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Sample records for baltic cod stock

  1. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH; Huwer, B; Hüssy, K; Klügel, A; Böttcher, U; Hanel, R

    2012-01-01

    Microchemical otolith analyses have been shown to provide valuable information on the life history, dispersal and stock characteristics of teleost fish. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for identifying the origin and distribution of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from the...... Baltic Sea was examined using laser ablation-ICPMS. The capacity to distinguish individuals from different Baltic Sea stocks and from the adjacent North Sea stock based on incoporation of stock-specific elemental fingerprints along otolith growth axes was investigated. It was further tested if different...... origins led to spawning-site specific element concentrations in otolith cores. The results indicate that microchemical analyses of Baltic cod otoliths are applicable for differentiating individuals of different stocks. Analyses of similarities including 12 element/calcium ratios resulted in significant...

  2. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management...... unit can mask the relatively poor state of the western Baltic cod population. Second, the current fishing mortality estimates for the entire western Baltic management unit, used as basis for fisheries management, are difficult to interpret as these are highly influenced by mixing of biological...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...

  3. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures...

  4. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for...... organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate to...... stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  5. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary to......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  6. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The landings of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea in the early decades of the 20th century were below 50 thousand tonnes and therefore lower than in recent years at very low stock size. These low landings have largely contributed to a perception that the stock size was also low...... mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  7. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Mosegaard, Henrik; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    ) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced...

  8. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.; Aro, E.

    2000-01-01

    investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful...... egg development ('reproductive volume'); (ii) the age-structure of the spawning stock; (iii) the timing of spawning; and (iv) predation mortality on eggs due to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), as well as cod cannibalism. We relate recruitment at age 2 to parent stock size...... using updated time series of these variables, comprising the period 1966 to 1994. Spawning stock biomass and egg production are compared as measures of parent stock size. The influence of wind energy and zooplankton abundance on cod recruitment are discussed. A modified Ricker model is outlined...

  9. Evaluation of otolith shape as a tool for stock discrimination in marine fishes using Baltic Sea cod as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eero, Margit

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks “Eastern Baltic cod” and “Western Balticcod” occur with considerable mixing of stocks. In this study we evaluated the applicability of otolithshape analysis for classification of individuals caught in the mixed stock cod fishery, using...... SNP (singlenucleotide polymorphism) based genetic assignment of otolith shape baselines. We further developeda management aimed approach for mixed stock assignment by robust stochastic baseline selection andposterior bias correction by individual reassignment of the least likely classifications into...... the alternatestock. Classification criteria selected by Monte Carlo runs of Linear Discriminant Analysis were capturedby otolith area and 20 Elliptic Fourier Descriptors of primarily low frequency harmonics. Classificationsuccess was considerably lower when using a baseline of spawning individuals...

  10. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Management of Baltic cod stock requires an ecosystem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Blenckner, T.; Casini, M.;

    2011-01-01

    fact that human exploitation (i.e. fishing) is the strongest impact on marine ecosystems. They further concluded that single-species approaches to resource management are functioning and that ecosystem-based approaches are not necessary. We (1) argue that the recent increase in the EB cod stock is...... inherently uncertain, (2) discuss the critique of the regime shift concept, and (3) describe why the EB cod stock dynamics demonstrates the need for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management....

  11. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2000-01-01

    investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful...

  12. Stock-based vs. fleet-based evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Vinther, Morten; Nielsen, J. Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    parameters are assumed constant. For the Eastern Baltic stock, additional sources of uncertainties from fishery adaptation to the plan are tested using a fleet-based and spatially explicit version of the model which leads to higher reductions in F and no significant change in management robustness. The...

  13. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.;

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace...... element patterns in cod otoliths for age determination. By first identifying elements of interest in a stock without ageing problems, western Baltic cod, we then tested their applicability on another stock without ageing problems, North Sea cod, and finally applied this knowledge to estimate age of......, the same patterns in Cu, Zn, Rb, Mg, and Mn signals occurred. All eastern Baltic cod with low visual contrast between growth zones exhibited clearly defined synchronous cycles in Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb. Using a combined finite differencing method and structural break models approach, the statistical...

  14. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis. In the...... Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower......, stock, recruitment, and cannibalism declined steadily until the early 1990s and then increased again. Problems identified in relation to data compilation and estimation procedure are discussed with respect to their impact on estimates of cannibalism and stock- recruitment relationships. (C) 2000...

  15. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  16. Precautionary management of Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callaris) under different harvesting and environmental scenarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Isomaa, Marleena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to increase knowledge of heavily harvested cod stock dynamics and attain information for more suitable and sustainable management strategies. Achieving sustainable management strategies requires sufficient knowledge about the population dynamics. One tool for research this is to introduce stochastic variation models in investigated species stock dynamics. As a model species we use eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias), where the population dynamics are...

  17. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald; Eero, Margit; Temming, Axel

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... (Clupea harengus). After a period of very low recruitment and stock size during the 1990s–early 2000s, the eastern Baltic cod stock exhibits signs of recovery, at least partly owing to several stronger year classes formed in recent years. In this paper we investigate whether or not changes in predation...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  18. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  19. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    caused progressively delayed spawning since the early 1990s. Late spawning involves several processes that are detrimental to the survival of the early lire stages. Recruitment in the mid-1990s was below what could be expected from spawning stock biomass and favourable hydrographic conditions. It is...... therefore suggested that the rebuilding of the Baltic cod stock could be improved by reduced fishing pressure in spring on early spawners. (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  20. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    , predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group......We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  1. Environmental effects on recruitment and implications for biological reference points of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Vinther, Morten; MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Plikshs, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The decline of the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stock from highest to lowest stock levels on record throughout the 1980s and early 1990s was caused by a combination of recruitment failure and increasing fishing pressure at declining stock sizes. The processes driving the reproductive success...... fishing mortality or the limit biomass reference point is indicated. However, an accepted methodology to determine these reference points in situations of changing stock productivity or system carrying capacity does not exist. Environmental conditions affecting recruitment matter not only for the...

  2. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Due to declining cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the Baltic Sea was one of the first areas regulated by the European Communities where selective escape windows were implemented to improve the exploitation pattern. Increasing discard rates and the potential for a significant increase of the spawning...... stock and the yield of the fishery are important reasons to further improve the selectivity of the fishery and to asses the potential next step in this process. In this study, we tested three relatively different design concepts, in the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery, that are relevant to past or...... present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...

  3. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the...... cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these...

  4. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  5. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...

  6. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.; Gaumiga, R.

    The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance...... during the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  7. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger; Lassen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience....... Variations in IFP are analysed by a GLM (General Linear Model). Results suggest that fishing power has developed in the Eastern Baltic Sea cod fishery at an annual rate of 2% and 6% for trawlers and gillnetters respectively. Mechanisms of fishing power creeping may include increased technical efficiency and...

  8. Forecasting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolino, V.; Margonski, P.; Lindegren, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    fisheries exploitation and climate change on the temporal dynamics of the central Baltic herring stock. Alternative scenarios of increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing salinity of the Baltic Sea from a global climate model were combined with two alternative fishing scenarios, and their direct and...... ecosystem-mediated effects (i.e., through predation by cod and competition with sprat) on the herring population were evaluated for the period 2010-2050. Gradual increase in temperature has a positive impact on the long-term productivity of the herring stock, but it has the potential to enhance the recovery...

  9. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  10. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Schnack, D.; MacKenzie, Brian; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Plikshs, M.

    2001-01-01

    affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions...... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions......, predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group...

  11. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    studied as possible determinants of annual spawning time. During the 1970s and late 1980s, peak spawning took place between the end of April and mid-June. A remarkable shift in the timing of spawning to the end of July was observed in the 1990s. The key factors governing the timing of spawning are water...... caused progressively delayed spawning since the early 1990s. Late spawning involves several processes that are detrimental to the survival of the early lire stages. Recruitment in the mid-1990s was below what could be expected from spawning stock biomass and favourable hydrographic conditions. It is...... therefore suggested that the rebuilding of the Baltic cod stock could be improved by reduced fishing pressure in spring on early spawners. (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  12. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.; Eero, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the...

  13. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2012-01-01

    of Baltic cod from spring/early summer to midsummer since the early 1990s remain unresolved and may partly be diet related. This study demonstrated that a substantial amount of lipid was invested in cod ovarian development, and that lipid composition varied substantially with the reproductive cycle......This study describes lipid composition and antioxidants of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. during the reproductive cycle, and investigates whether they reflect its dominant prey and whether levels of fatty acids important for reproductive performance were low. Reasons for a shift in peak spawning time...... in cod diet, while the level of 16:1n-7 and astaxanthin indicated the presence of the isopod Saduria entomon in cod diet. It is likely that food web alterations in the Baltic ecosystem related to environmental and hydrographic changes caused a decrease in ARA availability. Low ARA content coincides...

  14. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... Baltic cod are determined, and their nursery areas are localised according to the environmental factors affecting them. Comparative statistical analyses of biological, hydrographic and hydroacoustic data are carried out based on standard ICES demersal trawl surveys and special integrated trawl and...... acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...

  15. Estimating abundances of 0-group western Baltic cod by using pound net fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Robert; Stepputtis, Daniel; Storr-Paulsen, Marie; Weigelt, Ronny; Hammer, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore 0-group western Baltic cod are frequently caught as bycatch in the commercial pound net fishery. Pound net fishermen from the Danish Isle of Funen and Lolland and the German Isle of Fehmarn have recorded their catches of small cod between September and December 2008. Abundance patterns...

  16. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  17. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...

  18. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity account for nearly one-fifth of the oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore the seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and the carbon accumulation (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to ex...

  19. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  20. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they...... goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment....

  1. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared as s...... escaping from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  2. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.; Köster, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, 307 ovaries of eastern Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias sampled during the prespawning and spawning season 2000 were analysed histologically to estimate the seasonal prevalence and intensity of atresia. The number of atretic oocytes per ovary was estimated using a combination...... of the physical disector method and volume fraction (Delesse principle). Atretic oocytes were observed in 32% of the ovaries. Prevalence of atresia was independent of female size, but increased significantly with declining female condition from prespawning and through the spawning stages. The...... population egg loss due to atresia amounted to 4.6% indicating that Baltic cod was performing close to maximum productivity, i.e. potential egg production. (c) 2008 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2008 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  3. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain......The aim of this study was to evaluate the consistency of three methods for assigning annuli in adult Baltic cod otoliths. The methods examined were (i) daily increment patterns, (ii) opacity profiles, and (iii) traditional age reading. Frequency distributions of the distance from the nucleus to the...... similar to opacity patterns. However, within individual fish, the co-occurrence of overlap between the two patterns was random. In cases where there was overlap, translucent zone formation started just before the disappearance of visible increments. Overlap in 1 year did not necessarily lead to a...

  4. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    results from a survey carried out during the 1995 spawning period in the Bornholm Basin, at present the main spawning area of this stock. Cod distribution, abundance and population structure were estimated from hydroacoustic and trawl data and related to hydrographic parameters as well as to bottom depth....... In the central basin, cod were aggregated in an intermediate layer about 15 m thick. This area of peak abundance was defined at its upper limit by the halocline and at the lower limit by oxygen content. The majority of individuals caught in the basin centre were in spawning or pre-spawning condition...... with a high proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors...

  5. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2003-01-01

    relationship between fish and otolith size were found to change at settling, with an increase of fish size in relation to otolith size after settling. This change was more pronounced on the slope compared to the top of the bank. The timing of first settling at the 2 localities did not differ with respect to......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The growth, age at settling and vertical migration pattern were studied by otolith microstructure analysis. The...... fish age. At both localities, fish that hatched early in the season spent a shorter time in the pelagic stage than late-hatched fish. However, significant differences in growth rate during the pelagic stage were observed, where fish captured on the slope grew faster. On the bank, individuals with fast...

  6. Impact of prey field variability on early cod larval survival: a sensitivity study of a Baltic cod Individual-based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn O. Schmidt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Baltic larval cod drift, growth and survival use idealised constructed mean prey fields of nauplius distributions. These simulations revealedthe best feeding conditions for Baltic cod larvae longer than 6 mm. For shorter, first feeding larvae (between 4.5 and 6 mm pronounced differences in growth and survival were observed,which depend on food availability and to a lesser degree on ambient temperature. We performed runs with an Individual-based Model (IBM for Baltic cod larvae in order to demonstrate hownatural variability in prey abundance influences the survival success of first feeding larvae. In the Baltic, this larval stage lives mainly between 20 and 40 m depth and feeds exclusivelyon the nauplii of different calanoid copepods (Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus acuspes, Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus.Prey data obtained from vertically stratified samples in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea in 2001 and 2002 indicate a strong variability at spatial and temporal scales. We calculatedlarval survival and growth in relation to natural variation of prey fields, i.e. species-specific nauplius abundance.The results of the model runs yielded larval survival rates from 60 to 100% if the mean size of nauplii species was taken and lower survival if prey consisted of early nauplius stages only.

  7. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  8. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    . Effective disinfection was also recorded using 100 mg L−1 Actomar K30. Egg batch effect rather than initial bacterial concentration, disinfectant type or incubation method determined the survival of the eggs to hatching and survival of larvae. Because of the carcinogenic effect of glutaraldehyde, iodophor......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...

  9. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared as...... severe skin abrasions in the area from the pectoral fin posterior to the level of the anus. The skin abrasions developed into large spots of necrotic dermal tissue with a diameter of 2-5 cm. The central part of the necrotic area sloughed off exposing a large haemorrhagic ulcer. Characteristically most of...... the ulcerations on the trunk occurred bilaterally. A common histopathological finding was coagulation necrosis of the muscular tissue. The ulcerated fish were mainly 24-28 cm in length. P, correlation between high concentrations of cod around Bornholm, high fishing activity in the area, length of fish...

  10. How cod shapes its world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Leeuwen; A.M. de Roos; L. Persson

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a m

  11. The impact of gear regulation changes on discard rates: the case of the Baltic Sea cod fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Madsen, Niels; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    minimum landing size (MLS) have had any marked effect on the discard rates of the target species, cod. Results show that the gear regulation changes enforced in the Baltic demersal trawl fishery have had diverse effects on discard rates and are largely dependent on the gear, recruitment, and compliance by...

  12. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.;

    2011-01-01

    hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of...

  13. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    , than those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra-specific...... competition for food. resources may affect the recruitment success of Baltic cod....

  14. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend in...

  15. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe;

    2009-01-01

    suitability for juvenile settlement, i.e. the change from pelagic to demersal life. The results revealed a clear dependence of the probability for successful settling on wind-induced drift of larval cod, which is controlled by the local atmospheric conditions over the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, we found...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort in...

  16. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias in the...... change was insufficient to compensate for the decrease in stock size, and catch rates of all fleets decreased. Two factors that could lead to nonconstant catchability were investigated: (i) the presence of decoupling between stock size and density ill high-density areas and (ii) the presence of...... concurrent shifts in the spatial distribution of the cod stock and the cod fishery. No evidence of the former was found but there was a northern shift in the spatial distribution of both effort and the cod stock....

  17. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized with...... ground truth data of physical parameters obtained on the research cruises, and all simulations were forced with actual wind data. Outside the basin, generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized by incorporation of simulated hydrographic fields from previous model runs typical for the...

  18. Multi-decadal scale variability in the eastern Baltic cod fishery 1550-1860 - Evidence and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Bager, M.; Ojaveer, H.; Awebro, K.; Heino, U.; Holm, P.; Must, A.

    Identification of periods of high and low cod production, and the reasons for these periods, can increase understanding of variability in populations and ecosystems. In this study we investigate the multi-decadal and multi-century scale variations in the cod population in the eastern Baltic Sea...... unknown, as is the relative role of fishing, climate variability/regimes, eutrophication and reduction of marine mammal predator populations. We have begun to investigate whether historical fisheries information (landings, effort, distribution) from before the 1880s is available in Baltic archives and...... loading and measures to promote recovery of seal and harbour porpoise populations. If these policies are successful, the role of predatory fish in the future Baltic could again be substantial and comparable to that which we show existed 450 years ago. However, such a scenario will also require a major...

  19. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  20. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection of a...... strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined in...... expected-but in non-spawning fish only. In spawners, the general trend was a decrease in opacity from pre- to post spawning. A significant - but positive - temperature effect was only found in the pre-spawning period. The negative effects during and following spawning were not significant. In spawners...

  1. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  2. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life at...... large size, late in life at small size and lastly, late in life at large size. These maturation patterns were geographically clustered and associated with differences in growth and surplus production. Stocks maturing late in life at small size were characterised by slow growth and low surplus production...... production (e.g. Iceland, North East Arctic), while stocks maturing early in life at small size generally showed intermediate growth and surplus production (e.g. Baltic stocks). Production of recruits per unit biomass showed a latitudinal trend, but appeared largely independent of maturation pattern, growth...

  3. Survival probability of Baltic larval cod in relation to spatial overlap patterns with their prey obtained from drift model studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Schmidt, J.O.; Petereit, C.;

    2005-01-01

    Temporal mismatch between the occurrence of larvae and their prey potentially affects the spatial overlap and thus the contact rates between predator and prey. This might have important consequences for growth and survival. We performed a case study investigating the influence of circulation patt....... Finally, we related variations in overlap patterns to the variability of Baltic cod recruitment success. (c) 2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  4. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress on...... Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...

  5. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The investors’ irrational behaviour is influenced by actions, feelings and impulses that are intertwined: mimicry, fear, trust, greed, optimism, pessimism, euphoria, panic. These features highlight an erroneous perception of investors in point of unsustained increase in prices, which has been generated by the stock prices deviations from their fundamental value.Under these premises, optimism, overreaction and speculative bubbles are appearing on the market and may constitute triggering factors of a financial crash.The probability of the occurrence of the speculative bubbles and financial crashes is influenced by the continuous entry on the market of new investors and less informed participants, which often act based on impulse, following a benchmark, without considering their own analysis and information that they hold. The existence of a “collective behaviour” of the investors, which is manifested by their tendency to imitate other market participants actions and to “follow the herd”, so ignoring their own beliefs, may increase market sensitivity to shocks and the probability of the occurrence of the systemic risk.In order to identify the investors’ herding behaviour, I have applied an adjusted CSSD model proposed by (Yao, Ma, Peng He, 2014, which implies the inclusion of two additional variables, the first one, to reduce the effect of multicollinearity and a second one, a lag term of the dependent variable, in order to improve the power of the

  6. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks, mainly North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS) and western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS), which is managed through a single TAC. Catches of these two stocks are split using otolith microstructures from Danish and...... Swedish commercial landings and surveys samples for the purpose of stock assessment. But the split estimates from sampling data are highly variable and noisy. Better understanding of the migration and exploitation patterns involved could therefore potentially improve the stock assessment as well as...... provide solutions to the complex management of this mix. The stock‐specific seasonal trends in distribution of the two main stocks from otolith data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of stock composition. The results show a clear seasonal and age‐related pattern and are...

  7. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.;

    2002-01-01

    cod. Recent research has identified the importance of inflows of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the Baltic Sea for the recruitment of Baltic cod. However, other processes have been suggested to modify this reproduction volume including variations in timing and volume of terrestrial runoff...... large scale and local atmospheric forcing conditions are related to the identified major processes affecting the reproduction volume. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... compared to runs with modified meteorological forcing conditions and river runoff. From these simulations, it is apparent that processes other than major Baltic inflows have the potential to alter the reproduction volume of Baltic cod. Low near-surface air temperatures in the North Sea, the Skagerrak...

  8. The effect of twine thickness on the size selectivity and fishing power of Baltic cod gill nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Wileman, D.; Madsen, Niels

    2002-01-01

    . Method of capture, condition factor and girths were measured for sub- samples of the cod caught. A model of the size selectivity of the gill nets was adapted to the experimental conditions where two gears were fished on the same population. This model was fitted to the catch data for each set......Sea trials were carried out on a Danish commercial vessel measuring the size selectivity and fishing power of gill nets used to catch Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). A comparison was made of two different twine thicknesses at two different times of the year. Nominal mesh sizes of 70-130 mm were used....... Subsequently a model was fitted for the mean selectivity taking between-set variation into account. The selectivity Curve that fitted the data best was given by the sum of two normal distributions. It was found that twine thickness and trials period had relatively little effect upon the shape of the...

  9. Long-term stability and effective population size in North Sea and Baltic Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Schierup, M.H.; Loeschcke, V.; Grønkjær, P.

    2006-01-01

    DNA from archived otoliths was used to explore the temporal stability of the genetic composition of two cod populations, the Moray Firth (North Sea) sampled in 1965 and 2002, and the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) sampled in 1928 and 1997. We found no significant changes in the allele frequencies for...... the Moray Firth population, while subtle but significant genetic changes over time were detected for the Bornholm Basin population. Estimates of the effective population size (N-e) generally exceeded 500 for both populations when employing a number of varieties of the temporal genetic method. However...... the number of alleles commonly reported at microsatellite loci in Atlantic cod is best explained by N-e's exceeding thousand. Recent fishery-induced bottlenecks can, however, not be ruled out as an explanation for the apparent discrepancy between high levels of variability and recently reported...

  10. Climate change and credibility of fish stock agreements : the case of the north-east arctic cod

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerhovd, Nils-Arne

    2010-01-01

    We simulate how an increase in the productivity of the North-East Arctic cod stock would affect the Russian-Norwegian cooperation on the management of the stock. The productivity increase is linked to environmental conditions in the sea and to climate change through a temperature-dependent stock-recruitment relationship, where the numbers of recruits is positively related to the sea temperature given the spawning stock biomass. Increased recruitment and productivity of the stock improved the...

  11. A comparative analysis of legislated and modified Baltic Sea trawlcodends for simultaneously improving the size selection of cod (Gadus morhua) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.;

    2014-01-01

    in conjunc-tion with the currently legislated codends; Bacoma and T90. The most favourable selective propertieswith regard to simultaneously improving the selectivity for round and flatfish, considering the currentminimum landing sizes (MLS) for cod (38 cm) and plaice (25 cm) in the Baltic Sea and the fish...

  12. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija; Jounela, Pekka; Lundström, Karl; Köster, Fritz

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals on...

  13. On the Non-Compliance in the North Sea Cod Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Antelo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the economic value of the North Sea cod (Gadus morhua stock under recent catch and several recovery scenarios. The research presents results on: a what the value of catches and biomass would have been if the EU fishing fleet had followed the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea scientific recommendations (SRs and Total Allowable Catches (TACs in the 1986–2010 period; and b what the value of catches and biomass will be for the 2010–2022 period if the fleet follows the current Common Fisheries Policy Reform (CFPR. Results show that the actual economic value of the stock for the 1986–2010 period has been US$7 billion, which is substantially lower than what would have been predicted had the industry followed the SRs (US$20.7 billion or approved TACs (US$19.5 billion. Similarly, if catches do not follow the SRs or the approved TACs for the 2010–2022 period the estimated economic value of the stock is predicted to be lower than if they had done so. Further, the losses of non-compliance increase even when a scenario of 50% reduction of discards under the new CFPR is considered. We also show that the status of the stock is strongly dependent on the trade-offs generated by both the non-compliance of scientific recommendations and by the short-term economic incentives of the fishing industry. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited in Europe, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and catching fish more efficiently, as is the case of the North Sea cod stock.

  14. Effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) otoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardinale, M.; Doering-Arjes, P.; Kastowsky, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    temperature and diet regime) on otolith shape and morphometrics. Using otolith shape, cod individuals were significantly separated into Bank and Plateau stocks. Total classification success was between 79% and 85% between stocks and between 85% and 96% between environments for the different age classes. The...

  15. Stock Market Prediction using Artificial Neural Networks. Case Study of TAL1T, Nasdaq OMX Baltic Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob GRIGORYAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting financial market changes is an important issue in time series analysis, receiving an increasing attention in last two decades. The combined prediction model, based on artificial neural networks (ANNs with principal component analysis (PCA for financial time series forecasting is presented in this work. In the modeling step, technical analysis has been conducted to select technical indicators. Then PCA approach was applied to extract the principal components from the variables for the training step. Finally, the ANN-based model called NARX was used to train the data and perform the time series forecast. TAL1T stock of Nasdaq OMX Baltic stock exchange was used as a case study. The mean square error (MSE measure was used to evaluate the performances of proposed model. The experimental results lead to the conclusion that the proposed model can be successfully used as an alternative method to standard statistical techniques for financial time series forecasting.

  16. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    , stock, recruitment, and cannibalism declined steadily until the early 1990s and then increased again. Problems identified in relation to data compilation and estimation procedure are discussed with respect to their impact on estimates of cannibalism and stock- recruitment relationships. (C) 2000...... International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  17. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej; Grzebielec, Ryszard

    , the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, and the reproductive volume in the Gotland Basin in May. All the models including extrinsic factors significantly improved prediction ability as compared to traditional models, which account for impacts of the spawning stock biomass alone. Based on the...

  18. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical...... catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference...... points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts....

  19. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    Information from data storage tags (DSTs) is conventionally used to infer movement patterns or reveal characteristics (e.g. temperature or salinity) of the environment surrounding tagged fish. Here we link data derived from DSTs with the reproductive physiology of tagged fish. Individual vertical...... activity of adult male and female Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. in the Bornholm Basin was derived from DST measures and related to the individual histologically determined reproductive phase. Spawning migrations were identified by movements towards deeper and more saline waters. No difference was observed...... the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...

  20. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Schmidt, J.O.; Voss, R.; Kraus, Gerd; Köster, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat, the...

  1. The spatial dimension of climate-driven temperature change in the Baltic Sea and its implication for cod and sprat early life stage survival

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Rüdiger; Petereit, Christoph; Schmidt, Jörn; Lehmann, Andreas; Makarchouk, Andrei; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the last decades there has been a world-wide, general warming trend. In this study, we use the example of the Baltic Sea to resolve the overall estimated temperature trend into smaller, meso-scale spatial units. Afterwards, we investigate the spatially resolved potential impact of the temperature trend on larval survival for two important fish species, cod and sprat. We used two different sets of hydrographic data: (i) long-term temporally and depth-resolved data measured in situ o...

  2. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    is to investigate the variation in lipid content, EFA and antioxidants of female Baltic cod gonads and livers during the reproductive cycle (Paper II) and to examine whether there is a deficiency in lipid energy and dietary EFA that could explain the delayed spawning time observed in the Baltic cod (Paper III...... may impact lipid content and FAC in cod. High proportions of ARA, EPA and the antioxidant, astaxanthin, in S. Entomon, compared to 9 clupeids, render it a valuable constituent in the diet of Baltic cod. However, the abundance of S. Entomon has declined in recent decades in the Baltic. FAC of ovary...... time. However the spawning period is not influenced by different ARA levels and EPA/ARA ratios in farmed cod (Paper IV). Uptake of DHA, EPA and ARA into cod eggs from broodstock diet is highly efficient (Paper IV). Diet with low EPA/ARA ratio has significantly higher realized fecundity and eggs from...

  3. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  4. Improving the assessment and management of the plaice stock complex between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Gatti, Paul; le Bras, Quentin; Andersen, Michael; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hintzen, Niels T.; Jacobsen, Jonathan B.; Jonsson, Patrik; Miller, David C.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan; Svedäng, Henrik; Wennhage, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    stock unit and is proposed to be assessed and managed as such. Pragmatic options are suggested for empirical harvest control rules accounting for the dynamic of local abundance, using a survey‐based biomass indicator. For the future, new scientific analyses should be developed to better inform the......Plaice in Kattegat and Skagerrak have traditionally been considered as one stock unit. However the collected information on biology and fishery in areas between the North and Baltic Seas suggest changes are needed in assessment units as well as in management areas. Plaice in Skagerrak (Division 20......) is now considered to be closely associated with plaice in the North Sea and is proposed to be included in the North Sea plaice stock assessment, although it is recognized that local populations are present in the area. Therefore, specific management of the Skagerrak plaice is suggested. Plaice in...

  5. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  6. Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: from single-species to integrated ecosystem assessment and advice for Baltic Sea fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten; Bergström, Lena; Casini, Michele; Diekmann, Rabea; Flinkman, Juha; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Tomczak, Maciej; Voss, Rüdiger; Gårdmark, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Theory behind ecosystem-based management (EBM) and ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is nowwell developed. However, the implementation of EBFM exemplified by fisheries management in Europe is still largely based on single-species assessments and ignores the wider ecosystem context and......-economic factors, in relation to specified management objectives. Here, we focus on implementing the IEA approach for Baltic Sea fish stocks. We combine both tactical and strategic management aspects into a single strategy that supports the present Baltic Sea fish stock advice, conducted by the International...

  7. The effect of regulation changes and influential factors on Atlantic cod discards in the Baltic Sea demersal trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter; Madsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    juveniles and thus discards. One method that has been widely adopted in the Baltic Sea has been to improve gear selectivity, subsequently allowing young individuals to escape capture. To understand the effects that changes to gear selectivity and minimum landing size have had on discard rates, as well as...... the effects of a range of additional explanatory factors, generalized additive mixed models were used. Gear regulation changes enforced in the Danish demersal trawl fishery in the Baltic Sea and other factors, such as minimum landings size, juvenile abundance, catch mass, price, and their spatial and...... temporal distribution, were found to significantly affect discard rates. The newest and currently legislated gears were identified as having the lowest discard rates. The increase in minimum landing size from 35 to 38 cm has increased discard rates...

  8. Life history inhomogeneity in Baltic Sea whitefish populations revealed by otolith strontium signatures – identification of stocked fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hägerstrand

    2015-11-01

    The strontium concentrations in the otolith cores of whitefish from River Tornionjoki were higher than that of the four otoliths with low core strontium from fishes caught at sea (Table 1. Supposing that this latter group represent stocked fish raised in freshwater ponds, the vast majority of River Tornionjoki whitefish is naturally reproduced fish. This is plausible because in River Tornionjoki, the major whitefish spawning river in Finland, no larger stocking have been made since 1990s (Jokikokko and Huhmarniemi 2014. In conclusion, the concentration of otolith core strontium differs in whitefish hatched in fresh-water and in whitefish hatched in river water or in brackish Baltic Sea water. This difference can be used to reveal stocked whitefish. Barium concentration may be an even better indicator in this respect than strontium, as previous results indicate (Hägerstrand et al., 2015. Stocked river spawning whitefish appear in large amount at the southern feeding grounds around the Åland Islands, as already indicated by e.g. Leskelä et al. (2009.

  9. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... banning the discard of highly contaminated organs such as cod liver could be part of the pollution management....

  10. Enhancing stock-recruitment models for North Sea cod by including climate and zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Ottersen, Geir; Olsen, Esben Moland; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2009-01-01

    The “recruitment problem” - trying to understand what regulates recruitment variability in marine fish populations - has been the number one issue in fisheries science since the early twentieth century. Intuitively, the size of the spawning stock should influence recruitment. In practice, however, the relationship is most often weak, complicating fisheries management and causing much controversy. Thus, the value of fitting stock-recruitment relationships for marine fish populat...

  11. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    drifters—as predicted proportions of drifters that either died due to bottom contact or lethal temperatures, or that survived up to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage. The environmental conditions allowing survival of cod and yolk-sac larvae indicate that favourable conditions predominately occurred...... during the late spawning season, while minimum survival rates could be expected from January to March. The spatial analysis of different spawning areas revealed highest survival chances in the Kattegat, intermediate survival in the Great Belt, and only low survival in the Sound, Kiel Bay and Mecklenburg...

  12. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Opinion by written procedure – Review of scientific advice for 2013- part I – Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission......The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission...

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution and composition of mixed stock fishery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in West Greenlandic waters based on retrospective genetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg; Retzel, Anja; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    Historical samples of fish are a unique source of DNA to investigate the temporal dynamics of fish population structure and distribution over time. During the last century Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks have declined dramatically in Greenlandic Waters. Recent genetic investigations have...... identified the presence of four genetically distinct spawning groups in the area. We used SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) analysis of DNA from archived historical cod otoliths (1946-2011) to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal genetic analysis. The aim was to detect historical changes in the...

  14. Long-term changes in nutrients and mussel stocks are related to numbers of breeding eiders Somateria mollissima at a large Baltic colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Laursen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes of this trend remain unknown. Most birds from the colony winter in the Wadden Sea, from which environmental data and information on the size of the main diet, the mussel Mytilus edulis stock exists. We hypothesised that changes in nutrients and water temperature in the Wadden Sea had an effect on the ecosystem affecting the size of mussel stocks, the principal food item for eiders, thereby influencing the number of breeding eider in the Christiansø colony. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A positive relationship between the amount of fertilizer used by farmers and the concentration of phosphorus in the Wadden Sea (with a time lag of one year allowed analysis of the predictions concerning effects of nutrients for the period 1925-2010. There was (1 increasing amounts of fertilizer used in agriculture and this increased the amount of nutrients in the marine environment thereby increasing the mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. (2 The number of eiders at Christiansø increased when the amount of fertilizer increased. Finally (3 the number of eiders in the colony at Christiansø increased with the amount of mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The trend in the number of eiders at Christiansø is representative for the entire flyway population, and since nutrient reduction in the marine environment occurs in most parts of Northwest Europe, we hypothesize that this environmental candidate parameter is involved in the overall regulation of the Baltic/Wadden Sea eider population during recent decades.

  15. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  16. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders; Svedäng, Henrik; Persson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock......-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular....

  17. Recent distribution and stock assessment of the red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis on an exposed Baltic Sea coast: combined use of field survey and modelling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Martynas Bučas; Darius Daunys; Sergej Olenin

    2009-01-01

    Recent results of field studies on the exposed coast of Lithuania were used to model the area occupied by the red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis using the Natural Neighbor interpolation technique, while linear regression was applied to estimate the species' standing stock. The area covered by F. lumbricalis extended for 26 km along the coast between depths of 1 and 15 m. The maximum species cover in the study area ranged between 4 and 10 m depth, which is one of the widest in the Baltic Sea. Th...

  18. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and...... concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants, and...

  19. Impacts of the local environment on recruitment: a comparative study of North Sea and Baltic Sea fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Christensen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    local environmental variability on the recruitment strength. Hence, the prerecruits’ survival variability is studied according to geographically disaggregated and potentially impacting abiotic or biotic variables. Time series (1990–2009) of nine environmental variables consistent with the spawning......While the impact of environmental forcing on recruitment variability in marine populations remains largely elusive, studies spanning large spatial areas and many stocks are able to identify patterns common to different regions and species. In this study, we investigate the effects of the...

  20. Optimal fishery management accounting for variation in natural mortality: the Baltic sprat and herring case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Rudi; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Quaas, Martin F.;

    2010-01-01

    account economic considerations. To overcome these shortcomings, we have developed an age‐structured, economic–ecological model that accounts for the dominant processes affecting natural mortality. With the goal of ultimately providing the most appropriate management advice for the operating fishery......Economic–ecological modelling has received increasing attention in the effort to achieve sustainable fisheries. So far, mainly single‐species models have been used, which do not account for species interaction and/or climate change. However, both of these processes alter the associated natural...... possible, we adopt an economic objective function (present value of resource rents) and determine optimal management. In the Baltic Sea, mortality rates of sprat and young herring are strongly influenced by adult cod stock dynamics via predation. Furthermore, both clupeid stocks show temperature...

  1. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a...... collect the escapees, three sampling bags were attached beneath the raised fishing line. The selective haddock trawl reduced the total catch of cod by 55% during the day and 82% at night, and 99% of the marketable haddock was caught during the day and 89% at night. Cod escape rates were highly length...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Fish and Ships in the Baltic Sea - Prices, Demand and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The essay discusses different aspects of the market for fish from the Baltic Sea. The first chapter introduces the subject and discusses why the market for fish is interesting and in particular why analyses of first-hand market prices can give insights into the effects of new regulations or natural variations changing the conditions for fisheries. Prices of different attributes of Baltic cod is the topic of the second chapter. The results show that larger and better quality cod have h...

  3. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian; Olsvik, P.A.; Hansen, M.M.; Loeschcke, V.

    salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na...... findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  4. Baltic Listed Companies´ disclosure quality – far ahead or lagging behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbi Karmo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the level of average quality of disclosures made in English by biggest companies listed on Baltic stock exchanges and to analyse it in the context of biggest companies listed on other Central and Eastern European (CEE and three developed European (EU stock exchanges. Content analysis reveals that the disclosure quality level of Baltic listed companies outperforms that of other CEE peers by at least 30% and in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures 50 to 80%. Compared to companies listed on developed EU stock exchanges, the disclosure quality of Baltic listed companies is slightly lower in the company home page category, however, it outperforms in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures. This result raises concerns about possibly too restrictive stock exchange web page disclosure regulations which may have a negative impact on the future outlook of Baltic stock exchanges.

  5. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  6. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  7. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.; Bernreuther, M.; Huwer, Bastian; Neumann, Viola; Schmidt, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort...... analysis. Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning...

  8. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne; Støttrup, Josianne; Buchmann, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested to be...... related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  9. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  10. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels...

  11. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  12. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  13. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    recruitment of the West Greenland cod stock. It is also shown that cod eggs and larvae occasionally drift from Southwest Iceland across the Denmark Strait to the East Greenland shelf from where a subsequent transport and immigration of juveniles to West Greenland waters can occur. Larval transport across the...

  14. Identification of potential target levels for Central Baltic Sea fishing mortalities, taking multispecies interactions into account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit;

    2012-01-01

    The main biological interactions between Baltic cod, herring and sprat have been modelled in a stochastic multispecies (SMS) model. Based on this, a simple approach has been developed to quantify candidates for FMSY proxies (fishing mortality that produces the maximum sustainable yield) in a...

  15. Arsenic concentrations correlate with salinity for fish taken from the North Sea and Baltic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Francesconi, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations were determined in three teleost species (herring Clupea harengus; cod Gadus morhua, and flounder Platichthys flesus) taken. from four locations in the Baltic and North Sea with salinities ranging from 8 to 32 psu. Individual arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.04 to...

  16. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations......Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...

  17. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...... reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity of the...... Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  18. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael; Brugge, B.

    1997-01-01

    -dimensional eddy-resolving baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code. Larval drift was simulated by the incorporation of a passive tracer into the model utilized to represent individual cod larvae. Additionally, simulated Lagrangian drift trajectories are presented. For model purposes...... baroclinic model forced by wind data for the whole Baltic taken from the Europa-Modell (EM) of the German weather service, Offenbach. Verification of simulations was performed by comparison with field measurements of hydrographic variables and ADCP derived current measurements taken during the surveys. In...

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus S.) batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, Holger; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd

    Over the last decade the size of the Baltic sprat spawning stock declined from a record highof over 1.7 million tonnes in 1996 to 910.000 tonnes in 2008. From the perspective of stockrecovery it is of central interest how reproductive parameters have changed over this periodof strongly changing...... stock size. Batch fecundity of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticusS.)during peak spawning time was investigated in relation to fish length and weight applyingthe hydrated oocyte method. A series of ten years was established covering importantspawning areas in the Central Baltic Sea, i. e., the...... Bornholm Basin, the Gdansk Deep and forsome years the Gotland Basin. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) showed significantdifferences in batch fecundity of Baltic sprat between areas and years. To detect possiblecauses for this variation in batch fecundity environmental factors such as water temperature...

  20. A review of the battle for food in the Barents Sea: cod vs. marine mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Bogstad, Bjarte; Gjøsæter, Harald; Haug, Tore; Lindstrøm, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Cod, harp seal and minke whale are the main top predators in the Barents Sea ecosystem. In the last decade, the abundance of cod has increased considerably, and is at a record high level. In spite of this, the growth and condition of cod has remained rather stable, although some decrease is seen in size at age of large, mature cod. During the same period, the abundance of harp seals has declined whereas the minke whale stock has been at a stable level. The body condition (blubber thickness) o...

  1. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  2. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  3. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie;

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material....... The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing...... or after freezing and thawing, Application of MAP during frozen storage resulted in a significant increase in the drip loss of thawed, chilled MAP cod fillets but none of the other quality attributes studied were influenced by this treatment. This implies that packaging cod fillets without MAP during...

  4. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how human impacts have interacted with natural variability to affect populations and ecosystems is required for sustainable management and conservation. The Baltic Sea is one of the few large marine ecosystems worldwide where the relative contribution of several key forcings to...... changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod...

  5. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  6. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  7. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  8. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Alheit, J.; Conley, D.J.; Holm, P.; Kinze, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    fisheries for herring and other fish species is rare until after 1900. During the 20th century, while the Baltic underwent eutrophication, the biomass and landings of three fish species (cod (Gadus morhua), herring, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus)) all increased, whereas the biomass of marine mammals (grey...

  9. Cheating about the cod

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Rögnvaldur

    2006-01-01

    The Northeast Arctic cod is managed by a total quota shared evenly between Norway and Russia. It appears that Russia has been overfishing its quota by substantial amounts for a number of years, due to insufficient monitoring of fishing vessels. This paper considers what would be the best reply by Norway to given levels of Russian overfishing. It is found that in most cases the best Norwegian reply would be also to overfish its quota. An aggregate biomass model with stochastic growth and recru...

  10. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  11. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    was the case for HbI-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an...... advantage for HbI-1 cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....... in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature...

  12. Large scale distribution of dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals, PAH-metabolites and radionuclides in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Atlantic and its adjacent seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Horst; Kammann, Ulrike; Aust, Marc-Oliver; Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lüth, Anja; Kanisch, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Regarding cod as sea food for human consumption and as bio indicator of the marine eco system, this study is the first approach to combine the analysis of organic and inorganic contaminants and radionuclides in cod muscle as well as PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in its livers from the same fishing areas. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, PCDD/Fs, PCBs, cesium-137 (Cs-137), cadmium and lead were determined in individual or pooled samples over a wide geographic area, including Greenland Seas, Barents Sea, North and Baltic Sea. Highest concentrations were found in samples from the Baltic Sea, lowest in the pristine areas of the Barents Sea and Greenland. Levels of contaminants in cod muscle were found to be far below the established EU maximum levels (ML), regardless of which fishing grounds. In contrast to this, most cod liver samples from the North and Baltic Sea showed PCDD/F and PCB contents exceeding the ML. In addition, new background assessment criteria (BAC) for 1-hydroxypyrene in cod of 4.6 ng mL(-1) bile and for Cs-137 a BAC of 0.16 Bq kg(-1) wet weight are proposed to be included in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive for cod from the Northeast Atlantic. PMID:26874057

  13. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  14. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  15. Transport of North Sea cod larvae into the Skagerrak coastal populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Jorde, Per Erik; Skogen, Morten D.; Thuróczy, Emma; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is economically one of the world's most important marine species--a species presently suffering from heavy overexploitation throughout its range of distribution. Although not fully understood, the Atlantic cod is believed to be structured into populations in a rather complex manner, whereby both highly migratory and more confined ocean-spawning stocks coexist with stationary coastal populations. Owing to the complex population structure, little is presently kno...

  16. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statisticall...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  17. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  18. Stock Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚玲

    2005-01-01

    There are stock markets in large cities in many countries. Stock markets in Paris, London, Tokyo, Shanghai and New York are among the largest and most well-known. The stock market, also called stock exchange, is a place where people can buy or sell shares of a factory or company. And each share means certain ownership of a factory or company.

  19. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  20. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-01-01

    Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterw...

  1. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  2. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.;

    2013-01-01

    mortality in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear......The performance of the EU long-term management plan for cod stocks, in force since 2009, is analysed focusing on the human and institutional factors. The plan operates through landings quotas (TACs) and effort restrictions following a Harvest Control Rule, and deploys a novel instrument allowing...... Member States to 'buy back' or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the 'buy-back' instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent...

  3. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment...

  4. Hierarchical modelling of temperature and habitat size effects on population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; Sorensen, H.; O'Hara, R.B.;

    2010-01-01

    and Beverton and Holt stock - recruitment (SR) models were extended by applying hierarchical methods, mixed-effects models, and Bayesian inference to incorporate the influence of these ecosystem factors on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. We identified...

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  6. Russia's European agenda and the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Šleivytė, J.

    2009-01-01

    Russia has always been a primary factor in the development of the Baltic States. It is impossible to analyse Baltic security without looking into the processes inside Russia and the prevailing trends vis-a-vis the Baltic States. However, the changes in the Baltic security landscape in the 21st century lack a comprehensive analysis. This thesis seeks to bridge the gap. Two key aims are being pursued in this thesis. The first is to present an analysis of Russia's European agen...

  7. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks.

  8. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  9. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers. However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried...

  10. The role of predation by harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in the collapse and non-recovery of northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Duplisea, Daniel,; Hammill, Mike; Caskenette, Amanda; Bousquet, Nicolas; Lambert, Yvan; Stenson, Garry

    2009-01-01

    A statistical catch-at-age model was developed to assess the effects of predation by the northwest Atlantic harp seal population on northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod by estimating the relative importance of different sources of mortality that affected the stock during a period of collapse and non-recovery. Cod recruitment at age 1 is modeled via a non-linear stock-recruitment relationship based on total egg production and accounts for changes in female length-at-maturity and cod condition. Na...

  11. {sup 241}Pu concentrations in water, plankton and fish from the southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, D.I.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk, Univ. (Poland). Facuty of Chemistry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the work was to determine {sup 241}Pu activities in different components (water, plankton and fish) of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. Measurement of {sup 241}Pu in the samples was done indirectly by determining the increment in {sup 241}Am from the decay of the {beta}-emitting {sup 241}Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of {sup 241}Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The highest {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish were found in Perciformes: benthic round goby (0.863 {+-} 0.066 mBq/g ww) and pelagic perch (0.666 {+-} 0.001 mBq/g ww). Plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed in the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. Most of {sup 241}Pu in flounder, herring and cod is located in soft tissues, especially digestive organs (stomach, intestine, liver). The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of {sup 241}Pu containing Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small. (orig.)

  12. Projected impact of climate change in the North and Baltic Sea. Results from dynamical downscaling of global CMIP climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Sein, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    Climate models have predicted strongest climate change impact for the mid/high lattiude areas. Despite their importance, shelves seas (which are supposed to account for more than 20% of global marine primary production and for up to 50% of total marine carbon uptake) are not adequately resolved in climate models. In this study, the global ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model MPIOM/HAMOCC has been setup with an enhanced resolution over the NW European shelf (~10 km in the southern North Sea). For a realistic representation of atmosphere-ocean interactions the regional model REMO has been implemented. Thus, this model configuration allows a physically consistent simulation of climate signal propagation from the North Atlantic over the North Sea into the Baltic Sea since it interactively simulates mass and energy fluxes between the three basins. The results indicate substantial changes in hydrographic and biological conditions for the end of the 21st Century. A freshening by about 0.75 psu together with a surface warming of ~2.0 K and associated circulation changes in and outside the North Sea reduce biological production on the NW European shelf by ~35%. This reduction is twice as strong as the reduction in the open ocean. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the shelf break and the continental slope which reduces the winter mixed layer by locally more than 200 m compared to current conditions. As a consequence winter nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic declines between 40 and 50%. In addition to this, the volume transport of water and salt into the North Sea will slightly reduce (~10%) during summer. At the end of the 21st Century the North Sea appears nearly decoupled from the deep Atlantic. The projected decline in biological productivity and subsequent decrease of phytoplankton (by averaged 25%) will probably negatively affect the local fish stock in the North Sea. In the Baltic Sea the climate

  13. Market Behaviour: Case Studies of NASDAQ OMX Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines market behaviour, defines the concept of behavioural finance and exhaustively analyzes the varying behaviour of market participants and occurring examples. The article deals with the issues of possible anomalies describing their main features. The conducted research is aimed at investigating two anomalies in the Baltic Stock Exchanges, including branches in Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius. The publication selects specific stocks listed in the equity market and analyzes their features. The obtained results are compared to discuss differences and characteristics of the markets. The paper also presents an original examination of the practical aspects of momentum and contrarian anomalies, underlies recommendations and helps financial market participants with a better understanding of the influence of anomalies from an economic perspective and with improving their competitiveness thus helping them to make appropriate decisions.

  14. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers...

  15. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  16. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterway as a whole and the area is evaluated within the coverage of the geography of tourism.

  17. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...

  18. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis of...

  19. Quantifying the heterogeneity of hypoxic and anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea by a simplified coupled hydrodynamic-oxygen consumption model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus; Myrberg, Kai

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea deep waters suffer from extended areas of hypoxia and anoxia. Their intra- and inter-annual variability is mainly determined by saline inflows which transport oxygenated water to deeper layers. During the last decades, oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have generally worsened and thus, the extent of hypoxic as well as anoxic bottom water has increased considerably. Climate change may further increase hypoxia due to changes in the atmospheric forcing conditions resulting in less deep water renewal Baltic inflows, decreased oxygen solubility and increased respiration rates. Feedback from climate change can amplify effects from eutrophication. A decline in oxygen conditions has generally a negative impact on marine life in the Baltic Sea. Thus, a detailed description of the evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas is particularly required when studying oxygen-related processes such as habitat utilization of spawning fish, survival rates of their eggs as well as settlement probability of juveniles. One of today's major challenges is still the modeling of deep water dissolved oxygen, especially for the Baltic Sea with its seasonal and quasi-permanent extended areas of oxygen deficiency. The detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the oxygen concentrations in the entire Baltic Sea have been simulated for the period 1970-2010 by utilizing a hydrodynamic Baltic Sea model coupled to a simple pelagic and benthic oxygen consumption model. Model results are in very good agreement with CTD/O2-profiles taken in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The model proved to be a useful tool to describe the detailed evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas in the entire Baltic Sea. Model results are further applied to determine frequencies of the occurrence of areas of oxygen deficiency and cod reproduction volumes.

  20. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  1. Changes in the relationship between sea temperature and recruitment of cod, haddock and herring in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bogstad, Bjarte; Dingsør, Gjert Endre; Ingvaldsen, Randi; Gjøsæter, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Cod, haddock and herring in the Barents Sea have strongly variable recruitment. For these three stocks, earlier studies have suggested a high correlation between their recruitment and a positive relationship between high temperatures and good recruitment. These hypotheses were revisited using stock assessment and temperature data for the period 1913–present. The cod–haddock and herring–haddock recruitment correlations were both significant and positive in some periods, but became insignifican...

  2. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit; Munch, Kris

    developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model is to...... results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution to the...... regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  3. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

  4. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  5. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper; Skovgaard, Alf; Munk, Peter; Buchmann, Kurt

    affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod......Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...

  6. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of cod products available to consumers were analyzed, and different ways to analyze sensory results were viewed. Ten cod samples of different origin (wild and farmed cod), storage time (short and extended) and storage method (stored fresh, frozen or packed in modified...... atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between the...... products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...

  7. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  8. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs. The ratio 134Cs/137Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m-3, in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m-3, in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m-3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m-3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137Cs was about 18 kBq m-3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  9. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  10. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2003-01-01

    -circulation model. The best fit to observed otolith growth rates was obtained under the assumption that fish on the slope performed daily vertical migrations between the warm surface layer and the cold bottom layer. The data suggested that fish stayed in the surface layer during the first increment-pattern interval...

  11. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Behrens, Jane; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    Information from data storage tags (DSTs) is conventionally used to infer movement patterns or reveal characteristics (e.g. temperature or salinity) of the environment surrounding tagged fish. Here we link data derived from DSTs with the reproductive physiology of tagged fish. Individual vertical...

  12. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...... validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...

  13. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Frommel, A. Y.; V Stiebens; Clemmesen, C.; J. Havenhand

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive – particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (d...

  14. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola;

    2012-01-01

    differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back......-calculation of hatch dates indicated hatching from April to June and from February to August in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Juveniles formed either one or two translucent rings. The first translucent ring started to form ∼3 months post-hatch and was interpreted as a settlement check, since it appeared to be a...... February and May, but were merged in those fish where settlement coincided with the seasonally formed second ring...

  15. Sillamaee - a common Baltic concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of uranium mining and milling are related to the huge amount of waste containing radioactive as well as chemical pollutants. Tailings can be satisfactorly protected so that the environmental impact is minor in the short term. The methods to reduce the risks are many. The actual releases today in the Sillamaee region of the Baltic Sea from the tailings pond are relatively small and should not give rise to concern. However, the situation is unstable, which is why efforts to find remediation methods are justified

  16. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  17. Fishing impact and environmental status in European seas: A diagnosis from stock assessments and ecosystem indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascuel, Didier; Coll, Marta; Fox, Clive;

    2016-01-01

    the status and trends in fish stocks were consolidated at the ecosystem level; and (iii) trends in ecosystem indicators based on landings and surveys were analysed. We show that yields began to decrease everywhere (except in the Baltic) from the mid-1970s, as a result of the over-exploitation of some...

  18. Baltic sea level low-frequency variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Evgueni A.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    The low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea has been analysed based on long-term time series of sea level data (15–124 yr) from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities detected in the spectrum are seasonal and tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. Cross-spectral analysis has been applied to estimate the frequency response of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea relative to ...

  19. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Świrgoń; Małgorzata Stramska; Halina Kowalewska-Kalkowska

    2013-01-01

    Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is ...

  20. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  1. Intercomparison studies on distribution and coassociations of heavy metals in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena , from southern Baltic Sea and coastal waters of Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szefer, P.; Zdrojewska, I.; Jensen, Jette Donovan; Lockyer, C.; Skora, K.; Kuklik, I.; Malinga, M.

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of selected metals such as Cd, Pb. Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe were determined in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) front three geographical regions, i.e.. the Baltic Sea and Danish and Greenland coastal waters. The concentrations of Cd in liver and...... by different food composition in the area studied. Baltic porpoises mainly feed on fish (cod. plaice) containing extremely low levels of muscle Col. but an important diet component of Greenlandic individuals is squid. characterized by elevated levels of Cd....

  2. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  3. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  4. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  5. Forecasting the Major Influences of Predation and Environment on Cod Recovery in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Chassot, Emmanuel; Duplisea, Daniel E.; Hammill, Mike O.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (NGSL) stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), historically the second largest cod population in the Western Atlantic, has known a severe collapse during the early 1990 s and is currently considered as endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. As for many fish populations over the world which are currently being heavily exploited or overfished, urgent management actions in the form of recovery plans are needed for restoring this stock to sustainable levels. Stochastic projections based on a statistical population model incorporating predation were conducted over a period of 30 years (2010–2040) to assess the expected outcomes of alternative fishing strategies on the stock recovery under different scenarios of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) abundance and environmental conditions. This sensitivity study shows that water temperature is key in the rebuilding of the NGSL cod stock. Model projections suggest that maintaining the current management practice under cooler water temperatures is likely to maintain the species in an endangered status. Under current or warmer conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, partial recovery might only be achieved by significant reductions in both fishing and predation pressure. In the medium-term, a management strategy that reduces catch could be favoured over a complete moratorium so as to minimize socio-economic impacts on the industry. PMID:24523852

  6. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international co...

  7. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  8. Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ebeke; Greetje Everaert

    2014-01-01

    While the unemployment rate in the Baltics has fallen sharply from its crisis-peaks, it remains close to double digits. This paper estimates the structural component of the jobless rate in the three Baltic countries and analyzes its causes. Our main findings are that the current still elevated levels of unemployment mostly reflect structural factors. We then turn to why structural unemployment is so high. This paper points to skill mismatches, high tax wedges, and unemployment and inactivity ...

  9. Characterization of trypsin forms from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Guðrún Birna Jakobsdóttir 1987

    2012-01-01

    Trypsins from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly active cold-adapted proteases. The purpose of this project was to characterize a benzamidine purified trypsin isolate from Atlantic cod with special emphasis on trypsin Y. Furthermore, the purpose was to compare the kinetic parameters (kcat, KM and kcat/KM) of cod trypsin Y and cod trypsin I towards various chromogenic substrates. The aim was also to compare the ability of cod trypsin and bovine trypsin to degrade native prot...

  10. Insect frass in Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A. Kinnunen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions of wood debris loosened from pine-like trees are abundant in Baltic amber of Eocene and Oligocene age. The possibilities to find insect frass and excrement among wood debris are outlined and some examples are given. Comparison with the frass and excrement produced by present-day insects provide a possibility to identify insects even though their fossils are lacking. This information can be used to characterize former forest environments. Amber forests may have also covered Southern Finland, and this possibility is discussed. Furthermore, the presence of wood debris may be utilized to recognize amber fakes, which is important for both gem trade and paleontology. It is proposed that databases and identification keys of frass and excrement should be constructed.

  11. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  12. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs. PMID:27061778

  13. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity, yet the impact on the targeted stocks is often unidentified. In order to estimate 2011 cod, eel and seatrout harvest (fish caught and kept) in the Danish angling and passive gear fishing, two interview surveys were conducted in July...... 2011 and January 2012. Recreational fishing was separated into anglers (with rod and reel) and passive gear fishing (fyke and gillnets). In 2011 a total of 157,762 anglers and 33,911 passive gear fishers had issued the annual license, which is compulsory if saltwater fishing is practiced. In total, it...... was estimated that 80 t [Relative standard error (RSE)=6%] eel, close to 1,300 t (RSE=5 %) cod and 400 t (RSE=5 %) seatrout (including freshwater catches) was harvested in the recreational fishery. Eel is almost exclusively taken in the passive gear fykenet fishery and seatrout was mainly caught by...

  14. Parasites of wild cod postlarvae (Gadus morhua L.) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Jesper; Kania, Per W.; Skovgaard, Alf;

    The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. is a common and commercially important fish species in the North Sea, but estimated stock size and recruitment has been on an overall declining path since 1980. Atlantic cod is in this sense believed in the future to become one of the most intensively cultivated...... gadoid species in the North Atlantic and has been the subject of several parasitological studies. Past research is however primarily concentrated around adult or juvenile fish and our knowledge concerning the larval stage is very sparse. This is in spite of the general belief that at this stage, fish...... Hysterothylacium aduncum, 5 trematodes (1 Lecithaster levinseni, 4 Hemiurus) and 5 individuals of a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid cestode larva. Intensity, abundance and prevalence will be presented as well as area of infection. Brief introduction to the parasites and known literature on the parasitic effect will...

  15. A reliable method for ageing of whiting (Merlangius merlangus) for use in stock assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Hüssy, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Accurate age estimation is important for stock assessment and management. The importance of reliable ageing is emphasized by the impending analytical assessment of whiting (Merlangius merlangus) in the Baltic Sea. Whiting is a top predator in the western Baltic Sea, where it is fished commercially...... the subsequent winter rings. Microstructure analysis was used to confirm the 1st winter ring. Additionally, otolith growth trajectories were obtained, confirming the allometric growth as seen in many fish species. The method for ageing of whole otoliths presented in this study can be directly...

  16. Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Andrew J; Alexander, Michael A; Hernandez, Christina M; Kerr, Lisa A; Le Bris, Arnault; Mills, Katherine E; Nye, Janet A; Record, Nicholas R; Scannell, Hillary A; Scott, James D; Sherwood, Graham D; Thomas, Andrew C

    2015-11-13

    Several studies have documented fish populations changing in response to long-term warming. Over the past decade, sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Maine increased faster than 99% of the global ocean. The warming, which was related to a northward shift in the Gulf Stream and to changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, led to reduced recruitment and increased mortality in the region's Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock. Failure to recognize the impact of warming on cod contributed to overfishing. Recovery of this fishery depends on sound management, but the size of the stock depends on future temperature conditions. The experience in the Gulf of Maine highlights the need to incorporate environmental factors into resource management. PMID:26516197

  17. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol;

    2015-01-01

    microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During...

  18. Comment on "Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael C; Deroba, Jonathan J; Legault, Christopher M; Brooks, Elizabeth N

    2016-04-22

    Pershing et al (Reports, 13 November, p. 809) concluded that failure to account for temperature in the assessment and management of Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod caused overfishing. We argue that the "extra mortality" calculation driving this conclusion is an artifact. Environmental factors affect all stocks, but attribution of additional mortality to temperature alone by Pershing et al is unsupported by the data. PMID:27102473

  19. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian;

    2011-01-01

    In the Western Baltic, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was recorded for the first time in autumn 2006. An eastward propagation of the ctenophore into the central Baltic, and thus into important spawning grounds of major Baltic fish stocks, was observed in 2007. The focus of the present...... study was to investigate the seasonal phenology of this introduced species and whether it is able to form a self-sustaining population in this area. Therefore, the variability of temporal and spatial distribution of M. leidyi in the Bornholm Basin was analyzed over the first 4 years following...... the invasion and related to ambient hydrographic parameters. Results show a clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the majority of other native and exotic habitats, the seasonal phenology showed highest abundances in spring and autumn months and only sporadic or even no appearance during summer. Vertical...

  20. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  1. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Jeppesen, Jens Peder; Teilmann, Jonas; Kinze, Carl C.

    2012-01-01

    –porpoise density season and seven in the low-density season. The distribution of occurrence and the distribution of number of Wsh species were diVerent between seasons, indicating a shift in prey intake between seasons. Furthermore, during the highdensity season, the mean and total prey weight per stomach as well...... Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading......Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...

  2. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Biodiversity and Habitats in the Baltic Sea - and Possible Human Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula; Christensen, Jesper Phillip Aagaard;

    Climate change is likely to induce substantial changes in the Baltic Sea, as it is a species-poor ecosystem where virtually all species live close to their environmental tolerance range. The vitality of the fish stocks and viability of fisheries should be supported by consideration of global change...... in the management of environment (protection, sustainable use and restoration) and of fisheries. A shift away from sector-by-sector management towards the integrated management of land, water and living resources may be necessary to sustain the productivity of fish stocks. The climate change and...... other concomitant human pressures induce substantial uncertainties for the future, especially as responses of marine ecosystems to changes in temperatures and in other forcing factors may not be linear, but abrupt changes may occur, which also need to be considered in exploitation of fish resources....

  4. Warm, windy winters drive cod north and homing of spawners keeps them there

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and human exploitation. This stock has experienced a series of poor recruitments since the late 1990s and, concomitant with the decrease in abundance, the distribution of cod has changed. While it has been suggested that the change in distribution can be linked to increasing temperatures and fishing...... shift of the spawners further augmented that of the new recruits. 4. Although fishing mortality on a North Sea scale was not directly correlated with the displacement of any of the age groups, fishing has severely decreased the number of fish in older age groups. This increased the sensitivity of the...... unlikely to result in improved recruitment to the southern North Sea....

  5. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity, yet the impact on the targeted stocks is often unidentified. In order to estimate 2011 cod, eel and seatrout harvest (fish caught and kept) in the Danish angling and passive gear fishing, two interview surveys were conducted in July 2011 and January 2012. Recreational fishing was separated into anglers (with rod and reel) and passive gear fishing (fyke and gillnets). In 2011 a total of 157,762 anglers and 33,911 passive gear f...

  6. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  7. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  8. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels of the...... water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  9. Sediments of Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (HOUGH42 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cape Cod Bay, lying on the Massachusetts coast partly enclosed by Cape Cod, is in a glaciated region of low relief. Coarse sediments generally occur in areas...

  10. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  11. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  12. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO, there is no...... reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...

  13. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Babora Borri; Renata Medici Frayne Cuba; Francisco Javier Cuba Teran

    2012-01-01

    Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch) mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%), fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s...

  14. Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczynska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27: salmon (Salmo salar, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras, sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus, sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta, and cod (Gadus morhua callarias. Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84 ng/g  w.w., followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w. and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w. The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11±2.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w. and cod the lowest ones (0.84±0.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w.. Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish, the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen.

  15. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq 210Po kg-1 fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically significant, whereas no effect of salinity could be observed. There is a high variation giving SD values in the range 70-100%. Mytilus edulis soft parts were analysed for 210Po from 11 Danish locations ranging from full North Sea salinity to Baltic 8 per mille water. Significantly increasing 210Po concentrations with a decreasing 'condition index' were observed. Concentrations at two former phosphate industry sites were not statistically different from the other locations. The average 210Po concentration in the M.edulis soft parts was 149 Bq kg-1 dry ± 55% SD (n = 41). The present levels of 210Po in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. (author)

  16. Gadoid dynamics: differing perceptions when contrasting stock vs. population trends and its implications to management

    OpenAIRE

    HOLMES STEVEN; MILLAR COLIN PEARSON; FRYER Rob J.; Wright, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that ICES stock definitions for cod, haddock, and whiting of “west of Scotland” and “North Sea”, do not reflect underlying population structures. As population responses to different vital rates and local pressures would be expected to lead to asynchrony in dynamics,we examined trends in local spawning-stock biomass (SSB) among putative subpopulations of the three species. Delineation of subpopulation boundaries around spawning time was made based on genetic, tagging,...

  17. Spatial management of marine resources can enhance the recovery of predators and avoid local depletion of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Vinther, Morten; Haslob, Holger;

    2012-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock has recently started to recover, after two decades of severe depletion, however with unexpected side effects. The stock has not re-occupied its former wide distribution range, but remains concentrated in a limited area in the southern Baltic Sea. The biomass of forage...

  18. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  19. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  20. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  1. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  2. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  3. Baltic Ring may soon become reality

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Euroopa energiasüsteemide ühendamiseks loodud projekti Baltic Ring raames kirjutasid Leedu ja Poola alla elektrivõrkude ühendamise lepingule. Välisminister Urmas Paet tõdeb, et Eesti on huvitatud Leedu tuumaenergia tulevikust

  4. Modeling early life history of cod

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Trond

    2007-01-01

    Newly hatched Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae face an uncertain future when they first enter their marine pelagic habitat. Prior to complete yolk absorption, the larvae will have to find food. This process includes the visual encounter, pursuit and attack, and capture and digestion of the prey item for utilization to meet energetic demands for metabolism and growth. However, food is not always easy to find and it is essential for larval survival that they encounter habitats ...

  5. Click sounds produced by cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike I.; Folkow, Lars P.; Blix, A. S.

    2004-02-01

    Conspicuous sonic click sounds were recorded in the presence of cod (Gadus morhua), together with either harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) or a human diver in a pool. Similar sounds were never recorded in the presence of salmon (Salmo salar) together with either seal species, or from either seal or fish species when kept separately in the pool. It is concluded that cod was the source of these sounds and that the clicks were produced only when cod were approached by a swimming predatorlike body. The analyzed click sounds (n=377) had the following characteristics (overall averages +/- S.D.): peak frequency=5.95+/-2.22 kHz peak-to-peak duration=0.70+/-0.45 ms sound pressure level (received level)=153.2+/-7.0 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. At present the mechanism and purpose of these clicks is not known. However, the circumstances under which they were recorded and some observations on the behavior of the seals both suggest that the clicks could have a predator startling function.

  6. Click sounds produced by cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike I; Folkow, Lars P; Blix, A S

    2004-02-01

    Conspicuous sonic click sounds were recorded in the presence of cod (Gadus morhua), together with either harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) or a human diver in a pool. Similar sounds were never recorded in the presence of salmon (Salmo salar) together with either seal species, or from either seal or fish species when kept separately in the pool. It is concluded that cod was the source of these sounds and that the clicks were produced only when cod were approached by a swimming predatorlike body. The analyzed click sounds (n = 377) had the following characteristics (overall averages +/- S.D.): peak frequency = 5.95 +/- 2.22 kHz; peak-to-peak duration = 0.70 +/- 0.45 ms; sound pressure level (received level) = 153.2 +/- 7.0 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m. At present the mechanism and purpose of these clicks is not known. However, the circumstances under which they were recorded and some observations on the behavior of the seals both suggest that the clicks could have a predator startling function. PMID:15000203

  7. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Loeschske, Volker; Moen, Thomas; Johansen, Torild; Mittelholzer, Christian; Taranger, Geir-Lasse; Ogden, Rob; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    -associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results: Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional...... and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to...... DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation...

  8. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  9. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  10. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  11. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  12. Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capital markets and financial intermediation in the Baltic States. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and level of development of the financial system, discussing some of the unique characteristics of the Baltics, such as leasing; and comparing the structure of the Baltic financial systems to other European Union accession countries and/or euro zone averages, both of which serve as benchmarks. The paper also addresses some of the broader analytical q...

  13. stocks in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of registration and valuation of stocks and comparing Czech accounts with International Accounting Standards. The first two chapters briefly characterize the different types of assets and stocks in terms of defining the Czech accounting legislation. In other parts of the work are described methods of stock and their comparison. The following chapter is devoted to the methodology for valuing stocks. The last two chapters focus on methods of valuation u...

  14. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  15. Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  16. Nickel-63 in Baltic fish and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of 63Ni was carried out on fish samples of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and samples of sediment core from the Gdansk Bay. In contrast to stable nickel, 63Ni is non-uniformly distributed within the fish. More than 95% of total 63Ni content in cod and herring is located in fillet with skin and scale. Our data suggests, that mechanism for uptake of 63Ni in cod and herring is by passive adsorption onto the surface of skin and scale mucus. The concentration of 63Ni in analysed sediment lies within the range from 0.5 to 3.8 mBq·g-1 dry wt, while values of its specific activity ranged between 10 and 70 Bq·g-1. (Author)

  17. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  18. Energy Security in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Valciukaite, Silvestra; Nissen, Mark; Gulbinaite, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of energy security issue in the Baltic States. The research to date has tended to focus on the energy dependency on Russian energy resources. Despite the vast of studies being made upon energy security this study aims to analyze how energy security has been securitized in Lithuania. This paper is based on Regional Security Complex and speech act theory in terms of securitization framework. Two securitization sectors (economic, politics) and the area of...

  19. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  20. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  1. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1992-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Since 1984, the Contracting Parties to the Helsinki Convention have collected monitoring data on radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The data covers concentrations of radioactivity in the Baltic marine environment and discharges from nuclear installations (nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities) in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea. Additionally, important sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Baltic Sea have been considered - namely atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident, and discharges into sea from European reprocessing facilities at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Due to the relatively slow exchange of water between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, contaminants such as anthropogenic radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the Baltic Sea. Levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are consequently still high in the Baltic Sea compared with other water bodies around the world. Strontium-90 contamination originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which peaked in the 1960's and led to direct input to the Baltic Sea from atmospheric fallout, and to delayed input via rivers. Caesium-137 was also released during atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, but the related input was small compared to the direct input from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The delayed input of {sup 137}Cs to the Baltic Sea from rivers is smaller than the direct atmospheric fallout of {sup 137}Cs, and also much smaller than delayed inputs of {sup 90}Sr, since due to its chemical properties, caesium is less mobile in the environment than strontium. The anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Baltic Sea originate from several sources and modes of input. Direct atmospheric fallout has accounted for the main inputs, from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Run-off from the land into sea via rivers has also contributed significantly for {sup 90}Sr, and to a lesser extent for {sup

  2. Potential Use of Atlantic Cod Trypsin in Biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ágústa Gudmundsdóttir; Hilmar Hilmarsson; Bjarki Stefansson

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of viruses and bacteria used for cell attachment and invasion are candidates for degradation by proteases. Trypsin from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was previously demonstrated to have efficacy against influenza viruses in vitro and on skin. In this paper, cod trypsin is shown to be 3–12 times more effective in degrading large native proteins than its mesophilic analogue, bovine trypsin. This is in agreement with previous findings where cod trypsin was found to be the most act...

  3. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  4. Stock splits on the Athens Stock exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Μάλαμα, Στυλιανή

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of stock splits initiated by Greek firms between January 1st 1999 and April 30th 2006. We investigate the price reaction to Greek stock splits by applying the “market model methodology” as described in Brown and Warner (1985). Moreover, a cross- sectional analysis is presented so as to identify the factors that can explain any abnormal stock returns around split announcement. The rest of this study is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the...

  5. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... suffer from uncertain catch information and consequently lack reliable estimates of fishing mortality. In this study we develop an approach to obtain proxies for changes in fishing mortality based on effort information and predicted stock distribution. Cod in the Kattegat is used as an example. We use...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline in the...

  6. An abundance estimate of ling ( Molva molva ) and cod ( Gadus morhua ) in the Skagerrak and the northeastern North Sea, 1872

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, R.T.; Cooper, A.B.; Holm, P.;

    2007-01-01

    Fisheries management may suffer from historical myopia, because most stock assessments are based on time series which are ca. 30-40 years long. This investigation examines changes in population dynamics of two gadoid species in the Skagerrak- northeastern North Sea on a century scale, and argues...... that long-term, historical abundance estimates are relevant to the determination of biomass reference points in fisheries management. Situated within the field of historical ecology, this paper presents findings on the abundance of ling and cod in 1872. Calculations are based on historical CPUE and catch...... data. Ling abundance was ca. 100-200 million individuals aged 4+ and probably exceeded cod abundances (ca. 3 million individuals aged 3+) in the Skagerrak and in the northeastern North Sea in 1872. Current ling abundances are unknown but probably lower than in 1872, as reflected in declining landings...

  7. Nucleotide variation and balancing selection at the Ckma gene in Atlantic cod: analysis with multiple merger coalescent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Árnason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High-fecundity organisms, such as Atlantic cod, can withstand substantial natural selection and the entailing genetic load of replacing alleles at a number of loci due to their excess reproductive capacity. High-fecundity organisms may reproduce by sweepstakes leading to highly skewed heavy-tailed offspring distribution. Under such reproduction the Kingman coalescent of binary mergers breaks down and models of multiple merger coalescent are more appropriate. Here we study nucleotide variation at the Ckma (Creatine Kinase Muscle type A gene in Atlantic cod. The gene shows extreme differentiation between the North (Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Barents Sea and the South (Faroe Islands, North-, Baltic-, Celtic-, and Irish Seas with FST > 0.8 between regions whereas neutral loci show no differentiation. This is evidence of natural selection. The protein sequence is conserved by purifying selection whereas silent and non-coding sites show extreme differentiation. The unfolded site-frequency spectrum has three modes, a mode at singleton sites and two high frequency modes at opposite frequencies representing divergent branches of the gene genealogy that is evidence for balancing selection. Analysis with multiple-merger coalescent models can account for the high frequency of singleton sites and indicate reproductive sweepstakes. Coalescent time scales vary with population size and with the inverse of variance in offspring number. Parameter estimates using multiple-merger coalescent models show that times scales are faster than under the Kingman coalescent.

  8. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  9. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants and...

  10. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in sparse…

  11. Market Structure and Stock Splits

    OpenAIRE

    David Michayluk; Paul Kofman

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...

  12. Comment on “Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael C.; Deroba, Jonathan J.; Legault, Christopher M.; Brooks, Elizabeth N.

    2016-04-01

    Pershing et al. (Reports, 13 November, p. 809) concluded that failure to account for temperature in the assessment and management of Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod caused overfishing. We argue that the “extra mortality” calculation driving this conclusion is an artifact. Environmental factors affect all stocks, but attribution of additional mortality to temperature alone by Pershing et al. is unsupported by the data.

  13. Species interactions in the western Baltic Sea: With focus on the ecological role of whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann

    , implementation of the models in strategic management advice for commercially important fish stocks and protected marine mammals is not common practice. This is due to the lack of sufficient information about species interactions including knowledge about the diet, food intake and growth dynamics. This thesis...... predominant forage fishes. The growth dynamics and feeding ecology of whiting in the western Baltic Sea has not previously been investigated, despite the fact that it is an important species both in the commercial fishery and in the food web of the North Sea. Due to differences in hydrography, species....... Disentangling food web dynamics is important for both ecologists and conservationists involved with management. Multispecies assessment models and ecosystem-based trophic models are becoming increasingly used as tools to investigate and assess biological interactions and predation impacts of key species in the...

  14. The Baltic Dry Index and performance excellence in a crisis environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Jurun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an approach to analyzing the relationship between the Baltic Dry Index (BDI as the main indicator of the cyclical nature of the maritime market and the performance excellence of the representative shipping companies. Results have shown that there is a strong positive correlation between average annual BDI values and performance excellence indicators measured by the traditional adjusted Altman Z-score as well as the recent indicator, the Bex Index. BDI as the most comprehensive indicator of global demand for commodities and raw materials is also analyzed as a supply and demand signal on the stock market. The aim was to test the hypothesis that BDI also functions as a signal that promptly responds to crisis effects. The methodological procedure has been carried out using a real database spanning from 1985 to 2013 where the results have confirmed the hypothesis.

  15. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule... collect on delivery (COD) service to mail an article for which the mailer has not been paid and have...

  16. Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

  17. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial...

  18. Stock Splits, A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yildizhan, Celim

    2006-01-01

    In this survey paper I summarize the literature's findings on the short-run and long-run effects of stock split announcements as well as what happens in the preceding and subsequent years around a stock split event. I also summarize how firm characteristics influence these results. Furthermore, I discuss the various theories regarding why splits occur and why stock return distributions change subsequent to split events. I specifically focus on the changes in the first and second moments of st...

  19. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  20. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  1. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    OpenAIRE

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space...

  2. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress on...... surrounded by single cells, while in further advanced stages the yolk membrane collapsed entirely, the yolk coagulated and the embryo extending over the yolk shrank. Formaldehyde fixation caused the yolk and the blastodisc or embryo to darken, and in some cases crystalline enclosures occurred. Eggs...... mechanically deformed during handling were clearly distinguishable from those that died prior to catching; however, staging was generally less accurate for formaldehyde- preserved eggs when compared with living specimens....

  3. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2009-01-01

    Highly stratified marine ecosystems with dynamic features such as fronts or clines in salinity, temperature, or oxygen concentration challenge an individual's ability to select suitable living conditions. Ultimately,, environmental heterogeneity organizes the spatial distributions of populations...... therefore consider this method to be a useful tool to analyze individual behavior and its implications for the population's spatial distribution in stratified environments....

  4. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Abstract It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market. Consistent with the existing literature, the two events are associated with a significantly positive announcement effect of ap- proximately 2.5%. However, when examining the tw...

  5. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market. Consistent with the existing literature, the two events are associated with a significantly positive announcement effect of ap-proximately 2.5%. However, when examining the two events more carefully, sev...

  6. Screening methodology for dose assessment to seawater organisms in baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of radionuclides in Baltic Sea environment in the frame of MORS programme gives opportunity to evaluate doses for aquatic organisms from the Southern Baltic Sea. The available environmental data from the last few years included concentrations of 137Cs (bomb-tests-fallout and Chernobyl origin), 226Ra (natural radionuclide) and 239,240Pu (bomb-tests-fallout) in biota, bottom sediment and water. The doses assessment of 137Cs, 226Ra and 239,240Pu for aquatic animals was performed, based on the screening methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to consideration and the annual doses from 137Cs, 226Ra and 239Pu to organisms were calculated at average concentrations of these radionuclides observed in water, concentration of radionuclides determined in bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) and average concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues. The total maximal annual doses for seawater organisms do not exceed a one percent of recommended dose limits however, the dominate contribution to the total dose depends on analysed radionuclide. For 137Cs a maximum contribution to the total dose gives external dose from bottom sediment (about 0.5 mGy y-1). Only about 1% of the total 137Cs dose is derived from internal dose however animal-water ratio obtained from measurements is much lower (in a range 30-300 L kg-1) comparing with recommended by DOE Standard value (22000 L kg-1). For 226Ra internal doses for fish and Mytilus are similar (0.2 mGy y-1, 0.6 mGy y-1 respectively) and they are comparable with external doses from sediment (0.3 mGy y-1) whereas internal dose for Sanduria is about 10 times higher (7 mGy y-1). A measured animal- water ratios (20 - 500 L kg-1) differs remarkably from default DOE Standard value (3200 L kg-1). For plutonium 239Pu the maximum contribution to the total dose gives

  7. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in cod (Gadus morhua) from the Northwest Atlantic and St. Lawrence Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, J; Upshall, C; Payne, J F; Hodson, P V

    1994-05-01

    There is limited information available on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in major fish populations including populations from the Northwest Atlantic. The cod (Gadus morhua) stocks off eastern Canada form the basis of one of the world's most important fisheries. Muscle tissues of cod collected from Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) management Divisions 2J, 3K and 3Ps off Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as three contaminated sites in the Gulf of St. Lawrence were analyzed for total polycyclic aromatic (PAC) by fluorimetry. Concentrations were determined in terms of crude oil and chrysene equivalents in line with recommendations of the International Oceanographic Commission. Overall, relatively low concentrations of PAC were found, the highest values generally being below 0.1 microgram/g (dry weight) in terms of chrysene equivalents. Similarly, only trace levels of a few PAH were detected in composite samples analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is of interest that the highest levels of PAC were found in fish from NAFO Division 3K, while concentrations in fish from the two contiguous zones, 2J and 3Ps, as well as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, were similar. Division 3K is a major fishing zone and it is important to determine if trawler fleets are important sources of hydrocarbons derived from fossil fuels, in this and similar fishing areas of the world's oceans. PMID:8016631

  8. New Future for Stock Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Securities regulators formulated the risk-control mechanism prior to launch of stock index futures in China For three years Wang Liangguang, an experienced stock investor, waited patiently for the trading of stock index futures. And now, that day has

  9. Stocks Go Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's stock market comes alive with the resumption of new share issues Securities investors have reacted calmly after the industry regulator announced the resumption of initial public offerings (IPOs) on the Chinese stock market following a yearlong suspension, a move previously believed to hit the market by causing a drain in liquidity from the secondary to the primary market. According to the China Securities

  10. A Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  11. Causes and consequences of fleet diversity in fisheries: The case of the Norwegian Barents Sea cod fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Eide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fisheries operate under fluctuating environmental conditions, targeting fish stocks that appear in varying densities in different areas, often with abrupt and unexpected local changes. Physical conditions, markets and management regulations constrain vessels in different and varying ways. These factors all contribute to forming the fleet diversity we find in most fisheries. Here, a simulation model of the Northeast Arctic cod fishery is used in order to investigate how this diversity is formed and maintained, assuming rational economic behaviour under varying combined constraints. The study also focuses on how the ability of vessels to find fish influences fleet diversity, profitability, stock development and seasonal profiles of the fishery. Results indicate that an increased ability to target the most profitable fishing grounds may influence fleet diversity positively or negatively, depending on overall exploitation level. High exploitation rates also increase the temporal fluctuations in fleet diversity and profits, which are amplified as the fish-finding ability increases.

  12. Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects of Cod Liver Oil in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira Perveen*, Faiza Razi, Saida Haider, Hina Qayyum and Darakhshaan J. Haleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cod-liver oil is a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids and has been widely used as omega 3 fatty acids supplementation. Regarding omega-3 fatty acid beneficial effects in humans, this study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of cod-liver oil on the locomotion and behaviors of rats, including depression, anxiety and the 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT metabolism. After four weeks oral administration of cod-liver oil, open field test was used to measure the locomotor and exploratory activity. Elevated plus maze test was used to measure anxiety. Cod-liver oil significantly increased locomotion and produced anxiolytic effects in rats. Antidepressant effect of cod-liver oil was monitored by forced swim test (FST in which struggling time of test animals was increased significantly. 5-HT turnover also increased significantly following the oral repeated administration of cod liver oil in test animals. The results suggest that cod-liver oil has antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects.

  13. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Lavrova, Olga Yu. (ed.) [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Space Research Institute

    2014-04-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  16. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea : Thirty-year overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole......, herring, and mackerel), together with an evaluation of the current state of these resources and the most resent management advice provided by the ICES Advisory, Committee on Fishery Management. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  17. The use of multibeam and split-beam echo sounders for assessing biomass and distribution of spring-spawning Atlantic cod in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshin, Christopher William Damon

    This research focused on advancing the application of split-beam and multibeam echo sounding to remotely locate and describe spatial distribution, and to provide a relative measure of abundance of the spring-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the western Gulf of Maine. Specifically, the main objectives of this research were 1) to test the feasibility of a multibeam echo sounder to detect changes in volume backscatter proportional to incrementally decreasing quantities of cod held in a submerged cage, and to compare results to a split-beam echo sounder; 2) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution and estimate biomass of spring-spawning cod in the Gulf of Maine cod spawning protection area (GOMCSPA) by repeated acoustic and trawl surveys; and 3) to determine a predictive relation between target strength and length for 38-kHz and 120-kHz split-beam echo sounders and a 300-kHz multibeam echo sounder, and characterize other factors affecting backscattering of sound. The multibeam echo sounder detected a small and large reduction in volume backscatter proportional to reductions in stocking density of caged cod, while the split-beam echo sounder only detected a large reduction in stocking density. The spatial information from the multibeam echo sounder helped interpret and explain results from the split-beam echo sounder. Repeated acoustic and trawl surveys showed cod were relatively widespread in the survey area in May, but congregated at higher densities in areas adjacent to two elevated bathymetric features. Most cod converged to a single location in June, and were at a higher concentration than observations in May. This congregation decreased in size and density in July. Survey estimates of cod biomass ranged 184-494 mt in May, 138-617 mt in June, and 39-135 mt in July, depending on the estimation method. Based on echo classification and extrapolation, cod biomass to the GOMCSPA ranged 260-466 mt in May, 196-513 mt in June, and 91-198 mt in July. The biomass

  18. Stock Implied Volatility, Stock Turnover, and the Stock-Bond Return Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Stivers, Chris; Sun, Licheng

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine how the co-movement between daily stock and Treasury bond returns varies with stock market uncertainty. They use the lagged implied volatility from equity index options to provide an objective, observable, and dynamic measure of stock market uncertainty. The authors find that stock and bond returns tend to move substantially together during periods of lower stock market uncertainty. However, stock and bond returns tend to exhibit little relation or even a negative relation...

  19. Farmed cod escapees and net-pen spawning left no clear genetic footprint in the local wild cod population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Varne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a potential genetic introgression from farmed to wild cod Gadus morhua L. in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway. During the first 2 yr of operation of a cod farm in the inner part of the fjord, 2 large escape events and extensive pen spawning were reported. Analyses of 4 allozyme markers revealed no significant changes in allele frequencies between samples of wild cod before and after cod farming, although prominent allele frequency differences were demonstrated between wild and farmed samples. Analyses of 10 DNA markers showed a significant change between pre- and post-farming samples, due to contradictory allele frequency differences at Tch11, Pan I and Gmo132. Excluding those 3 markers due to null alleles (Tch11 and selection (Gmo132 and Pan I, the DNA markers paralleled the non-changed allele frequency signal from the allozymes. The topographies of the allozyme- and DNA-based dendrogram of the samples were congruent. Recaptures of tagged and released farmed cod indicated a seemingly random diffusion throughout the fjord and ended after approx. 6 mo. During an ongoing pen spawning, plankton net surveys sampling for cod eggs in the surroundings of the cod farm suggested the eggs originated from the farm. No larvae were present in the plankton samples. The apparent absence of introgression is explained relative to fitness and survival of pen-spawned larvae and adult escapees, and to a purging effect of the estuarine circulation of the Trondheimsfjord.

  20. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  1. Stock Market Prediction using Artificial Neural Networks. Case Study of TAL1T, Nasdaq OMX Baltic Stock

    OpenAIRE

    Hakob GRIGORYAN

    2015-01-01

    Predicting financial market changes is an important issue in time series analysis, receiving an increasing attention in last two decades. The combined prediction model, based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) with principal component analysis (PCA) for financial time series forecasting is presented in this work. In the modeling step, technical analysis has been conducted to select technical indicators. Then PCA approach was applied to extract the principal components from the variables for...

  2. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  3. Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radionuclides in seawater and biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation of the polonium 210Po and plutonium 239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) fell within the range 9x102 to 3.7x104. The Baltic Sea algae, benthic animals and fish concentrated uranium radioisotopes only to a small extent and mean BCF values for this element range from 1 to 55, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that for polonium and plutonium. Moreover, it was found that Baltic fish constitute an important source of polonium 210Po for humans. (author)

  4. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  5. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  6. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  7. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  8. CHARACTERISTIC ASPECTS OF THE NORTHWEST BALTIC REGION SEA BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelezkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the characteristic features of the port infrastructure development in the Northwest of the Baltic basin. The ports specialization is emphasized. Following the results, a need to build multimodal terminal and logistic complexes (hubs) was found.

  9. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.;

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters...... both nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish...

  10. The Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Deca Claudiu

    2011-01-01

    The foundation and the establishment of the stock market express the emergence of the exchange relationships, and of the market as a defining structure of modern economy. The well-known French historian Fernand Brandel states that “the stock market is the last floor of a market, but that of a market which never ends”, of a market which includes and dominates the entire economic reality. Once with the acknowledgement of the stock market, the exchange relationships have reached the complete exp...

  11. Replenishing Stock Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Xekalaki, Evdokia; Panaretos, John

    1995-01-01

    A stock replenishing model is considered whereby not only the demand for the item, but also the stock in hand and the lead time period are considered to be random variables. The interrelations of these three item characteristics are then studied in the framework of a scheme for deciding when to place an order for additional material. The effect of a Pareto/Yule type distributed demand in determining the stock level at which to reorder is then examined and the results are subsequently looked u...

  12. The Nordic-Baltic Security Dynamics after the Ukraine Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Tina; Schou, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis takes departure in the observation that the Russian involvement in the Ukraine crisis since 2014 has altered the European security environment with implications for the security dynamics of the Nordic-Baltic states. The thesis examines how the perception of Russia in relation to the Ukraine crisis has affected the Nordic-Baltic security dynamics. In order to analyse this, the thesis employs an analytical framework based on the Regional Security Complex Theory by Barry Buzan...

  13. Synoptic conditions governing upwelling along the Polish Baltic coast

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Czernecki; Ewa Bednorz; Marek Półrolniczak

    2013-01-01

    The study analyses atmospheric feedback to the occurrence of upwelling along the Polish Baltic coast. Upwelling events were identified on the basis of daily mean sea surface temperature (SST) maps from the period 1982-2010 derived from the NOAA OI SST V2 High Resolution Dataset. Synoptic conditions favourable to the occurrence of upwelling were determined on the basis of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. On average, there are approximately 23 days with upwelling each year along the Polish Baltic...

  14. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  15. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, O.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Brandt, J.; J.H. Christensen; Frohn, L. M.; J. Frydendall

    2003-01-01

    A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model), and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comp...

  16. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT)

  17. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  18. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koistinen, J.; Kiviranta, H.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Vartiainen, T. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland); Hallikainen, A. [National Food Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea has a long history of being one of the most polluted brackish water areas in the world. Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.) that plays a significant role in the diet of both human and Baltic seals is a good indicator of pollution of the Baltic Sea. Herring of the Gulf of Bothnia are considered to be stationary fish as they have a low migratory behaviour. Migration among young herring in the Gulf of Finland is also low, whereas older herring migrate even to the southern Baltic Sea. The growth of herring in the Gulf of Finland has retarded since the 1980's. Monitoring of organochlorine compounds such as PCBs has been performed in the Baltic Sea since the late 1960's. This monitoring has shown a continuous decline of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). In 1990's, the data of herring did not reveal any clear decline in the concentrations of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF, dioxins). There is less data on levels and trends of other pollutants such as toxaphene, polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in Baltic herring from different areas of the Baltic Sea. PCNs have been used for similar purposes as PCBs and PBDEs are widely used as flame retardants. The main aim of this study was to investigate by herring analyses the contamination of different sites along the coast of Finland. We aimed to see whether polluted and less polluted sites along the coast of Finland were reflected in the herring data. Besides, dioxins and PCBs, toxaphene, DDT compounds, PBDEs and PCNs were analysed.

  19. Effective recycling agriculture around the Baltic Sea: background report

    OpenAIRE

    Granstedt, Artur; Seuri, Pentti; Thomsson, Olof

    2004-01-01

    In this report the historical background and present situation of the plant nutrient balances and surplus of plant nutrients within the agricultural sector in the eight countries of the Baltic Sea catchments area (Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, Germany and Russia) are presented and analysed. The Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) project is evaluating the consequences of converting the whole agricultural sector according to recycling...

  20. Semiautomated Determination of COD in Environmental Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Ikatsu, Hisayoshi; Moriwake, Toshio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1980-01-01

    A new method based on the principle of flow injection analysis is presented for the semiautomated determinationof chemical oxygen demand (COD) in environmental watersamples. The method is rapid and continuous, and suitablefor the monitoring of COD in wastewaters. The apparatusused was simply constructed by parts commercially availablefor high performance liquid chromatography. Teflon tubing heated with a boiling water was used as a reactor and simultaneously used for mixing coils and transmis...

  1. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  2. Individual Investors’ Stock Trading Behavior at Amman Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Raheem F. Fares; Faisal G. Khamis

    2011-01-01

    Many studies investigated the factors that affect investments in stock trading in developed and developing countries, but the investors' characteristics are still not well documented. The Amman Stock Exchange being a small exchange does not use stock trading programs that require advanced mathematical models. Most stock trading is executed the traditional face-to-face way. Therefore, stock trading depends on individual traders’ judgments. Investors’ trading behavior is influenced by several b...

  3. Idiosyncratic volatility, stock market volatility, and expected stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo; Robert Savickas

    2005-01-01

    We find that the value-weighted idiosyncratic stock volatility and aggregate stock market volatility jointly exhibit strong predictive power for excess stock market returns. The stock market risk-return relation is found to be positive, as stipulated by the CAPM; however, idiosyncratic volatility is negatively related to future stock market returns. Also, idiosyncratic volatility appears to be a pervasive macrovariable, and its forecasting abilities are very similar to those of the consumptio...

  4. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  5. Antiulcer activity of cod liver oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare Salaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cod liver oil is used widely as a dietary supplement. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cod liver oil (0.5 g/kg, p.o. and 1 g/kg, p.o. on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on different gastric ulcer models such as acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcers, pylorus ligation, indomethacin induced ulcers, stress induced ulcers and ethanol induced ulcers. The duodenal ulcers were induced using cysteamine hydrochloride (HCl. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg p.o. and misoprostol (100 µg/kg, p.o. were used as standard drugs. Results: Both doses of cod liver oil showed gastric ulcer healing effect in acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcers, produced gastric antisecretory effect in pylorus-ligated rats and also showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced ulcer. Cod liver oil also produced a significant reduction in the development of stress induced gastric ulcers and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer. The high dose of cod liver oil (1 g/kg, p.o. was more effective compared to the low dose (0.5 g/kg, p.o.. Conclusion: Cod liver oil increases healing of gastric ulcers and prevents the development of experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

  6. Fast COD data acquisition at the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stabilization of a beam orbit is one of important topics for synchrotron radiation accelerators. A periodic correction of a closed orbit of electron beam takes central role in the beam orbit stabilization, after major causes of beam orbit fluctuations were cured. Electronics of beam position monitor at the SPring-8 storage ring, which are in operation since 2006, have capability of re-configuration in signal detection scheme, since the electronics is composed of DSP and FPGA. We reconfigured the electronics and COD data at a repetition of every 1 ms is obtained as post-process. This 1 ms COD data is analyzed and the beam orbit fluctuation was evaluated. While the post-processing data, we have been developing software for periodic correction of the beam orbit in order to shortening the period of the correction. The period was shortened from 7 sec to 1 sec since 2012 April. After that we prepared reflective memory network which have good real time property. Owing to the reflective memory network, it have become possible that the COD data is obtained at 10 Hz with real-time. Moreover, the obtained 10-Hz COD data is recorded to a database system, which is newly developed as MADOCA II control system for future SPring-8 database. We report upgrading of the hardware and software for COD measurement and status of COD correction. (author)

  7. New Future for Stock Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ For three years Wang Liangguang,an cxperienced stock investor,waited patiently for the trading of stock index futures.And now,that day has arrived-stock index futures will soon be launched on Chinese financial market.The China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) may officially launch stock index futures as soon as May.

  8. Temperature-mediated survival, development and hatching variation of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X; Zhang, X; Sakrai, Y; Jin, X; Gao, T; Wan, R; Yamamoto, J

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-validated data on the survival, development and hatching responses of fertilized Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus eggs from the northern Japan stock were determined through an incubation experiment. The optimum temperature for survival until hatching ranged from 4 to 8°C. No significant difference in development rates was found between the populations from Mutsu Bay, Japan, and western Canadian coastal waters even though the samples may belong to different G. macrocephalus stocks. Gadus macrocephalus larvae hatched asynchronously from egg batches despite incubation under the same environment during their development. Both incubation temperature and temperature-mediated hatch rank affect size and yolk reserve. These data suggest that variations in water temperatures within an ecological range markedly influence the development rates, survival and hatching of the eggs, as well as the stage at hatch larvae of G. macrocephalus. Asynchronous hatching and the production of offspring with variable sizes and yolk reserves are considered evolutionary bet-hedging strategies that enable the species to maximize their likelihood of survival in an environment with variable temperatures. PMID:24344879

  9. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space astrometry realistic, resulting in the approval by ESA of the first astrometry satellite Hipparcos in 1980 which brought a revolution of high-precision astrometry of positions, motions and distances of stars. The correspondence with ten observatories shows that only one of them has any archive of letters at all from the 1950s, that is in Copenhagen where about 7000 letters on scientific and administrative matters are extant.

  10. Contents of Global Talent Evaluations: Baltics & Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Buracas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study discuss the reliability of global talent competitiveness (GTC as framework of deter- minants based on multiple criteria assessment method- ology presenting the comparisons of Baltic States and Serbia as a case study. The multiple criteria evaluation principles are focused on the knowledge components interdependencies with global talent determinants as well as other criterial systems used for the innovation strategies. The approach in a research under review and de- tailing of GTC criterial system when evaluating the talent potential determinants revealed some benefits of multicriteria decision making analysis. The GTC index is a useful instrument for rational global talent management when using the EU structural funds, in- tersectorial distributing of limited resources for more rational development of labour & vocational skills, for evaluating the innovation and talent growth determi- nants.

  11. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in capture-based aquaculture (CBA by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Misimi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA. Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  12. Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Claudia; Voss, Alicia von

    2016-01-01

    The countries around the Baltic Sea are among Europe's frontline states affected by the conflict between Russia and western Europe. The Baltics and Nordics share a common concern about a revisionist, aggressive, and rearming Russia: Since the onset of the crisis in and around Ukraine in 2014, these countries have felt increasingly exposed to Rus­sian military and non-military intimidation. Currently, they can neither defend nor maintain regional security by themselves: Their capacities are li...

  13. Vietnam stock market liberalisation's effect

    OpenAIRE

    Khuc, Minh Hieu

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examine the effect of stock market liberalisation upon the Vietnam economy and shows the changes during liberalisation period. The stock return and stock return volatility were tested using a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model. The stock return was found to be increased after market was liberalised. The stock return volatility, however show no sign of increasing. The effect upon economic growth, inflation and private investment growth was also d...

  14. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  15. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Western Baltic Sea, and implications for assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Gatti, Paul; le Bras, Quentin; Andersen, Michael; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hintzen, Niels T.; Jacobsen, Jonathan B.; Jonsson, Patrik; Miller, David C.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Sköld, Mattias; Svedäng, Henrik; Wennhage, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    in this area is performed, including published and unpublished literature together with the analyses of commercial and survey data and historical tagging data. The results suggest that plaice in Skagerrak is closely associated with plaice in the North Sea, although local populations are present in...... the area. Plaice in Kattegat, the Belts Sea and the Sound can be considered a stock unit, as is plaice in the Baltic Sea. The analyses revealed great heterogeneity in the dynamics and productivity of the various local components, and suggested for specific action to maintain biodiversity...

  16. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  17. EFFECTS OF STOCK SPLIT ON STOCK LIQUIDITY AND STOCK PRICE OPTIMALITY OF COMPANIES QUOTED AT NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. SIMON KAMAU GATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of researchers have found a stock split is normally followed by either positive abnormal returns or increased stock liquidity or both. However other researchers such as Murray (1985 and Bley (2002 found results that are contrary to this. The objective of this paper was to assess the consequence of stock splits on stock liquidity of Kenyan firms quoted at the NSE.The research was a causal study with a trend analytical design aimed at determining the relationship between the stock liquidity positions as a result of the stock split event. The population consisted of all companies quoted in the NSE that had undertaken a stock split between the years of 2005 and 2011. The data used was secondary data on daily volumes of stock traded and daily closing stock prices that was retrieved from the NSE website. The model used for data analysis was the Amivest liquidity ratio which was developed by cooper Groth and Avera (1985. This model measured the shillings volume traded for each 1% change in stock price. The data analysis package used was Excel spread sheet.The results from the study found out that generally the liquidity of stock, as measured by the Amivest liquidity ratio, is relatively higher in the days before the stock split than in the days after the stock split. It was also observed that liquidity tends to be lowest in the days around the stock split. Generally the aggregate liquidity position in the month before the stock split was found to be higher than in the month after the stock split.It was also observed that after the stock split, stock price showed optimality by trading at a relatively constant stock price in almost all the companies.

  18. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part – the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7–5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30–100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60–70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km. The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  19. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  20. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy for the...... Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  1. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions characterization of Karachi metropolitan wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove the hypothesis that the inert products are given to environment due to biological degradation of substrate in activated sludge operations. This study was design to investigate the inert fractions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in metropolitan effluent. An aerobic batch reactor system was experimentally setup and maintained up to 480 hours. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO = 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI 218 mg/L, respectively. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI = 218 mg/L respectively. This study is focused on inert COD fractions of metropolitan wastewater which consist of domestic as well as local industrial effluent. Soluble inert COD (SI) must be determined for discharge standards since it did not give any reaction in activated sludge system and was given with wastewater discharge. However particulate inert COD (XI) accumulated in system depending on sludge retention time due to it is only wasted from system by wasted sludge. Experimental techniques were used attained Zohu X. et al. [1, 2] in order to determine directly influent particulate and soluble inert fractions. The experimental study was carried out until COD profile reached to steady state or depletion of degradable substrate. The conventional parameters of municipal characterization were as follows: total COD (CTO) = 412 mg/L, total soluble COD (STO) = 131 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) = 197 mg/L, total biochemical oxygen demand (BODt) = 351 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) = 264 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) = 26.6 mg/L, grease and oil (G and O) = 17.5 mg/L and pH were 7.4 SU, respectively. (author)

  3. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This s

  4. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  5. A New Spectrophotometric Method for Measuring COD of Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; JI Hongwei; XIN Huizhen; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    This research studied a new spectrophotometric method for measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of seawater. In this method, the COD was measured using a spectrophotometer instead of titrating with sodium thiosulphate.The measuring wavelength was selected to be 470 nm, and the COD of three standard glucose solutions (COD = 0.5, 1.5 and2.5 mgL-1, respectively) and two seawater samples (from the South Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay) were measured using the spectrophotometric method and titrimetric method respectively. The results showed that the spectrophotometric method was somewhat better than the titrimetric method. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the spectrophotometric method was less than 2.7%, and the recovery of seawater samples ranged from 96.3% to 103.8%. In addition, the spectrophotometric method has other advantages such as expeditiousness, operation simplicity, analysis automatization, etc. Therefore the spectrophotometric method can be used to measure the COD of seawater with satisfactory results.

  6. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the value of Sol-COD in the rivers is close to that of Lake Sanaru, the main origin of the Sol-COD was supposed to be the organic components in the river water especially those of detergents, because the Sol-CODof detergent didn’t decompose completely.Thus, the amount of detergent emitted in the upstreamlakeregion was determined using the public data of the pollution from the sewer system and the national average of detergent consumption. The calculated value of the detergent concentration agreed very well with the one measured in the upstream rivers, meaning that detergents strongly affected water quality in upstream rivers and also the majority of Sol-COD in Lake Sanaru.

  7. STOCK SPLITS AND ADVERSE SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Soltanizadeh; Abhishek Rokade

    2015-01-01

    What impact can the market expect from a stock split announcement? This paper delves into the effect of stock split announcements on the immediate excess return over the market for stocks in the US market by considering stock splits over a span of 35 years from 1980 to 2014 across different industries.   We find that the average market reaction to stock splits announcement is 1.5%. We also find that excess return over the market after stock split announcement is negatively correlat...

  8. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  9. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137Cs and 239,240Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  10. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  11. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  12. On Stock Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雯

    2008-01-01

    The Company Law of 1993 is important in protecting the interests of both companies and shareholders. But on stock right, it always arouses heated debate among scholars. Before the promulgation of New Company Law of 2006, varieties of theories of this issue have been formed. Through analyzing and refuting those theories, I try to clear the ambiguous definition by explaining the essence of right and comparing related right, so as to reach the conclusion that the stock right is only the changeable form of the ownership of shareholders.

  13. Stocks, Junk and Pharmaceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2004-01-01

    Stock analysts in the West have recently been taking a close look at markets in the East. Among their favourites were Chinese stock funds, even though the bourses in Shanghai and Shenzhen tumbled to historic lows. But of course it is the long-term promise that counts and given the rather sombre and gloomy economic mood in Europe, this most probably will make sense for the near and, hopefully, more distant future. Nevertheless, qualified foreign institutional investors should take precautions and in our Focus (pp.20) section we pose the question of how these investors should adjust their portfolios.

  14. Forecasting Stock Price in Tehran's Stock Market Using Evolutionary Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Sabri; Abolfazl Mogadam

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to forecast stock prices and daily stock returns of food products manufacturers, accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange, Using evolutionary strategies. The study was divided into two models. First, the time series of 14 variables related to price prediction, for a period of 5 years (2009 till 2013), was extracted to predict stock price. Then, the price for 19 statistical companies was calculated using evolutionary strategy and back propagation algorithm (Algorithm LM). In the used...

  15. The announcement effects of stock splits on stock prices

    OpenAIRE

    Κτιστάκη, Δέσποινα

    2001-01-01

    Listed firms often decide to split their stock, in which case they increase the number of shares outstanding by distributing more shares as dividends and adjusting respectively the nominal price of the stock, leaving however the total capital unaffected. In theory a stock split is merely an accounting change, which leaves investors no better or worse off than they were before the split. Yet stock splits are a relatively common corporate event. This implies that there must be some benefit eith...

  16. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  17. Productivity patterns and abundance-area relationships in 3 marine fish species (cod,herring and haddock); meta-analyses on the effects of temperature, life-history andhabitat size across the N Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian

    on the biological and ecological characteristics of thestocks. Our aim was to identify the patterns of the temperature, habitat size and life-historyeffects on the SR dynamics across the N Atlantic range of 3 species; cod (21 stocks), herring(16 stocks) and haddock (7 stocks). Using hierarchical, Bayesian SR models......, we combinedthe data across the distribution of the species in order (i) to determine the functional formsof the SR parameters dependence on these factors among and within stocks and (ii) toborrow strength and provide estimates of increased precision. Temperature during thespawning season was found...... to have significant effects on the productivities of all species,while carrying capacity was shown to depend also on the available habitat size. Using thederived relationships, it was possible to predict the expected changes in population-specificdynamics resulting from temperature increases. Synthesizing...

  18. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  19. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  20. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  1. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qian; Oomae Ayaka; Futamata Hiroyuki; Matsuda Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the va...

  2. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  3. Stock Issues in Aristotle's Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpine, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Defines "stock issue" by the manner in which they function in Aristotle's theory, reviews examples of modern theories of stock issues, examines previous investigations of the "Rhetoric," and analyzes Aristotle's approach to this aspect of argumentation. (MH)

  4. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk I. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  5. Pension investments in employer stock

    OpenAIRE

    Even, William E.; David A. MacPherson

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of a pension fund investing in the stock of the sponsoring firm. Using a merger of data on pension asset holdings from IRS Form 5500 filings and financial data on the company's stock from CRSP, two broad questions are addressed: First, what factors influence the extent of a pension fund's investments in the employer's stock? Second, when a pension invests in the employer's stock, how much is lost as a result of poor diversification? The empirical results s...

  6. Inventory and the Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Richard

    2006-01-01

    How does the stock market affect inventory decisions? The efficient markets view is that low stock price means poor fundamentals, a higher cost of capital, and lower inventory. Normatively, firms should obtain their cost of capital from an efficient markets model of stock prices. My study is motivated by the growing body of evidence that the stock market is not efficient and can temporarily mis-value firms. I report evidence that the market's behavioral component explains firms' inventory as ...

  7. Robust Global Stock Market Interdependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Brian M. Lucey; Cal Muckley

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the scope for international stock portfolio diversification, from the viewpoint of a United States representative investor, in regard to both the Asian and theEuropean stock markets. Our findings indicate that despite correlation style evidence to thecontrary, the European stock markets provide a superior long-term diversification opportunity relative to that provided by the Asian stock markets. Hence, a short-term measurement of interdependence appears to be uninfor...

  8. Stock Market Savvy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own financial…

  9. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  10. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  11. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  12. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny;

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  13. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Lännergren, Christer; Ollikainen, Markku; Priha, Maarit; Reinikainen, Marko; Saarijärvi, Erkki; Zandersen, Marianne

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...... possibilities to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  14. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  15. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...... significant sensitivity towards risk levels, but react on the amplitude of pumping. Even so, approximately one third of the popula-tions in the three countries find the state of the Baltic Sea so severe that they would be willing to accept even high risks induced by oxygenation pumping for a faster recovery...

  16. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  17. Potential Masking of the Baltic Grey Seal Vocalisations by Underwater Shipping Noise in the Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bagočius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical surveys were completed in the Lithuanian Sea Museum and the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea during the period of 2012–2013. Underwater vocalisations of the Baltic grey seals were recorded and collated with underwater shipping noise recorded in the shallow area of the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea with the aim to evaluate possible masking of social vocalisations of animals. The following paper focuses not on the complex biomedical auditory or brain stem response research, but on the acoustical measurements and evaluation of possible masking of social vocalisations of grey seals by shipping noise. The results of the survey show masking potential of grey seal communication calls at significant distance in the presence of local shipping noise where the detection distance of calls between conspecifics can be significantly reduced. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.6913

  18. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M;

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...

  19. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts. PMID:27250148

  20. Comparison between methods for determining residual dichromate in COD evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for determing residual dichromate in COD evaluation were compared. The methods were: volumetric titration, potentiometric titration and spectrophotometric determination. The statistical analysis did not show any significance difference among the methods. For routine analysis, the spectrophotometric method is preferable to the other two because it is shorter, easier to carry out and produces smaller amounts of toxic wasted reactants

  1. Excess post hypoxic oxygen consumption in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, M.; Deurs, Mikael van; Steffensen, J.F.; Tirsgaard, B.; Behrens, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua experienced oxygen deficit (DO2 ) when exposed to oxygen levels below their critical level (c. 73% of pcrit) and subsequent excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (CEPHO) upon return to normoxic conditions, indicative of an oxygen debt. The mean±s.e. CEPHO:DO2 was 6...

  2. An attempt to start feed cod larvae with artificial diets

    OpenAIRE

    Huse, Ingvar

    1981-01-01

    Larval cod were fed 8 different diets based on zooplancton and hen's eggs. All but one diets were ingested, but no growth was observed. The failure of the diets to promote growth is thouqht to be related to the low digestive potential of the larval gut.

  3. 78 FR 41305 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... INFORMATION: The Postal Service published a notice of proposed rulemaking on May 31, 2013 (78 FR 32612-32613... 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... proposed rule were received, the Postal Service will adopt the proposed changes to Collect on Delivery...

  4. Improvement of COD control system of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the NewSUBARU, the response matrix calculated from an optics model had been used for a closed orbit correction (COD) program. We measured the response matrix of NewSUBARU and used it in the new program. We compared performance of the new one with that of the old one. (author)

  5. EFFECTS OF STOCK SPLIT ON STOCK LIQUIDITY AND STOCK PRICE OPTIMALITY OF COMPANIES QUOTED AT NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    MR. SIMON KAMAU GATEI; DR. WYCLIFFE NYARIBO MISUKO

    2012-01-01

    A number of researchers have found a stock split is normally followed by either positive abnormal returns or increased stock liquidity or both. However other researchers such as Murray (1985) and Bley (2002) found results that are contrary to this. The objective of this paper was to assess the consequence of stock splits on stock liquidity of Kenyan firms quoted at the NSE.The research was a causal study with a trend analytical design aimed at determining the relationship between the stock li...

  6. Outlook '98 - Stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the recent drop of some 20 per cent in energy stock prices, and the decline in the value of the Canadian dollar, forecasting oilpatch financing in 1998 is a risky undertaking. Based on a variety of relevant factors, it is expected that there will be a slowdown in oil and gas financing deals in the short term. On the other hand, longer term outlook is bullish, based on the huge capital requirements over the next few years for conventional projects, heavy oil, oilsands and pipelines projects. Corporate mergers and acquisitions will continue at about the same rate as in 1997, as companies attempt to achieve ''economies of scale'' and growth in the most economically sensible manner. Adding production and reserves through corporate transactions at the current lower stock prices will be a powerful incentive. Creative deal structuring will become more prevalent. Corporate reorganizations into separate companies in search of value maximization will increase

  7. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  8. Simulation-based investigation of the paired-gear method in cod-end selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René; O'Neill, F.G.

    had a small mesh cover. Thus, estimates of the selectivity parameters of the test cod-end can be made using both the paired-gear method and the covered cod-end method. These estimates are compared and, as it is assumed that the covered cod-end method is objective, we conclude that the paired...

  9. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  10. Gold, Oil, and Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    We employ a wavelet approach and conduct a time-frequency analysis of dynamic correlations between pairs of key traded assets (gold, oil, and stocks) covering the period from 1987 to 2012. The analysis is performed on both intra-day and daily data. We show that heterogeneity in correlations across a number of investment horizons between pairs of assets is a dominant feature during times of economic downturn and financial turbulence for all three pairs of the assets under research. Heterogenei...

  11. Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo (Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (DE)). e-mail: birgit.huenicke@gkss.de

    2008-01-15

    Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation

  12. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  13. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  14. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  15. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  16. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  17. President Ilves kohtus Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 20. septembril 2010 hiljuti loodud sihtasutuse Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi (BAFF) direktorite nõukoguga, kes tutvustasid Balti riikide elanikele mõeldud haridusalaseid vahetusprogramme. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 29. sept. 2010, lk. 2 (allk. Piret Pert); Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. sept. 2010, lk. 3

  18. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  19. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  20. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Moeen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0x10-13 and 16x10-13 g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270x10-13 g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants

  1. Isotopic signatures of lamproite dikes on the eastern Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age values, coinciding by Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd, are obtained for lamproits in the eastern party of the Baltic Shield (the Kostamuksha Region): 1230±5 Ma and 1234±80 Ma correspondingly. The magnetic source of lamproites is depletary relative to the Sr isotope composition and enriched relative to the Nd composition

  2. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  3. A study on the effect of stock liquidity and stock liquidity risk on information asymmetry: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassani; Najme Harati Nik

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of stock liquidity and stock liquidity risk on information asymmetry in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) listed companies. In this study, the bid-ask spread is considered as the criterion of information asymmetry. In addition, stock trade volume and the number of stock trades are considered as the criteria of stock liquidity. Some variables such as size, stock price, beta and growth are also considered as control variables. To test the hypotheses of the survey, 2...

  4. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  5. Severe tissue damage in Atlantic cod larvae under increasing ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommel, Andrea Y.; Maneja, Rommel; Lowe, David; Malzahn, Arne M.; Geffen, Audrey J.; Folkvord, Arild; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (refs , , ), is one of the most critical anthropogenicthreats to marine life. Changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have the potential to disturb calcification, acid-base regulation, blood circulation and respiration, as well as the nervous system of marine organisms, leading to long-term effects such as reduced growth rates and reproduction. In teleost fishes, early life-history stages are particularly vulnerable as they lack specialized internal pH regulatory mechanisms. So far, impacts of relevant CO2 concentrations on larval fish have been found in behaviour and otolith size, mainly in tropical, non-commercial species. Here we show detrimental effects of ocean acidification on the development of a mass-spawning fish species of high commercial importance. We reared Atlantic cod larvae at three levels of CO2, (1) present day, (2) end of next century and (3) an extreme, coastal upwelling scenario, in a long-term ( months) mesocosm experiment. Exposure to CO2 resulted in severe to lethal tissue damage in many internal organs, with the degree of damage increasing with CO2 concentration. As larval survival is the bottleneck to recruitment, ocean acidification has the potential to act as an additional source of natural mortality, affecting populations of already exploited fish stocks.

  6. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  7. Analysis of a liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sectors in the Baltic countries are presently undergoing reform processes in order to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding deregulation of electricity sectors. At the same time, EU is putting pressure upon Lithuania to close the largest electricity producer in the Baltic countries, the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The purpose of the paper is to establish a common background for evaluating the future perspectives of the Lithuanian and Baltic electricity market. The results of the paper deal with the possibilities of creating a competitive market and with the economic and technical consequences of different future settings. The market concentration at a liberalised electricity market in Lithuania and the Baltic region may be high because of relatively few and large production units. The joint problem of liberalisation, high market concentration and nuclear phase out has been analysed. The future electricity and district heating markets are simulated using the Balmorel model. The focus of the analyses is the economic consequences of different market openings, different producer supply behaviour and different closure speeds of INPP. With focus on Lithuania, it is shown that if competition arises in the electricity market, the prices will become low due to a large excess capacity in the system. The consumers and the society as a whole will gain significantly from competition, but most power plants will have difficulties in making positive earnings. It is furthermore concluded that there is a high risk of lack of competition in a closed Lithuanian electricity market due to the high market concentration. Even a minor lack of competition will imply significant gains to producers, but losses to consumers and the society as a whole. The establishment of a common Baltic electricity market instead of national electricity markets may help reducing the competition problem. (au)

  8. Liquidity and stock returns-evidence from UK stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Dang Thuy Trang

    2013-01-01

    Liquidity has been acknowledged to affect stock returns due to its importance to investors, financial markets, and listed companies. Although there is abundant literature documenting the liquidity-stock returns relationship, results about this relationship are mixed. This might be due to the reasons that liquidity has various meanings and methods of measurements. The purposes of this study are to provide definition of liquidity in relation to stocks, introduce measures of liquidity and examin...

  9. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  10. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) - Monitoring of organic pollutants in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Hodzic, Elvisa

    2011-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are two methods used for measuring organic pollutants in wastewater. Both methods are widely used but the COD method results in production of hazardous wastes, including mercury.The purpose of this study was to validate the method TOC that will replace COD and find a factor to convert TOC to COD. In this study 26 samples were analyzed from four sewage treatment plant in the municipality of Enköping.The results show that the COD metho...

  11. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.; Smedbol, R.K.; Cook, D.; Goddard, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  12. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  13. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...... the spawner-recruit relationship is examined among populations of the same species. The slopes of these relationships are close to 1 (i.e. proportional). However, mean recruitment per spawner varies greatly among species (range 3 to 10). Some ecosystems allowed cod Gadus morhua, haddock Melanogrammus...... aeglefinus and herring Clupea harengus populations to produce an average of ca. 8-fold more recruits per spawner than other ecosystems. Also, the abundance of at least 1 species (cod) is strongly related to habitat size. Reasons for the differences in recruit production per spawner between ecosystems are...

  14. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  15. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:27131304

  16. TOWARDS AN ISLAMIC STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    EL GAR, MOHAMED ALI

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the functioning of the stock market from an Islamic perspective, and the need of an Islamic economy for capital markets and stock exchange with a view to assessing their roles in the Islamic economy. The basic questions of gambling, risk and options, all in relation to the operation of a stock exchange, are discussed to examine their permissibility from the shari'ah point of view.

  17. Stock Market Volatility under Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatallah Goudarzi

    2014-01-01

    Since 1979, Iran has faced with unilateral and multilateral harsh sanctions due to its nuclear energy program. These sanctions have resulted in significant problem to both sanctioned and sanctioning parties. Given the fact that sanctions have had significant impacts on Iran’s economy and since Iran stock market is the barometer of its economy, it is assumed that sanctions affect the Iranian stock market as well. To test this hypothesis, this study studied the Iranian stock market volatility d...

  18. Dividend Taxes and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Erin E. Syron

    2015-01-01

    How do dividend taxes affect stock volatility? In this paper, I use a decrease in dividend taxes as a natural experiment to identify their impact on firm's price volatility. If a risk-averse executive faces price risk through his incentive contract, changes in stock volatility due to dividend taxes may increase agency costs and therefore decrease overall welfare. Stock volatility decreased after the tax cut for firms where an executive has large holdings of shares and options relative to firm...

  19. Growth, temperature and density relationships of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Jensen, Henrik; Schrum, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    temperature; however, although temperature increased, distribution of 1-year-olds changed concurrently and no increase in length at age 1 occurred. Growth from age 1 to age 2 decreased as ambient biomass of sandeel and density of cod decreased, whereas growth of cod older than 2 years decreased with......This study presents an analysis of the relationship between ambient temperature, cod density, fishing mortality, prey fish biomass, and growth of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) as estimated from survey catches during the period from 1983 to 2006. Growth of young cod was positively related to...... increasing density of cod and increased with increasing biomass of demersal fish prey. Though growth of juveniles was strongly positively correlated to ambient temperature, no indication of direct temperature limitation of growth of older North Sea cod was found....

  20. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  1. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cod-ends are the rearmost part of trawl fishing gears. They collect the catch, and for many important species it is where fish selection takes place. Generally speaking they are axisymmetric, and their shape is influenced by the catch volume, the mesh shape, and the material characteristics. The ...... of the netting. The software package developed to solve this problem is freely available. Comparisons are carried out with a previous model and experimental data....

  2. Crack lenghts calculation from COD measurement for cement based composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Hanzlovský, Radovan; Knésl, Zdeněk

    Plzeň : Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, 2012 - (Lukeš, V.; Hajžman, M.; Byrtus, M.), s. 137-140 ISBN 978-80-261-0097-3. [Applied Mechanics 2012. Plzeň (CZ), 16.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : COD * fatigue * crack propagation * Paris’ law * composites Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. COD Removal of Different Industrial Wastewater by Fenton Oxidation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Sindhi*1

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are possibly one of the most effective methods for the treatment of wastewater containing organic products (effluents from chemical and agrochemical industries, the textile industry, paints, dyes, etc.).Fenton process is a one of advanced oxidation process. Fenton’s process have been extensively used for the removal of COD, TOC, dyes, phenolic compounds other organic chemicals from industrial and municipal wastewater. In this study, the laboratory s...

  4. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes avoided water containing total hyd...

  5. Does Stock Market value Brands?

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriadou, Despoina

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation tries to explore how the brand as an intangible asset impacts on the Market Value of the firm. Using a sample of 193 British firms and their Stock price of the year 2003, we tried to identify if the Stock Market value brands. According to the theoretical review and research results, each brand creates a different brand impact in consumer behaviour and in turn in Stock Market reaction. However, the Stock Market it seems that really values brand assets, firstly directly throug...

  6. 2008 Stock Market Rhapsody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In early 2007,spring chickens lined up to register for trading in the booming stock market.In the beginning of 2008, salespeople of securities companies spread their counters on street comers to market their companies to random passersby. The U.S.subprime mortgage crisis swept the whole world and no countries were lucky enough to escape it. The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index plunged 7.22 percent on January 22, the biggest drop so far this year,and de- voured all the increases since August 2007.

  7. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl- concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm-3 kW h-1 while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates

  8. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  9. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  10. COD FRACTIONS CHANGES DURING SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research work was to find out COD fractions in raw wastewater and during treatment with constructed wetland (CW system. The tests were performed in CW system with average flow of about 4 m3/day. In raw wastewater the highest concentration of fraction in organic suspended solid easy biodegradable (XS – 250 mg O2/l was observed. The same situation was with dissolved organic easy biodegradable matter (SS – 250 mg O2/l. Lower quantity of non-biodegradable fractions dissolved and in suspended solids were observed (SI – 27 mg O2/l, XI – 83.33 mg O2/l. More than 80% of total COD was as biodegradable fractions (SS + XS. After treatment with CW system the highest concentration was observed for dissolved non-biodegradable fraction (SI – 27 mg O2/l. Lower concentration was for biodegradable fraction in suspended solid (XS – 3.33 mg O2/l. More than 89% of total COD was in biological non-biodegradable fraction (SI + XI.

  11. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS

  12. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  13. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  14. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  15. Potential for Nordic-Baltic security cooperation: shared threat perception strengthens regional collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    All the Nordic and Baltic states are concerned about the deteriorating security situation in northern Europe. Most of all, military tensions in the Baltic region engender a collective threat perception vis-à-vis Russia. The pressure to respond is boosting a historically rooted security cooperation between the Nordic and Baltic states. A shifting of priorities is becoming apparent within the institutional cooperation, which is moving from a forum of exchange towards a shared framework of actio...

  16. Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) - an ongoing project in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Wo¼niak; Adam Krê¿el; Jerzy Dera

    2004-01-01

    A large national project: Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) for creating mathematical models and a complex algorithm for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem and its primary production is described. The final aim of the project is the development of a routine remote sensing methodology for determining characteristics of the Baltic ecosystem such as distribution maps of surface temperature, water transparency, upwelling currents, phytopl...

  17. Suggestions for a Marketing Plan for Guardian of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddini, Mandana; Koskela , Juliana Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project was to create suggestions for a marketing plan for an existing company, Guardian of the Baltic Sea, to enter into the Swedish market. Guardian of the Baltic Sea (GBS) is a charity project of Kehrä Interior Oy, producing jewelry that contributes to protecting the Baltic Sea. The suggestions were in the areas of distribution channel, target market and tools of promotion. The theoretical background and knowledge base of the thesis consists of theory on m...

  18. Riverine water inflows and the Baltic Sea water volume 1901-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cyberski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of riverine outflow into the Baltic Sea is presented for the years 1901 – 1990. The monthly outflows were calculated from the measurements in a number of representative rivers. The analysis included estimation of seasonal and multi-year characteristics of riverine outflows and periodic structure, as well as stochastic and statistical indicators characterising the influence of riverine water on the variability of the sea level and water volume in the basin. The article presents prognostic characteristics determined using analysis of parametric stochastic processes. The results obtained are related to oceanographic characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Keywords: Baltic volume; Baltic balance; river outflow; river seasonality

  19. Biogeochemical controls on carbon and sulfur cycling in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Manh, Thang

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is the largest brackish inland sea in the world. Over the last 100 years, the Baltic Sea has received a large amount of nutrients from surrounding watersheds that has increased the primary production, and eutrophication in the water column. Thus, the seafloor of Baltic Sea has received large amounts of organic matter that lead to the enhancement of gas bearing sediments (H2S, CH4, etc). An important aspect was to study the link between organic carbon delivery into the Baltic Se...

  20. The problems of studying the Baltic origins of hydronyms on the territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Л. Васильев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a wide range of issues related to the ancient presence of Balts in Russian hydronymy. The entire eastern half of the vast Old Baltic ethno-historical area overlapped with regions of European Russia. The names of rivers and lakes are the main source that allows to ascertain the extent of their ancient settlement as well as some features of their language. This paper provides an overview of the history of the study of hydronyms of Baltic origin on the territory of Russia, including the criticism of certain previous works, and briefly highlights a number of issues, among which are: 1 the refinement of the South-eastern, Eastern and especially North-eastern borders of the Old Baltic range, 2 the correlation of the Baltic linguistic elements with the Finnish and the Iranian elements, 3 the relationship of Baltic hydronymy to archaeological cultures, localizable in European Russia, 4 the relative density of the Baltic stratum in different Russian regions, 5 the optimization of techniques related to searching and confirmation of Baltic water names. Maps are provided to show the North-eastern flank of the Baltic hydronymic areal and the maximum geographical extent of Eastern Baltic hydronymy.

  1. The principles of making maps and commmmentaries to the Atlas of the Baltic Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Asta Leskauskaitė; Danguolė Mikulėnienė

    2015-01-01

    The principles of making maps and commentaries to The Atlas of the Baltic LanguagesPeople in Lithuania and Latvia speak related languages which belong to the Baltic branch. The fate of both states was also similar. After the restoration of independence of both countries in 1990 it was very important to bring out the similarities which link them. This is how the idea of making an atlas of the Baltic languages evolved.Preparing the Atlas of the Baltic Languages Lithuanian and Latvian linguists ...

  2. Stock Returns, Volatility, and Cointegration among Chinese Stock Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiZhou; ZhongguoZhou

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines stock returns, volatility, and cointegration among three Chinese stock markets before and after Hong Kong's return to China. The average daily returns are much higher during the first sub-period (from April 1991 to June 1997) and significantly lower or even negative during the second sub-period (from July 1997 to December 2002). The mean adjusted change in volatility is negatively and significantly correlated with the lagged returns. This negative relation is mainly caused by a contemporaneous and significantly positive correlation between returns and volatility in the first sub-period. This significant relationship disappears for the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges and is even negative for the Hong Kong Stock Exchange during the second sub-period. Three Chinese stock markets are cointegrated over the entire sample period and become more closely related after Hong Kong's return to China. Our results have important implications for both policy makers and individual investors.

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  4. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  5. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  6. Foreign Direct Investment Attraction in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Saksonova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the importance of macroeconomic factors as well as investment climate for foreign direct invest­ ment attraction in the Baltic states. It reviews some of the indicators for measuring the investment climate and their usefulness as indicators of strength of FDI attraction and uses the results of econometric analysis to consider relative importance of various macroeconomic factors. The results suggest that perceptions of corruption and fiscal policy are some of the more important drivers of FDI attraction. The paper also considers several measures that could improve foreign direct investment attraction in the Baltic States such as expanding the protection of property rights and improving the quality of infrastructure.

  7. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... View the MathML source or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of View the MathML source and sulfide and the actual measured relations between View the MathML source and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ...... extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132–547 kton N yr−1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr−1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr−1 it is clear that...

  8. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  9. Information flow between stock indices

    OpenAIRE

    Okyu Kwon; Jae-Suk Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using transfer entropy, we observed the strength and direction of information flow between stock indices. We uncovered that the biggest source of information flow is America. In contrast, the Asia/Pacific region the biggest is receives the most information. According to the minimum spanning tree, the GSPC is located at the focal point of the information source for world stock markets.

  10. Scaling analysis of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  11. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  12. Organic contaminants - occurrence and biological effects in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pikkarainen, Anna-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea was studied with respect to selected organic contaminants and their ecotoxicology. The research consisted of analyses of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bile metabolites, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The contaminants were measured from various matrices, such as seawater, sediment and biota. The methods of analysis were evaluated and refined to comparability of t...

  13. Magnitude determination of earthquakes in the Baltic Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Rutger Wahlström; T. Ahjos

    1984-01-01

    Station corrections have been introduced into the M"SUB L"-scale hitherto used for Baltic Shield earthquakes. The new formula is valid for Benioff and Grenet seismograph stations in Finland and Sweden. An extension of the magnitude scale to distances as small as 30 km is made by adding the constant 0.31 to the equation. Correlating the instrumental magnitude with macroseismic parameters, a relationship between the radius of areas of perceptibility (km) and maximum intensity has been obtained ...

  14. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  15. BABAR: Becoming Adult Educators in the Baltic-Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Marcella; Andersson, Per; Gross, Marin; Jõgi, Larissa; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results from a comparative study of the qualification of adult educators in the Nordic-Baltic region. The study involved Denmark, Estonia and Sweden. The rationale behind the study is a growing interest in adult education resulting from a focus on lifelong learning in the public and political agendas, internationally and nationally. According to the authors of the report, an increased interest in adult education generates an increased interest in the professionalisati...

  16. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  17. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of NH3 and NH4+ and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3- are somewhat overestimated. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the annual atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south--north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 T N km-2 in the south and 0.2 T N km-2 in the north. The results show that in 1999 the maximum diurnal mean deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year. Total deposition to the Baltic Sea was for the year 1999 estimated to 318 kT N for an area of 464 406 km2 equivalent to an average deposition of 684 kg N/km2.

  18. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  19. Seasonal variability in the optical properties of Baltic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zdun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A five-year dataset of spectral aerosol optical thickness was used to analyse the seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties (the aerosol opticalthickness (AOT at wavelength λ=500 nm, AOT(500 and the Ångström exponent for the 440-870 nm spectral range,α(440, 870 over the Baltic Sea and dependence of these optical properties on meteorological factors (wind direction, wind speed and relativehumidity. The data from the Gotland station of the global radiometric network AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.govwere taken to be representative of the Baltic Sea conditions. Meteorological observations from Fårosund were also analysed.       Analysis of the data from 1999 to 2003 revealed a strong seasonal cycle in AOT(500 and α(440, 870. Two maxima of monthly mean values of AOT(500over the Baltic were observed. In April, an increase in the monthly mean aerosol optical thickness over Gotland most probably resulted from agricultural waste strawburning, mainly in northern Europe and Russia as well as in the Baltic states, Ukraine and Belarus. During July and August, the aerosol optical thickness wasaffected by uncontrolled fires (biomass burning. There was a local minimum of AOT(500 in June.       Wind direction, a local meteorological parameter strongly related to air mass advection, is the main meteorological factor influencing the variabilityof aerosol optical properties in each season. The highest mean values of AOT(500 and α(440, 870 occurred with easterly winds in both spring and summer,but with southerly winds in autumn.

  20. Joint-Stock Corporation under Turkish Commercial Law and the Doctrine of Increasing Shareholder Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Tepe

    2015-01-01

     ABSTRACT The principle that the shareholder of a joint-stock company is under the single obligation of paying in his contribution to the equity-capital is in force within the framework of the 2011 Turkish Commercial Code. It appears as if the reinforced principle of “single obligation” critically challenges the relevance of the formerly settled norm of subjecting increase in shareholders’ commitments to unanimous consent of all shareholders.  That being said, since the Turkish Commercial Cod...

  1. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  2. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  3. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  4. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  5. Emerging Stock Premia: Some Evidence From Industrial Stock Market Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Donadelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the behavior of emerging stock excess returns in an industry-by-industry context. We examine stock market performance for 23 countries and ten industries over 17 years from 1995 to 2012 – a period that includes major changes in capital market regulations, the removal of trade barriers, the IT bubble, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and the subprime mortgage crisis. In addition, we examine stock market co-movement and risk exposure for ten industries in eight emerging/developing stock markets. We obtain four key empirical findings. First, at industry level, we confirm that the equity risk premium in emerging markets is higher than in developed markets. We also confirm the time-varying nature of emerging stock market excess returns. Second, at country level, we identify those industries that mainly contribute to the presence of the emerging stock premia. Third, we show that some industries are more exposed to global risk factors than others. Fourth, given the increasing degree of co-movement between international stock markets, we observe that some cross-industry portfolio diversification benefits are still exploitable. Our analysis yields interesting implications for financial applications. In particular, we argue that the presence of a strong time-varying component in the “industry-betas” might have strong impact on the estimation of the cost of capital.

  6. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  7. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  8. Emerging Stock Premia: Some Evidence From Industrial Stock Market Data

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Donadelli; Marcella Lucchetta

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of emerging stock excess returns in an industry-by-industry context. We examine stock market performance for 23 countries and ten industries over 17 years from 1995 to 2012 – a period that includes major changes in capital market regulations, the removal of trade barriers, the IT bubble, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and the subprime mortgage crisis. In addition, we examine stock market co-movement and risk exposure for ten industries in eight emerging/developing...

  9. AMMONIA AND COD REMOVAL FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE USING RICE HUSK COMPOSITE ADSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD were the most two problematic parameters in the landfill leachate. In this study, a new composite adsorbent derived from rice husk ash waste is evaluated with respect to its ability to remove these contaminants from synthetic leachate. Results indicate that the new composite adsorbent is able to adsorb both ammonia and COD. It has a higher adsorption capacity for ammonia (Q = 2.2578 mg/g and an almost equal adsorption capacity for COD (Q = 2.8893 when compared with commercially activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics of this new product for ammonia and COD were primarily represented by the pseudo second-order mechanism. The overall adsorption rate of the ammonia and COD adsorption processes appears to be determined by chemisorption process. The regenerated composite adsorbent indicated higher adsorption capacities of ammonia and COD, i.e. 12.9366 mg/g and 3.1162 mg/g, respectively.

  10. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported by...... a scale from 0 to 5. There was no relation between texture and fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence of fish muscle could be related to the storage time. However, this relation seemed not to be induced by changes in collagen....

  11. Observations of cod behaviour reveal insights into the function and properties of the swimbladder under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kooij, Jeroen; Righton, David; Michalsen, Kathrine; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Svedäng, Henrik; Neat, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) is a highly adaptive boreal species with a broad distribution through different ecosystems in the North Atlantic. Diet, environmental factors and population dynamics vary enormously throughout this range, and behaviours are therefore extremely plastic. However, the behaviour of cod will always be constrained by physiology, be it temperature tolerance, swimming speeds or buoyancy control. Cod, like other gadoids, are physoclists, i.e. they have ...

  12. Optimal feedback controls : comparative evaluation of the cod fisheries in Denmark, Iceland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arnason, Ragnar; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Vestergaard, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative efficiency of the fish harvesting policies of Iceland, Norway and Denmark. We have chosen to concentrate on the cod fishery as this is the single most important fishery in all three countries. The three nations conduct their cod fisheries in quite different contexts. First, there is a difference in national control over the respective fisheries. Iceland has been in virtual sole control of her cod fishery. Norway, on the other hand, shares h...

  13. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh penetra......-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. Finally, based on the results obtained, ideas to improve the size selection of cod in towed gear are presented....

  14. Population genetic structure in gadoid fish with focus on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    OpenAIRE

    Guðni Magnús Eiríksson 1970

    2015-01-01

    In the present study genetic variation and population genetic structure in spawning Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, around Iceland was examined. Earlier research on population genetic structure in cod has not been conclusive and the use of different molecular methods have shown different patterns. It is important to determine why different methods show different patterns in order to describe the population genetic structure in cod. In the present study both microsatellite DNA variation and mitoch...

  15. Reproduction and winter biology of polar cod Boreogadus saida from Svalbard waters

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered to be a key species in the Arctic marine ecosystems. Yet detailed or even basic knowledge regarding its biology and adaptations, especially during the polar night, are in many cases poor. No field data is presently available on the gonad development of polar cod, its reproductive biology and associated bioenergetics. Accordingly, polar cod was sampled at different locations in Svalbard waters in August, September, November and January. Gonadosomatic ...

  16. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  17. Seasonal variation of 129I species in the Baltic Proper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.;

    2013-01-01

    new data on profiles of 129I speciation in the Baltic Proper during November 2009. Along with the two earlier investigations (August 2006 and April 2007), an assessment of seasonal variation of 129I species is presented. The results show that, due to the anoxic nature of Baltic Proper, presence of 129...

  18. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  19. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  20. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S; Haslob, H; Huwer, B; Katajisto, T; Lennuk, L; Majaneva, S; Põllumäe, A; Schaber, M; Setälä, O; Reusch, TBH; Viitasalo-Frösén, S; Vuorinen, I; Välipakka, P

    2013-01-01

    southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also...

  1. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  2. A Hundred Years Later. Streetcars are still rattling in Baltic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika V. Polanska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A young geographer by the name of Sten De Geer mapped the cities around the Baltic Sea in an article published in 1912. As an attempt to capture the urban structure of Baltic region cities, his paper is unique. In this article, we comment on his meticulous descriptions of these cities, with a century-long perspective.

  3. Stock Market Liquidity: A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Ali Kanasro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A market is to be considered as liquid when large transactions are executed with a small impact on price. This paper identifies the position of stock market liquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE during the period from 1985 to 2006. The analysis is based on using annual data of the listed firms at KSE and the data available on economic survey of the Government of Pakistan and other sources. For measurements of liquidity at KSE we have used three measuring tools as; Liquidity Analysis, Turnover Ratio and Size of Market to determine the liquidity issues at KSE. We provide the evidences of less stock market liquidity or to say illiquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange during the sample period. Consequently, market is still for behind in its efficiency, especially in liquidity hence it fails to attract new investors. We find that less liquidity causes less synchronicity in prices attracting less inventors and results is low size of market.

  4. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    , even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model. The......A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education...

  5. Weekly Report of Stock Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week April 9th-13th, the indexes of Shanghai Stock market and Shenzhen Stock market continued to create historical high, with a weekly increase of 6.0% and 10.1% respectively. Although there were reasonable increases, crazy actions also arose everywhere. For instance, the trailing Profit/Earning per share on 2006 of Sichuan Sofcra Special-Typed Fiber Co, Ltd. was as high as 643, its stock price even increased by 350% compared with that on January 4th, 2007. Huge accumulative increase implies a future down.

  6. The baltic environmental information dissemination system: using environmental informatics as a tool for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Filho Walter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-going economic development of EU-countries as well of the countries in the C&E European region has been leading to a significant use of a great deal of natural resources as well as to noticeable environmental problems. The lack of a wide-spread environmental awareness from the side of those acting in various sectors (industry, public administration, users sometimes inhibit the implementation of legislation already available as well as the introduction of new technologies deriving, from example, from marine research. An example of this state of affairs is seen in respect of the implementation of the recommendations deriving from Baltic 21 and VASAB 2010, which illustrate the advantages from a cross-sectorial, open mechanism for the dissemination of environmental information in the region. There are various organisations today which act as suppliers of environmental information in the Baltic Sea Region. However, few, if any, are providers concerned with the various ways in which information on matters related to sustainable development is being used by various groups and audiences. This state of affairs makes it necessary to enhance the current mechanisms and approaches in place, so as to enable the wide-range of environmental information available today from areas such as marine research, to be more widely used. It is equally important that the didactic or educational potential of such information be exploited, so as to not only inform, but also to educate various groups and the general public on matters concerned with the environment in European closed seas and give information to planners and politicians to prepare decisions. In order to address such needs, the project "Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS" was set in motion. BEIDS has been taking advantage of the most modern information technologies and has been acting as a focal point for the circulation of intelligent information on aspects of the marine

  7. Does the REIT Stock Market Resemble the General Stock Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Wang; John Erickson; Su Han Chan

    1995-01-01

    Gyourko and Keim (1993) point out that the continued growth of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) market depends critically on the stock market's ability to provide fair and accurate valuations of real estate. Given the recent surge of REIT initial public offerings (more than $15 billion in the 1993-1994 period), it is important to know whether the stock market provides the REIT market with the same level of information dissemination, monitoring activities, and pricing mechanisms as that...

  8. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the 'EIA vocabulary' eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their 'Eastern' counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE BALTIC STATES: A COMPARATIVE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA KIURIENÉ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses models of administrative supervision of local self-government in the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these models. The research done in this article defines the theoretical concept of administrative supervision of local self-government; gives an overview of the legislative framework underpining the key administrative supervision bodies of local self-government in the Baltic States; discusses the issue of legal regulation and the present state of administrative supervision over local self-government units in the Baltic States; gives some theoretical and practical suggestions to develop this field in the Baltic States.The research methods employed in preparation of this article are theoretical methods of analysis of scientific literature and sources, legal acts and documents as well as comparative and logical analysis, induction and generalisation. Three Baltic States similar in their area, number of inhabitants, and governmental peculiarities have been chosen for the analysis.

  10. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur;

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl...... washed cod muscle and protein isolates, phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed higher inhibitory effect than crude 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract. The addition of oligomeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-2) separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, completely inhibited the...

  11. Will Financial Analysts Mistake Stocks of Good Companies for Good Stocks? Evidence from Taiwan Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the individual or institutional investors rely on the information provided by the financial analysts. A good stock recommended by financial experts is expected to make profit to the investors. However, due to the cognitive biases, the financial analysts or investors are probably confused in the firm characteristics between the good stocks and the stocks of good companies. Good companies are normally inferred to the company that have good managing and operating systems, however, it is usually though to have good returns as good stocks. The future earning forecasts of these good companies may be thus overestimated as compared with the others. Such cognitive biases probably results in improper investment and investment loss. In this study, the reputation survey results for the companies in Taiwan and the corresponding financial data are used to verify the proposed cognitive biases hypothesis. The empirical evidence in this study shows that financial analysts mistake stocks of good companies for good stocks. However, it is also shown that the average one-year buy-and-hold return of these sample firms (including good companies and good stocks is still higher than that of the chosen matching firms.

  12. Measurement of sewage COD and BOD using fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the biodegradable component of wastewater is measured by a series of wet chemical methods, of which the most important is considered to be the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) TEST. The BOD test is inadequate for effective and efficient process control because of the time required to complete the test (5 days) and the difficulty in achieving consistently accurate measurements. Other chemical tests such as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), despite being more rapid the the Bod test, do not distinguish between 'biodegradable' and 'non-biodegradable' organic matter. We designed fluorescence instrument that was excited by UV-lamp. The biodegradable chromophoric constant species are considered to be the major contributors to the overall fluorescence within 300-600 nm (using 244 nm excitation). The total intensity of this band has been found to have a good linear correlation (r=0.99) with the COD and BOD parameters. CCD and PMT are used as the fluorescence detectors and the experimental results of correlation were compared.

  13. Treatment of COD analysis liquid wastes generated in environmental laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mañunga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available COD analysis is often carried out in environmental labs. Its wastes are considered hazardous due to the content of metals such as Cr, Ag and Hg; treating these wastes is considered complex and expensive. The experimental results of metal ion precipitation in COD wastes with affordable chemical products are reported in this work. Cr (VI was chemically reduced by adding 200 mg.L-1 of glucose to Cr (III. Final Cr (VI concentration was less than 0.5 mg.L-1. Cr (III was precipitated as a metallic hydroxide by adding NaOH and Ag was reduced to less than 0.2 mg.L-1 by adding 2 g.L-1 of NaCl. Hg was reduced to less than 0.005 mg.L-1 with 10 g.L-1 of FeS. The proposed reduction-precipitation methodology allowed minimising the liquid residue’s hazardous characteristics so that it complied with the maximum allowable values established in Chapter 6, Article 74 of Decree 1594/1984 that regulates the use of water and liquid residues.

  14. Digestibility of chitin in cod, Gadus morhua, in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danulat, Eva

    1987-12-01

    Sixteen cod, Gadus morhua (L.), were individually fed a single ration of shrimps, Crangon allmanni. Four fish were killed and examined 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the fish had been fed. Chitinase activities were measured in the extracts of stomach contents, stomach tissue, pyloric caecae, intestinal contents and intestinal tissue. The level of enzyme activity in different parts of the digestive tract was shown to be dependent on the phase of the digestive process. High concentrations of the chitin degradation product N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were determined in the stomach and in the intestinal contents. Based on the chitin concentration in the food organisms and the individual food uptake, the amount of chitin consumed by each fish could be calculated. Only up to 9% of the ingested chitin was recovered from the intestinal contents of the fish at any given time after feeding (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). In addition, only 2.4% of the chitin consumed with the food could be recovered in the collected faeces of the fish. The 4 cod killed 48 h after feeding had completely emptied their stomach. Chitin digestion in these fish was calculated to have been 90%.

  15. The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  16. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua hemoglobin genes: multiplicity and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamperl A Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, assessed by protein gel electrophoresis, has been used almost exclusively to characterize the genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua populations and to establish correlations with phenotypic traits such as Hb oxygen binding capacity, temperature tolerance and growth characteristics. The genetic system used to explain the results of gel electrophoresis entails the presence of one polymorphic locus with two major alleles (HbI-1; HbI-2. However, vertebrates have more than one gene encoding Hbs and recent studies have reported that more than one Hb gene is present in Atlantic cod. These observations prompted us to re-evaluate the number of Hb genes expressed in Atlantic cod, and to perform an in depth search for polymorphisms that might produce relevant phenotypes for breeding programs. Results Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs led to the identification of nine distinct Hb transcripts; four corresponding to the α Hb gene family and five to the β Hb gene family. To gain insights about the Hb genes encoding these transcripts, genomic sequence data was generated from heterozygous (HbI-1/2 parents and fifteen progeny; five of each HbI type, i.e., HbI-1/1, HbI-1/2 and HbI-2/2. β Hb genes displayed more polymorphism than α Hb genes. Two major allele types (β1A and β1B that differ by two linked non-synonymous substitutions (Met55Val and Lys62Ala were found in the β1 Hb gene, and the distribution of these β1A and β1B alleles among individuals was congruent with that of the HbI-1 and HbI-2 alleles determined by protein gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and Q-PCR analysis of the nine Hb genes indicates that all genes are expressed in adult fish, but their level of expression varies greatly; higher expression of almost all Hb genes was found in individuals displaying the HbI-2/2 electrophoretic type. Conclusion This study indicates that more Hb genes are present and expressed in adult

  17. Russian Port-Projects in the Baltic Sea: A Brief Analysis of Russian Ports and Projected Ports in the Baltic Sea Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Alf Brodin

    2001-01-01

    With its present borders, Russia faces severe limitations in port capacity in relation to the demand of the domestic industry and raw material producers. The Baltic states possess, on the other hand, a port capacity that vastly exceeds local demand and continues to attract large volumes of Russian transit cargo. In this paper, existing Russian ports on the Baltic Sea are described along with a number of proposed port projects in the Gulf of Finland. Future large scale development of new Russi...

  18. Expecting a Stock Market Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Abundant liquidity is expected to be the mainstay that helps to prop up the nation’s stock markets, according to the Economic Information Daily’s review of financial institutions’ research reports. Excerpts follow.

  19. Stock Market Index Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Eric

    1986-01-01

    Provides two computer programs, written in BASIC, to calculate average stock market price levels. The programs allow students to work directly from the raw price data that appear daily in the financial news. Teaching suggestions are provided. (JDH)

  20. Persistent collective trend in stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Emeric; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zs.; Néda, Zoltán

    2010-12-01

    Empirical evidence is given for a significant difference in the collective trend of the share prices during the stock index rising and falling periods. Data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and its stock components are studied between 1991 and 2008. Pearson-type correlations are computed between the stocks and averaged over stock pairs and time. The results indicate a general trend: whenever the stock index is falling the stock prices are changing in a more correlated manner than in case the stock index is ascending. A thorough statistical analysis of the data shows that the observed difference is significant, suggesting a constant fear factor among stockholders.

  1. Diversification effects between stock indices

    OpenAIRE

    Bissantz, Kathrin; Bissantz, Nicolai; Ziggel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    During the World Financial Crisis it became obvious that classical models of portfolio theory significantly under-estimated risks, especially with regard to stocks. Instabilities of correlations and volatilities, the relevant parameters characterizing risk, led to overestimation of diversification effects and consequently to under-estimation of risks. In this article, we analyze diversification effects concerning stocks during different market periods of the previous decade. We show ...

  2. Investments in Fallen Angel Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlfriedel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the research gap with regard to fallen angel stocks, thereby helping investors to make better investment decisions and bringing the investments styles of value and growth closer together. It is the first academic work that provides a systematic and empirically tested approach to investments in fallen angels by establishing a set of indicators to distinguish good (outperforming) from bad (underperforming) fallen angel stocks. Fallen angels are defined as companies with (i...

  3. Rational Bubbles in Stock Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad T. Diba; Grossman, Herschel I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports empirical tests for the existence of rational bubbles in stock prices. The analysis focuses on a familiar model that defines market fundamentals to be the expected present value of dividends, discounted at a constantrate, and defines a rational bubble to be a self-confirming divergence of stock prices from market fundamentals in response to extraneous variables. The tests are based on the theoretical result that, if rational bubbles exist, time series obtained by differenci...

  4. Stocks Reservoir report June 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report comprises a mean weekly summary of the raw data of the fish population of the Stocks Reservoir major tributaries in conjunction with completed maps, diagrams, tables and figures. These cover the Stocks tributary stream survey, the Fishery and fish plate impingement. This paper does not constitute a final report which the author intends to submit as a Ph.D. thesis. However, it does present much of the data and analysis completed in its final draft, which may be of immediate...

  5. Pricing options on defaultable stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tayibov, Khayyam

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we develop stock option price approximations for a model which takes both the risk o default and the stochastic volatility into account. We also let the intensity of defaults be influenced by the volatility. We show that it might be possible to infer the risk neutral default intensity from the stock option prices. Our option price approximation has a rich implied volatility surface structure and fits the data implied volatility well. Our calibration exercise shows that an effect...

  6. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  7. Comparing reconstructed past variations and future projections of the Baltic Sea ecosystem—first results from multi-model ensemble simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-model ensemble simulations for the marine biogeochemistry and food web of the Baltic Sea were performed for the period 1850–2098, and projected changes in the future climate were compared with the past climate environment. For the past period 1850–2006, atmospheric, hydrological and nutrient forcings were reconstructed, based on historical measurements. For the future period 1961–2098, scenario simulations were driven by regionalized global general circulation model (GCM) data and forced by various future greenhouse gas emission and air- and riverborne nutrient load scenarios (ranging from a pessimistic ‘business-as-usual’ to the most optimistic case). To estimate uncertainties, different models for the various parts of the Earth system were applied. Assuming the IPCC greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B or A2, we found that water temperatures at the end of this century may be higher and salinities and oxygen concentrations may be lower than ever measured since 1850. There is also a tendency of increased eutrophication in the future, depending on the nutrient load scenario. Although cod biomass is mainly controlled by fishing mortality, climate change together with eutrophication may result in a biomass decline during the latter part of this century, even when combined with lower fishing pressure. Despite considerable shortcomings of state-of-the-art models, this study suggests that the future Baltic Sea ecosystem may unprecedentedly change compared to the past 150 yr. As stakeholders today pay only little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies, more information is needed to raise public awareness of the possible impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. (letter)

  8. Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Viktorsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010 in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1, hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1 and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1. The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a

  9. Modelling towing and haul-back escape patterns during the fishing process: a case study for cod, plaice, and flounder in the demersal Baltic Sea cod fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Mieske, Bernd; Stepputtis, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    specially designed experiment. Results demonstrate that the escape process during towing cannot be described sufficiently by a traditional logistic model or something similar. Instead, a model is required that explicitly considers that not all fish necessarily contact the codend netting to attempt escape...... during the towing phase. A model that accounts for such behaviour is applied and it is demonstrated that this model can adequately describe the size selection process during towing. The overall escape process, which consists of the attempt probability, partial escape during towing, and partial escape...

  10. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hurd, Michael; Rooij, Maarten van; Winter, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior, stock ownership by households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to the investigation of this puzzle, recent research has elicited the expectations of stock market returns by individuals. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on stock ownership. On average stock market expectations are much m...

  11. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    . The present analysis is based on nine cruises each covering 5 stations visited between 24 May and 5 August 2010 comparing zooplankton abundance, cod gut content and distribution patterns. Cod 4–25 mm in length preferred prey of about 5 % of their own length. During ontogeny, their preferences changed......Feeding of fish depends on a spatial and temporal match with prey, and since larval and juvenile feeding can be highly selective, their preferences for given prey sizes and taxa should be considered when quantifying the actual availability of potential prey. We investigated the diet and prey...... preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time...

  12. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of  NH3 and NH4 and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3 are somewhat overestimated by the model. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south – north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 tonnes N km−2 in south and 0.2 tonnes N km−2 in north. The model results show that in 2000 the maximum deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year.

  13. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  14. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (Kd) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  15. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  16. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  17. Laser ablation studies of solid aerosols on the Baltic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jaworski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Berner cascade impactor was used for the separation of solid urban aerosols in two localities of the Baltic coastal macro-region - Słupsk and Hel - in different seasons and weathers. Ten ranges of aerodynamic diameters between 0.009 and 8.11 µm were used. The elementary composition for each diameter was obtained in a complex procedure consisting of laser ablation of deposits, then their successive ionization in an inductively coupled plasma generator, and finally, mass selection in a quadrupole spectrometer. Despite its complexity, the chemical element analysis method proved to be versatile, allowing the identification air pollution from natural and industrial sources, and road traffic.

  18. Study of radioactive materials in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the Coordinated Research Programme on the long-term behaviour of radionuclides entering in the Baltic Sea area, including their transport back to man, and some conclusions and recommendations together with the final reports given by the chief investigators on the activities performed during the entire coordinated research programme, from its inception in 1981 to its conclusion in 1984, as well as the results of Intercalibration Exercises. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  19. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  20. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.; Smedman, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    heterogeneous; the modifications primarily being caused by the land-sea contrasts. On the day with the weaker wind speed, sea-breeze circulations develop. As a consequence, the wind direction at lower levels is more or less opposite to the geostrophic over large areas of the Baltic Sea and the surface wind...... speed decreases with offshore distance. Wind speed maxima caused by the sea breezes are found along the east coasts in the studied area. For the other day, the slow growth of a stable internal boundary layer over the sea also gives a surface wind speed decrease with offshore distance from the coast....