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Sample records for balneology

  1. Balneological use of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2001-01-01

    People have used geothermal water and mineral waters for bathing and their health for many thousand of years. Balneology, the practice of using natural mineral water for the treatment and cure of disease, also has a long history. Based on archeological finds in Asia, mineral water has been used for bathing since the Bronze Age, about 5000 years ago. Many hot springs have been used in connection with religious rites in Egypt and by the Jews of the Middle East. The Greeks, Turks and Romans were famous for their spa development and use from Persia to England. The word “spa” traces its origin to a town near Liège in southern Belgium near the German border. Here a spring of iron-bearing water was used by an iron master in 1326 to cure his ailments. He founded a health resort at the spring called Espa (meaning fountain in the Walloon language). Espa became so popular that the word know in English as spa became the common designation for similar health resorts around the world.

  2. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  3. ABOUT GENERAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM IN ROMANIAN BALNEOLOGY

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    ILIE ROTARIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists

  4. Evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use

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    Yu.Ya. Dobush

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify natural resources potential of balneological resorts and evaluation of the level of its use by means of an integrated indicator. The article is dedicated to investigation of balneological resorts natural resources potential use, as one of the recommended potentials: namely: productive-economic, socio-economic and infrastructural. In this article the following is actualized: the question of necessity of evaluation of balneological resorts natural resources potential, with the aim of identifying a level of its use and showing possibilities of its use and providing recommendations regarding planning of recreational activities. This article deals with methodological approaches to evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use by domestic and foreign scientists, and possibilities of their improvement and development are displayed. The methodology of evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use by using an index of natural resources use, air quality index, index of resort landscaping is proposed in this article. The methods of evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use consists in use of standard and actual indicators on which the evaluation of possibilities of balneological resorts on placing tourists proceeding from stocks of natural resources, evaluation of cleanliness of air, proceeding from maximum permissible concentration of polluting substances thrown out in environment and evaluation of level of landscaping of balneological resorts, proceeding from the area of a resort occupied with green plantings is spent. The results of the analysis are the conclusion of an integrated indicator as average on weight factors of partial indicators that allows to evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use and identify areas of marketing strategy to ensure

  5. Air quality in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the quality of the surface atmosphere in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk (MCBRK) to treat by means of climate and landscape (TCL) of the patients suffering from bronchial asthma (PBA) [1]. 60 children (31 boys and 29 girls at the age of 9-11 years) were examined in the course of 34 days of the resort treatment in MCBRK, PBA (ICD-10 G45,0) in a remission stage. There have been used the data of the long-term bioclimatic monitoring (BCM) that is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol monitoring of IFA RAS, landscape monitoring of SNP in Kislovodsk Resort Park (KRP) as well as the data of medical monitoring, daily testing of meteopathic reactions (MPR), indicators dynamics of bronchial patency, cardiac rhythm, neurovascular reactivity, psychoemotional status of patients. TCL was carried out in the form of walks under the canopy of Betula pendula Roth., Salix f. pendula, acer platanoides globosum, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Phellodendron amurense, Tilia caucasica in KRP daily lasting from 1 till 2 hours. The results of a complex research showed that at TCL in KRP the favourable heat balance had 92% warm relations (TB300C), aerosol growth till 6-12 particles/cm3 in the blocking anti-cyclone. Conclusion: the surface atmosphere in KRP is mainly at the level of background rural territories, it is perspective for usage in the medical and improving purposes. Episodes of slightly polluted surface atmosphere are connected with forest fires, autopollution during the periods of the blocking anti-cyclones. References 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineral Vody region/Under the general edition of MD, prof. V.V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335p; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368p.

  6. Balneological outpatient treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis; an effective non-drug therapy option in daily routine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkuk, Kaǧan; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Mine; Barut, Yasemin; Eröksüz, Rıza; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of balneological treatments applied at consecutive and intermittent sessions without interfering with their daily routine in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Fifty patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were included. The patients were divided into two groups. All patients were given a total of ten sessions of balneological treatment consisting of hydrotherapy and mud pack therapy. Group 1 received consecutive treatment for 2 weeks, while group 2 received intermittent treatment for 5 weeks. Local peloid packs at 45 °C were applied for 20 min, after a tap water (38 °C) bath. Evaluations were conducted before, after treatment, and at 12th week of post-treatment by Pain (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Both balneological treatment regimens of knee osteoarthritis had statistically significant clinical effects as well as effects on the quality of life. Patients' well-being continued at 3 months, except for joint stiffness (WOMAC), role-emotional (SF-36), and vitality (SF-36) in group 1 and for mental health (SF-36) in both groups. Both patient groups had improved compared to baseline. However, at 3 months after the treatment, the well-being of group 2 was unable to be maintained in terms of role-physical (SF-36) parameter, while the well-being of group 1 was unable to be maintained in terms of pain, WOMAC (pain, physical functions, total), and SF-36 (physical functioning, role-physical, pain, role-emotional, and mental health) variables, compared to data obtained immediately after treatment. Our study suggests that traditional and intermittent balneological therapies have similar efficacy in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  7. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology

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    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as “medicine in health resorts” (or “health resort medicine”). Health resort medicine includes “all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation”. Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called

  8. RADON AND PROGENY SOURCED DOSE ASSESSMENT OF SPA EMPLOYEES IN BALNEOLOGICAL SITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard(®) with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m(-3) and 10 kBq m(-3) Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionary forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny. PMID:26424134

  9. RADON AND PROGENY SOURCED DOSE ASSESSMENT OF SPA EMPLOYEES IN BALNEOLOGICAL SITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard(®) with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m(-3) and 10 kBq m(-3) Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionary forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny.

  10. PROSPECTS OF MODIFICATION OF BALNEOLOGICAL REMEDIES WITH BIOGENEOUS METALLS NANOPARTICLES

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    M. B. Mamuchieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of mineral waters modification with biogeneous metals nanoparticles, since they have extremely important meaning for human's organism and their production in green and biologically compliant form is hard to overestimate. Russian scientists discovered low toxicity of these nanomaterials. So the use of biogeneuos metals in form of nanoparticles allows lowering of their toxicity compared with its use in forms of ions.

  11. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  12. 病态肥胖患者在接受治疗体重减少后C反应蛋白、肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素-6的水平变化%CRP, but not TNF-αor IL-6, decreases after weight loss in patients with morbid obesity exposed to intensive weight reduction and balneological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danuta RO; Przemysaw ADAMCZYK; Joanna BOINSKA; Robert SZAFKOWSKI; Irena PONIKOWSKA; Katarzyna STANKOWSKA; Barbara GRALCZYK; Barbara RUSZKOWSKA-CIASTEK

    2015-01-01

    significantly reduced. Conclusions:The decrease in CRP level without changes in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations after the low-calorie diet and balneological treatment, suggests that an essential amount of adipose tissue must be removed before proper adipocyte function is restored. The decrease in HOMA-IR indicates an improvement in insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial in obese patients.

  13. [The development of differentiated methods of balneological mud therapy for children with scoliotic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchuk, V N; Golubova, I F; Bikmetov, M S

    1990-01-01

    The trend in the aerobic reserve obtained from maximal oxygen utilization and other clinicophysiological indices was investigated for children with scoliosis stage I, II and III on pelotherapy and hydrokinesitherapy in the pool. The aim was to design therapeutic regiments differentiated by the patients' initial functional condition. Baseline reduction of the aerobic reserve was recorded in 35% of the examinees. The response to balneopelotherapy appeared more pronounced when the treatment was adjusted to initial functional condition of the child. Functional classes of scoliosis were defined to justify dosing of balneotherapy and peloids by temperature of water, mud, duration of the procedure and the whole course.

  14. Romanian Association of Balneology Conference – 2015, 28 – 31 May, Băile Tuşnad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Constantin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 1.\tProf. Onose G, MD, PhD, MSc, Univ. Assist. Haras MA, MD, PhD, Prof. Sinescu CJ, MD, PhD1,2, Univ. Assist. Daia CO, MD, PhD1,2, RDI Assist. Andone I, MD, Postgrad2, Onose VL, MD,3, Assist. Prof. Capisizu A, MD, PhD1,4, Prof. Grigorean VT, MD, PhD1,2, Assoc. Prof. Ciobotaru C, MD, PhD5,6, Sandu AM, MD, Postgrad.2, Assist. Prof. Blendea CD, MD, PhD7, 8 - BASIC WELLNESS FEATURES AND SOME RELATED ACTIONS, PROPENSIVE INCLUDING FOR ACTIVE AND HEALTHY AGEING - 2.\tOlga SURDU, T.V. SURDU, Monica SURDU - STATE OF ART of balneotherapy/thermalisme in Romania 3.\tIliuta Maria Alexandra - THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION IN HEALTH PROGRAMS 4.\tDr. Dogaru Gabriela - THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF MINERAL WATERS IN RENAL DISEASES 5.\tVeryho N.S. - THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF MINERAL WATER WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF HUMIC ACIDS IN EXPERIMENTAL HEPATITIS INDUCED BY ACETAMINOPHEN 6.\tIoana Marian - SPA SEEN AS AN EXTENSION OF A HEALTH RESORT - A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR INTEGRATING ROMANIA IN THE LIST OF GLOBAL WELLNESS TOURISM DESTINATIONS 7.\tBilha Neli-Claudia, Bilha Stefan - THE BALNEARY TREATMENT COURSE – A BREATH OF LIFE 8.\tBilha Neli-Claudia, Bilha Stefan - WICH SALT MINE DO YOU RECOMMEND FOR SPELEOTHERAPY? Interdisciplinary project proposal. 9.\tGáspár Boróka, Gabriela Dogaru - BALNEOTHERAPY IN THE BOGHIŞ RESORT 10.\tDr. Luminita Aurelia Pasca - REHABILITATION OF ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 11.\tDr. Luminita Aurelia Pasca, Dr. Valer Donca - GEROVITAL – PROPHYLAXIS OF AGING AND GERIATRIC TREATMENT 12.\tAndronache Cristina - IMPORTANCE OF REHABILITATION TREATMENT IN HEMOPHILIC ARTHROPATHY – A CASE REPORT 13.\tDr. Motricala Marieta, Molnar Akos - BALNEOTHERAPY IN BAILE TUSNAD 14.\tIoana Pop, Bianca Pop - MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN NEUROPATHIC PAIN 15.\tAmalia Salca¹, Nicoleta Stoica1, Gabriela Dogaru¹,² - BALNEOTHERAPY IN GONARTHROSIS 16.\tAlexandru Bogdan-Cătălin, Toşa Edith-Éva - USING PULSED SHORT WAVE (DIAPULSE COMPLEMENTARY TO PERIODONTITIS TREATMENT 17.\tDr. Tatar Daniela Monica, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Dr. Ungur Rodica - INFLUENCE OF NATURAL FACTORS ON BRONCHIAL ASTHMA 18.\tIspas Alexandra, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD ON THE REHABILITATION OF POST-STROKE PATIENTS 19.\tMaria Daniela Crăciun - IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN CLIMAX WITH KINETOTHERAPY AND NATURAL FACTORS IN VATRA DORNEI RESORT 20.\tDenisa Muresan, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTIVENESS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD FOR THE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE 21.\tGabriel Ranghiuc, Roxana Hodorogea, Asist.Dr.BioIng. Cătălina LUCA - STUDIUL TULBURĂRILOR MUSCULO-SCHELETALE UTILIZÂND ELECTROGONIOMETRIA ŞI ELECTROMIOGRAFIA 22.\tMonica Delia POP, Letitia Mihaela Morar - How do we protect ourselves of MALPRACTICE? MEDICAL MALPRACTICE - ACTUALITY, PERSPECTIVES AND SIGNIFICANTLY JURISPRUDENCE 23.\tOctavian D Olariu, Claudia Dascal, Ionut Cadar - REHABILITATION “KEY POINTS” IN ZONE V FLEXOR TENDONS INJURIES 24.\tSuceveanu Mihaela, Pop Dana, Suceveanu Paul, Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana, Zdrenghea Dumitru, Hâncu Nicolae - EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation IN CARDIOVASCULAR Diseases, COVASNA 25.\tCadar D Ionut, Dogaru B Gabriela - THE PHYSICAL THERAPY ROLE IN FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AFTER TOTAL SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY 26.\tDr. Glogojeanu Remus Relu, Dr. Bucur Ileana, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Kt. Glogojeanu Olivia Daniela - THE SIGNIFICANT RISKS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE AERONAUTICAL PERSONNEL. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT 27.\tTatiana Bihari, Denes Marton, Doina Moldovan - SILICONE IMPLANT ARTHROPLASTY OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT (PIPJ OF FINGER V OF THE RIGHT HAND – A THERAPEUTIC VARIANT IN POSTTRAUMATIC ARTHROSIS 28.\tPop Daniela Dogaru Gabriela, Stanescu Ioana, Pop Ioana - ROLE OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION TREATMENT IN POST-POLIO SYNDROME – A CASE REPORT 29.\tSuceveanu Mihaela, Suceveanu Paul, Pop Dana, Sitar Tǎut-Adela, Zdrenghea Dumitru, Hâncu Nicolae - ROLE OF MOFETTE THERAPY IN CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION - THE COVASNA MODEL 30.\tPop Ioana Pop Bianca - MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN STIFFMAN SYNDROME 31.\tIoana Stanescu - SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES 32.\tBreha Alexandru Mihai - THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION BY PHYSIOTHERAPY ON CHILDREN AND ADULTS DIAGNOSED WITH POSTTRAUMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE KNEE 33.\tDr. Silişteanu Sînziana Călina, Dr. Fiz. Antonescu Elisabeta - STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF KINESIOTHERAPY IN TREATING LBP 34.\tDr. Silişteanu Sînziana Călina, Dr.Fiz. Antonescu Elisabeta - STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PAIN, QUALITY OF LIFE AND DISABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL SPINE 35.\tIleana Filipescu, Alexandra Opris, Simona Rednic - MONITORING TREATMENT RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS UNDERGOING COMBINED THERAPY WITH TNF ALPHA –BLOCKERS AND DMARDS 36.\tTadeus Francisc Danelciuc - MBT PHYSIOTHERAPY DEVICE APPLICATIONS IN RECOVERY OF THE POSTURAL CONTROL THROUGH KINETIC PROGRAMS IN PATIENTS AFTER CVA

  15. [The efficacy of treating patients with allergic diseases at a health resort with a gastroenterologic profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, E V; Pavlushchenko, E V; Vaganova, V S; Paniushkina, O N

    1998-01-01

    45 allergic patients were treated in gastrointestinal sanatorium. Balneological and speleo modalities were employed. The clinical symptoms and humoral immunity indicated high efficacy of such treatment. The complex is recommended for introduction in gastrointestinal sanatoria. PMID:9987974

  16. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  17. Geothermal resource and utilization in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarian territory is rich in thermal water of temperature in the range of 20 - 100oC. The highest water temperature (98oC) is measured in Sapareva banya geothermal reservoir. Electricity generation from geothermal water is not currently available in the country. The major direct thermal water use nowadays covers: balneology, space heating and air-conditioning, domestic hot water supply, greenhouses, swimming pools, bottling of potable water and geothermal ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The total installed capacity amounts to about 77.67 MW (excl. GSHP) and the produced energy is 1083.89 TJ/year. Two applications - balneology and geothermal ground source heat pumps show more stable development during the period of 2005 - 2010. The update information on the state-owned hydrothermal fields is based on issued permits and concessions by the state.

  18. 1985-1995 - 10 years of geothermal drilling in Austria; 1985-1995 - 10 Jahre Geothermiebohrungen in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbrunner, J.

    1997-12-01

    From 1985 to 1995 19 deep drillings with a cumulative length of more than 35 were sunk in Austria for thermal water for energetic or balneological use. Most of the drillings took place in the Styrian Basin and the Upper Austrian Molasse basin, which are the most favourable reas for the exploitation of geothermal energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Zeitraum 1985-1995 war in Oesterreich durch eine intensive Tiefbohrtaetigkeit zur Erschliessung thermaler Tiefengrundwaesser gekennzeichntet. Insgesamt wurden 35.180 Bohrmeter niedergebracht. (orig.)

  19. Abnormal changes in the density of thermal neutron flux in biocenoses near the earth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N V; Smirnov, A N; Kolesnikov, M V; Semenov, D S; Frolov, V A; Lapshin, V B; Syroeshkin, A V

    2007-04-01

    We revealed an increase in the density of thermal neutron flux in forest biocenoses, which was not associated with astrogeophysical events. The maximum spike of this parameter in the biocenosis reached 10,000 n/(sec x m2). Diurnal pattern of the density of thermal neutron flux depended only on the type of biocenosis. The effects of biomodulation of corpuscular radiation for balneology are discussed. PMID:18214289

  20. Abnormal changes in the density of thermal neutron flux in biocenoses near the earth surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N V; Smirnov, A N; Kolesnikov, M V; Semenov, D S; Frolov, V A; Lapshin, V B; Syroeshkin, A V

    2007-04-01

    We revealed an increase in the density of thermal neutron flux in forest biocenoses, which was not associated with astrogeophysical events. The maximum spike of this parameter in the biocenosis reached 10,000 n/(sec x m2). Diurnal pattern of the density of thermal neutron flux depended only on the type of biocenosis. The effects of biomodulation of corpuscular radiation for balneology are discussed.

  1. Hydrochemical properties of deep carbonate aquifers in the SW German Molasse basin

    OpenAIRE

    Stober, I.; Bucher, K

    2015-01-01

    Background The Upper Jurassic (Malm) limestone and the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestone 18 are the major thermal aquifers in the southwest German alpine foreland. The aquifers 19 are of interest for production of geothermal energy and for balneological purposes. Methods Hydrochemical data from several hundred wells within two deep limestone aquifers in the Molasse basin of SW Germany have been compiled, examined, validated, and analyzed with the aim to characterize the fluids...

  2. [Amplipulse-magnetotherapy and iodine-bromine waters in combined treatment of patients with chronic nonspecific salpingo-oophoritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarustovskaia, O V; Rodina, E V; Orekhova, E M; Markina, L P

    2005-01-01

    Amplipulse-magnetotherapy was used as monotherapy and in combined treatment of 110 patients with chronic nonspecific salpingo-oophoritis (CNSO). Clinical assessment shows that transcerebral amplipulse-megnetotherapy (TAMT) has a positive effects on the course of CNSO, reproductive system and psychoemotional status of the patients. The addition of physical and balneological factors to TAMT enhances and prolongs neurotropic, endocrine, analgetic and anti-inflammatory effects of TAMT. PMID:16318000

  3. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  4. Management optimization in Thermal complex through water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reuse involves the concept of the exploitation of a previously used water, for a new, beneficial purpose. Actually, in Uruguay, thermal water is just utilised for balneological purposes, in this paper is proposed the water reuse taking the excess of used swimming pool water, and using it for heating and greenhouse irrigation, and australian lobster breeding. An important aspect of sustainable thermal water management is the protection of the exploted thermal water resources, so water reuse plays an important role in water resource, and ecosystem management, because it reduces the volume discharged and also reduces the risk of thermal pollution

  5. Geothermal energy in Europe; Geothermische Energie in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurter, S. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben (NLfB-GGA), Hannover (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Most European countries use some form of goethermal energy. Electric power generation is restricted to the tectonically and volcanically active areas (Iceland and the Mediterranean area). Lower enthalpy groundwaters are widely exploited in major sedimentary basins such as the North German Basin, the Paris Basin, and the Pannonian Basin. This energy is used in space and greenhouse heating, balneology and for industrial processes. The Hot-Dry-Rock technology is being developed to supply electric power from geothermal energy also in areas where groundwater supply is insufficient for current traditional power generation technology. (orig.)

  6. PARTICULAR ASPECTS ABOUT THE ROMANIEN BALNEOLOGY’S PRIVATISATION. CASE STUDY: SOVATA RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROTARIU ILIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania balneology has face the transition towards the free market, which meant important loses in turn over, services and quality. The privatization of establishments, ether by restitution or by transfer in private property use to be regarded as the common cause of today regression. We argue that the lack of a real and professional national politics for balneology might be the main cause. There are also some exceptions: Sovata resort is one of them, as the local manager of the former state company has well handled the privatization process, and has early involved an international capital: the Danubius hotel chain. It has taken long to modernize the facilities and some more time is still necessary to add new services, as spa or meetings, offered at a global standard. The paper highlight the whole process and some of the actions in progress. The paper highlight some proposal for a quickly issue from the actual state of facts. The main one reply on local forces, highlighting the resources and the tools which can be used by local actors in order to turn their resorts into a balneal destinations.

  7. [Max Hirsch founder of rheumatology in Germany: banished and murdered].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, W

    2014-08-01

    The Jewish physician and scientist Dr. Max Hirsch (1875-1941) made a substantial contribution to consolidation of the foundations of his professional discipline, balneology, and in particular developed the social aspects. He recognized the economic significance of diseases of the musculoskeletal system very early on and gathered important ideas from abroad. Together with the department head in the Prussian Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, the Privy Councillor Prof. Dr. Eduard Dietrich and later alone, he was editor of various balneological journals. He worked as general secretary of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie (German Society of Rheumatology) from the beginning of its existence (1927) and created the publication series Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumabekämpfung (Publications of the German Society against Rheumatism) and Rheuma-Jahrbuch (Annual review of rheumatology) in 1929, 1930 and 1931 and organized seven rheumatology congresses up to 1933. After the accession to power of the National Socialists, Max Hirsch and Eduard Dietrich were deposed from office. Hirsch emigrated to Latvia via Switzerland and the Soviet Union with his wife and one son where they were murdered in the course of the Jewish pogrom. The second son escaped with his family to Sweden.

  8. EURASIAN MINERAL WATER: MATHEMATICAL MODELING, CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR IMPACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kornilov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of comparative analysis of the composition of the Eurasian hydromineral resources and the assessment of their impact on the physiological condition of a human organism according to biochemical studies of venous blood are presented. Processing of initial data on the composition and properties of mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate- hydrocarbonate and chloride-sulphate types and venous blood are made using the method of mathematical modeling, developed by the authors of this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact of hydromineral resources on the body in the blood increases the hemoglobin and oxygen, decreases glucose, and acid-base pH shifted to high alkalinity.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF FLATFOOT AND WAYS OF REHABILITATION THERAPY IN CHILDREN

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    MUROD ZOKIRHODJAEV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer, roentgenologic, myographic, podometric, biochemical studies in 1427 children from 1 to 14 years old in 182 cases revealed the flatfoot; it had a straight proportional dependence from age and sexual differences. Suggested differential diagnostic table allows in short time to mark out the level of flatfoot on the base of taken results. Being reflected in scores, taken results are summed up, and, by general total, the level of flatfoot is determined. Determination of oxiproline (collagen element in urine serves as the confirmation of involution connective tissue at flatfoot. According to age changes of connecting tissue, a complex of conservative treatment, including physiotherapeutic means, TPE, plaster of Paris bandage, balneologic treatments, wearing insoles in shoes, taking multivitamin drugs, are offered

  10. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  11. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  12. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  13. Present state-of-the-art and strategy for development of geothermal energy in the world at the end of X X century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the present state-of-the-art for direct application of geothermal energy is given in the paper as follows: 1) For direct application of middle and low-temperature waters for district heating, in agriculture, aquaculture and different industrial processes and balneology; 2) For electricity production. A prognosis for future possible application of geothermal energy in 2020 is given according to two scenarios: i) based on the present compromise ecological politics, with an annual rise of 4% for electricity production and 2-3% for direct application of geothermal energy; and ii) based on the rigid ecological politics, with an annual rise of 6-8% for electricity production and 3% for direct application of geothermal energy. (Original)

  14. A brief report on the history of phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times, light has played a significant role in the treatment of diseases. The modern discoveries (eg, ultraviolet radiation) and modern inventions (eg, the electric generator or the electric lightbulb), as well as balneologic experiences of the treatment with sunlight, contributed to the transition from heliotherapy to artificial light phototherapy at the end of the 19th century. Nils Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904) was the founder of modern phototherapy. He is famous for applying an electric carbon arc torch in treating patients with lupus vulgaris using ultraviolet radiation. Subsequently, phototherapy using artificial light sources gained importance in the treatment of skin diseases with a noninfectious etiology. William Henry Goeckerman (1884-1954) chose an ultraviolet B light to treat psoriasis. Improvement in the effectiveness of dermatologic phototherapy occurred in 1947, when methoxypsoralen was isolated. During the 20th century, phototherapy was applied to new therapeutic areas, such as neonatology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. PMID:27638430

  15. Hydrobalneological methods in modern medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzisław Kuliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic methods combining balneology and hydrotherapy have been used in treatment and prevention for a long time. Their influence on the skin, based on mechanical, thermal, and hydrostatic stimuli, results in a reaction of the internal organs as well as the whole body. The most important effects of such procedures are changes within the cardiovascular system. Aim of the research: The use of hydrobalneological methods in modern medical treatment. Material and methods : The analysis focused on the influence of water jets at alternating temperatures in the treatment of functional cardiovascular disturbances with the use of non-invasive methods of autonomic nervous system function work-up based on the analysis of heart rate variability. The effect of the jets on heart rate and blood pressure was observed in 50 patients with first-degree hypertension, which was accompanied by radioelectrocardiographic (RECG assessment of the influence of underwater massage and carbonic acid baths on the cardiovascular system in patients undergoing these procedures due to Da Costa’s syndrome. Results : Water jets at alternating temperatures successfully modulate the tension within the autonomic nervous system and stimulate its parasympathetic part. Underwater massage is a gentle procedure and does not cause significant changes in heart rate and RECG tracing. Carbonic acid baths decrease autonomic nervous system excitability. Conclusions: The study results show a possibility of regulating autonomic nervous system function with the use of selected balneological and hydrotherapeutic methods, and thus influencing the functional level of the human body which is most appropriate for the requirements created by the internal and external environment of the body.

  16. Mineral waters of the Pannonian basin spas in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo Atila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fact itself that thermo-mineral waters and mud have healing effects has always attracted attention throughout the history to exploit, explore and study their benefit on the human body. Modern lifestyle and the speed of life endanger man’s psycho-physical health. This is why people more often return to old time proven values, the nature and natural health resorts. Objective. To establish hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral water and to summarize their balneological characteristics in spas, i.e., in rehabilitation centres of the Pannonian basin of the Republic of Serbia, where underground waters are still actively exploited for balneotherapy. Methods. By retrospective descriptive analysis, a recapitulation of hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral waters was made and their balneological characteristics were established in eight spas of the Pannonian basin. Results. The healing spas of the Pannonian basin are predominated by HCO3 (2.9 g/l - 4.6% milival, iodic (up to 6.5 mg/l, slightly alkaline (pH up to 8.1 thermal-mineral water (temperature up to 72°C, bounty to 36.6 l/s with a significant content of Br (up to 8.1 mg/l, Fe (to 6.0 mg/l, metaboron (up to 60 mg/l and metasilicon acid (up to 95 mg/l. They are used for external application, bathing and showering. Conclusion. Once the Pannonian Sea (the Paratethys, today a wide plain terrain is a tectonic depression of the lower Pannonian pont age with compact type aquifers. In the geological column of sedimentary rocks a large underground aquifer was formed with free water of high mineralization, high temperature and geothermal properties above the average in relation to the European hydrogeological standards. Therefore, the Pannonian basin can be rightly called a thermal valley with the predominance of sodium hydro-carbonate (alkaline iodine healing water of enviable abundance and reserves.

  17. Sapropel as a Binder: Properties and Application Possibilities for Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuka, V.; Šinka, M.; Kļaviņš, M.; Stankeviča, K.; Korjakins, A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent development trends largely look for possibilities of a wider use of natural materials and local resources. In this perspective, the use of organic rich lake sediment - sapropel - as a binding material in line with other environmentally friendly filling materials can be considered as a challenge. Sapropel itself is a valuable resource with multiple areas of application, for example, medicine, veterinary, agriculture, livestock farming, balneology, cosmetic applications, construction, and its application options have been widely studied in the 20th century in the Baltic countries, Ukraine and Russia. Birch wood fibre and sanding dust, hemp shives, ‘Aerosil’ are used as a filler and three types of sapropel are used as a binder in making composites. After material preparation and curing, physical and mechanical properties - density, thermal conductivity, compressive and flexural strength, were determined and compared to the data in the literature, and the opportunities to use them in the ecological construction were considered. The obtained results give insight into possibilities to use sapropel as a raw material, which can be considered as prospective material for construction materials and design products.

  18. Die thermalen Karbonat-Aquifere Oberjura und Oberer Muschelkalk im Südwestdeutschen Alpenvorland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Ingrid

    2013-12-01

    The upper Jurassic Malm limestone and the middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestone are the major thermal aquifers in the southwest German alpine foreland. The aquifers could be of interest for the production of geothermal energy and for balneological purposes. The hydraulic and hydrochemical properties of the two aquifers differ in several respects. Hydraulic conductivity in both carbonate aquifers decrease with depth but to different extents. The variation of the hydraulic conductivity is, particularly in the Upper Jurassic aquifer, related to lithological variations and the degree of karstification. The total amounts of dissolved solids are much higher within the Upper Muschelkalk-aquifer than within the Upper Jurassic. The hydraulic properties influence the hydrochemical characteristics to some extent. The hydraulic potential of the two aquifers can be very different with differences in hydraulic head of up to several 100 m. Also flow directions may vary markedly. The geothermal potential of the two thermal aquifers beneath the Molasse basin of Baden-Württemberg is likely to be significantly lower than that in the area of Munich (Bavaria) where the Upper Jurassic aquifer is the major producer of geothermal energy.

  19. Analysis of thermal water utilization in the northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented research aims at identification of thermal water users in NE Slovenia, at finding type and amountof the produced thermal water as well as its utilization practice. The energetic overview has been upgradedby a description of current observational monitoring practice and thermal waste water management, but technologicalproblems of thermal water use and their mitigation are discussed also. We have ascertained that 14 of 26active geothermalwells tap the Mura Formation aquifer in which the only reinjection well is perforated also. Totalthermal water abstraction summed to 3.29 million m3 in 2011. Cascade use of thermal water is abundant, whereindividual space and sanitary water heating is followed by heating of spa infrastructure and balneology. Greenhouseheating systems and district heating were also identified. Operational monitoring of these geothermal wellsis generally insufficient, and geothermal aquifers are overexploited due to decades of historical water abstraction.All these facts indicate the need for applying appropriate measures which will improve their natural conditions aswell as simultaneously enable further and even higher thermal water utilization in the future.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOST PROMISING TOURIST REGIONS OF ABKHAZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inar Murmanovich Kakaliya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristics of the most promising tourist regions of Abkhazia. Along with the modernization of the existing tourist infrastructure, it is proposed to develop new trends in tourism – ecotourism, gastronomic, rural, ethnic, archeological, that are effective in the south-eastern region. It will increase tourist flow in Abkhazia. The southeast region of Abkhazia is sparsely populated due to the displacement of the entire infrastructure into the north-western part and it is promising for the development of such increasingly popular alternative types of tourism as extreme, ecological, birdwatching.It is advisable to develop a balneal mountain-climate resort Auadhar (as a representative project in this sector of the republic. The infrastructure of the balneological and mountain climatic resort is: resort polyclinic, balneary, drinking gallery, pump-room of the springs, numerous hotels, rest-houses and sanatoriums.The natural and climatic base in many aspects corresponds to, and in a number of objects even exceeds the world's largest resorts. The strengths of the Republic of Abkhazia are in its natural-touristic-recreational, agricultural, and resource potential. The Black Sea zone and the Colchis lowland areas are considered as the most favorable areas for crop development. Abkhazia has the potential to develop different types of tourism: traditional spa treatment, extreme tourism - caving and mountaineering. Compact location of many historical artifacts allows to combine different types of tourism and to see many places of interest within a short period of time.

  1. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  2. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  3. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  4. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  5. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  6. Anthropocene and bioclimatic potential of mountain resorts in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of anthropocene (A) on natural curative resources (NCR) of the mountain resorts in the North Caucasus (MRNC) according to long-term monitoring (M) of NCR condition which is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol M of IFA RAS, landscape M of SNP, and also references on the state of the environment (E). The healthcare effects of NCR were estimated from the position of the methods[1] accepted in balneology. Typification of anthropogenous factors of the surface atmosphere for MRNC is constructed on the basis of semirational analysis of rehabilitation properties of climate and landscape studied in the course of recovery treatment and health-improving rest of profile patients in clinics of PRIC FMBA taking into account the factors of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere by the technique[2]. In the development of A in the MRNC it is possible to allocate three conditional periods: - 1803 - 1880 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is almost not changed (10-20%), there were the first signs of influence A on E; - 1881-1970 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is slightly changed (21-70%), the formation of new forms of the resort landscape and town-planning, the development of mountain-sanitary control zone to decrease anthropogenic pollution of E. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2,35-2,75 points; 78-92%); - 1971-2015 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is moderately transformed (71-85%), there is a consolidation of building of city and resort zones, signs of global climate change (the increase in the annual amount of precipitation by 10% (since 2002), episodes of excessive heat (Tmax >30°C) for 12.4%, thermal balance of the person is higher than +600 W/m2 for 11%. There have been revealed some new specific rehabilitation properties of NCR and there have been denoted some criteria of their protection. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2

  7. Research project ``Geoscientific, geotechnological and process-related research to optimize the available processes for geothermal energy utilisation under the aspect of long-term exploitation``; Forschungsprojekt ``Geowissenschaftliche, geotechnologische und verfahrenstechnische Forschungsarbeiten zur Vervollkommnung des Verfahrens der Nutzung geothermischer Ressourcen im Hinblick auf das Langzeitverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohstock, B.; Schneider, H. [Geothermie Neubrandenburg GmbH (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The research project was started with the objective of developing the essential geological-technical-technological parts of the utilisation of highly-mineralised thermal waters for heating. It is based on the findings from the drilling and testing of 29 deep geothermal wells, the erection and operation of Geothermal Heating Stations in Northeast Germany until 1990. The operation of the Waren (Mueritz) and Neubrandenburg Geothermal Heating Stations including their modernisation and the solution of problems which occurred sometimes give proof of the principal technical-technological implementability of thermal water utilisation for energetic purposes. Matter of concern is the recirculation of the thermal water after being used for balneological purposes to the main flow of water used for energetic purposes without affecting subsequent reinjection. The conditioning of the thermal water before and after use for bathing and balneo-therapeutic purposes is another problrm. The essential results are presented here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsvorhaben wurde mit dem Zeit der Vervollkommnung der wesentlichen geologisch-technisch-technologischen Teilbereiche der waermeseitigen Nutzung von hochmineralisierten Thermalwaessern aufgenommen. Die mit dem Niederbringen und Testen von 29 Geothermie-Tiefbohrungen, der Errichtung und dem Betrieb der Geothermischen Heizzentralen in Nordostdeutschland bis 1990 gewonnen Erkentnisse bildeten dabei die Grundlage. der seither fortgesetzte Betrieb der Geothermischen Heizzentralen in Waren (Mueritz) und Neubrandenburg einschliesslich deren Modernisierung sowie die zwischenzeitlich aufgetretenen und im positiven Sinne geloesten Probleme unterstreichen die grundsaetzlich geloeste technisch-technologisce Realisierbarkeit der waermetechnischen Thermalwassernutzung. Zu loesen ist die Problematik der Aufbereitung des stofflich zu nutzenden Thermalwassers vor und nach Einsatz im Bade- und medizinisch-therapeutischen Bereich. Im Vortrag werden die

  8. [Sudeck syndrome of the hand. Historical review, treatment concept and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rothkirch, T; Blauth, W; Helbig, B

    1989-05-01

    The literature on the etiology, pathogenesis, and therapy of Sudeck's atrophy is reviewed. The authors present their treatment regimen for reflex dystrophic hands that has been used successfully for more than twenty years. This program consists of a combination including drugs as well as physical and occupational therapy. Patients have to be guided psychologically. In-patient treatment is preferred. The ultimate aim of therapy is to restore the functional integrity of the affected hand. The choice of therapy depends on the stage of the disease. Removing pain and edema is the most important aim in stage I. This is achieved by immobilization of the affected extremity in an upward position, cooling the hand with ice, and careful physiotherapy supported by antiphlogistic drugs. In stage II the physiotherapy has to be intensified and should be supplemented by special balneologic (bathing) measures and functional splints. The ipsilateral shoulder can be affected and has to be treated adequately. In stage III additional surgical treatment might be helpful such as arthrolysis, arthroplasty, or arthrodesis of finger joints. The authors report on their results in seventy-seven dystrophic hands in a long-term follow-up between one and fourteen years. The results depend on the begin of the treatment in the different stages of the disease. Eighty-three percent of the patients were cured in stage I, only thirty-one percent in stage II, and no patient in stage III. The authors' experience using Calcitone shows that it has no influence on the functional results. Comparing their results to those obtained by others, the authors conclude that physical and occupational therapy are decisive in dealing with dystrophic hands. PMID:2472312

  9. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  10. Effect of comprehensive intervention for bone mineral density of patients with cerebral apoplexy in stroke unit mode%在卒中单元模式下应用综合干预对脑卒中男性患者骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小辉; 刘楠; 周柏玉; 王静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application of comprehensive intervention for bone mineral density of patients with cerebral apoplexy in stroke unit mode. Methods The lumbar bone mineral density(BMD) of 400 male patients with stroke aged 40 to 75 years old was detected by using dual energy X-ray BMD apparatus and given rehabilitation exercise,nutrition,daylight balneology,therapeutic interventions,caring for protection,comprehensive health education intervention measures,again 12 months after the detection of lumbar bone mineral density(BMD). Results After the intervention,the bone density of the age bracket was improved obviously. Conclusion Comprehensive interventions can improve the bone mineral density in male patients with stroke.%目的 探讨在卒中单元模式下应用综合干预对脑卒中男性患者骨密度的影响.方法 采用双能X线BMD仪对400例年龄40~75岁脑卒中男性患者检测腰椎骨密度(BMD)并给予康复锻炼、膳食营养、日光浴疗、治疗干预、关爱防护、健康教育等综合干预措施,12个月后再次检测腰椎骨密度(BMD).结果 干预后较干预前各年龄段骨密度明显提高.结论 综合干预措施能提高脑卒中男性患者骨密度,降低骨量减少的比率.

  11. Geothermal energy statistics 2002-2003 for Switzerland; Projekt 'Statistik Geothermische Nutzung der Schweiz fuer die Jahre 2002 und 2003'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, S.; Andenmatten Bertoud, N.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.

    2004-07-01

    Herein, the Swiss geothermal energy production of the years 2002 and 2003 is statistically compiled. Again, an increase of the total geothermal-driven energy can be noted, reaching more than 1.1 TWh, with a geothermal energy share greater than 860 GWh. (The difference is the non-geothermal energy needed by the heat pump systems involved.) Since 2000 the installed capacity could be increased by 20%, i.e. 40 MW per year. Geothermal energy is mainly used in combination with heat pump- (HP-) systems for heating purposes (>700 GWh), of which >80% are produced by borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems. The remaining HP-utilization splits up into ground water utilization (about 15%), deep BHE, foundation pile systems and tunnel water. Non HP-dependent geothermal utilizations are mainly thermal-springs applications for balneological use. Their contribution is nearly constant over the year. Together with the HP sales figures, the BHE drilling meters are now included in the present statistics. Since 2003, the compilation of the drilled lengths also includes the specifications of BHE fields with more than 10 BHE each. Such BHE fields make up >10% of the total drilled length. More and more frequently, such fields are used for the cooling of buildings as well. In order to clearly display these geothermal applications in the future, such BHE fields should be systematically registered, as it is now done for foundation pile systems and BHE systems. Of great importance for the promotion of geothermal energy are the activities of the Center of Competence 'Geothermal energy' and its regional information centers. The currently available funding allows the financing of information and know-how dissemination as well as education. All of these activities are essential for a further increase in geothermal energy production. (author)

  12. From sulphur to perfume: spa and SPA at Monchique, Algarve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Cristiana

    2011-04-01

    In the thermal village of Monchique, Algarve, different streams of water-related knowledge and practices coexisted for centuries. Those waters were traditionally known as aguas santas (holy waters) and believed to have redemptive healing powers. In the seventeenth century, the Catholic church took control of the place, refashioned the bathing rituals, developed infrastructures and provided assistance to the patients, granting free treatment to the poor. In the nineteenth century, the state replaced the church and imposed that treatments should be provided by professionals trained in the scientific principles of medical hydrology. Secular and scientific as they were, clinical logbooks still allowed for the account of patients that embodied miracle-like redemptive cures 'at the third bath'. People went to Monchique both for its magic and its medicine, bringing in the body ailments achieved in their lives of hard labour. They also went there for a socialising break while healing. From mendicants to rich landowners, coming mostly from the Algarve and neighbouring Alentejo, they crowded the place in summertime. In the twentieth century, as in other places in continental Europe, the spa evolved into a highly medicalised place that qualified for medical expenses reimbursements, which implied the eclipsing--at least from representation--of its leisure component. In the twenty-first century, a new trend of consumer-centred, market-based, post-water balneology with an emphasis on wellness and leisure reinvented the spa as place for lush and diversified consumption. This article argues that the seemingly contradictory systems (markets and medicine) coexist much in the same way that magic, religion and medicine coexisted in the old water sites. The new SPAs, rather than putting an end to the old spas, have enabled them to survive by reinventing thermal sites as places of attraction and leisure.

  13. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  14. Assessment of sulfurous springs in the west of Iraq for balneotherapy, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Salih Muhammad; Al-Ghani, Sura Abdul

    2014-06-01

    This research deals with the sulfurous spring waters flow along the course of the Euphrates River in western Iraq in the area extended between Haqlaniya and Hit within the Al-Anbar governorate. Eleven springs (3 in Haqlanya, 4 in Kubaysa and 4 in Hit) have been addressed for the purpose of water evaluation for balneology, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture (fish farming). In order to meet the objectives of this research, all springs were sampled and analyzed for the total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+)), major anions (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-) and CO(3)(2-)), minor anions (PO(4)(3-)and NO(3)(-)) as well as the trace elements that included Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cu, Br, F, Ba, B, Sr, Al, As, Cr, Hg and Se. The International Standards of World Health Organization are used for assessing the water quality. The results revealed that the springs belong to the tepid springs of 27-30 °C and classified as hypothermal to the thermal springs. Lithochemistry and geochemical processes clearly affected the water chemistry. The hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the element enrichment in water by the chemical dissolution of carbonate and gypsum and evaporation as well. The results of the study indicate the possibility of using spring water for therapeutic purposes, but not allowed for drinking and aquaculture (fish farming), except those free of H(2)S gas. On the other hand, it can be used for irrigation with risk. However, soil type as well as proper selection of plants should be taken into consideration. PMID:23887869

  15. Application of a Hybrid Uf-Ro Process to Geothermal Water Desalination. Concentrate Disposal and Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been confirmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, fluorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efficiency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.

  16. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  17. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  18. The role of waste thermal water in the soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Kitti; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Thermal water exploitation is widespread, because it is considered to a "green" renewable energy source, the transporter of the Earth crust's heat. It is suitable for very diverse purposes: balneology, heating, mineral water, municipal hot water supply, technological water, etc. After usage, large amount of thermal water becomes sewage water with high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, ammonia, nitrate, and high temperature. Besides that, most of these waters have an unfavourable ion composition. Na+ (and in some cases Mg+) is predominant among cations. A common way of treatment is to let off the waste thermal water in unlined ground channels to leak into the soil. This can cause physical and chemical soil degradation. Continouos Na+ supply occurs, that occupies the place of Ca2+ on the ion exchange surfaces. Thus, adverse effects of Na+ can appear, like formation of extreme moisture regime, peptization, liquefaction. Beside Na+, Mg2+ also helps the formation of physical degradation in the soil. High water retain and unfavourable structure evolves. Not only the physical features of the soil are touched, fertility of production sites as well. Namely sorrounding the unlined ground channels, agricultural areas are seated, so it is important to protect productivity of the soil to maintain yield. Because of the seepage of high salt concentration waters, salt accumulation can be observed near to the channel lines. The investigated sample sites are located in the Great Hungarian Plane. We determined the main pollutants of the thermal waters, and the effects to the sorrounding soils. On two selected investigation areas (Cserkeszőlő, Tiszakécske) salt profiles and Na+ adsorption isotherms are presented to characterize soil degradation. Genetic soil types are differ on the investigated areas, so the aspect of impact is different, as well.

  19. THE UTILIZATION STRUCTURE OF THERMAL WATER WELLS AND ITS UNEXPLOITED CAPACITIES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALÁZS KULCSÁR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate Hungary’s vulnerability in energy supply and accomplish the renewable energy production targets, it is essential to discover exploitable alternative opportunities for energy production and step up the utilization of the available capacities. The purpose of this publication is to map up the utilization structure of the existing Hungarian thermal water wells, describe its changes over the past 16 years, reveal the associated reasons and define the unutilized well capacities that may contribute to increasing the exploitation of geothermal heat by municipalities. The studies have been conducted in view of the Cadaster of Thermal Water Wells of Hungary compiled in 1994, the well cadasters kept by the regional water management directorates, as well as the data of the digital thermal water cadaster of 2010. The calculations performed for the evaluation of data have been based on the ratios and respective utilization areas of the existing wells. In the past 150 years, nearly 1500 thermal water wells have been drilled for use by a broad range of economic operations. The principal goals of constructing thermal water wells encompass the use of water in balneology, water and heat supply to the agriculture, hydrocarbon research and the satisfaction of municipal water demands. In 1994, 26% of the facilities was operated as baths, 21% was used by agriculture, while 13% and 12% served communal and waterworks supply, respectively. Then in 2010, 31% of thermal water wells was continued to be used for the water supply of bathing establishments, followed by 20% for agricultural use, 19% for utilization by waterworks, 11% for observation purposes and 10% for communal use. During the 16 years between 1994 and 2010, the priorities of utilization often changed, new demands emerged in addition to the former utilization goals of thermal water wells. The economic landscape and changes in consumer habits have transformed the group of consumers, which

  20. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  1. Psoriasis--a dermatological enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, D

    1998-01-01

    At the beginning, the interdisciplinary character of psoriasis encroaching into numerous fields of medicine as well as non-medical sciences is emphasized. The disease has been found an interesting field for genetic studies, also entering the fields of endocrinology and pathophysiology, and as a psychosomatic phenomenon arising many questions in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. With the associated joint and bone alterations, psoriasis is an intriguing problem for an array of medical disciplines, e.g., rheumatology, orthopedics, physical medicine and balneology. Pediatrics is involved through psoriasis in children, and ophthalmology through ocular symptoms of the disease. The therapeutic use of ultraviolet rays introduces psoriasis in the field of photobiology, and the impact of diet into the domain of dietetics. Also, alternative medicine is involved to a greater extent in psoriasis than in any other disease. This survey is followed by a historical account of psoriasis, revealing that the disease was known in all periods of the development of mankind that have left written documents behind. However, it was only toward the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century that psoriasis was recognized and described as a unique and independent disease. The prevalence of psoriasis in Europe und USA ranges between 1.5%-2% and 0.5%-1.5%, respectively. The disease is rare in blacks, Indians and yellow race, whereas in Eskimos it is not found at all. Then, psoriasis is presented as a hereditary disease, the onset of which requires the action of so-called provocative factors triggering the hereditary elements. Psoriasis most commonly develops at the age of 20-50 years, i.e. during the most active period of man's life. Then, the morphological classification of psoriasis according to clinical picture is presented, with a historical account of pathophysiologic and etiologic concepts over the past hundred years. And finally, the basic trends and concepts

  2. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  3. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWth, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  4. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  5. Energy of our planet; La energia de nuestro planeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alvarado, Ignacio; Santoyo Gutierrez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The total heat flowing from the Earth's interior to the surface is estimated at {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) of which 19% comes from the crust, the 76% comes from the mantle and the 5% comes from the nucleus. The ability to drive the heat of the rocks is very low, causing the need of hundreds of millions of years to exhaust this energy resource. Based on the properties of the renewable heat flow and the long geological times required for its exhaustion, the Earth energy is considered by many scientists as a source of inexhaustible renewable energy, and by its natural availability in all parts of our planet, perhaps the best distributed, together with solar energy. One of the most important advantages of geothermal energy is that its energy can be used not only to generate electric power, but in a large number of applications or direct uses: the heating of buildings, greenhouses or incubators; aquaculture; in various industrial processes (drying products, food packaging, paper manufacturing, chemicals, etc.); balneology for recreational purposes and medicines, and many other applications. In fact, geothermal applications can be integrally one after another or in processes in cascade to fully utilize its energy content. [Spanish] El calor total que fluye del interior de la Tierra hacia la superficie se estima en {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) del cual 19% proviene de la corteza, el 76% proviene del manto y el 5% proviene del nucleo. La capacidad para conducir el calor de las rocas es muy baja, lo que ocasiona que se necesiten cientos de millones de anos para agotar este recurso energetico. Basado en las propiedades renovables del flujo de calor y los largos tiempos geologicos requeridos para su agotamiento, la energia de la Tierra es considerada por muchos cientificos como una fuente de energia renovable, practicamente inagotable, y por su disponibilidad natural en todo nuestro planeta, quizas la mejor distribuida, junto con la energia solar. Una de las ventajas mas

  6. Specific weather biotrop factors in the mountain resorts of North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2015-04-01

    disadaptation are under the risk of expanding meteopathic reactions which require medical intervention. Long-term performance of medical weather forecast system (MWFS) has proved its high social role - the effectiveness of spa rehabilitation of people with disadaptation in RNC through planned meteoprophylaxis increases by 20-30% [1]. Unfortunately, there are still many methodological aspects of forecasting biotropic situations for balneology which are insufficiently studied in the aspect of MWFS. It is necessary to develop new directions in the field of Biometeorology. Reference 1. The health of the population of Russia: the influence of the environment in a changing climate/monograph. Under the editorship of Academician A. Grigoriev; The Russian Academy of Sciences. -Moscow: Nauka, 2014. - P. 355-370.

  7. TECHIRGHIOL - 115 YEARS OF BALNEOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    2015-06-01

    therapy in knee osteoarthritis” - Antonella Fioravanti, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Chiara Giannitti, Giovanni Bacaro, Mauro Galeazzi 1030 – 1050 Dr. Rzig Ouelasti – deputy Director of Naţional Office of Thermalisme, Tunisia “Mud therapy in Tunisia: applications methods, results, review of research” 1050 - 1110 Prof. Dr. Jacek Chojnowski – MD, Ph.D. President of Polish Association of Balneology and Physical Medicine, Head of Department of Metabolic Diseases Clinic of Balneology and Metabolic Diseases, Ciechocinek Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń Medicine “Peloid therapy în Poland: methods, effectiveness, review of research” 1110 - 1130 Dr. Ahmed Belaitar - Algeria “Thermal Situation of Hammam Chellala 2013” 1130 – 1150Prof. Dr. Onose Gelu, MD, PhD, University of Medicine and Pharmacy” Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania, Head of the P (neural-muscular RM Discipline/Clinic Division - the National Reference Centre for Neuro Rehabilitation - and of its RDI Nucleus “Basic Wellness Features and Some Related Actions Propensive Including for Active and Healthy Ageing” 1200 – 1300 Workshop: „Medicina bazată pe dovezi – de la abordarea ştiinţifică la medotolatratrie” moderator: Conf. Olga Surdu, medic primar Recuperare, Medicină Fizică şi Balneologie, doctor în Medicină, Universitatea Ovidius, Facultatea de Medicină, S.B.R.Techirghiol 1500 – 1800 Session III- „Nămolul mecanisme de acţiune şi modalităţi de aplicare” 1500 – 1520 Dr. Demirgian Sibel, medic primar Recuperare, Medicină Fizică şi Balneologie, doctor în Medicină, S.B.R.Techirghiol "Beneficiile terapeutice ale nămolului sapropelic de Techirghiol în sindromul algic posttraumatic" Autori: S. Demirgian, M. Minea, L. E. Stanciu, O. Surdu 1520 - 1540 Drd. Stanciu Liliana Elena, medic specialist Recuperare, Medicină Fizică şi Balneologie, S.B.R.Techirghiol “Implicaţiile fiziopatologice ale nămolului sapropelic de Techirghiol în gerontoprofilaxie

  8. Therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    vulgaris. The transferability of the health economic evaluations is strongly limited by the fact that all included health economic evaluations except one were not aligned to a German setting. A future research question will be the evaluation of the duration of remission and relapse ratios in the context of different therapy options of moderate and severe psoriasis. Moreover, the consideration of combined outcomes such as the improvement of psoriatic symptoms and the decrease of symptoms in accompanying psoriasis arthritis represents a future requirement of health assessment. Conclusions: From the clinical point of view it is positive that the spectrum of therapeutic procedures for a chronic severe skin disease has increased continuously during the last years. In cases of individual contraindications or individual inefficacies it is now possible to try alternative approaches. Moreover the risk of long-term side effects can be reduced by changing the therapeutical procedure after some time (so-called rotation therapy. The therapeutical algorithm for severe psoriasis vulgaris now includes photo(chemo-therapy in combination with topical substances, oral fumaric acid esters, retinoids (in combination with phototherapy or topical substances, methotrexate, cylosporine and the new biologics. Future studies should address therapeutical approaches which can not easily be studied by RCT, e.g. physical, balneological, climate approaches, educational programs and complex rehabilitation therapy which all may have positive effects on individuals with severe psoriasis. As in medical therapy management of moderate and severe psoriasis the economic evaluation also points out the way of a strategic therapy concept which corresponds to a large extent to the algorithm in medical practice.

  9. Potential environmental conflicts in the area of the energy component of natural resource complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie.V. Khlobystov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to identify potential and probable factors of environmental conflicts (EC larger amount of energy component of natural resource complex (NRC. Development of natural resource complex occurs in several ways to use them, in particular, with the position of the energy component of these methods were not considered in modern ecological and economic studies. The use of NRC for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency may determine through the essence of the principles and approaches to identifing of the potential of EC that can be implemented by defining the opportunities for renewable energy, usage of recreational, balneological and assimilation functions of natural resource complex and expensive analysis of these features, given the potential conflict of territorial development. The results of the analysis. Natural resource conflicts are the result of conflicts caused by limited quantity and quality of natural resources as between entities within the territorial social and economic systems and between different territorial systems. Energy potential of NRC can be defined as a set of certain characteristics, situation and processes that form the state energy supply a certain area at the projected use of resources. Energy potential of NRC includes such elements as natural resources and environmental sustainability, capacities for production, processing and transportation of energy. At the same time this potential has the dualistic nature, being the component part of both natural recourses and productive potential of the region. It is necessary to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively potential minerals. Quantitative characteristic provides identification of stocks of raw materials or fuel in the field of NRC, which can be used. They are divided on two type’s balance and off-balance sheet. To balance belong reserves, production and processing of which are economically viable in the achieved