, el efecto en la resistencia al corte del adhesivo cuando el laminado de guadua es sometido a diferentes temperaturas de ensayo es estudiado. Basado en los resultados obtenidos del programa experimental desarrollado en este estudio y desde el punto de vista de sus propiedades mecánicas, se puede concluir que los laminados de guadua se proyectan como un material alternativo para la construcción de estructuras.An exploratory study, conducted at Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, of the potential use of glued laminated bamboo guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunt as a structural material is presented in this paper. The influence of the direction of the fiber and the location of the laminae in the mechanical properties is discussed. The compression, tension, shear and flexural design stresses of glued laminated guadua are compared to those of Andean structural woods (lumber. Additionally, the effect on the mechanical properties of the bond strength of the adhesive at different test temperatures is investigated. Based on the mechanical properties obtained in this research, glued laminated guadua bamboo can be a suitable construction material for structures.

  8. Object signing in bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Marlon L.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many relying on e-commerce to conduct business including the transport of files. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) technology has emerged to the forefront as the basis for ensuring secure transactions throughout the Internet. However, this technology is prohibitively expensive for the majority of users. Object signing technology, a subset of PKI technology, provides a veritabl...

  9. 竹材铜唑防腐剂处理工艺及力学性能研究%Process and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Wood Treated with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦韶山; 刘君良; 赵荣军; 李家宁

    2012-01-01

    以竹材为试验材料.采用新型水溶性铜唑(CopperAzole,即CuAz)防腐剂对其进行防腐处理.分析药剂质量分数、压力、前真空时间及加压时间对防腐处理效果的影响,比较处理前后对竹材力学性能的影响。研究结果表明,药剂质量分数是影响竹材防腐处理效果的显著因子;经铜唑防腐处理后,竹材的弹性模量(MOE)、顺纹抗拉强度和抗压强度无显著变化,抗弯强度(MOR)稍有降低。%In this study, CuAz preservative was used to treat bamboo by means of vacuum-pressure impregnation. The effects of preservative concentration, pressure, pre-vacuum time and press time on bamboo were analyzed, and the mechanical properties of treated bamboo were determined. The results showed that preservative concentration was the most significant affection factors on treatment result of bamboo. In comparison with untreated samples, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), tensile strength and compressive strength of treated samples did not significantly changed. However, the modulus of rupture (MOR) was decreased slightly compared to untreated ones.

  10. 竹叶黄酮在护肤品中防晒功效的初步评价%The Efficacy Evaluation on Bamboo-leaf-flavonoids Components in Skin Care Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文渊; 蔡民; 龙红萍

    2012-01-01

    考察竹叶黄酮对紫外线辐射的防护效能.将竹叶黄酮添加到基质霜膏中制得护肤霜,采用紫外分光光度法,以紫外吸收值(透光率)为指标,对护肤霜的防晒效果进行评价.结果表明,在测试时间内,含竹叶黄酮1.0%和2.0%的护肤霜都能有效抵抗UVB辐射,按照布特星级分类标示,对UVA辐射的防护可达到三星级.竹叶黄酮可作为护肤品中的防晒功能添加剂.%In this paper, the sunscreen effect of bamboo-leaf-flavonoids was evaluated in UV area. The bamboo-leaf-flavonoids was added to cosmetic cream matrix with different concentrations. When UV absorbance value (transmittance) as an index, the sunscreen effect of cosmetic cream was evaluated by UV spectroscopy. The results showed that the cosmetic cream with bamboo- leaf-flavonoids had a good sunscreen function at concentrations of 1. 0% and 2. 0% in UVB area. Protection effect of this cosmetic cream is up to three stars according to Boots star rating system in UVA area. Bamboo-leaf- flavoaoids can be used as functional ingredients in the skin care sunscreens.

  11. Study on bolt joint intensity of laminated bamboo for furniture%3种常用螺钉对家具用竹集成材面握钉力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉庆; 陈礼辉; 苏团

    2011-01-01

    以福建省建瓯市所产的毛竹片和低甲醛脲醛树脂胶黏剂为原料,采用正交试验法研究螺钉种类、导孔直径、拧入深度对家具用竹集成材面握钉力的影响.结果表明,螺钉种类对螺钉接合强度影响不显著,其中十字槽沉头自攻螺钉对其影响大些;导孔直径和拧入深度对螺钉接合强度影响显著;减小导孔直径、提高拧入深度能显著提高螺钉接合强度.%The influences of bolt joint factors on joint intensity of laminated bamboo for furniture were studied. The bamboo in Jian' ou City of Fujian Province and low-formaldehyde UF resin were used as main raw materials. Orthogonal design was adopted to analyze the influence of bolt category, diameter of guiding bore and screwing depth. The results showed that bolt joint intensity of laminated bamboo furniture were significantly affected by diameter of guiding bore and screwing depth, and were usually done by bolt category, which cross recessed pan head tapping screws was significantly affected than others. Bolt joint strength of laminated bamboo furniture was obviously increased in usage with the decreasing of diameter of guiding bore and the increasing of screwing depth.

  12. 冷等离子体技术在木竹材表面改性中的应用及研究进展%The Study Progress and Application of Cold Plasma in Surface Modification of Wood and Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪艳; 杜官本

    2013-01-01

    主要阐述了国内外冷等离子体技术在木材及竹材表面改性中的研究进展.主要包括冷等离子体对木材亲水性和疏水性、木材表面化学组成、木材的胶合性能、竹材时效性等方面的研究;并提出了未来冷等离子体在木竹材表面改性研究方向和重点.%The applications of cold plasma in surface modifications of wood and bamboo at home and abroad were reviewed, including hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of wood, surface chemical composition, bonding performance of wood, the activation time of bamboo. The future research directions and key points of the surface modification of wood and bamboo treated by cold plasma were also pointed out.

  13. Produção conjunta de fibras celulósicas e etanol a partir do bambu Combined production of cellulosic fibers and ethanol from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo com Bambusa vulgaris Schrad., procurou-se desenvolver um novo processo de utilização do bambu, visando à produção conjunta de etanol e fibras celulósicas para papel. Os rendimentos em fibras celulósicas e etanol foram obtidos em função da idade do colmo (1, 3 e 5 anos e região de amostragem em cada colmo (base, meio e ponta. Esses rendimentos, bem como outros relacionados com a fração fibrosa, glicose e amido, foram determinados com solução diluída de ácido sulfúrico. A densidade básica dos colmos foi determinada em cavacos antes do seu tratamento. Pelos resultados obtidos, é tecnicamente possível a produção conjunta de etanol e fibras celulósicas a partir do bambu. Os rendimentos em fibras celulósicas (46,85 a 56,04% e etanol (12,77 a 14,79 litros/100 kg de cavacos foram mais elevados nas regiões mediana e ponta dos colmos mais velhos. Essa mesma tendência foi observada para a glicose (teores de 22,80 a 26,41% e amido hidrolisado (18,99 a 24,27%. O rendimento em fibras brutas ou fração fibrosa (69,35 a 76,35% foi mais elevado nos cavacos provenientes dos colmos mais novos. A densidade básica dos cavacos não variou em função da idade do colmo (0,573 a 0,628 g/cm³, mas em função da região de amostragem (0,518 a 0,683 g/cm³, sendo mais densos os cavacos das regiões mediana e ponta dos colmos.In this study with Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, a new process of bamboo utilization was established to produce cellulosic fibers for papermaking and ethanol. The yields of ethanol and cellulosic fibers were determined in function of culm age (1, 3 and 5 years and portion of sampling in each culm (base, middle and top. The yields of cellulosic fibers, ethanol and compounds like glucose and starch were determined in shreddered chips after treatment with diluted sulphuric acid solution. The combined production of ethanol and cellulosic fibers was feasible technically. The yields of cellulosic fibers varied from

  14. 慈竹模拟置换蒸煮工艺研究%Study on the DDS Cooking of Bamboo (Neosinocalamus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩燚; 张美云; 夏新兴; 赵琳; 吴盼; 李小龙

    2012-01-01

    研究了慈竹模拟置换蒸煮过程中预浸渍段、温充段、热充段NaOH浓度及硫化度对置换蒸煮的影响.结果表明,在慈竹模拟置换蒸煮过程中,在一定范围内NaOH浓度升高时,有利于药液向慈竹内部的渗透,利于蒸煮;温充段对脱木素的贡献大于预浸渍阶段;热充段NaOH浓度对深度脱木素影响最显著.硫化度从23%提高到44%时,利于深度脱木素,浆料卡伯值下降显著,同时得率也随之下降.当预浸渍段、温充段、热充段的NaOH浓度分别为10、15 ~20、30 g/L,硫化度为23%~ 30%时,浆料卡伯值为10.7~17.8,得率为43.1% ~45.1%.置换蒸煮与普通蒸煮相比,当成浆得率相当时,置换蒸煮成浆卡伯值较低;当卡伯值相当时,置换蒸煮成浆得率较高.%The effects of NaOH dosage on the IC,IMC and MFC stage of DDS cooking of bamboo (Neosinocalamus) were studied in this paper. With NaOH dosage increasing,cooking reagent could penetrate to inner of the bamboo quickly in preimpregnating stage,which could be beneficial to cooking. IMC was better to delignification on cooking than IC,and MFC was the most significant influence on the depth of delig-nification. It was good for the extended delignification when the sulfidity increased from 23% to 44% ,and the Kappa number and the yield decreased. Under the pulping condition of 10 g/L in IC stage,15 ~20 g/L in IMC stage and 30 g/L in MFC stage of the NaOH dosage,and with the sulfidity of 23% -30% ,the Kappa number was 10. 7 - 17.8,and yielding was 43. 1% -45.1%. The pulp of DDS cooking of bamboo,which would be lower kappa number and higher yield,has advantage in pulping qualitatively than common cooking pulp.

  15. FORTALECIMIENTO DE LA CADENA PRODUCTIVA DEL BAMBÚ GUADUA CON LA PRODUCCIÓN DE LAMINADOS STRENGTHENING OF THE BAMBOO GUADUA CHAIN WITH PRODUCTION OF LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caori Patricia Takeuchi Tam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los procesos de corte del bambú guadua, la obtención de láminas, la fabricación de laminados y los resultados de ensayos en láminas y probetas laminadas elaboradas con cuatro tipos de pegantes: melamina, resorcinol, acetato de polivinilo y cola natural. Se encontró que la retracción longitudinal de las láminas es relativamente baja y la relación entre las retracciones tangencial y radial fue cercana a 1,0 mostrando la viabilidad del uso del bambú guadua para procesos de laminado. Se encontraron los siguientes valores de resistencia promedio: a corte paralelo 47 kg•cm-2 (melamina, 51 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 17 kg•cm-2 (PVA y 32 kg•cm-2 MPa (cola; a corte perpendicular 50 kg•cm-2 (melamina, 43 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 49 kg•cm-2 (PVA y 37 kg•cm-2 (cola; a tracción perpendicular 8,3 kg•cm-2 (melamina, 4,9 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 1,7 kg•cm-2 (PVA y 3,7 kg•cm-2 MPa (cola; a compresión paralela 419 kg•cm-2 (melamina, 424 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 506 kg•cm-2 (PVA y 375 kg•cm-2 (cola y a compresión perpendicular 216 kg•cm-2 (melamina, 206 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 245 kg•cm-2 (PVA y 240 kg•cm-2 (cola. Se observó que en general las probetas elaboradas con melamina y resorcinol presentaron un mejor comportamiento mecánico.In this paper, the process of cutting the bamboo guadua, the production of slats, the manufacture of laminates and results of tests in slats and laminated samples made with four types of glue: -melamine, resorcinol, polyvinyl acetate and natural glue are presented. It was found that the longitudinal shrinkage of the bamboo guadua slats is relatively low and the relationship between the tangential and radial shrinkage was close to one showing the feasibility of using bamboo for laminated processes. The following average values of resistance were found: for parallel shear 47 kg•cm-2 (melamine, 51 kg•cm-2 (resorcinol, 17 kg•cm-2 (PVA and 32 MPa kg•cm-2 (kola; for perpendicular shear

  16. 竹材受不同败坏真菌危害的宏观和微观变化%Macro-and Micro-Structural Changes in Bamboo after Attack by Various Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星霞; 蒋明亮; 覃道春

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜技术(SEM)观察研究各种不同真菌败坏竹材的宏观和微观变化.结果表明:霉菌的菌丝和孢子团仅聚集在竹材表面,不能进入竹材内部,不会破坏竹材的内部结构或影响内部颜色变化;变色菌不仅在竹材的表面聚集,还深入到竹材内部使其内外都发生青色、褐色或黑色等颜色变化,但对竹材的质量没有大的影响;腐朽菌不仅侵入竹材内部,还造成竹材明显质量损失.变色菌和腐朽菌侵入竹材的过程为:菌丝由外部细胞壁纹孔侵入竹材内部,沿着后生木质部导管、原生木质部和薄壁组织细胞壁之间的孔隙蔓延,填充到竹材的维管束中.腐朽菌密粘褶菌降解竹材的过程为:穿过细胞壁的菌丝在周围的胞壁上形成孔洞,孔洞逐步扩展,各孔洞连成片,最终导致组织的破损和崩解.竹材组织受褐腐菌侵染发生降解的顺序是:先是木质部导管细胞壁,而后基本薄壁组织细胞壁,最后是纤维.%Mould, stain and decay fungi are the common microorganisms that can damage bamboo. Scanning electron microscope ( SEM) was used in this study to investigate the macro- and micro-structural changes in bamboo after attack by these three types of fungi. The results showed that the mycelia of the mould and stain fungi were found only on the surfaces of the bamboo specimens and no hyphae were detected inside. The hyphae of the stain fungi were found to penetrate into bamboo and grew in metaxylem vessels, and then expand through the pits between cells; the stain fungi caused blue, brown and black discolorations from deep inside of the bamboo specimens. Similar to the stain fungi, the hyphae of the brown-rot fungus was also found to intrude from cell to cell through pits between cells; moreover, they gradually became denser and thicker causing very visible boreholes in the cell walls which then led to large-area cell wall rupture and collapse. It was observed from the

  17. Taquara bamboo control as an alternative to recovery of the Araucaria Forest Controle de taquaras como alternativa para a recuperação da Floresta com Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sanquetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Native bamboos occur abundantly in forests with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia that were
    highly disturbed by anthropogenic causes. The occupation of the competitive space by these plants may indicate that there is a dependency relationship between the establishment of tree seedlings and bamboos in the ecosystem. This study aimed at evaluating the establishment of seedlings of tree species that appeared naturally in an area strongly dominated by bamboos in the understory. An  experiment of mechanical control of bamboos
    was established in the municipality of General Carneiro, southern Paraná State, with 1.00 hectare, following the
    completely randomized design. The results showed that felling of bamboos may be effective to stimulate the
    appearance of many species and also to increase seedling density. Mechanical bamboo control by felling,
    combined with its biomass removal and understory thinning, is effective to stimulate seedling establishment of the majority of species in the forest. In general, it can be concluded that response of the forest to management practices is quite quick. Few months after the effect of bamboo control on the regeneration of the tree species might be clearly noticed. This suggests that management practices may be very effective to the restoration of degraded ecosystems.Taquaras ocorrem abundantemente em florestas antropizadas com Araucaria angustifolia. Evidências
    levam a crer que existe uma relação de dependência entre a sua presença e o grau de estabelecimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o estabelecimento de plântulas espontaneamente regeneradas em áreas com forte presença de taquaras. Foi instalado um experimento no extremo sul do Paraná, com área de um hectare, por delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os resultados aos 18 meses revelaram que o corte das taquaras provocou o reaparecimento de

  18. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yin [Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO{sub 2} to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO{sub 2}/BC was higher than that of TiO{sub 2}/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  19. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO2 photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO2/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO2/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO2/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO2 particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO2/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO2/BC was higher than that of TiO2/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO2/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants

  20. Tratamentos superficiais visando à melhoria da aderência entre gesso e taliscas de bambu Surface treatments aimed at improving the adhesion between plaster and bamboo slivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle G Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um aglomerante com aplicações sobretudo na fabricação de placas de forro, elementos decorativos e em paredes divisórias. No entanto, utilizando-se de uma baixa relação água/gesso e procedimentos tais como vibração, torna-se possível obter resistências mecânicas compatíveis para outras aplicações na construção civil, como é o caso de elementos estruturais. A investigação reportada no presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, experimentalmente, a possibilidade de se melhorar o compósito estudado. Foram realizados tratamentos para redução da absorção de água pelas taliscas, por meio da utilização de extrato vegetal B Carbon, resina polimérica e piche. Na tentativa de melhorar a aderência na interface gesso/bambu foram utilizados adesivo epóxi, massa plástica e piche, além de confeccionados corpos de prova de gesso reforçados com taliscas de bambu, tratadas com diferentes produtos, cuja eficiência foi avaliada em ensaios mecânicos. Observou-se que, para ocorrer uma boa aderência na interface do compósito, são necessários tratamentos complementares que reduzam os efeitos da instabilidade dimensional.The gypsum is a binder with applications primarily in the manufacture of ceiling tile, decorative elements and partition walls. However, using a low water/plaster ratio and procedures such as vibration, it is possible to obtain mechanical strength compatible to other applications in construction as in the case of structural elements. The research reported in this study aimed to evaluate experimentally the possibility of improving the compound studied. Treatments were carried out to reduce water absorption by slivers through the use of plant extract B Carbon, polymer resin, and tar. In an attempt to improve the adhesion at the interface plaster/epoxy adhesive, bamboo, plastic and tar mass were used. Test specimens were made of plaster reinforced with slivers of bamboo, treated with different products