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Sample records for ballistic impact laboratory

  1. Ballistic impact response of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Zhaoxu; Qin, Xin; Keten, Sinan

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic agent loaded micro and nanoscale particles as high-velocity projectiles can penetrate cells and tissues, thereby serving as gene and drug delivery vehicles for direct and rapid internalization. Despite recent progress in developing micro/nanoscale ballistic tools, the underlying biophysics of how fast projectiles deform and penetrate cell membranes is still poorly understood. To understand the rate and size-dependent penetration processes, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the ballistic impact of spherical projectiles on lipid membranes. Our simulations reveal that upon impact, the projectile can pursue one of three distinct pathways. At low velocities below the critical penetration velocity, projectiles rebound off the surface. At intermediate velocities, penetration occurs after the projectile deforms the membrane into a tubular thread. At very high velocities, rapid penetration occurs through localized membrane deformation without tubulation. Membrane tension, projectile velocity and size govern which phenomenon occurs, owing to their positive correlation with the reaction force generated between the projectile and the membrane during impact. Two critical membrane tension values dictate the boundaries among the three pathways for a given system, due to the rate dependence of the stress generated in the membrane. Our findings provide broad physical insights into the ballistic impact response of soft viscous membranes and guide design strategies for drug delivery through lipid membranes using micro/nanoscale ballistic tools.

  2. Simulation of depth of penetration during ballistic impact on thick ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One-dimensional discrete element model for the ballistic impact is used ... Simulation of ballistic impact process has been done using several ..... MATLAB 7.0 platform is used to simulate impact process using 1-D DEM and to perform the.

  3. Towards reliable simulations of ballistic impact on concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoe, Y.S.; Tyler Street, M.D.; Maravalalu Suresh,, R.S.; Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against weapon effects like ballistic impacts, fragmenting shells and explosions is the core business of the Explosions, Ballistics and Protection department of TNO (The Netherlands). Experimental and numerical research is performed to gain and maintain the knowledge to support the Dutch

  4. Buildings vs. ballistics: Quantifying the vulnerability of buildings to volcanic ballistic impacts using field studies and pneumatic cannon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. T.; Kennedy, B. M.; Wilson, T. M.; Fitzgerald, R. H.; Tsunematsu, K.; Teissier, A.

    2017-09-01

    Recent casualties in volcanic eruptions due to trauma from blocks and bombs necessitate more rigorous, ballistic specific risk assessment. Quantitative assessments are limited by a lack of experimental and field data on the vulnerability of buildings to ballistic hazards. An improved, quantitative understanding of building vulnerability to ballistic impacts is required for informing appropriate life safety actions and other risk reduction strategies. We assessed ballistic impacts to buildings from eruptions at Usu Volcano and Mt. Ontake in Japan and compiled available impact data from eruptions elsewhere to identify common damage patterns from ballistic impacts to buildings. We additionally completed a series of cannon experiments which simulate ballistic block impacts to building claddings to investigate their performance over a range of ballistic projectile velocities, masses and energies. Our experiments provide new insights by quantifying (1) the hazard associated with post-impact shrapnel from building and rock fragments; (2) the effect of impact obliquity on damage; and (3) the additional impact resistance buildings possess when claddings are struck in areas directly supported by framing components. This was not well identified in previous work which may have underestimated building vulnerability to ballistic hazards. To improve assessment of building vulnerability to ballistics, we use our experimental and field data to develop quantitative vulnerability models known as fragility functions. Our fragility functions and field studies show that although unreinforced buildings are highly vulnerable to large ballistics (> 20 cm diameter), they can still provide shelter, preventing death during eruptions.

  5. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  6. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  8. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  10. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Randjbaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  11. Development of an Advanced Composite Material Model Suitable for Blast and Ballistic Impact Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, C. F; Cheeseman, B. A

    2004-01-01

    A robust composite progressive failure model has been successfully developed to account for the strain-rate and pressure dependent behavior of composite materials subjected to high velocity ballistic impact...

  12. Function-Oriented Material Design of Joints for Advance Armors Under Ballistic Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Raju, Basavaraju

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a system of software tools based on a new design methodology for the efficient composite armor structural design under ballistic impact loading conditions...

  13. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  14. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  15. Ballistic resistance of honeycomb sandwich panels under in-plane high-velocity impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs.

  16. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel; Ramos-Hernández, Silvia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano in southeastern Mexico had a strong social and environmental impact. The eruption resulted in the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico, causing about 2,000 casualties, displacing thousands, and producing severe economic losses. Even when some villages were relocated after the 1982 eruption, many people still live and work in the vicinities of the volcano and may be affected in the case of a new eruption. The hazard map of El Chichón volcano (Macías et al., 2008) comprises pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, lahars and ash fall but not ballistic projectiles, which represent an important threat to people, infrastructure and vegetation in the case of an eruption. In fact, the fatalities reported in the first stage of the 1982 eruption were caused by roof collapse induced by ashfall and lithic ballistic projectiles. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for volcanic ballistic projectiles during volcanic eruptions is applied to El Chichón volcano. Different scenarios are defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with ballistic projectiles ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of the projectiles observed in the field. The maximum ranges expected for the ballistics in the different explosive scenarios defined for El Chichón volcano are presented in a ballistic hazard map which complements the published hazard map. These maps assist the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  17. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  18. Modeling of uranium alloy response in plane impact and reverse ballistic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.; Landau, A.; Shvarts, D.; Favorsky, V.; Zaretsky, E.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a solution heat-treated, water-quenched and aged U-0.75wt%Ti alloy was studied in planar (disk-on-disk) and reverse ballistic (disk-on-rod) impact experiments performed with a 25 mm light-gas gun. The impact velocity ranged from 100 to 500 m/sec. The impacted samples were softly recovered for further metallographic examination. The VISAR records of the sample free surface velocity, obtained in planar impact experiments, were simulated with 1-D hydrocode for calibrating the parameters of modified Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) constitutive equation of the alloy. The same SCG equation was employed in 2-D AUTODYN simulation of the alloy response in the reverse ballistic experiments, with VISAR monitoring of the lateral sample surface velocity. Varying the parameters of the strain-dependent failure model allows relating the features of the recorded velocity profiles with the results of the examination of the damaged samples

  19. A ballistic transport model for electronic excitation following particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, S.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a ballistic model for the transport of electronic excitation energy induced by keV particle bombardment onto a solid surface. Starting from a free electron gas model, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is employed to follow the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution function f (r → , k → , t) describing the occupation probability of an electronic state k → at position r → and time t. Three different initializations of the distribution function are considered: i) a thermal distribution function with a locally and temporally elevated electron temperature, ii) a peak excitation at a specific energy above the Fermi level with a quasi-isotropic distribution in k-space and iii) an anisotropic peak excitation with k-vectors oriented in a specific transport direction. While the first initialization resembles a distribution function which may, for instance, result from electronic friction of moving atoms within an ion induced collision cascade, the peak excitation can in principle result from an autoionization process after excitation in close binary collisions. By numerically solving the BTE, we study the electronic energy exchange along a one dimensional transport direction to obtain a time and space resolved excitation energy distribution function, which is then analyzed in view of general transport characteristics of the chosen model system.

  20. KevlarTM Fiber-Reinforced Polybenzoxazine Alloys for Ballistic Impact Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchira Jubsilp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A light weight ballistic composites from KevlarTM-reinforcing fiber having polybenzoxazine (BA/urethane prepolymer (PU alloys as a matrix were investigated in this work. The effect of alloy compositions on the ballistic composite properties was determined. The results revealed that the enhancement in the glass transition temperature (Tg of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites compared to that of the KevlarTM-reinforced polybenzoxazine composite was observed. The increase of the elastomeric PU content in the BA/PU alloy resulted in samples with tougher characteristics. The storage modulus of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites increased with increasing the mass fraction of polybenzoxazine. A ballistic impact test was also performed on the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites using a 9 mm handgun. It was found that the optimal contents of PU in the BA/PU alloys should be approximately 20wt%. The extent of the delaminated area and interfacial fracture were observed to change with the varied compositions of the matrix alloys. The appropriate thickness of KevlarTM-reinforced 80/20 BA/PU composite panel was 30 plies and 50 plies to resist the penetration from the ballistic impact equivalent to levels II-A and III-A of NIJ standard. The arrangement of composite panels with the higher stiffness panel at the front side also showed the best efficiency of ballistic penetration resistance.

  1. On the influence of particle morphology on the post-impact ballistic response of ceramic armour materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Amer; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Jaansalu, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence that the ballistic-resistance of fragmented (comminuted) ceramics is independent of the original strength of the material. In particular, experimental investigations into the ballistic behaviour of such fragmented ceramics have indicated that this response is correlated to shattered ceramic morphology. This suggests that careful control of ceramic microstructure - and therefore failure paths - might provide a route to optimise post-impact ballistic performance, thereby enhancing multi-hit capability. In this study, building on previous in-house work, ballistic tests were conducted using pre-formed `fragmented-ceramic' analogues based around three morphologically differing (but chemically identical) alumina feedstock materials compacted into target `pucks. In an evolution of previous work, variation of target thickness provided additional insight into an apparent morphology-based contribution to ballistic response.

  2. Laboratory Impact Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.

    2017-12-01

    The experimental and theoretical programs at the SSERVI Institute for Modeling Plasmas, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) address the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts and the nature of the space environment of granular surfaces interacting with solar wind plasma and ultraviolet radiation. These are recognized as fundamental planetary processes due their role in shaping the surfaces of airless planetary objects, their plasma environments, maintaining dust haloes, and sustaining surface bound exospheres. Dust impacts are critically important for all airless bodies considered for possible human missions in the next decade: the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Phobos, and Deimos, with direct relevance to crew and mission safety and our ability to explore these objects. This talk will describe our newly developed laboratory capabilities to assess the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts on: 1) the gardening and redistribution of dust particles; and 2) the generation of ionized and neutral gasses on the surfaces of airless planetary bodies.

  3. Combined Structural and Compositional Evolution of Planetary Rings Due to Micrometeoroid Impacts and Ballistic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce improved numerical techniques for simulating the structural and compositional evolution of planetary rings due to micrometeoroid bombardment and subsequent ballistic transport of impact ejecta. Our current, robust code is capable of modeling structural changes and pollution transport simultaneously over long times on both local and global scales. In this paper, we describe the methodology based on the original structural code of Durisen et al. (1989, Icarus 80, 136-166) and on the pollution transport code of Cuzzi and Estrada (1998, Icarus 132, 1-35). We provide demonstrative simulations to compare with, and extend upon previous work, as well as examples of how ballistic transport can maintain the observed structure in Saturn's rings using available Cassini occultation optical depth data. In particular, we explicitly verify the claim that the inner B (and presumably A) ring edge can be maintained over long periods of time due to an ejecta distribution that is heavily biased in the prograde direction through a balance between the sharpening effects of ballistic transport and the broadening effects of viscosity. We also see that a "ramp"-like feature forms over time just inside that edge. However, it does not remain linear for the duration of the runs presented here unless a less steep ejecta velocity distribution is adopted. We also model the C ring plateaus and find that their outer edges can be maintained at their observed sharpness for long periods due to ballistic transport. We hypothesize that the addition of a significant component of a retrograde-biased ejecta distribution may help explain the linearity of the ramp and is probably essential for maintaining the sharpness of C ring plateau inner edges. This component would arise for the subset of micrometeoroid impacts which are destructive rather than merely cratering. Such a distribution will be introduced in future work.

  4. Modelling of Ballistic Impact over a Ceramic-Metal Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Neckel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of ceramic-metal protection against a projectile impact is modeled. The model takes into account the mass and velocity for each stage of the phenomenon. A former model was modified considering more realistic parameters such as geometries and deformation profile. To analyze the model, simulations on different parameters have been run. The impact results of different ballistic projectiles were simulated, and the movement was plotted. In addition, a deterministic simulation on the mechanical properties of the back metal plate properties was done.

  5. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is nonexistent but necessary to protect the heart and lungs. In tests against ballistic projectiles, protective apparel is placed over ballistic clay and the projectiles are fired into the armor/clay target. The clay represents the human torso and its behind-armor, permanent deflection is the principal metric used to assess armor protection. Although this approach provides relative merit assessment of protection, it does not examine the behind-armor blunt trauma to crucial torso organs. We propose a modeling and simulation (M&S) capability for wound injury scenarios to the head, neck, and torso of the warfighter. We will use this toolset to investigate the consequences of, and mitigation against, blast exposure, blunt force impact, and ballistic projectile penetration leading to damage of critical organs comprising the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We will leverage Sandia codes and our M&S expertise on traumatic brain injury to develop virtual anatomical models of the head, neck, and torso and the simulation methodology to capture the physics of wound mechanics. Specifically, we will investigate virtual wound injuries to the head, neck, and torso without and with protective armor to demonstrate the advantages of performing injury simulations for the development of body armor. The proposed toolset constitutes a significant advance over current methods by providing a virtual simulation capability to investigate wound injury and optimize armor design without the need for extensive field testing.

  6. Methods for Analysis and Simulation of Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    carbide. All experiments were conducted in reverse mode [7], with long- rod hypervelocity impact and penetration into confined cylindrical ceramic...comprehensive treatment that encompasses curvilinear coordinates, see [17], with general kinematics addressed in more detail in [49]. Governing equations of...deformation and mechanically reversible changes in damage (e.g., elastic crack closure on load release), J accounts for plastic slip from dislocations

  7. Deformations on Hole and Projectile Surfaces Caused By High Velocity Friction During Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamış, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the deformations caused by the ballistic impact on the MM composites and on projectile surfaces are examined. The hole section and grain deformation of unreinforced targets are also examined after impact. The relatively high complexity of impact problems is caused by the large number of intervening parameters like relative velocity of projectile and target, shape of colliding objects, relative stiffness and masses, time-dependent surface of contact, geometry and boundary conditions and material characteristics. The material used in this investigation are 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys as matrix reinforced with SiC and Al2O3 particles. The matrix materials are extensively used in defense applications due to its favorable ballistic properties, moderate strength, high corrosion resistance and super plastic potential. Two different composites were produced; one by casting and the other by lamination. The ballistic tests of the composite targets were carried out according to NIJ Standard-0101.04, Temperature 21 °C, RH=65% with 7.62 mm projectiles. The bullet weight was 9.6 g and their muzzle velocities were in the range of 770-800 m/s. The projectiles consisted of a steel core, copper jacket and lead material. The composite targets were positioned 15 m from the rifle. The interaction between projectiles and the target hole created after impact were examined by light microscopy and photography. Different damage and failure mechanisms such as petalling, cracking, spalling, dishing, etc., were observed on the target body. On the other hand, dramatic wear and damages on the projectile surface were also observed. The targets were supported with Al-5083 backing blocks having 40 mm thickness.

  8. Ballistic characteristics improving and maintenance of protective ballistic vests

    OpenAIRE

    RADONJIC VOJKAN M.; JOVANOVIC DANKO M.; ZIVANOVIC GORAN Z.; RESIMIC BRANKO V.

    2014-01-01

    The work presents research of the materials necessary for the maintenance of protective ballistic vests. In this paper is proposed a new construction design with modern materials for ballistic inserts producing. This paper also presents the results of laboratory tests of ballistic cartridges with new materials. Based on the test results, it can be concluded, the proposed technical solution for making ballistic inserts adequately meets current standards.

  9. Ballistic Impact Response of Woven Hybrid Coir/Kevlar Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrin Hani A.R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different laminated hybrid composites stacking configuration subjected to ballistic impact were investigated. The hybrid composites consist of woven coir (C and woven Kevlar (K layers laminated together. The samples of woven coir were prepared using handloom device. The composites were produced by stacking the laminated woven coir and Kevlar alternately with the presence of the binder. The samples were tested under ballistic impact with different stacking configuration. The results obtained had successfully achieved the National Institute of Justice (NIJ standard level IIA with energy absorption of 435.6 kJ and 412.2 kJ under the projectile speed of between 330 m/s and 321 m/s respectively. Samples that having Kevlar layer at the front face and woven coir layer as back face achieved partial penetration during projectile impact. This orientation is proven to have good impact energy absorption and able to stop projectile at the second panel of the composites.

  10. Metallographic characterisation of Al6061-T6 aluminium plates subjected to ballistic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, A.; Pagani, M.; Saponara, M.; Mombelli, D.; Mapelli, C.; Giglio, M.

    2014-01-01

    Al6061-T6 aluminium single layer plates, of different thickness, impacted by two different 7.62 mm Armour Piercing projectiles are studied from a metallographic point of view. The material behaviour after ballistic impact is investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as by micro-hardness tests. The study allows one to highlight the physical phenomena that happen during the impact: the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASB), the evolution of softening and hardening phenomena, the creation of petalling, plugging and the formation of a melted film between the target and the penetrator as well as the localised failure mechanism. The thermo-mechanical effects on the target and the penetrator material have been examined in order to investigate in the physical phenomena ruling the ballistic damage; the differences between the two types of impactors are also highlighted. Among interesting findings, it has been noticed that a complete penetration is less detrimental and tungsten core projectile seems more damaging for the structural integrity of Al6061-T6 plates. A complete penetration allows the material to better dissipate the plastic deformation energy induced by bullet whereas the arrest increases localised material softening effect resulting in the formation of ASB. Although the creation of numerical models is not the aim of the present paper, the findings could be useful for the building of a modelling approach capable of replicating all the involved phenomena in details

  11. Metallographic characterisation of Al6061-T6 aluminium plates subjected to ballistic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manes, A., E-mail: andrea.manes@polimi.it; Pagani, M.; Saponara, M.; Mombelli, D.; Mapelli, C.; Giglio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Al6061-T6 aluminium single layer plates, of different thickness, impacted by two different 7.62 mm Armour Piercing projectiles are studied from a metallographic point of view. The material behaviour after ballistic impact is investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as by micro-hardness tests. The study allows one to highlight the physical phenomena that happen during the impact: the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASB), the evolution of softening and hardening phenomena, the creation of petalling, plugging and the formation of a melted film between the target and the penetrator as well as the localised failure mechanism. The thermo-mechanical effects on the target and the penetrator material have been examined in order to investigate in the physical phenomena ruling the ballistic damage; the differences between the two types of impactors are also highlighted. Among interesting findings, it has been noticed that a complete penetration is less detrimental and tungsten core projectile seems more damaging for the structural integrity of Al6061-T6 plates. A complete penetration allows the material to better dissipate the plastic deformation energy induced by bullet whereas the arrest increases localised material softening effect resulting in the formation of ASB. Although the creation of numerical models is not the aim of the present paper, the findings could be useful for the building of a modelling approach capable of replicating all the involved phenomena in details.

  12. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  13. Ballistic Impact Testing of Aluminum 2024 and Titanium 6Al-4V for Material Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Emmerling, William C.; Altobelli, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is underway to develop a consistent set of material property and impact test data, and failure analysis, for a variety of materials that can be used to develop improved impact failure and deformation models. Unique features of this set of data are that all material property information and impact test results are obtained using identical materials, the test methods and procedures are extensively documented and all of the raw data is available. This report describes ballistic impact testing which has been conducted on aluminum (Al) 2024 and titanium (Ti) 6Al-4vanadium (V) sheet and plate samples of different thicknesses and with different types of projectiles, one a regular cylinder and one with a more complex geometry incorporating features representative of a jet engine fan blade.

  14. Ballistic impacts on an anatomically correct synthetic skull with a surrogate skin/soft tissue layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Peter; Carr, Debra; Arm, Richard; Gibb, Iain; Hunt, Nicholas; Delaney, Russ J

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to further develop a synthetic model of ballistic head injury by the addition of skin and soft tissue layers to an anatomically correct polyurethane skull filled with gelatine 10% by mass. Six head models were impacted with 7.62 x 39 mm full metal jacket mild steel core (FMJ MSC) bullets with a mean velocity of 652 m/s. The impact events were filmed with high-speed cameras. The models were imaged pre- and post-impact using computed tomography. The models were assessed post impact by two experienced Home Office pathologists and the images assessed by an experienced military radiologist. The findings were scored against real injuries. The entry wounds, exit wounds and fracture patterns were scored positively, but the synthetic skin and soft tissue layer was felt to be too extendable. Further work is ongoing to address this.

  15. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  16. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  17. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength

  18. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Zhai, Pengcheng; Cao, Dongfeng

    2008-02-01

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength.

  19. Forensic Evidence and Criminal Investigations: The Impact of Ballistics Information on the Investigation of Violent Crime in Nine Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William R; Campbell, Bradley A; Matusiak, Matthew C; Katz, Charles M

    2017-07-01

    We explore the impact of information from ballistics imaging hit reports on the investigation into violent crimes. Ballistics imaging hits link two crimes involving the same firearm by forensically matching tool marks on the fired bullets or cartridge cases. Interview data collected from detectives who received a hit report were used to explore the relationship between the presence of a hit report and outcomes in 65 gun-related violent crime investigations in nine U.S. police agencies. Findings indicate hit reports rarely contribute to identification, arrest, charging, or sentencing of suspects, because of delays in producing hit reports. On average, hit reports were completed 181.4 days after the focal crime. This delay forces investigations to proceed without the benefit of information from ballistics analysis. Additionally, hit reports rarely contained detailed information that was immediately useful to investigators. Instead, hit reports required additional research by the investigator to unlock useful information. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Factors affecting use of ballistics gelatin in laboratory studies of bacterial contamination in projectile wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jessica J; Bost, Aaron; Muci-Küchler, Karim H; DeVeaux, Linda C

    2018-05-25

    Ballistics gelatin is a common tissue surrogate used in bacterial contamination models for projectile wounds. Although these studies have demonstrated that bacteria are transferred from the surface of the gelatin to the wound track by a projectile, quantifiable results have been inconsistent and not repeatable in successive tests. In this study, five areas of a typical contamination model in which bacterial recovery or survival are affected were identified for optimization. The first was a contaminated "skin" surrogate, where the novel use of vacuum filtration of a bacterial culture and buffer onto filter paper was employed. The other possibly problematic areas of the bacterial distribution model included the determination of bacterial survival when the contamination model is dried, survival in solid and molten gelatin, and the effect of high-intensity lights used for recording high-speed video. Vacuum filtration of bacteria and buffer resulted in a consistent bacterial distribution and recovery. The use of phosphate buffer M9 (pH 7) aided in neutralizing the ballistics gelatin and improving bacterial survival in solid gelatin. Additionally, the use of high-intensity lights to record high-speed video and the use of a 42 ° C water bath to melt the gelatin were found to be bactericidal for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Multiple areas of a typical contamination model in which bacterial survival may be impeded were identified, and methods were proposed to improve survival in each area. These methods may be used to optimize the results of bacterial contamination models for medical applications, such as understanding the progression of infection in penetrating wounds and to identify possible sources of contamination for forensic purposes.

  1. Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber/Toughened Epoxy Thick Composite Joints Subject to Drop-Weight and Ballistic Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liaw, Benjamin; Delale, Feridun

    2007-01-01

    ... No. DAAD19-02-R-0010 to conduct research on hybrid carbon-S2 glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick-section, hybrid interwoven composite joints subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts. Dr. Basavaraju B. Raju of U.S...

  2. Strengthening the composite protective shield of light-weight ship against ballistic impacts: analytical and experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jalili

    Full Text Available Light and medium protection for small naval vessels guarantees their high performance and safety during the guard duties. In this study, a protective shield fabricated from Dyneema HB25 fibers has been utilized as an add-on layer on the coast guard boat hull. Finite element analyses have been conducted using Chocron's model. Two standards of gun-fire were employed and various thicknesses of the composite layers were examined by ballistic impacts. Afterward, numerical simulations results compared with experiments and revealed a good consistency. Finally, some graphs have been presented to help designers for choosing more convenient shield based on protection and weight characteristics after judgment of vessel requirements.

  3. Simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-10wt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Widyastuti, Simaremare, Peniel

    2018-04-01

    Frangible bullet is designed to disintegrate upon impact against a hard target. Understanding the impact response and performance of frangible bullet is therefore of highly interest. In this paper, simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-IOwt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented. The frangible bullet is impacted against a hard, cylindrical stainless steel target. Effect of variability of the frangible bullet material properties due to the variation of sintering temperature in its manufacturing process to the bullet frangibility factor (FF) is investigated numerically. In addition, the bullet kinetic energy during impact as well as its ricochet and fragmentation are also examined and simulated. Failure criterion based upon maximum strain is employed in the simulation. It is shown that the SPH simulation can produce good estimation for kinetic energy of bullet after impact, thus giving the FF prediction with respect to the variation of frangible bullet material properties. In comparison to explicit finite element (FE) simulation, in which only material/element deletion is shown, convenience in showing frangible bullet fragmentation is shown using the SPH simulation. As a result, the effect of sintering temperature to the way of the frangible bullet fragmented can be also observed clearly.

  4. Mucosal deformation from an impinging transonic gas jet and the ballistic impact of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M P; Kendall, M A F

    2005-01-01

    By means of a transonic gas jet, gene guns ballistically deliver microparticle formulations of drugs and vaccines to the outer layers of the skin or mucosal tissue to induce unique physiological responses for the treatment of a range of conditions. Reported high-speed imaging experiments show that the mucosa deforms significantly while subjected to an impinging gas jet from a biolistic device. In this paper, the effect of this tissue surface deformation on microparticle impact conditions is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. The microparticles are idealized as spheres of diameters 26.1, 39 and 99 μm and a density of 1050 kg m -3 . Deforming surface calculations of particle impact conditions are compared directly with an immobile surface case. The relative velocity and obliquity of the deforming surface decrease the normal component of particle impact velocity by up to 30% at the outer edge of the impinging gas jet. This is qualitatively consistent with reported particle penetration profiles in the tissue. It is recommended that these effects be considered in biolistic studies requiring quantified particle impact conditions

  5. Hybrid carbon-glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick composites subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevkat, Ercan

    The goals of this study are to investigate the low velocity and ballistic impact response of thick-section hybrid fiber composites at room temperature. Plain-woven S2-Glass and IM7 Graphite fabrics are chosen as fiber materials reinforcing the SC-79 epoxy. Four different types of composites consisting of alternating layers of glass and graphite woven fabric sheets are considered. Tensile tests are conducted using 98 KN (22 kip) MTS testing machine equipped with environmental chamber. Low-velocity impact tests are conducted using an Instron-Dynatup 8250 impact test machine equipped with an environmental chamber. Ballistic impact tests are performed using helium pressured high-speed gas-gun. Tensile tests results were used to define the material behavior of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites in Finite Element modeling. The low velocity and ballistic impact tests showed that hybrid composites performance was somewhere between non-hybrid woven composites. Using woven glass fabrics as outer skin improved the impact performance of woven graphite composite. However hybrid composites are prone to delamination especially between dissimilar layers. The ballistic limit velocity V50 hybrid composites were higher that of woven graphite composite and lower than that of woven glass composite. Both destructive cross-sectional micrographs and nondestructive ultrasonic techniques are used to evaluate the damage created by impact. The Finite Element code LS-DYNA is chosen to perform numerical simulations of low velocity and ballistic impact on thick-section hybrid composites. The damage progression in these composites shows anisotropic nonlinearity. The material model to describe this behavior is not available in LS-DYNA material library. Initially, linear orthotropic material with damage (Chan-Chan Model) is employed to simulate some of the experimental results. Then, user-defined material subroutine is incorporated into LS-DYNA to simulate the nonlinear behavior. The

  6. Ballistic Impact Response of Kevlar 49 and Zylon under Conditions Representing Jet Engine Fan Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    A ballistic impact test program was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade out events in fabric containment systems. The impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar 49 (E.I. DuPont Nemours and Company) and Zylon AS (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases the tests were designed such that the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models for predicting the response of fabrics under conditions simulating those of a jet engine blade release situation. In addition some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different materials.

  7. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  9. A Comparison of the Deformation Flow and Failure of Two Tungsten Heavy Alloys in Ballistic Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuster, Brian E; Peterson, Bryan P; Magness, Lee S

    2006-01-01

    .... Small, but consistent, differences in the ballistic performances of the two lots of penetrators were observed in depth of penetration tests, in thick armor steel targets, and in limit velocity...

  10. Ballistic Impact Resistance of Plain Woven Kenaf/Aramid Reinforced Polyvinyl Butyral Laminated Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the helmet shell has been used to provide protection against head injuries and fatalities caused by ballistic threats. In this study, because of the high cost of aramid fibres and the necessity for environmentally friendly alternatives, a portion of aramid was replaced with plain woven kenaf fibre, with different arrangements and thicknesses, without jeopardising the requirements demanded by U.S. Army helmet specifications. Furthermore, novel helmets were produced and tested to reduce the dependency on the ballistic resistance components. Their use could lead to helmets that are less costly and more easily available than conventional helmet armour. The hybrid materials subjected to ballistic tests were composed of 19 layers and were fabricated by the hot press technique using different numbers and configurations of plain woven kenaf and aramid layers. In the case of ballistic performance tests, a positive effect was found for the hybridisation of kenaf and aramid laminated composites.

  11. A comparison of the behind armour blunt trauma effects between ceramic faced and soft body armours caused by ballistic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, E. A.; Horsfall, Ian; Watson, Celia H.

    2002-01-01

    Recently published research has characterised the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) effects associated with high velocity ballistic impact on textile-based armour faced with a ceramic plate. Subsequently dynamic displacements, accelerations and pressures have been characterised both in Gelatine experiments and animal experiments and used to provide test methodologies. High velocity armour consists of a ceramic plate usually backed with a composite panel, which is worn over the conventional te...

  12. On ballistic parameters of less lethal projectiles influencing the severity of thoracic blunt impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavier, Julien; Langlet, André; Eches, Nicolas; Jacquet, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The development and safety certification of less lethal projectiles require an understanding of the influence of projectile parameters on projectile-chest interaction and on the resulting terminal effect. Several energy-based criteria have been developed for chest injury assessment. Many studies consider kinetic energy (KE) or energy density as the only projectile parameter influencing terminal effect. In a common KE range (100-160 J), analysis of the firing tests of two 40 mm projectiles of different masses on animal surrogates has been made in order to investigate the severity of the injuries in the thoracic region. Experimental results have shown that KE and calibre are not sufficient to discriminate between the two projectiles as regards their injury potential. Parameters, such as momentum, shape and impedance, influence the projectile-chest interaction and terminal effect. A simplified finite element model of projectile-structure interaction confirms the experimental tendencies. Within the range of ballistic parameters used, it has been demonstrated that maximum thoracic deflection is a useful parameter to predict the skeletal level of injury, and it largely depends on the projectile pre-impact momentum. However, numerical simulations show that these results are merely valid for the experimental conditions used and cannot be generalised. Nevertheless, the transmitted impulse seems to be a more general factor governing the thorax deflection.

  13. Modeling and Experiments on Ballistic Impact into UHMWPE Yarns Using Flat and Saddle-Nosed Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leigh Phoenix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn shooting experiments were conducted to determine the ballistically-relevant, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fiber. Target specimens were Dyneema® SK76 yarns (1760 dtex, twisted to 40 turns/m, and initially tensioned to stresses ranging from 29 to 2200 MPa. Yarns were impacted, transversely, by two types of cylindrical steel projectiles at velocities ranging from 150 to 555 m/s: (i a reverse-fired, fragment simulating projectile (FSP where the flat rear face impacted the yarn rather than the beveled nose; and (ii a ‘saddle-nosed projectile’ having a specially contoured nose imparting circular curvature in the region of impact, but opposite curvature transversely to prevent yarn slippage off the nose. Experimental data consisted of sequential photographic images of the progress of the triangular transverse wave, as well as tensile wave speed measured using spaced, piezo-electric sensors. Yarn Young’s modulus, calculated from the tensile wave-speed, varied from 133 GPa at minimal initial tension to 208 GPa at the highest initial tensions. However, varying projectile impact velocity, and thus, the strain jump on impact, had negligible effect on the modulus. Contrary to predictions from the classical Cole-Smith model for 1D yarn impact, the critical velocity for yarn failure differed significantly for the two projectile types, being 18% lower for the flat-faced, reversed FSP projectile compared to the saddle-nosed projectile, which converts to an apparent 25% difference in yarn strength. To explain this difference, a wave-propagation model was developed that incorporates tension wave collision under blunt impact by a flat-faced projectile, in contrast to outward wave propagation in the classical model. Agreement between experiment and model predictions was outstanding across a wide range of initial yarn tensions. However, plots of calculated failure stress versus yarn pre

  14. Dynamic Load Measurement of Ballistic Gelatin Impact Using an Instrumented Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidt, J. D.; Periira, J. M.; Hammer, J. T.; Gilat, A.; Ruggeri, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird strikes are a common problem for the aerospace industry and can cause serious damage to an aircraft. Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a surrogate for actual bird carcasses in bird strike tests. Numerical simulations of these tests are used to supplement experimental data, therefore it is necessary to use numerical modeling techniques that can accurately capture the dynamic response of ballistic gelatin. An experimental technique is introduced to validate these modeling techniques. A ballistic gelatin projectile is fired into a strike plate attached to a 36 in. long sensor tube. Dynamic load is measured at two locations relative to the strike plate using strain gages configured in a full Wheatstone bridge. Data from these experiments are used to validate a gelatin constitutive model. Simulations of the apparatus are analyzed to investigate its performance.

  15. Modeling and experiments on ballistic impact into UHMWPE yarns using flat and saddle-nosed projectiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phoenix, S.L.; Heisserer, U.; Werff, H. van der; Jagt-Deutekom , M.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    Yarn shooting experiments were conducted to determine the ballistically-relevant, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber. Target specimens were Dyneema® SK76 yarns (1760 dtex), twisted to 40 turns/m, and initially tensioned to stresses ranging

  16. Transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a one-dimensional impact system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livorati, André L. P.; Kroetz, Tiago; Dettmann, Carl P.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2018-03-01

    We characterize a transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a bouncing ball dynamics. The system is composed of a particle, or an ensemble of noninteracting particles, experiencing elastic collisions with a heavy and periodically moving wall under the influence of a constant gravitational field. The dynamics lead to a mixed phase space where chaotic orbits have a free path to move along the velocity axis, presenting a normal diffusion behavior. Depending on the control parameter, one can observe the presence of featured resonances, known as accelerator modes, that lead to a ballistic growth of velocity. Through statistical and numerical analysis of the velocity of the particle, we are able to characterize a transition between the two regimes, where transport properties were used to characterize the scenario of the ballistic regime. Also, in an analysis of the probability of an orbit to reach an accelerator mode as a function of the velocity, we observe a competition between the normal and ballistic transport in the midrange velocity.

  17. Effect of Mesoscale and Multiscale Modeling on the Performance of Kevlar Woven Fabric Subjected to Ballistic Impact: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Huang, Zhengxiang; Zu, Xudong; Gu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Qiangqiang

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an optimal finite element model of Kevlar woven fabric that is more computational efficient compared with existing models was developed to simulate ballistic impact onto fabric. Kevlar woven fabric was modeled to yarn level architecture by using the hybrid elements analysis (HEA), which uses solid elements in modeling the yarns at the impact region and uses shell elements in modeling the yarns away from the impact region. Three HEA configurations were constructed, in which the solid element region was set as about one, two, and three times that of the projectile's diameter with impact velocities of 30 m/s (non-perforation case) and 200 m/s (perforation case) to determine the optimal ratio between the solid element region and the shell element region. To further reduce computational time and to maintain the necessary accuracy, three multiscale models were presented also. These multiscale models combine the local region with the yarn level architecture by using the HEA approach and the global region with homogenous level architecture. The effect of the varying ratios of the local and global area on the ballistic performance of fabric was discussed. The deformation and damage mechanisms of fabric were analyzed and compared among numerical models. Simulation results indicate that the multiscale model based on HEA accurately reproduces the baseline results and obviously decreases computational time.

  18. A new experimental setup to characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of ballistic yarns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C; Kerisit, C; Faderl, N; Klavzar, A; Boussu, F; Coutellier, D

    2016-01-01

    Fabrics have been widely used as part of ballistic protections since the 1970s and the development of new ballistic solutions made from fabrics need numerical simulations, in order to predict the performance of the ballistic protection. The performances and the induced mechanisms in ballistic fabrics during an impact depend on the weaving parameters and also on the inner parameters of the yarns used inside these structures. Thus, knowing the dynamic behaviour of yarn is essential to determine the ballistic behaviour of fabrics during an impact. Two major experimental devices exist and are used to test ballistic yarns in a dynamic uniaxial tension. The first one corresponds to the Split Hopkinson Tensile Bars device, which is commonly used to characterize the mechanical properties of materials in uniaxial tension and under high loading. The second one is the transversal impact device. The real conditions of ballistic impact can be realized with this device. Then, this paper deals with a new experimental setup developed in our laboratory and called the ‘tensile impact test for yarn’ (TITY) device. With this device, specific absorbed energy measurements of para-aramid yarns (336 Tex, Twaron ™ , 1000 filaments) have been carried out and revealed that static and dynamic properties of para-aramid are different. (paper)

  19. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  20. Mechanism of ballistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindoni, J.M.; Sharma, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ballistic collisions is a term used to describe atom-diatom collisions during which a substantial fraction of the initial relative translational energy is converted into the internal energy of the diatom. An exact formulation of the impulse approach to atom-diatom collisions is shown to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results for the CsF-Ar system at 1.1 eV relative translational energy for laboratory scattering angles of 30 degree and 60 degree. The differential cross section for scattering of CsF peaks at two distinct recoil velocities. The peak centered at the recoil velocity corresponding to elastic scattering has been called the elastic peak. This peak is shown to consist of several hundred inelastic transitions, most involving a small change in internal energy. The peak near the center-of-mass (c.m.) velocity is called the ballistic peak and is shown to consist of highly inelastic (ballistic) transitions. It is shown that transitions comprising the ballistic (elastic) peak occur when an Ar atom strikes the F (Cs) end of CsF. When one is looking along the direction of the c.m. velocity, the signal from a single transition, which converts about 99.99% of the relative translational energy into internal energy, may be larger than the signal from any other ballistic transition by as much as an order of magnitude. This property may be used to prepare state-selected and velocity-selected beams for further studies. It is also pointed out that the ballistic peak may be observed for any atom-molecule system under appropriate circumstances

  1. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Rahman

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectile at velocity range of 900 to 950 m/s. The ballistic performance of each configuration plate in terms of ballistic limit velocity, penetration process and permanent deformation was quantified and considered. It was found that the monolithic panel of high-strength steel has the best ballistic performance among all panels, yet it has not caused any weight reduction in existing armour plate. As the weight reduction was increased from 20-30%, the double-layered configuration panels became less resistance to ballistic impact where only at 20% and 23.2% of weight reduction panel could stop the 950m/s projectile. The triple-layered configuration panels with similar areal density performed much better where all panels subjected to 20-30% weight reductions successfully stopped the 950 m/s projectile. Thus, triple-layered configurations are interesting option in designing a protective structure without sacrificing the performance in achieving weight reduction.

  2. Preliminary study into the skeletal injuries sustained to the spine from posterior non-perforating ballistic impacts into body armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rosalind M; Malbon, C; Brock, F; Harrisson, S E; Carr, D J

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this paper was to examine any injuries from posterior behind armour blunt trauma ballistic impacts directly over the spine onto typical hard body armours. Due to the spine being close to the surface of the skin and a lack of any previous specific research into this topic, this study was designed to gain preliminary insight into the mechanisms involved and injuries caused. Pigs were chosen as the closest representative of human spine, tissue and skin, although their spines are deeper under the surface than humans. Baseline spine and ribs shots were conducted to ensure that the study was effective. This study used a 65 kg cadaveric pig eviscerated torso and 7.62 NATO ammunition (7.62×51; L2A2; mean velocity=838 m/s, SD=4 m/s) impacting hard body armour plates over the spine. Injuries were inspected, and sections were removed for X-ray and micro-CT assessment. There was no visible soft tissue damage under the impact point on the armour over the spine, and no bony injuries were reported. Baseline rib shots resulted in multiple rib fractures; some showed minimal displacement of the bone. Baseline spine shot resulted in damage across the spine involving spinal cord and bone. No injuries were noted from the spinal impacts, and the rib shots resulted in injuries consistent with those previously reported. The anatomical differences between pigs and humans does not preclude that bony injuries could occur in a human from these types of spinal ballistic impacts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  4. Ballistic studies on layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, P.K.; Ramanjeneyulu, K.; Siva Kumar, K.; Balakrishna Bhat, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the ballistic behavior and penetration mechanism of metal-metal and metal-fabric layered structures against 7.62 armour piercing projectiles at a velocity of 840 ± 15 m/s at 30 o angle of impact and compares the ballistic results with that of homogeneous metallic steel armour. This study also describes the effect of keeping a gap between the target layers. Experimental results showed that among the investigated materials, the best ballistic performance was attained with metal-fabric layered structures. The improvements in ballistic performance were analyzed in terms of mode of failure and fracture mechanisms of the samples by using optical and electron microscope, X-ray radiography and hardness measurement equipments.

  5. Rain Erosion/Measurement Impact Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FARM Rain Erosion/Impact Measurement Lab develops solutions for deficiencies in the ability of materials, coatings and designs to withstand a severe operational...

  6. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N. A.; Abdullah, S.; Zamri, W. F. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Omar, M. Z.; Sajuri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectil...

  7. A preliminary study into injuries due to non-perforating ballistic impacts into soft body armour over the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rosalind M; Malbon, Chris; Brock, Fiona; Harrisson, Stuart; Carr, Debra J

    2018-05-22

    The UK Home Office test method for ballistic protective police body armours considers anterior torso impacts to be the worst-case scenario and tests rear armour panels to the same standards as front panels. The aim of this paper was to examine the injuries from spinal behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) impacts. This study used a cadaveric 65 kg, female pig barrel and 9 mm Luger ammunition (9 × 19 mm, FMJ Nammo Lapur Oy) into HG1/A + KR1 soft armour panels over the spine. Injuries were inspected and sections removed for x-radiography and micro-CT assessment. All shots over the spine resulted in deep soft tissue injuries from pencilling of the armour and the shirt worn under the armour. The wounds had embedded fabric debris which would require surgery to remove resulting in increased recovery time over injuries usually seen in anterior torso BABT impacts, which are typically haematoma and fractured ribs. The shot with the deepest soft tissue wound (41 mm) also resulted in a fractured spinous process. Shots were also fired at the posterior and anterior rib area of the pig barrel, for comparison to the spine. Similar wounds were seen on the shots to the posterior rib area while shallower, smaller wounds were seen on the anterior and one anterior rib shot resulted in a single, un-displaced rib fracture. The anatomical differences between pigs and humans would most likely mean that injury to a human from these impacts would be more serious. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Nicole [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  10. Penetration resistance and ballistic-impact behavior of Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs: A computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Snipes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computational engineering analysis is carried out in order to assess suitability of the Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs for use in both structural and add-on armor applications. This class of composite materials consists of alternating sub-millimeter thick layers of Ti (the ductile and tough constituent and TiAl3 (the stiff and hard constituent. In recent years, this class of materials has been investigated for potential use in light-armor applications as a replacement for the traditional metallic or polymer-matrix composite materials. Within the computational analysis, an account is given to differing functional requirements for candidate materials when used in structural and add-on ballistic armor. The analysis employed is of a transient, nonlinear-dynamics, finite-element character, and the problem investigated involves normal impact (i.e. under zero obliquity angle of a Ti/TiAl3 MILC target plate, over a range of incident velocities, by a fragment simulating projectile (FSP. This type of analysis can provide more direct information regarding the ballistic limit of the subject armor material, as well as help with the identification of the nature and the efficacy of various FSP material-deformation/erosion and kinetic-energy absorption/dissipation phenomena and processes. The results obtained clearly revealed that Ti/TiAl3 MILCs are more suitable for use in add-on ballistic, than in structural armor applications.

  11. Ballistic impact velocity response of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy laminates for aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerospace and other industries use fibre metal laminate composites extensively due to their high specific strength, stiffness and fire resistance, in addition to their capability to be tailored into different forms for specific purposes. The behaviours of such composites under impact loading is another factor to be considered due to the impacts that occur in take-off, landing, during maintenance and operations. The aim of the study is to determine the specific perforation energy and impact strength of the fibre metal laminates of different layering pattern of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy and hybrid laminate composites of carbon fibre and natural fibres (kenaf and flax). The composites are fabricated using the hand lay-up method in a mould with high bonding polymer matrix and compressed by a compression machine, cured at room temperature for one day and post cure in an oven for three hours. The impact tests are conducted using a gun tunnel system with a flat cylindrical bullet fired using a helium gas at a distance of 14 inches to the target. Impact and residual velocity of the projectile are recorded by high speed video camera. Specific perforation energy of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CF+AA) for both before and after fire test are higher than the specific perforation energy of the other composites considered before and after fire test respectively. CF +AA before fire test is 55.18% greater than after. The same thing applies to impact strength of the composites where CF +AA before the fire test has the highest percentage of 11.7%, 50.0% and 32.98% as respectively compared to carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CARALL), carbon fibre reinforced flax aluminium alloy (CAFRALL) and carbon fibre reinforced kenaf aluminium alloy (CAKRALL), and likewise for the composites after fire test. The considered composites in this test can be used in the designated fire zone of an aircraft engine to protect external debris from penetrating the engine

  12. Modelling of fracture processes in the ballistic impact on ceramic armours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaera, R.; Sanchez-Galvez, V.

    1997-01-01

    This work examines the essential physical processes in the perforation of metal backed ceramic armours which include projectile erosion, fracture of the ceramic tile and ductile deformation of the metal backing plate. The impact of projectiles onto alumina and aluminium nitride ceramic materials is studied experimentally and numerically. Observations were performed using an X-ray shadowgraph technique to obtain accurate data of the penetration process at different times. From the examination of computer simulations and corresponding impact experiments a simple analytical model is developed by assuming some hypotheses simplifying the actual mechanisms of the penetration process. Material description is simplified by using simple equations and a few material parameters easily obtained experimentally, such as the elastic modulus, the compressive and tensile strength and the rupture strain. (orig.)

  13. Impact of ballistic body armour and load carriage on walking patterns and perceived comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Jacobson, Bert; Warren, Aric; Goad, Carla; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight magnitude and distribution of body armour and carrying loads on military personnel's walking patterns and comfort perceptions. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking, plantar pressure and contact area were measured while seven healthy male right-handed military students wore seven different garments of varying weight (0.06, 9, 18 and 27 kg) and load distribution (balanced and unbalanced, on the front and back torso). Higher weight increased the foot contact time with the floor. In particular, weight placement on the non-dominant side of the front torso resulted in the greatest stance phase and double support. Increased plantar pressure and contact area observed during heavier loads entail increased impact forces, which can cause overuse injuries and foot blisters. Participants reported increasingly disagreeable pressure and strain in the shoulder, neck and lower back during heavier weight conditions and unnatural walking while wearing unbalanced weight distributed loads. This study shows the potentially synergistic impact of wearing body armour vest with differential loads on body movement and comfort perception. This study found that soldiers should balance loads, avoiding load placement on the non-dominant side front torso, thus minimising mobility restriction and potential injury risk. Implications for armour vest design modifications can also be found in the results.

  14. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  15. Numerical modelling of physical processes in a ballistic laboratory setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston used for obtaining high muzzle velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modelling of a ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston is considered. The processes in the firing chamber are described within the framework of quasi- one-dimensional gas dynamics and a geometrical law of propellant burn by means of Lagrangian mass coordinates. The deformable piston is considered to be an ideal liquid with specific equations of state. The numerical solution is obtained by means of a modified explicit von Neumann scheme. The calculation results given show that the ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston produces increased shell muzzle velocities by a factor of more than 1.5-2.

  16. Assessment of Ballistic Performance for Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim M. Fadhil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method was used to investigate the ballistic behavior of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under impact loading by spherical steel projectile with different ranges of velocities. Three different target thicknesses were used in the experimental and the numerical works. A mathematical model has been used for the ballistic limit based on the experimental results. It has been found that projectile velocity and target thickness play an important role in the ballistic behavior of PMMA. A good agreement was found between the numerical, experimental, and the analytical result.

  17. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilock, D. M.; Pereira, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the ballistic impact testing that was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade-out events in fabric containment systems. The ballistic impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar(TradeName) 49 and Zylon(TradeName) AS (as spun) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation, and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases, the tests were designed so the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models to predict the response of fabrics under conditions that simulate those of a jet engine blade-release situation. In addition, some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different fabric materials.

  18. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Jackson, David; Gammie, Alistair; Badrick, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support. Many good environmental practices do not have a cost but will require a change in the culture and mind-set of the organisation. Continuing education and training are important keys to successful implementation of good practices. There is a need to undertake a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of every change that is introduced in going green. The adoption of good practices can eventually lead to ISO certification if this is desired. This paper provides suggestions that will allow a laboratory to start going green. It will allow the industry to enhance its corporate citizenship whilst improving its competitive advantage for long-term.

  19. Intracranial Pressure Response to Non-Penetrating Ballistic Impact: An Experimental Study Using a Pig Physical Head Model and Live Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Kang, Jianyi; Chen, Jing; Li, Guanhua; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the intracranial pressure response to non-penetrating ballistic impact using a "scalp-skull-brain" pig physical head model and live pigs. Forty-eight ballistic tests targeting the physical head model and anesthetized pigs protected by aramid plates were conducted with standard 9 mm bullets at low (279-297 m/s), moderate (350-372 m/s), and high (409-436 m/s) velocities. Intracranial pressure responses were recorded with pressure sensors embedded in similar brain locations in the physical head model and the anesthetized pigs. Three parameters of intracranial pressure were determined from the measured data: intracranial maximum pressure (Pmax), intracranial maximum pressure impulse (PImax), and the duration of the first positive phase (PPD). The intracranial pressure waves exhibited blast-like characteristics for both the physical model and l live pigs. Of all three parameters, Pmax is most sensitive to impact velocity, with means of 126 kPa (219 kPa), 178 kPa (474 kPa), and 241 kPa (751 kPa) for the physical model (live pigs) for low, moderate, and high impact velocities, respectively. The mean PPD becomes increasingly short as the impact velocity increases, whereas PImax shows the opposite trend. Although the pressure parameters of the physical model were much lower than those of the live pigs, good correlations between the physical model and the live pigs for the three pressure parameters, especially Pmax, were found using linear regression. This investigation suggests that Pmax is a preferred parameter for predicting the severity of the brain injury resulting from behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). PMID:23055817

  20. 77 FR 809 - Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise for the Ballistic Resistance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... for Certification and Testing Expertise for the Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2008... revising its Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2008) Standard and corresponding certification... laboratories with experience in programs for similar types of ballistic-resistant personal protective equipment...

  1. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  2. Ballistic phonon transport in holey silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeho; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Peidong

    2015-05-13

    When the size of semiconductors is smaller than the phonon mean free path, phonons can carry heat with no internal scattering. Ballistic phonon transport has received attention for both theoretical and practical aspects because Fourier's law of heat conduction breaks down and the heat dissipation in nanoscale transistors becomes unpredictable in the ballistic regime. While recent experiments demonstrate room-temperature evidence of ballistic phonon transport in various nanomaterials, the thermal conductivity data for silicon in the length scale of 10-100 nm is still not available due to experimental challenges. Here we show ballistic phonon transport prevails in the cross-plane direction of holey silicon from 35 to 200 nm. The thermal conductivity scales linearly with the length (thickness) even though the lateral dimension (neck) is as narrow as 20 nm. We assess the impact of long-wavelength phonons and predict a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime using scaling models. Our results support strong persistence of long-wavelength phonons in nanostructures and are useful for controlling phonon transport for thermoelectrics and potential phononic applications.

  3. The Effects of PMMA on Ballistic Impact Performance of Hybrid Hard/Ductile All-Plastic- and Glass-Plastic-Based Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsieh, Alex

    2004-01-01

    ... life cycle costs for the soldiers and ground vehicle protection. The focus of this research is to identify the material parameters that are critical for the ballistic performance of hybrid hard/ductile laminate systems...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Economic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Search Menu About Leadership Mission Social Media Community Involvement Leadership Mission Environmental Responsibility History Diversity Social Media Careers View All Small Business Assistance Program Sandia's Economic Impact Sandia Science & Technology Park © 2018

  5. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  6. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  7. The impact of laboratory quality assurance standards on laboratory operational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ratseou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become a trend for companies to implement and be certified to various quality management systems so as to improve consistency, reliability, and quality of product delivery to customers. The most common quality management systems adopted are the ISO 9000 series of standards for manufacturing and services related organisations, with ISO 17025 and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP standards adopted specifically by laboratories as quality assurance initiatives. There are various reports on the impact of the ISO 9000 series on organisational performance but no studies or reports have been done on the performance of laboratory standards. Therefore this article reports on a study conducted to investigate the impact of ISO 17025 and GLP on the operational performance of both commercial and non-commercial laboratories. A qualitative research study was conducted to examine the impact standards on the aspects of health and safety, supplier selection and performance, human resources, customer satisfaction and profitability of the laboratory. The data collected suggest that there is no difference in laboratory operational performance with or without the standards. In other words it appears that the basic fundamental requirements inherent with laboratories are sufficient to perform both operationally and optimally. This leads to the view that standards are implemented as a customer requirement and not as an operational requirement.

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.

    1977-07-01

    Generally, data used for the statement were those which had been accumulated through the calendar year 1973. Since 1973, Environmental Monitoring Reports have been published for calendar years 1974 and 1975. A review of these more recent documents reveals that the data contained therein lead to no significant change in the conclusions drawn in this Environmental Impact Statement. Past Laboratory operations were considered only insofar as they contribute to continuing environmental impacts. Environmental effects were considered solely with respect to off-site consequences, the only exception being those cases where on-site effects have had or will have an impact on the long-term productivity of the Laboratory site

  9. Fracture behaviour of mullite fibre reinforced-mullite matrix composites under quasi-static and ballistic impact loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Atiq, S.; Boccaccini, D. N.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Kaya, C.

    č. 65 (2005), s. 325-333 ISSN 0266-3538 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041003 Keywords : ceramic matrix composites * mullite matrix * toughness Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2005

  10. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  11. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  12. Firearms and Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    BOLTON-KING, Rachel; Schulze, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 7 of the book entitled 'Practical Veterinary Forensics' aims to introduce forensic veterinarians to the scientific concepts underpinning the field of firearms and ballistics. This introduction will enable practitioners to understand wound formation depending on the firearm and ammunition used. \\ud \\ud Various types of firearms, modern firing mechanisms and ammunition will be explained, together with an introduction to the physical concepts underpinning the four main constituents of th...

  13. Supra-ballistic phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1989-05-01

    Energetic particles moving with a solid, either from nuclear reactions or externally injected, deposit energy by inelastic scattering processes which eventually appears as thermal energy. If the transfer of energy occurs in a crystalline solid then it is possible to couple some of the energy directly to the nuclei forming the lattice by generating phonons. In this paper the transfer of energy from a compound excited nucleus to the lattice is examined by introducing a virtual particle Π. It is shown that by including a Π in the nuclear reaction a substantial amount of energy can be coupled directly to the lattice. In the lattice this particle behaves as a spatially localized phonon of high energy, the so-called supra-ballistic phonon. By multiple inelastic scattering the supra-ballistic phonon eventually thermalizes. Because both the virtual particle Π and the equivalent supra-ballistic phonon have no charge or spin and can only exist within a lattice it is difficult to detect other than by its decay into thermal phonons. The possibility of a Π removing excess energy from a compound nucleus formed by the cold fusion of deuterium is examined. (Author)

  14. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  15. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  16. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    without occurrence of a sedimentation phase in the vicinity of explosion centers. Finally, ballistic impacts can trigger unconventional sags producing local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. Dilute pyroclastic density currents occur contemporaneously with seismogenic volcanic explosions. They can experience extremely high sedimentation rates and may flow at the border between traction, granular and fluid-escape boundary zones. They are often deposited on steep slopes and can incorporate large amounts of water and gas in the sediment. These are just some of the many possible triggers acting in a single environment, and they reveal the potential for insights into the eruptive and flow mechanisms of dilute pyroclastic density currents.

  17. Global and local re-impact and velocity regime of ballistic ejecta of boulder craters on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzeck, F.; Schröder, S. E.; Schmedemann, N.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-04-01

    Imaging by the Dawn-spacecraft reveals that fresh craters on Ceres below 40 km often exhibit numerous boulders. We investigate how the fast rotating, low-gravity regime on Ceres influences their deposition. We analyze size-frequency distributions of ejecta blocks of twelve boulder craters. Global and local landing sites of boulder crater ejecta and boulder velocities are determined by the analytical calculation of elliptic particle trajectories on a rotating body. The cumulative distributions of boulder diameters follow steep-sloped power-laws. We do not find a correlation between boulder size and the distance of a boulder to its primary crater. Due to Ceres' low gravitational acceleration and fast rotation, ejecta of analyzed boulder craters (8-31 km) can be deposited across the entire surface of the dwarf planet. The particle trajectories are strongly influenced by the Coriolis effect as well as the impact geometry. Fast ejecta of high-latitude craters accumulate close to the pole of the opposite hemisphere. Fast ejecta of low-latitude craters wraps around the equator. Rotational effects are also relevant for the low-velocity regime. Boulders are ejected at velocities up to 71 m/s.

  18. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  19. Impact of Laboratory Test Use Strategies in a Turkish Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Meriç Yılmaz

    Full Text Available Eliminating unnecessary laboratory tests is a good way to reduce costs while maintain patient safety. The aim of this study was to define and process strategies to rationalize laboratory use in Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital (ANH and calculate potential savings in costs.A collaborative plan was defined by hospital managers; joint meetings with ANHTA and laboratory professors were set; the joint committee invited relevant staff for input, and a laboratory efficiency committee was created. Literature was reviewed systematically to identify strategies used to improve laboratory efficiency. Strategies that would be applicable in local settings were identified for implementation, processed, and the impact on clinical use and costs assessed for 12 months.Laboratory use in ANH differed enormously among clinics. Major use was identified in internal medicine. The mean number of tests per patient was 15.8. Unnecessary testing for chloride, folic acid, free prostate specific antigen, hepatitis and HIV testing were observed. Test panel use was pinpointed as the main cause of overuse of the laboratory and the Hospital Information System test ordering page was reorganized. A significant decrease (between 12.6-85.0% was observed for the tests that were taken to an alternative page on the computer screen. The one year study saving was equivalent to 371,183 US dollars.Hospital-based committees including laboratory professionals and clinicians can define hospital based problems and led to a standardized approach to test use that can help clinicians reduce laboratory costs through appropriate use of laboratory tests.

  20. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  1. Ballistic transport and electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schep, Kees M.; Kelly, Paul J.; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the electronic structure in determining the transport properties of ballistic point contacts is studied. The conductance in the ballistic regime is related to simple geometrical projections of the Fermi surface. The essential physics is first clarified for simple models. For real

  2. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ballistic impact on composite armour

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, P

    2007-01-01

    Armoured vehicles in current military service are requiring ever more protection to enable them to carry out their mission in a safe, effective manner. This requirement is driving vehicle weight up to such an extent that the logistics of vehicle transport is becoming increasingly difficult. Composite materials are an important material group whose high specific properties can enable structures to be manufactured for a far lower weight than might otherwise be possible. Composite...

  4. Ballistic quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, E.; Bonnet, J.; Porcheron, D.; Mazeron, J.J.; Peiffert, D.; Alapetite, C.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma Knife R either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypo-fractionated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multi-leaf collimators. In addition, 'end-to-end' techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1 mm. (authors)

  5. Impact of the implementation of a well-designed electronic laboratory notebook on bioanalytical laboratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianing; Hillman, Mark; Arnold, Mark

    2011-07-01

    This paper shares experiences of the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company during the design, validation and implementation of an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) into the GLP/regulated bioanalytical analysis area, as well as addresses the impact on bioanalytical laboratory functions with the implementation of the electronic notebook. Some of the key points covered are: knowledge management - the project-based electronic notebook takes full advantage of the available technology that focuses on data organization and sharing so that scientific data generated by individual scientists became department knowledge; bioanalytical workflows in the ELN - the custom-built workflows that include data entry templates, validated calculation processes, integration with laboratory information management systems/laboratory instruments, and reporting capability improve the data quality and overall workflow efficiency; regulatory compliance - carefully designed notebook reviewing processes, cross referencing of distributed information, audit trail and software validation reduce compliance risks. By taking into consideration both data generation and project documentation needs, a well-designed ELN can deliver significant improvements in laboratory efficiency, work productivity, and regulatory compliance.

  6. Impact of laparoscopic surgery training laboratory on surgeon's performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio C M; Barbosa, Joao Arthur B A; Marchini, Giovanni S

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been replacing the open standard technique in several procedures. Similar or even better postoperative outcomes have been described in laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures when compared to open surgery. Moreover, minimally invasive surgery has been providing less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and thus a faster return to daily activities. However, the learning curve required to obtain laparoscopic expertise has been a barrier in laparoscopic spreading. Laparoscopic surgery training laboratory has been developed to aid surgeons to overcome the challenging learning curve. It may include tutorials, inanimate model skills training (box models and virtual reality simulators), animal laboratory, and operating room observation. Several different laparoscopic courses are available with specific characteristics and goals. Herein, we aim to describe the activities performed in a dry and animal-model training laboratory and to evaluate the impact of different kinds of laparoscopic surgery training courses on surgeon’s performance. Several tasks are performed in dry and animal laboratory to reproduce a real surgery. A short period of training can improve laparoscopic surgical skills, although most of times it is not enough to confer laparoscopic expertise for participants. Nevertheless, this short period of training is able to increase the laparoscopic practice of surgeons in their communities. Full laparoscopic training in medical residence or fellowship programs is the best way of stimulating laparoscopic dissemination. PMID:27933135

  7. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  9. Development of high-density ceramic composites for ballistic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupert, N.L.; Burkins, M.S.; Gooch, W.A.; Walz, M.J.; Levoy, N.F.; Washchilla, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The application of ceramic composites for ballistic application has been generally developed with ceramics of low density, between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cm 2 . These materials have offered good performance in defeating small-caliber penetrators, but can suffer time-dependent degradation effects when thicker ceramic tiles are needed to defeat modem, longer, heavy metal penetrators that erode rather than break up. This paper addresses the ongoing development, fabrication procedures, analysis, and ballistic evaluation of thinner, denser ceramics for use in armor applications. Nuclear Metals Incorporated (NMI) developed a process for the manufacture of depleted uranium (DU) ceramics. Samples of the ceramics have been supplied to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) as part of an unfunded cooperative study agreement. The fabrication processes used, characterization of the ceramic, and a ballistic comparison between the DU-based ceramic with baseline Al 2 O 3 will be presented

  10. Economic impact of university veterinary diagnostic laboratories: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lee L; Hayes, Dermot J; Holtkamp, Derald J; Swenson, David A

    2018-03-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL). We use economic contribution analysis coupled with a stakeholder survey to estimate the impact. Results suggest that the ISUVDL is responsible for $2,162.46 million in direct output, $2,832.45 million in total output, $1,158.19 million in total value added, and $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years. In an animal health emergency this increases to $8,446.21 million in direct output, $11,063.06 million in total output, $4,523.70 million in total value added, and $124.15 million in state taxes. The ISUVDL receives $4 million annually as a direct state government appropriation for operating purposes. The $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years and the $124.15 million in state taxes in an animal health emergency equates to a 795% and 3104% return on investment, respectively. Estimates of the economic impact of the ISUVDL provide information to scientists, administrators, and policymakers regarding the efficacy and return on investment of VDLs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory investigation of antenna signals from dust impacts on spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Collette, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.; Thayer, Frederick

    2016-04-01

    Electric field and plasma wave instruments act as dust detectors picking up voltage pulses induced by impacts of particulates on the spacecraft body. These signals enable the characterization of cosmic dust environments even with missions without dedicated dust instruments. For example, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed the first detection of dust particles near Uranus, Neptune, and in the outer solar system [Gurnett et al., 1987, 1991, 1997]. The two STEREO spacecraft observed distinct signals at high rate that were interpreted as nano-sized particles originating from near the Sun and accelerated to high velocities by the solar wind [MeyerVernet et al, 2009a, Zaslavsky et al., 2012]. The MAVEN spacecraft is using the antennas onboard to characterize the dust environment of Mars [Andersson et al., 2014] and Solar Probe Plus will do the same in the inner heliosphere. The challenge, however, is the correct interpretation of the impact signals and calculating the mass of the dust particles. The uncertainties result from the incomplete understanding of the signal pickup mechanisms, and the variation of the signal amplitude with impact location, the ambient plasma environment, and impact speed. A comprehensive laboratory study of impact generated antenna signals has been performed recently using the IMPACT dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado. Dust particles of micron and submicron sizes with velocities of tens of km/s are generated using a 3 MV electrostatic analyzer. A scaled down model spacecraft is exposed to the dust impacts and one or more antennas, connected to sensitive electronics, are used to detect the impact signals. The measurements showed that there are three clearly distinct signal pickup mechanisms due to spacecraft charging, antenna charging and antenna pickup sensing space charge from the expanding plasma cloud. All mechanisms vary with the spacecraft and antenna bias voltages and, furthermore, the latter two

  12. Simulating STARDUST: Reproducing Impacts of Interstellar Dust in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Hillier, J. K.; Sestak, S.; Green, S. F.; Trieloff, M.; Grün, E.

    2008-09-01

    Our experiments are carried out to support the analysis of interstellar dust grains, ISDGs, brought to earth by the STARDUST mission. Since the very first investigations, it has turned out that the major problem of STARDUST particle analysis is the modification (partly even the destruction) during capture when particles impact the spacecraft collectors with a velocity of up to 20 km/s. While it is possible to identify, extract, and analyse cometary grains larger than a few microns in aerogel and on metal collector plates, the STARDUST team is not yet ready for the identification, extraction, and analysis of sub-micron sized ISDGs with impact speeds of up to 20 km/s. Reconstructing the original particle properties requires a simulation of this impact capture process. Moreover, due to the lack of laboratory studies of high speed impacts of micron scale dust into interstellar STARDUST flight spares, the selection of criteria for the identification of track candidates is entirely subjective. Simulation of such impact processes is attempted with funds of the FRONTIER program within the framework of the Heidelberg University initiative of excellence. The dust accelerator at the MPI Kernphysik is a facility unique in the world to perform such experiments. A critical point is the production of cometary and interstellar dust analogue material and its acceleration to very high speeds of 20 km/s, which has never before been performed in laboratory experiments. Up to now only conductive material was successfully accelerated by the 2 MV Van de Graaf generator of the dust accelerator facility. Typical projectile materials are Iron, Aluminium, Carbon, Copper, Silver, and the conducting hydrocarbon Latex. Ongoing research now enables the acceleration of any kind of rocky planetary and interstellar dust analogues (Hillier et al. 2008, in prep.). The first batch of dust samples produced with the new method consists of micron and submicron SiO2 grains. Those were successfully

  13. Management of civilian ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, V S; Masquelet, A C

    2013-12-01

    The management of ballistic fractures, which are open fractures, has often been studied in wartime and has benefited from the principles of military surgery with debridement and lavage, and the use of external fixation for bone stabilization. In civilian practice, bone stabilization of these fractures is different and is not performed by external fixation. Fifteen civilian ballistic fractures, Gustilo II or IIIa, two associated with nerve damage and none with vascular damage, were reviewed. After debridement and lavage, ten internal fixations and five conservative treatments were used. No superficial or deep surgical site infection was noted. Fourteen of the 15 fractures (93%) healed without reoperation. Eleven of the 15 patients (73%) regained normal function. Ballistic fractures have a bad reputation due to their many complications, including infections. In civilian practice, the use of internal fixation is not responsible for excessive morbidity, provided debridement and lavage are performed. Civilian ballistic fractures, when they are caused by low-velocity firearms, differ from military ballistic fractures. Although the principle of surgical debridement and lavage remains the same, bone stabilization is different and is similar to conventional open fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in an Atomically Thin Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mathias J; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Farrokhi, M Javad; Strachan, Douglas R

    2016-01-26

    Ultrashort devices that incorporate atomically thin components have the potential to be the smallest electronics. Such extremely scaled atomically thin devices are expected to show ballistic nonlinear behavior that could make them tremendously useful for ultrafast applications. While nonlinear diffusive electron transport has been widely reported, clear evidence for intrinsic nonlinear ballistic transport in the growing array of atomically thin conductors has so far been elusive. Here we report nonlinear electron transport of an ultrashort single-layer graphene channel that shows quantitative agreement with intrinsic ballistic transport. This behavior is shown to be distinctly different than that observed in similarly prepared ultrashort devices consisting, instead, of bilayer graphene channels. These results suggest that the addition of only one extra layer of an atomically thin material can make a significant impact on the nonlinear ballistic behavior of ultrashort devices, which is possibly due to the very different chiral tunneling of their charge carriers. The fact that we observe the nonlinear ballistic response at room temperature, with zero applied magnetic field, in non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions and directly on a readily accessible oxide substrate makes the nanogap technology we utilize of great potential for achieving extremely scaled high-speed atomically thin devices.

  15. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  17. Ballistic materials in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.S.; Hurst, G.C.; Duerk, J.L.; Diaz, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the most common ballistic materials available in the urban setting studied for deflection force, rotation, heating, and imaging artifact at 1.5 T to determine potential efficacy and safety for imaging patients with ballistic injuries. Twenty-eight missiles were tested, covering the range of bullet types and materials suggested by the Cleveland Police Department. Deflection force was measured by the New method. Rotation was studied by evaluating bullets in a 10% (W/W) ballistic gelating after 30 minutes with the long axis of the bullet placed parallel and perpendicular to the z axis. Heating was measured with alcohol thermometers imaged for 1 hour alternately with FESUM and spin-echo sequences (RF absorption w/Kg and 0.033 w/Kg). Image artifact evaluation of routine sequences was performed

  18. Investigation on energy absorption efficiency of each layer in ballistic armour panel for applications in hybrid design

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal different energy absorption efficiency of each layer when armour panel is under ballistic impact. Through Finite Element (FE) modelling and ballistic tests, it is found that when fabrics are layered up in a panel, energy absorption efficiency is only 30%–60% of an individual fabric layer with free boundary condition. In addition, fabric layers in front, middle, and back exhibit different ballistic characteristics. Therefore, a new hybrid design principle has been pro...

  19. Ballistic behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite: effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Andreia L. dos Santos; Nascimento, Lucio F.C.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez; lucio2002bol.com.br

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, textile composites have been used as ballistic armor. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are used in the production of armor materials. As they have been developed and commercialized only recently, there is not enough information about the effect of environmental agents in the ballistic performance of UHMWPE composites. In the present work, was evaluated the ballistic behavior of composite plates manufactured with UHMWPE fibers after exposure to gamma radiation. The ballistic tests results were related to the macromolecular alterations induced by the radiation through mechanical (hardness, impact and flexure) and physicochemical (Ftir/Mir. DSC and TGA) testing. It was observed that irradiation induces changes in the UHMWPE, degrading the ballistic performance of the composite. These results are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  1. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  2. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  3. The Effects of PMMA on Ballistic Impact Performance of Hybrid Hard/Ductile All-Plastic- and Glass-Plastic-Based Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsieh, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory is focusing on utilizing the materials-by-design strategy in the development of transparent armor systems to achieve lightweight, mobility, enhanced survivability, and lower...

  4. Ballistic study of Tensylon®–based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-C. Alil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic protection is a matter of interest requested by civilian as well as military needs. The last decade has witnessed an increase in the use of light weight and efficient armour systems. These panels may be used for body protection as well as light vehicle protection against small calibres or to enhance the protection level of heavier vehicles with decreasing or maintaining their weight penalty. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene is a material of interest for light weight armour applications. The authors designed panels made of hot–pressed Tensylon® in different configurations with thin steel sheets as a backing and shield protection. Comparison of their ballistic performance to the theory predictions reveals the improved ballistic response of the panels. In addition, a non–pressed Tensylon® panel has been tested in order to facilitate the observations of the failure mechanisms inside the panels. Even if not suitable for practical use, such non–pressed panels clearly reveal the dynamic processes at micro–scale that occur during the impact. The failure mechanisms of the material under bullet penetration are discussed based on photography, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The supposed effects of the panel pressing are discussed based on the observed difference between pressed and non–pressed structures ballistic response.

  5. Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-04

    Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection Manon Bolduc1, Jason Lo2, Ruby Zhang2, Dan Walsh2, Shuqiong Lin3, Benoit Simard3, Ken Bosnick4, Mike...presenc particulate gr atly increase ceramic mad er, knowing e ceramic ma the alumina y on the mat a layered with s on the coat stantial prope C) magnif...mic fiber ma site ceramics such, thod. this fore, on of t has 8. CONCLUSION In an attempt to improve the failure resistance of ceramic

  6. Ballistic food transport in toucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussart, Sabine; Korsoun, Leonid; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Bels, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    The basic mechanism of food transport in tetrapods is lingual-based. Neognathous birds use this mechanism for exploiting a large diversity of food resources, whereas paleognathous birds use cranioinertial mechanism with or without tongue involvement. Food transport in two neognathous species of toucans (Ramphastos toco and R. vitellinus) is defined as ballistic transport mechanism. Only one transport cycle is used for moving the food from the tip of the beak to the pharynx. The food is projected between jaws with similar initial velocity in both species. At the time of release, the angle between trajectory of food position and horizontal is higher in R. vitellinus with a shorter beak than in R. toco. The tongue never makes contact with the food nor is it used to expand the buccal cavity. Tongue movement is associated with throat expansion, permitting the food to reach the entrance of the esophagus at the end of the ballistic trajectory. Selection of large food items in the diet may explain the evolutionary trend of using ballistic transport in the feeding behavior of toucans, which plays a key role in ecology of tropical forest. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  8. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Patent No: US 7,966,923 B2 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...B2 5 Each unit of shell 10 of the ballistic annor of the subject invention further comprises fastening means 20 to attach each such shell IOta the...selectively affixing the conformable ballistic annor to the vehicle is a secure manner, both on a temporal)’ orpennanent basis. The ballistic

  9. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  10. Ship Anti Ballistic Missile Response (SABR)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Allen P.; Breeden, Bryan; Duff, Willard Earl; Fishcer, Paul F.; Hornback, Nathan; Leiker, David C.; Carlisle, Parker; Diersing, Michael; Devlin, Ryan; Glenn, Christopher; Hoffmeister, Chris; Chong, Tay Boon; Sing, Phang Nyit; Meng, Low Wee; Meng, Fann Chee

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Based on public law and Presidential mandate, ballistic missile defense development is a front-burner issue for homeland defense and the defense of U.S. and coalition forces abroad. Spearheaded by the Missile Defense Agency, an integrated ballistic missile defense system was initiated to create a layered defense composed of land-, air-, sea-, and space-based assets. The Ship Anti-Ballistic Response (SABR) Project is a systems engineering approach t...

  11. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Cronin, Duane; Worswick, Michael; Pageau, Gilles; Beth, Andre

    2003-01-01

    In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In...

  12. Global Impact | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Laboratory activities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, E

  13. Wound ballistic evaluation of the Taser® XREP ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Adamec, Jiri; Zinka, Bettina; Münzel, Daniela; Noël, Peter B; Eichner, Simon; Manthei, Axel; Grove, Nico; Graw, M; Peschel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact.

  14. HVI Ballistic Limit Charaterization of Fused Silica Thermal Pane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William E.; Miller, Joshua E.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Deighton, Kevin.; Davis, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft's windows are exposed to the micrometeroid and orbital debris (MMOD) space environments while in space as well as the Earth entry environment at the mission's conclusion. The need for a low-mass spacecraft window design drives the need to reduce conservatism when assessing the design for loss of crew due to MMOD impact and subsequent Earth entry. Therefore, work is underway at NASA and Lockheed Martin to improve characterization of the complete penetration ballistic limit of an outer fused silica thermal pane. Hypervelocity impact tests of the window configuration at up to 10 km/s and hydrocode modeling have been performed with a variety of projectile materials to enable refinement of the fused silica ballistic limit equation.

  15. Impact of Nuclear Laboratory Personnel Credentials & Continuing Education on Nuclear Cardiology Laboratory Quality Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Sobieraj, Diana M; Mann, April; Parker, Matthew W

    2017-12-22

    Background/Objectives: The specific credentials and continuing education (CME/CE) of nuclear cardiology laboratory medical and technical staff are important factors in the delivery of quality imaging services that have not been systematically evaluated. Methods: Nuclear cardiology accreditation application data from the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) was used to characterize facilities performing myocardial perfusion imaging by setting, size, previous accreditation and credentials of the medical and technical staff. Credentials and CME/CE were compared against initial accreditation decisions (grant or delay) using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Complete data were available for 1913 nuclear cardiology laboratories from 2011-2014. Laboratories with initial positive accreditation decisions had a greater prevalence of Certification Board in Nuclear Cardiology (CBNC) certified medical directors and specialty credentialed technical directors. Certification and credentials of the medical and technical directors, respectively, staff CME/CE compliance, and assistance of a consultant with the application were positively associated with accreditation decisions. Conclusion: Nuclear cardiology laboratories directed by CBNC-certified physicians and NCT- or PET-credentialed technologists were less likely to receive delay decisions for MPI. CME/CE compliance of both the medical and technical directors was associated with accreditation decision. Medical and technical directors' years of experience were not associated with accreditation decision. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  16. Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    D. Korsacilar; C. Atas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials /plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber c...

  17. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  18. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  19. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  20. Artifacts that mimic ballistic magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhoff, W.F. . E-mail : egelhoff@nist.gov; Gan, L.; Ettedgui, H.; Kadmon, Y.; Powell, C.J.; Chen, P.J.; Shapiro, A.J.; McMichael, R.D.; Mallett, J.J.; Moffat, T.P.; Stiles, M.D.; Svedberg, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the circumstances underlying recent reports of very large values of ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) in nanocontacts between magnetic wires. We find that the geometries used are subject to artifacts due to motion of the wires that distort the nanocontact thereby changing its electrical resistance. Since these nanocontacts are often of atomic scale, reliable experiments would require stability on the atomic scale. No method for achieving such stability in macroscopic wires is apparent. We conclude that macroscopic magnetic wires cannot be used to establish the validity of the BMR effect

  1. Ballistic electron transport in mesoscopic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis, the electron transport in the ballistic regime has been studied. Ballistic means that the lateral sample dimensions are smaller than the mean free path of the electrons, i.e. the electrons can travel through the whole device without being scattered. This leads to transport characteristics that differ significantly from the diffusive regime which is realised in most experiments. Making use of samples with high mean free path, features of ballistic transport have been observed on samples with sizes up to 100 μm. The basic device used in ballistic electron transport is the point contact, from which a collimated beam of ballistic electrons can be injected. Such point contacts were realised with focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and the collimating properties were analysed using a two opposite point contact configuration. The typical angular width at half maximum is around 50 , which is comparable with that of point contacts defined by other methods. (orig.)

  2. Understanding the ballistic event : Methodology and observations relevant to ceramic armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam

    The only widely-accepted method of gauging the ballistic performance of a material is to carry out ballistic testing; due to the large volume of material required for a statistically robust test, this process is very expensive. Therefore a new test, or suite of tests, that employ widely-available and economically viable characterisation methods to screen candidate armour materials is highly desirable; in order to design such a test, more information on the armour/projectile interaction is required. This work presents the design process and results of using an adapted specimen configuration to increase the amount of information obtained from a ballistic test. By using a block of ballistic gel attached to the ceramic, the fragmentation generated during the ballistic event was captured and analysed. In parallel, quasi-static tests were carried out using ring-on-ring biaxial disc testing to investigate relationships between quasi-static and ballistic fragment fracture surfaces. Three contemporary ceramic armour materials were used to design the test and to act as a baseline; Sintox FA alumina, Hexoloy SA silicon carbide and 3M boron carbide. Attempts to analyse the post-test ballistic sample non-destructively using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) were unsuccessful due to the difference in the density of the materials and the compaction of fragments. However, the results of qualitative and quantitative fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed similarities between the fracture surfaces of ballistic fragments at the edges of the tile and biaxial fragments; this suggests a relationship between quasi-static and ballistic fragments created away from the centre of impact, although additional research will be required to determine the reason for this. Ballistic event-induced porosity was observed and quantified on the fracture surfaces of silicon carbide samples, which decreased as distance from centre of impact increased; upon further analysis this

  3. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  4. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR, which in part relies on the detailed information in the appendices, and comprehensively discusses the proposed action, the alternatives, and the existing conditions and impacts of the proposed action and the alternatives

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Regents of the University of California (UC) propose the continued operation, including near-term proposed projects, of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition, DOE proposes the continued operation, including near-term proposed projects, of Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Continued operation plus proposed projects at the two Laboratories is needed so that the research and development missions established by Congress and the President can continue to be supported. As provided and encouraged by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), DOE and UC have prepared this document as a joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Impact Report (EIR) to analyze the impacts of the proposed action. In addition, this document discusses a no action alternative for continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative focused on specific adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative. This document also examines the alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. The environmental documentation process provides information to the public, government agencies, and decision makers about the environmental impacts of implementing the proposed and alternative actions. In addition, this environmental documentation identifies alternatives and possible ways to reduce or prevent environmental impacts. A list of the issues raised through the EIS/EIR scoping process is presented

  7. Impact of Laboratory Cross-Contamination on Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel; de Viedma, Darío García; Alonso, María; Andrés, Sandra; Bouza, Emilio; Cabezas, Teresa; Cabeza, Isabel; Reyes, Armando; Sánchez-Yebra, Waldo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Sánchez, M. Isabel; Rogado, M. Cruz; Fernández, Rosa; Peñafiel, Teresa; Martínez, Juan; Barroso, Pilar; Lucerna, M. Ángeles; Diez, L. Felipe; Gutiérrez, Carmelo

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory cross-contamination by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to be responsible for the misdiagnosis of tuberculosis, but its impact on other contexts has not been analyzed. We present the findings of a molecular epidemiology analysis in which the recent transmission events identified by a genotyping reference center were overestimated as a result of unnoticed laboratory cross-contamination in the original diagnostic laboratories. PMID:16891518

  8. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ballistic transport and quantum interference in InSb nanowire devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sen; Huang Guang-Yao; Guo Jing-Kun; Kang Ning; Xu Hong-Qi; Caroff, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    An experimental realization of a ballistic superconductor proximitized semiconductor nanowire device is a necessary step towards engineering topological quantum electronics. Here, we report on ballistic transport in InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy contacted by superconductor electrodes. At an elevated temperature, clear conductance plateaus are observed at zero magnetic field and in agreement with calculations based on the Landauer formula. At lower temperature, we have observed characteristic Fabry–Pérot patterns which confirm the ballistic nature of charge transport. Furthermore, the magnetoconductance measurements in the ballistic regime reveal a periodic variation related to the Fabry–Pérot oscillations. The result can be reasonably explained by taking into account the impact of magnetic field on the phase of ballistic electron’s wave function, which is further verified by our simulation. Our results pave the way for better understanding of the quantum interference effects on the transport properties of InSb nanowires in the ballistic regime as well as developing of novel device for topological quantum computations. (paper)

  10. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet – the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards – e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0–30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4–500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2–3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2–15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6–22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5–40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2–0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures regarding indirect electromagnetic hazards should be applied

  11. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet - the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards - e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0-30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4-500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2-3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2-15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6-22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5-40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2-0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures regarding indirect electromagnetic hazards should be applied. Presented results

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains copies of the written comments and transcripts of individual statements at the public hearing and the responses to them

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR technical appendices which provide technical support for the analyses in Volume 1 and also provide additional information and references

  14. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of gelatine in wound ballistics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; Stevenson, T; Mahoney, P F

    2018-04-25

    Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability. Research areas that use gelatine blocks are diverse and include ammunition designers, the medical and forensics communities and designers of ballistic protective equipment (including body armour). This paper aims to provide an overarching review of the use of gelatine for wound ballistics studies; it is not intended to provide an extensive review of wound ballistics as that already exists, e.g. Legal Med 23:21-29, 2016. Key messages are that test variables, projectile type (bullet, fragmentation), impact site on the body and intermediate layers (e.g. clothing, personal protective equipment (PPE)) can affect the resulting wound profiles.

  16. IMPACTS OF DRILLING ADDITIVES ON DATA OBTAINED FROM HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION WELLS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to evaluate the impacts of well drilling practices at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The focus of this review involved analysis of the impacts of bentonite- a...

  17. 77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The US Army Research Laboratory's (ARL's), Survivability, Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD...

  18. Hypervelocity Dust Impacts in Space and the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Interplanetary dust particles continually bombard all objects in the solar system, leading to the excavation of material from the target surfaces, the production of secondary ejecta particles, plasma, neutral gas, and electromagnetic radiation. These processes are of interest to basic plasma science, planetary and space physics, and engineering to protect humans and instruments against impact damages. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) has recently completed a 3 MV dust accelerator, and this talk will summarize our initial science results. The 3 MV Pelletron contains a dust source, feeding positively charged micron and sub-micron sized particles into the accelerator. We will present the technical details of the facility and its capabilities, as well as the results of our initial experiments for damage assessment of optical devices, and penetration studies of thin films. We will also report on the completion of our dust impact detector, the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), is expected to be flying onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission by the time of this presentation. LDEX was tested, and calibrated at our dust accelerator. We will close by offering the opportunity to use this facility by the planetary, space and plasma physics communities.

  19. Effect of ageing on the calibration of ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guey, Jason; Rodrigues, S; Pullen, A; Shaw, B; Kieser, D C

    2018-02-27

    Ballistic gelatin is commonly used as a validated surrogate for soft tissue during terminal ballistic testing. However, the effect of a delay between production and testing of a gelatin mould remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any potential effects of ageing on ballistic gelatin. Depth of penetration (DoP) of 4.5 mm spherical fragment simulating projectiles was ascertained using mixtures of 10%, 11.25% and 20% Type A 250 Bloom ballistic gelatin. Testing was performed daily for 5 days using velocities between 75 and 210 m/s. DoP at day 5 was statistically compared with day 1, and net mass change was recorded daily. No significant difference was found for DoP observed with time in any of the samples (P>0.05). Spearman correlation was excellent in all moulds. The moulds with known standard calibrations remained in calibration throughout the study period. Mass loss of less than 1% was noted in all samples. Mass loss was the only quantifiable measure of changes in the blocks with time, but did not correlate with any changes in DoP. This may provide reassurance when undertaking such testing that an inadvertent delay will not significantly alter the penetration properties of the mould. Future research is recommended to determine any potential effect on the mechanical properties of gelatin at higher velocity impacts and whether the calibration corresponds to an adequate simulation under such conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  1. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Guevara

    2014-11-01

    Objective: To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months. Method: Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS. Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months and post-SLMTA (at 18 months using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps. Results: Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories. Conclusion: The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation.

  2. Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Ballistic MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop theory, approximations, and computer code to model quasi 1D structures such as nanotubes, DNA, and MOSFETs: (1) Nanotubes: Influence of defects on ballistic transport, electro-mechanical properties, and metal-nanotube coupling; (2) DNA: Model electron transfer (biochemistry) and transport experiments, and sequence dependence of conductance; and (3) MOSFETs: 2D doping profiles, polysilicon depletion, source to drain and gate tunneling, understand ballistic limit.

  3. Effect of tempering time on the ballistic performance of a high strength armour steel

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Pradipta Kumar; Senthil P., Ponguru; K., Siva Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The investigation describes and analyses the effect of tempering time on the mechanical and ballistic performance of a high strength armour steel. The steel is subjected to tempering at 300 °C for 2, 24 and 48 h. A marginal variation in strength and hardness is observed with increase in tempering time, whereas ductility and Charpy impact values are found to be decreasing. Ballistic performance of the samples are evaluated by impacting 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm armour piercing projectiles at 0° angl...

  4. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Giselle; Gordon, Floris; Irving, Yvette; Whyms, Ismae; Parris, Keith; Beckles, Songee; Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Albalak, Rachel; Alemnji, George

    Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow. To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months. Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS). Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months) and post-SLMTA (at 18 months) using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps. Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories. The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation.

  5. 76 FR 50212 - Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (DOE/EIS-0281-SA-04), DOE/NNSA... Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico for the Installation of a Petawatt..., New Mexico Final Supplement Analysis for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (2006 SNL/NM...

  6. Ballistic self-annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Johan F.

    2001-01-01

    Ion implantation conditions are considered during which the energy, dissipated in the collision cascades, is low enough to ensure that the defects, which are generated during these collisions, consist primarily of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is proposed that ballistic self-annealing is possible when the point defect density becomes high enough, provided that none, or very few, of the interstitial atoms escape from the layer being implanted. Under these conditions, the fraction of ballistic atoms, generated within the collision cascades from substitutional sites, decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the fraction of ballistic atoms, which finally end up within vacancies, increases with increasing vacancy density. Provided the crystal structure does not collapse, a damage threshold should be approached where just as many atoms are knocked out of substitutional sites as the number of ballistic atoms that fall back into vacancies. Under these conditions, the average point defect density should approach saturation. This model is applied to recently published Raman data that have been measured on a 3 MeV He + -ion implanted diamond (Orwa et al 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 5461). The conclusion is reached that this ballistic self-annealing model describes the latter data better than a model in which it is assumed that the saturation in radiation damage is caused by amorphization of the implanted layer. (author)

  7. Ballistic behaviour of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Andreia L.S.; Nascimento, Lucio F.C.; Miguez Suarez, Joao Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are considered excellent engineering materials. In structural applications, when a high strength-to-weight ratio is fundamental for the design, PMCs are successfully replacing many conventional materials. Since World War II textile materials have been used as ballistic armor. Materials manufactured with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are used in the production of armor materials, for personnel protection and armored vehicles. As these have been developed and commercialized more recently, there is not enough information about the action of the ionizing radiation in the ballistic performance of this armor material. In the present work the ballistic behavior of composite plates manufactured with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers were evaluated after exposure to gamma radiation. The ballistic tests results were related to the macromolecular modifications induced by the environmental degradation through mechanical (hardness, impact and flexure) and physicochemical (infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis) tests. Our results indicate that gamma irradiation induces modifications in the UHMWPE macromolecular chains, altering the mechanical properties of the composite and decreasing, for higher radiation doses, its ballistic performance. These results are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Self-diffusion and solute diffusion in alloys under irradiation: Influence of ballistic jumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Jean-Marc; Bellon, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the influence of ballistic jumps on thermal and total diffusion of solvent and solute atoms in dilute fcc alloys under irradiation. For the diffusion components that result from vacancy migration, we introduce generalized five-frequency models, and show that ballistic jumps produce decorrelation effects that have a moderate impact on self-diffusion but that can enhance or suppress solute diffusion by several orders of magnitude. These could lead to new irradiation-induced transformations, especially in the case of subthreshold irradiation conditions. We also show that the mutual influence of thermal and ballistic jumps results in a nonadditivity of partial diffusion coefficients: the total diffusion coefficient under irradiation may be less than the sum of the thermal and ballistic diffusion coefficients. These predictions are confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, it is shown that the method introduced here can be extended to take into account the effect of ballistic jumps on the diffusion of dumbbell interstitials in dilute alloys

  9. Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.

  10. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  11. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  12. Background Music in the Dissection Laboratory: Impact on Stress Associated with the Dissection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2015-01-01

    Notable challenges, such as mental distress, boredom, negative moods, and attitudes, have been associated with learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory (CDL). The ability of background music (BM) to enhance the cognitive abilities of students is well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of BM in the CDL and on…

  13. Considerations on Dop (Depth Of Penetration) Test for Evaluation of Ceramics Materials Used in Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ioan-Dan; Dobriţa, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Tremendous amount of funds and other resorces were invested in studying the response of ceramic materials under ballistic impact, the main goal being to find a way to increase the protection of soldiers and the vehicles used in the modern battlespace. Using of ceramic materials especially carbon based (carbides), nitrogen based (nitrides) and oxygen based (oxides) ceramics in order to increase the protection level of ballistic equipment could be, sometimes, a big challenge when trying to use the proper test in order to evaluate and compare their performances. The role of the tests is to provide a better understanding of their response in different situations and, as a consequence, to make them more efficient as armour components through future improvements. The paper presents shortly the main tests which are used and eventually standardised for evaluating the ballistic behaviour of the ceramics and other armour components, with a special focus to DOP (Depth of Penetration) Tests.

  14. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  15. Shape of scoria cones on Mars: Insights from numerical modeling of ballistic pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Čadek, O.; Hauber, E.; Rossi, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, November (2014), s. 14-23 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars * explosive volcanism * scoria cone * ballistic pathway Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  16. Two distinct ballistic processes in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, M; Rosenstein, B; Nghiem, D

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to ballistic transport in mesoscopic graphene samples of finite length Land contact potential difference with leads U is developed. It is shown that at ballistic times shorter than both relevant time scales, t L = L/v g (v g - Fermi velocity) and t u = ħ/(eU), the major effect of electric field is to creates the electron - hole pairs, namely causes interband transitions. At ballistic times lager than the two scales the mechanism is very different. The conductivity has its “nonrelativistic” or intraband value equal to the one obtained within the Landauer-Butticker approach for the barrier Uresulting from evanescent waves tunneling through the barrier.

  17. Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the research was to make evaulation of the ballistic strenth of four different composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ntlon, HPPE and aramide fibers...... Key words. aramid, ballistic, V50

  18. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  19. Using the H Index to Assess Impact of DOE National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The most readily accessible elements of the Emerald Matrix by quantitative measures are the knowledge and economy related measures. In this paper, the H Index for an institution will be used to assess STE impact, which is in the knowledge generation element. The H Index was developed by Hirsch (2005) as a measure of an individual’s scientific impact. The H Index is defined as the number of publications that have been cited h or more times for a given author. It has been generalized to organizations. Doing so leads to a complication in that H index scales with the number of publications. Although this may not be problematic when comparing individual researchers, it systematically favors larger institutions. Molinari and Molinari (2008) proposed an alternative index (hm) designed to assess organizational impact. It transforms the H Index for an organization into an impact index by removing a factor dependent on the number of publications. The hm provides another approach to compare institutions provided that differences in the citation patterns associated with fields of study are addressed. Kinney (2007) used the Molinari and Molinari (2008) approach to compare various scientific institutions in nonbiomedical research areas. Kinney (2007) used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) as the source and used publications in nonbiomedical research areas, which is very important because the research areas of universities are much broader than say a DOE national laboratory. Also there are differences in citation rates for the various research fields that make comparisons between individuals or organizations difficult. The results from Kinney (2007) are given in Table 1 and indicate that the DOE national laboratories compare favorably with the selected universities in terms of impact (hm) in the research areas used in Kinney’s analysis. This report will compare hm for DOE national laboratories using an approach similar to Kinney (2007) providing a measure of impact of

  20. The impact of automation on organizational changes in a community hospital clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, Alessandro

    2004-06-01

    The diagnosis of infectious diseases and the role of the microbiology laboratory are currently undergoing a process of change. The need for overall efficiency in providing results is now given the same importance as accuracy. This means that laboratories must be able to produce quality results in less time with the capacity to interpret the results clinically. To improve the clinical impact of microbiology results, the new challenge facing the microbiologist has become one of process management instead of pure analysis. A proper project management process designed to improve workflow, reduce analytical time, and provide the same high quality results without losing valuable time treating the patient, has become essential. Our objective was to study the impact of introducing automation and computerization into the microbiology laboratory, and the reorganization of the laboratory workflow, i.e. scheduling personnel to work shifts covering both the entire day and the entire week. In our laboratory, the introduction of automation and computerization, as well as the reorganization of personnel, thus the workflow itself, has resulted in an improvement in response time and greater efficiency in diagnostic procedures.

  1. Evaluation of the implementation of a quality system in a basic research laboratory: viability and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Hilda Carolina de Jesus Rios; Fukutani, Kiyoshi Ferreira; Celes, Fabiana Santana; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Oliveira, Camila Indiani de

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the process of implementing a quality management system in a basic research laboratory of a public institution, particularly considering the feasibility and impacts of this improvement. This was a prospective and qualitative study. We employed the norm "NIT DICLA 035--Princípios das Boas Práticas de Laboratório (BPL)" and auxiliary documents of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to complement the planning and implementation of a Quality System, in a basic research laboratory. In parallel, we used the PDCA tool to define the goals of each phase of the implementation process. This study enabled the laboratory to comply with the NIT DICLA 035 norm and to implement this norm during execution of a research study. Accordingly, documents were prepared and routines were established such as the registration of non-conformities, traceability of research data and equipment calibration. The implementation of a quality system, the setting of a laboratory focused on basic research is feasible once certain structural changes are made. Importantly, impacts were noticed during the process, which could be related to several improvements in the laboratory routine.

  2. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  3. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  4. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  5. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the impact event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.

  6. HVI Ballistic Limit Characterization of Fused Silica Thermal Panes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fused silica window systems are used heavily on crewed reentry vehicles, and they are currently being used on the next generation of US crewed spacecraft, Orion. These systems improve crew situational awareness and comfort, as well as, insulating the reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on a fused silica window system proposed for the Orion spacecraft. A ballistic limit equation that describes the threshold of perforation of a fuse silica pane over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials is discussed here.

  7. Experimental Determination of Ballistic Performance of Composite Material Kevlar 29 and Alumina Powder/ Epoxy by Spherical Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Hashem Abbud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a response of hybrid composite laminate woven fiber Kevlar29 – Al2O3 Powder/ Epoxy subjected to high velocity impact loading is presented. The energy absorbed due to impact of small rigid projectile on composite materials targets is determined experimentally. The energy absorbed due to impact of hemispherical projectiles on the developed composite laminates is investigated. The results revealed the maximum ballistic limit at impact velocity is found to be 390.87 ± 6 m/s for an the 18 mm target thickness. The ballistic limit velocity predictions are based on the theoretical method presented from another article. The initial velocity and residual velocity results showed good is agreement compared with the predicted results of Ipson and Recht equations. With 5.4 % of accuracy based on the experimental value for the theoretical model for ballistic limit velocity.

  8. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  9. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  10. Ballistic tongue projection in a miniaturized salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Bloom, Segall V

    2018-05-20

    Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism. Preceding ballistic projection is an unusual preparatory phase of tongue protrusion, which, like tongue retraction, shows lower performance and higher thermal sensitivity that are indicative of movement being powered directly by muscle shortening. The variability of tongue-projection kinematics and dynamics is comparable to larger ballistic-tongued plethodontids and reveals that Thorius is capable of modulating its tongue movements in response to prey distance. Morphological examination revealed that T. macdougalli possesses a reduced number of myofibers in the tongue muscles, a large projector muscle mass relative to tongue mass, and an unusual folding of the tongue skeleton, compared with larger relatives. Nonetheless, T. macdougalli retains the elaborated collagen aponeuroses in the projector muscle that store elastic energy and a tongue skeleton that is free of direct myofiber insertion, two features that appear to be essential for ballistic tongue projection in salamanders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characterization of dynamic properties of ballistic clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Broos, J.P.F.; Halls, V.; Zheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order use material models in (numerical) calculations, the mechanical properties of all materials involved should be known. At TNO an indirect method to determine the dynamic flow stress of materials has been generated by a combination of ballistic penetration tests with an energy-based

  12. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  13. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  14. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  15. Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N; Bai Ming; Lu Yonghua; Munoz, M; Cheng Hao; Levanyuk, A P

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport

  16. The Effects of Ballistic and Non-Ballistic Bench Press on Mechanical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Munford, Shawn N; Moroski, Lindsey L; Davis, Shala E

    2017-02-21

    To investigate the effects of ballistic and non-ballistic bench press performed with loads equivalent to 30 and 90% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on mechanical variables. Eleven resistance-trained men (age: 23.0 ± 1.4 years; mass: 98.4 ± 14.4 kg) attended four testing sessions where they performed one of the following sessions: 1) three sets of five non-ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30N-B), 2) three sets of five ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30B), 3) three sets of four non-ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90N-B), 4) three sets of four ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90B). Force plates and a 3-D motion analysis system were used to determine the velocity, force, power output (PO) and work during each repetition. The heavier loads resulted in significantly greater forces applied to the barbell (mean differences: 472-783 N, pvelocities (mean differences: 0.85-1.20 m/s, pvelocity (mean difference: 0.33 m/s, pbench press may be an effective exercise for developing power output and multiple sets may elicit post-activation potentiation that enhances force production. However, these benefits may be negated at heavier loads.

  17. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  18. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  19. Trismus in Face Transplantation Following Ballistic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J

    2018-06-01

    Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face

  20. Computational Investigation of Effects of Grain Size on Ballistic Performance of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ge; Dou, Yangqing; Guo, Xiang; Liu, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulations were conducted to compare ballistic performance and penetration mechanism of copper (Cu) with four representative grain sizes. Ballistic limit velocities for coarse-grained (CG) copper (grain size ≈ 90 µm), regular copper (grain size ≈ 30 µm), fine-grained (FG) copper (grain size ≈ 890 nm), and ultrafine-grained (UG) copper (grain size ≈ 200 nm) were determined for the first time through the simulations. It was found that the copper with reduced grain size would offer higher strength and better ductility, and therefore renders improved ballistic performance than the CG and regular copper. High speed impact and penetration behavior of the FG and UG copper was also compared with the CG coppers strengthened by nanotwinned (NT) regions. The comparison results showed the impact and penetration resistance of UG copper is comparable to the CG copper strengthened by NT regions with the minimum twin spacing. Therefore, besides the NT-strengthened copper, the single phase copper with nanoscale grain size could also be a strong candidate material for better ballistic protection. A computational modeling and simulation framework was proposed for this study, in which Johnson-Cook (JC) constitutive model is used to predict the plastic deformation of Cu; the JC damage model is to capture the penetration and fragmentation behavior of Cu; Bao-Wierzbicki (B-W) failure criterion defines the material's failure mechanisms; and temperature increase during this adiabatic penetration process is given by the Taylor-Quinney method.

  1. Ballistic trauma from an exploding electronic cigarette: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ban, DMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes first became available in the United States in 2007, and since that time, the number of e-cigarette users in the US has grown to over 2.5 million. During the period from 2010–2013 alone, the percentage of Americans who reported that they had ever used electronic cigarettes more than doubled from 3.3% to 8.5%. This number will continue to grow, as the use of electronic cigarettes as an alternative to smoking and in smoking cessation is being explored by the public and medical professionals alike. This article presents a case report involving a patient who was injured when the electronic cigarette he was smoking exploded in his face, causing a ballistic injury to his maxilla, as well as a series of other associated injuries. There have been several recent reports in the literature of exploding electronic cigarettes. This article presents a case of avulsive injury due to ballistic trauma with associated impaction of the vaporizing device.

  2. Improving Ballistic Performance of Polyurethane Foam by Nanoparticle Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Uddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report improving ballistic performance of polyurethane foam by reinforcing it with nanoscale TiO2 particles. Particles were dispersed through a sonic cavitation process and the loading of particles was 3 wt% of the total polymer. Once foams were reinforced, sandwich panels were made and impacted with fragment simulating projectiles (FSPs in a 1.5-inch gas gun. Projectile speed was set up to have complete penetration of the target in each experiment. Test results have indicated that sandwich with nanophased cores absorbed about 20% more kinetic energy than their neat counterpart. The corresponding increase in ballistic limit was around 12% over the neat control samples. The penetration phenomenon was also monitored using a high-speed camera. Analyses of digital images showed that FSP remained inside the nanophased sandwich for about 7 microseconds longer than that of a neat sandwich demonstrating improved energy absorption capability of the nanoparticle reinforced core. Failure modes for energy absorption have been investigated through a microscope and high-speed images.

  3. Improving Ballistic Performance of Polyurethane Foam by Nanoparticle Reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.F.; Zainuddin, S.; Mahfuz, H.; Jeelani, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report improving ballistic performance of polyurethane foam by reinforcing it with nano scale TiO 2 particles. Particles were dispersed through a sonic cavitation process and the loading of particles was 3 wt % of the total polymer. Once foams were reinforced, sandwich panels were made and impacted with fragment simulating projectiles (FSPs) in a 1.5-inch gas gun. Projectile speed was set up to have complete penetration of the target in each experiment. Test results have indicated that sandwich with nano phased cores absorbed about 20% more kinetic energy than their neat counterpart. The corresponding increase in ballistic limit was around 12% over the neat control samples. The penetration phenomenon was also monitored using a high-speed camera. Analyses of digital images showed that FSP remained inside the nano phased sandwich for about 7 microseconds longer than that of a neat sandwich demonstrating improved energy absorption capability of the nanoparticle reinforced core. Failure modes for energy absorption have been investigated through a microscope and high-speed images.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Low-Cost Wearable Sensors for Measuring Head Impacts in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2018-04-03

    Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports. The wearable sensors were evaluated on their kinematic accuracy by comparing results to reference sensors located at the headform center of gravity. Statistical tests for equivalence were performed on the slope of the linear regression between wearable sensors and reference. The xPatch gave equivalent measurements to the reference in select longer-duration impacts whereas the SIM-G had large variance leading to no equivalence. For the short-duration impacts, both wearable sensors underpredicted the reference. This error can be improved with increases in sampling rate from 1 to 1.5 kHz. Follow-up evaluations should be performed on the field to identify error in vivo. (197/200).

  5. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  6. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  7. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  8. [Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J

    2016-02-03

    Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition.

  9. Ballistic model to estimate microsprinkler droplet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental determination of microsprinkler droplets is difficult and time-consuming. This determination, however, could be achieved using ballistic models. The present study aimed to compare simulated and measured values of microsprinkler droplet diameters. Experimental measurements were made using the flour method, and simulations using a ballistic model adopted by the SIRIAS computational software. Drop diameters quantified in the experiment varied between 0.30 mm and 1.30 mm, while the simulated between 0.28 mm and 1.06 mm. The greatest differences between simulated and measured values were registered at the highest radial distance from the emitter. The model presented a performance classified as excellent for simulating microsprinkler drop distribution.

  10. One-Dimensional Modelling of Internal Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-González, G.; Otón-Martínez, R. A.; Velasco, F. J. S.; García-Cascáles, J. R.; Ramírez-Fernández, F. J.

    2017-10-01

    A one-dimensional model is introduced in this paper for problems of internal ballistics involving solid propellant combustion. First, the work presents the physical approach and equations adopted. Closure relationships accounting for the physical phenomena taking place during combustion (interfacial friction, interfacial heat transfer, combustion) are deeply discussed. Secondly, the numerical method proposed is presented. Finally, numerical results provided by this code (UXGun) are compared with results of experimental tests and with the outcome from a well-known zero-dimensional code. The model provides successful results in firing tests of artillery guns, predicting with good accuracy the maximum pressure in the chamber and muzzle velocity what highlights its capabilities as prediction/design tool for internal ballistics.

  11. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms

  12. High Resolution, High-Speed Photography, an Increasingly Prominent Diagnostic in Ballistic Research Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Muelder, S.

    1999-01-01

    High resolution, high-speed photography is becoming a prominent diagnostic in ballistic experimentation. The development of high speed cameras utilizing electro-optics and the use of lasers for illumination now provide the capability to routinely obtain high quality photographic records of ballistic style experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to review in a visual manner the progress of this technology and how it has impacted ballistic experimentation. Within the framework of development at LLNL, we look at the recent history of large format high-speed photography, and present a number of photographic records that represent the state of the art at the time they were made. These records are primarily from experiments involving shaped charges. We also present some examples of current photographic technology, developed within the ballistic community, that has application to hydro diagnostic experimentation at large. This paper is designed primarily as an oral-visual presentation. This written portion is to provide general background, a few examples, and a bibliography

  13. The influence of magnetic field on ballistic performance of aramid fibre and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.C.; Ruan, D.; Sesso, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ballistic tests conducted on Kevlar and UHMWPE within a magnetic field. • Repulsion force created by opposing magnet poles reduced the impact momentum. • High speed camera images showed no perforation on Kevlar due to magnetic field. • Standoff distance between magnets has an effect on the repulsion force. - Abstract: An innovative method is introduced here whereby using two sets of arrays of rare earth magnets aligned opposite each other in order to create a repulsion force owing to the like poles when facing close to each other. Ballistic test samples of aramid fibre (Kevlar K29) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were sandwiched by two sets of opposing magnets. Ballistic test was conducted using a gas gun with a 7.62 mm diameter projectile at a velocity ranging from 160 to 220 m/s. High speed camera was used to capture the ballistics testing and it shows that the magnetic repulsion force created by the opposing rare earth magnets managed to suppress the projectile from advancing into the front face of the aramid fibre. Similarly, when magnets were used, the UHMWPE sample shows the projectile perforated through the first few sheets and finally rested on the last sheet showing partial perforation

  14. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    deploying advanced air defense systems18, such as the Russian S-300 and S-500, and concealing them in hardened, camouflaged sites, such as extensive... Russian objections to the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and fund homeland defense priorities.39 Furthermore, the PTSS system was also... Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Capability Becomes Operational,” Jane’s Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2011. 55 Joseph W. Kirschbaum, REGIONAL MISSILE

  15. Orbital magnetism in ensembles of ballistic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmo, D.; Richter, K.; Jalabert, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic response of ensembles of small two-dimensional structures at finite temperatures is calculated. Using semiclassical methods and numerical calculation it is demonstrated that only short classical trajectories are relevant. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in regular systems, where these trajectories appear in families. For ensembles of squares large paramagnetic susceptibility is obtained, in good agreement with recent measurements in the ballistic regime. (authors). 20 refs., 2 figs

  16. Strategic nuclear policy and ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The article explains the problems of the antirockets (ABM) as they were part of the presentation Salt I 1972. It is a translation from the English of a publication of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute in London. A topical analysis of the strategic nuclear policy of the two superpowers and their attitudes in the question of ballistic missile defense are given by means of two monographies. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  18. On the comparison of the ballistic performance of 10% zirconia toughened alumina and 95% alumina ceramic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.F.; Li, Y.C.

    2010-01-01

    Ballistic performance of different type of ceramic materials subjected to high velocity impact was investigated in many theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. In this study, a comparison of ballistic performance of 95% alumina ceramic and 10% zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic tiles was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Spherical cavity model based on the concepts of mechanics of compressible porous media of Galanov was used to analyze the relation of target resistance and static mechanical properties. Experimental studies were carried out on the ballistic performance of above two types of ceramic tiles based on the depth of penetration (DOP) method, when subjected to normal impact of tungsten long rod projectiles. Typical damaged targets were presented. The residual depth of penetration on after-effect target was measured in all experiments, and the ballistic efficiency factor of above two types ceramic plates were determined. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the improvement on ballistic resistance was clearly observed by increasing fracture toughness in ZTA ceramics.

  19. Impact Load Behavior between Different Charge and Lifter in a Laboratory-Scale Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zixin; Peng, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhencai; Yu, Zhangfa; Li, Tongqing

    2017-07-31

    The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes. The research results shown as follows: The semi-empirical power draw of Bond model in this paper does not apply very satisfactorily for the ball mills, while the power draw determined by DEM simulation show a good approximation for the measured power draw. Besides, the impact force on the lifter was affected by mill speed, grinding media filling, lifter height and iron ore particle. The maximum percent of the impact force between 600 and 1400 N is at 70-80% of critical speed. The impact force can be only above 1400 N at the grinding media filling of 20%, and the maximum percent of impact force between 200 and 1400 N is obtained at the grinding media filling of 20%. The percent of impact force ranging from 0 to 200 N decreases with the increase of lifter height. However, this perfect will increase above 200 N. The impact force will decrease when the iron ore particles are added. Additionally, for the 80% of critical speed, the measured power draw has a maximum value. Increasing the grinding media filling increases the power draw and increasing the lifter height does not lead to any variation in power draw.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of the "Teaching as a Chemistry Laboratory Graduate Teaching Assistant" Program on Cognitive and Psychomotor Verbal Interactions in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Designing and evaluating teacher development programs for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) who teach in the laboratory is a prominent feature of chemistry education research. However, few studies have investigated the impact of a GTA teacher development program on the verbal interactions between participating GTAs and students in the…

  1. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  2. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  3. High Performance Fuel Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The High Performance Fuel Laboratory (HPFL) will provide pilot scale tests of manufacturing processes, equipment, and handling systems and of accountability and safeguards, methods, and equipment while keeping radiological and chemical exposures of the workers, public, and environment at the lowest practicable levels. The experience gained from designing, constructing and operating the HPFL can be used in future commitments to commercial fuel fabrication plants in the late 1980s and beyond for processing of nuclear fuel. The HPFL site is located in the 400 Area of the 559-square mile, federally owned Hanford Reservation. This environmental impact statement considers effects of the HPFL under normal conditions and in the event of an accident

  4. Ballistic Evaluation of 7056 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    specification, allowing increased availability of material and pricing competition to benefit the Army. In addition to the 2 tempers outlined for the mil-spec...positioned 152 mm (6 inches) behind the target to determine the outcome of each shot. An impact is regarded as a complete penetration (CP), or loss, if...not result in a CP, it is considered a partial penetration (PP), or win. To keep results as consistent as possible, only shots conforming to the

  5. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  6. Inelastic and ballistic processes resulting from CsF--Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.; Sindoni, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper continues the study of inelastic and ballistic collisions for the CsF--Ar system using the impulse approximation (IA). The IA expresses the atom--diatom potential as the sum of the two atom--atom potentials. The atom--atom interaction is approximated by a hard core potential, and the laboratory differential cross sections are calculated for an initial relative translational energy of 1.0 eV as a function of the laboratory recoil velocity of CsF. The calculated differential cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements for all eight laboratory scattering angles for which the data are available. While the calculated results show no significant dependence on the initial relative velocity or on the initial vibrational quantum number of CsF, they do show a systematic variation with the initial rotational quantum number---the ballistic effect is more pronounced than that observed experimentally for initial quantum rotational numbers less than 30 and is not pronounced enough for rotational quantum numbers more than 100. Two mechanisms give rise to the ballistic peak. The first one is dominant when the laboratory scattering angle is equal, or nearly equal, to the laboratory angle of the centroid velocity. This mechanism transfers almost all of the relative translational energy into the internal energy of the diatom and magnifies the center-of-mass (c.m.) differential cross section almost a million times. This is due to a singularity in the Jacobian at very small c.m. recoil velocities, which physically means that a small solid angle in the laboratory frame can collect the signal from all 4π steradians in the c.m. frame

  7. In-flight dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Cruz-Vázquez, O.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.

    2017-09-01

    Centimeter to meter-sized volcanic ballistic projectiles from explosive eruptions jeopardize people and properties kilometers from the volcano, but they also provide information about the past eruptions. Traditionally, projectile trajectory is modeled using simplified ballistic theory, accounting for gravity and drag forces only and assuming simply shaped projectiles free moving through air. Recently, collisions between projectiles and interactions with plumes are starting to be considered. Besides theory, experimental studies and field mapping have so far dominated volcanic projectile research, with only limited observations. High-speed, high-definition imaging now offers a new spatial and temporal scale of observation that we use to illuminate projectile dynamics. In-flight collisions commonly affect the size, shape, trajectory, and rotation of projectiles according to both projectile nature (ductile bomb versus brittle block) and the location and timing of collisions. These, in turn, are controlled by ejection pulses occurring at the vent. In-flight tearing and fragmentation characterize large bombs, which often break on landing, both factors concurring to decrease the average grain size of the resulting deposits. Complex rotation and spinning are ubiquitous features of projectiles, and the related Magnus effect may deviate projectile trajectory by tens of degrees. A new relationship is derived, linking projectile velocity and size with the size of the resulting impact crater. Finally, apparent drag coefficient values, obtained for selected projectiles, mostly range from 1 to 7, higher than expected, reflecting complex projectile dynamics. These new perspectives will impact projectile hazard mitigation and the interpretation of projectile deposits from past eruptions, both on Earth and on other planets.

  8. Impact of Educational Activities in Reducing Pre-Analytical Laboratory Errors: A quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaithi, Hamed; Pathare, Anil; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Villacrucis, Rodrigo; Fawaz, Naglaa; Alkindi, Salam

    2017-08-01

    Pre-analytic errors during diagnostic laboratory investigations can lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to ascertain the effect of educational nursing activities on the incidence of pre-analytical errors resulting in non-conforming blood samples. This study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2015. All specimens received at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, during this period were prospectively collected and analysed. Similar data from 2007 were collected retrospectively and used as a baseline for comparison. Non-conforming samples were defined as either clotted samples, haemolysed samples, use of the wrong anticoagulant, insufficient quantities of blood collected, incorrect/lack of labelling on a sample or lack of delivery of a sample in spite of a sample request. From 2008 onwards, multiple educational training activities directed at the hospital nursing staff and nursing students primarily responsible for blood collection were implemented on a regular basis. After initiating corrective measures in 2008, a progressive reduction in the percentage of non-conforming samples was observed from 2009 onwards. Despite a 127.84% increase in the total number of specimens received, there was a significant reduction in non-conforming samples from 0.29% in 2007 to 0.07% in 2015, resulting in an improvement of 75.86% ( P educational activities directed primarily towards hospital nursing staff had a positive impact on the quality of laboratory specimens by significantly reducing pre-analytical errors.

  9. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  10. M and D SIG progress report: Laboratory simulations of LDEF impact features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, Friedrich; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.; Atkinson, D.; Allbrooks, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments are needed to understand the relationship between a measured penetration hole diameter and associated projectile dimension in the thermal blankets of experiment A0178, which occupied some 16 sq. m. These blankets are composed of 125 micron thick Teflon that has an Ag/enconel second mirror surface, backed by organic binder and Chemglaze paint for a total thickness of some 170 microns. While dedicated experiments are required to understand the penetration behavior of this compound target in detail, we report here on impact simulations sponsored by other projects into pure Teflon and aluminum targets. These experiments will allow first order interpretations of impact features on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and they will serve as guides for dedicated experiments that employ the real LDEF blankets, both exposed and unexposed, for a refined understanding of the LDEF's collisional environment. We employed a light gas gun to launch soda-lime glass spheres from 50 to 3200 microns in diameter that impacted targets of variable thickness. Penetration measurements are given.

  11. Failure to review STAT clinical laboratory requests and its economical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Villalba-Martinez, Celia; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Carratala-Calvo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Failure to follow-up laboratory test results has been described as one of the major processes contributing to unsafe patient care. Currently, most of the laboratories do not know with certainty not only their rate of missed (or unreviewed) requests but the economical cost and impact that this issue implies. The aim of our study was to measure that rate and calculate the resulting costs. In January 2015, we checked in our Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for every emergency request from 1(st) July 2011 to 30(th) June 2014, if they had been reviewed by any allowed user or not. 319,064 requests were ordered during that period of time. Results were expressed as "ordered requests", "missed requests" and its percentage. Additionally, total cost of missed requests was calculated in euros (€). "Non-productive days" were theorised (as the days producing requests that were not reviewed) based on these results. 7924 requests (2.5%) were never reviewed by clinicians. This represented a total cost of 203,039 € and 27 "non-productive" days in three years. Significant differences between inpatients, outpatients and emergency department as well as different emergencies units were found after application of statistical analysis. In terms of resources, never reviewed or missed requests appear to be a not negligible problem for the clinical laboratory management. Electronic result delivery, with electronic endorsement to indicate follow-up of requests along with better systems of electronic requesting should be investigated as a way of improving patient outcomes and save unnecessary expenses.

  12. New Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiments for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Dikova, R.; Wilson, M.; Huynh, T.; Sorge, M.; Sheaffer, P.; Opiela, J.; Cowardin, H.; Krisko, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, U.S. Air Force's Space and Missile Systems Center, the Aerospace Corporation, and University of Florida is planning a series of hypervelocity impact experiments on mockup targets at the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) in early 2014. The target for the first experiment resembles a rocket upper stage whereas the target for the second experiment represents a typical 60-cm/50-kg class payload that incorporates modern spacecraft materials and components as well as exterior wrap of multi-layer insulation and three solar panels. The projectile is designed with the maximum mass that AEDC's Range G two-stage light gas gun can accelerate to an impact speed of 7 km/sec. The impact energy is expected to be close to 15 MJ to ensure catastrophic destruction of the target after the impact. Low density foam panels are installed inside the target chamber to slow down and soft-catch the fragments for post-impact processing. Diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray and high speed optical cameras, will also be used to record the breakup process. The main goal of this "DebriSat" project is to characterize the physical properties, including size, mass, shape, and density distributions, of orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving an upper stage or a modern satellite in the low Earth orbit environment. In addition, representative fragments will be selected for laboratory optical and radar measurements to allow for better interpretation of data obtained by telescope and radar observations. This paper will provide a preliminary report of the impact results and the plans to process, measure, and analyze the fragments.

  13. The intellectual contribution of laboratory medicine professionals to research papers on laboratory medicine topics published in high-impact general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Pedro Medina; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz

    2012-03-01

    An author is generally regarded as an individual "who has made substantial intellectual academic contributions to a published study". However, the extent of the contribution that laboratory medicine professionals have made as authors of research papers in high-impact medical journals remains unclear. From 1 January 2004 to 31 March 2009, 4837 original research articles appeared in the: New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA and BMJ. Using authorship as an indicator of intellectual contribution, we analyzed articles that included laboratory medicine parameters in their titles in an observational cross-sectional study. We also extracted data regarding radiological topics that were published during the same time within the same journals. Out of 481 articles concerning laboratory medicine topics, 380 provided information on the affiliations of the authors. At least one author from an institution within the field of laboratory medicine was listed in 212 articles (55.8%). Out of 3943 co-authors, only 756 (19.2%) were affiliated with laboratory medicine institutions. Authors from laboratory medicine institutions were listed as the first, last or corresponding authors in 99 articles (26.1%). The comparative proportions for author affiliation from 55 radiology articles were significantly higher, as 72.7% (p=0.026) of articles and 24.8% (p=0.001) of authors indicated an affiliation with a radiology institution. Radiology professionals from 72.7% of the articles were listed as either the first, last or corresponding authors (pgeneral medicine journals.

  14. Environmental impact report addendum for the continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    An environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (ES/EIR) for the continued operation and management of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was prepared jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California (UC). The scope of the document included near-term (within 5-10 years) proposed projects. The UC Board of Regents, as state lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), certified and adopted the EIR by issuing a Notice of Determination on November 20, 1992. The DOE, as the lead federal agency under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), adopted a Record of Decision for the ES on January 27, 1993 (58 Federal Register [FR] 6268). The DOE proposed action was to continue operation of the facility, including near-term proposed projects. The specific project evaluated by UC was extension of the contract between UC and DOE for UC's continued operation and management of LLNL (both sites) from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1997. The 1992 ES/EIR analyzed impacts through the year 2002. The 1992 ES/EIR comprehensively evaluated the potential environmental impacts of operation and management of LLNL within the near-term future. Activities evaluated included programmatic enhancements and modifications of facilities and programs at the LLNL Livermore site and at LLNL's Experimental Test Site (Site 300) in support of research and development missions 2048 established for LLNL by Congress and the President. The evaluation also considered the impacts of infrastructure and building maintenance, minor modifications to buildings, general landscaping, road maintenance, and similar routine support activities

  15. Establishing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD diagnostics using GeneXpert technology at a mobile laboratory in Liberia: Impact on outbreak response, case management and laboratory systems strengthening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philomena Raftery

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH, World Health Organization (WHO and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64-100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running

  16. Establishing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) diagnostics using GeneXpert technology at a mobile laboratory in Liberia: Impact on outbreak response, case management and laboratory systems strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condell, Orla; Wasunna, Christine; Kpaka, Jonathan; Zwizwai, Ruth; Nuha, Mahmood; Fallah, Mosoka; Freeman, Maxwell; Harris, Victoria; Miller, Mark; Baller, April; Massaquoi, Moses; Katawera, Victoria; Saindon, John; Bemah, Philip; Hamblion, Esther; Castle, Evelyn; Williams, Desmond; Gasasira, Alex; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2018-01-01

    The 2014–16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH), World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64–100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running costs and can

  17. Establishing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) diagnostics using GeneXpert technology at a mobile laboratory in Liberia: Impact on outbreak response, case management and laboratory systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Philomena; Condell, Orla; Wasunna, Christine; Kpaka, Jonathan; Zwizwai, Ruth; Nuha, Mahmood; Fallah, Mosoka; Freeman, Maxwell; Harris, Victoria; Miller, Mark; Baller, April; Massaquoi, Moses; Katawera, Victoria; Saindon, John; Bemah, Philip; Hamblion, Esther; Castle, Evelyn; Williams, Desmond; Gasasira, Alex; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2018-01-01

    The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH), World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64-100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running costs and can be

  18. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Ottinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li +3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed

  19. The reference ballistic imaging database revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Jan; Dujardin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    A reference ballistic image database (RBID) contains images of cartridge cases fired in firearms that are in circulation: a ballistic fingerprint database. The performance of an RBID was investigated a decade ago by De Kinder et al. using IBIS(®) Heritage™ technology. The results of that study were published in this journal, issue 214. Since then, technologies have evolved quite significantly and novel apparatus have become available on the market. The current research article investigates the efficiency of another automated ballistic imaging system, Evofinder(®) using the same database as used by De Kinder et al. The results demonstrate a significant increase in correlation efficiency: 38% of all matches were on first position of the Evofinder correlation list in comparison to IBIS(®) Heritage™ where only 19% were on the first position. Average correlation times are comparable to the IBIS(®) Heritage™ system. While Evofinder(®) demonstrates specific improvement for mutually correlating different ammunition brands, ammunition dependence of the markings is still strongly influencing the correlation result because the markings may vary considerably. As a consequence a great deal of potential hits (36%) was still far down in the correlation lists (positions 31 and lower). The large database was used to examine the probability of finding a match as a function of correlation list verification. As an example, the RBID study on Evofinder(®) demonstrates that to find at least 90% of all potential matches, at least 43% of the items in the database need to be compared on screen and this for breech face markings and firing pin impression separately. These results, although a clear improvement to the original RBID study, indicate that the implementation of such a database should still not be considered nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Finnis River. A natural laboratory of mining impact- past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markich, S J; Jeffree, R A [eds.

    2002-03-01

    The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system.

  1. Space Weathering in Houston: A Role for the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effective investigation of space weathering demands an interdisciplinary approach that is at least as diversified as any other in planetary science. Because it is a macroscopic process affecting all bodies in the solar system, impact and its resulting shock effects must be given detailed attention in this regard. Direct observation of the effects of impact is most readily done for the Moon, but it still remains difficult for other bodies in the solar system. Analyses of meteorites and precious returned samples provide clues for space weathering on asteroids, but many deductions arising from those studies must still be considered circumstantial. Theoretical work is also indispensable, but it can only go as far as the sometimes meager data allow. Experimentation, however, can permit near real-time study of myriad processes that could contribute to space weathering. This contribution describes some of the capabilities of the Johnson Space Center's Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) and how they might help in understanding the space weathering process.

  2. The Finnis River. A natural laboratory of mining impact- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Jeffree, R.A.

    2002-03-01

    The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system

  3. Draft environmental impact statement. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This statement assesses the potential cumulative environmental impacts associated with current and continuing activities at the LASL site. This includes the adverse impacts from postulated accidents associated with the activities. Various effluents including radioactive ones are released to the environment. However, a continuing, comprehensive, monitoring program is carried out to assist in the control of hazardous effluents. Alternatives to current operation of LASL include: cessation or relocation of programs; continue activities as presently constituted; further limitation of adverse impacts by institutional or other improvements in various operations; and expansion of current activities. Liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes are generated as by-products of the laboratory operation. Liquid wastes include radioactively contaminated solutions, chemically contaminated wastes, sanitary sewage, cooling water discharges, and storm drainage. The ordinary sanitary liquid wastes are processed by conventional sewage treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks. Industrial liquid wastes are processed by special treatment plants to remove radioactive components and to detoxify or neutralize other chemical agents. The results of analyses of treated effluents released in 1976 are summarized. The treated effluents contain radioactive pollutants at levels of only a few percent of guidelines applicable to exposure to the public from ingestion of water and food

  4. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  5. Ballistic Characterization of the Scalability of Magnesium Alloy AMX602

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium Alloy AMX602 by Tyrone L Jones Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Katsuyoshi Kondoh Joining and Welding Research...formed a collaborative partnership with Osaka University Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Taber Extrusions, Epson Atmix, Pacific Sowa...Powder Metallurgy 4 5. Fabrication Procedure 4 6. Mechanical Property Analysis 5 7. Ballistic Experimental Procedures 6 8. Ballistic Experimental

  6. Development and testing of a flexible ballistic neck protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Rensink, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient ballistic protection of the neck area would significantly reduce the vulnerability of an infantry soldier. So far this protection is offered by extensions on the ballistic vest or combat helmet. However, the requirements for head agility and the various body to head positions combined

  7. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1573] Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... jointly hosting a workshop focused on NIJ Standard-0101.06, Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the...

  8. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J

    2013-05-01

    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  9. Experiments with Liquid Propellant Jet Ignition in a Ballistic Compressor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birk, Avi

    1998-01-01

    .... The apparatus consists of an inline ballistic compressor and LP injector. The rebound of the ballistic compressor piston was arrested, trapping 40 to 55 MPa of 750 to 8500 C argon for ignition of circular jets in a windowed test chamber...

  10. A ballistic mission to fly by Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boain, R. J.; Hastrup, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the available options, ballistic trajectory opportunities, and a preliminary reference trajectory that were selected as a basis for spacecraft design studies and programmatic planning for a Halley ballistic intercept mission in 1986. The paper also presents trajectory, performance, and navigation data which support the preliminary selection.

  11. Sub-ballistic behavior in the quantum kicked rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, C.C. 30, C.P. 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: alejo@fing.edu.uy; Auyuanet, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, C.C. 30, C.P. 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: auyuanet@fing.edu.uy; Siri, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, C.C. 30, C.P. 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: rsiri@fing.edu.uy; Micenmacher, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, C.C. 30, C.P. 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: vmd@fing.edu.uy

    2007-05-28

    We study the resonances of the quantum kicked rotor subjected to an excitation that follows an aperiodic Fibonacci prescription. In such a case the secondary resonances show a sub-ballistic behavior like the quantum walk with the same aperiodic prescription for the coin. The principal resonances maintain the well-known ballistic behavior.

  12. Sub-ballistic behavior in the quantum kicked rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, A.; Auyuanet, A.; Siri, R.; Micenmacher, V.

    2007-01-01

    We study the resonances of the quantum kicked rotor subjected to an excitation that follows an aperiodic Fibonacci prescription. In such a case the secondary resonances show a sub-ballistic behavior like the quantum walk with the same aperiodic prescription for the coin. The principal resonances maintain the well-known ballistic behavior

  13. Contemporary management of maxillofacial ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Tong, D; Gibbons, A

    2017-09-01

    Ballistic maxillofacial trauma in the UK is fortunately relatively rare, and generally involves low velocity handguns and shotguns. Civilian terrorist events have, however, shown that all maxillofacial surgeons need to understand how to treat injuries from improvised explosive devices. Maxillofacial surgeons in the UK have also been responsible for the management of soldiers evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in this review we describe the newer types of treatment that have evolved from these conflicts, particularly that of damage-control maxillofacial surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MD Test of a Ballistic Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic optics is designed to improve the understanding of optical errors and BPM systematic effects in the critical triplet region. The particularity of that optics is that the triplet is switched off, effectively transforming the triplets on both sides of IR1 and IR5 into drift spaces. Advantage can be taken from that fact to localize better errors in the Q4-Q5-triplet region. During this MD this new optics was tested for the first time at injection with beam 2.

  15. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  17. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.

  18. Impact of a do-not-do intervention on 12 laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-García, J L; Macías Blanco, C; Fernández-Suárez, A; Peñacoba Masa, A; Olivares Durán, M J; Aguilar Benítez, J M; Zambrana-Luque, J L

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, various scientific societies and healthcare organisations have created recommendations aimed at decreasing the use of healthcare interventions that have shown no efficacy or effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention on 12 do-not-do recommendations regarding the laboratory in 7 hospital centres. Before-after study conducted in 7 hospital centres of Cordoba and Jaen during 2015 and 2016. Based on the recommendations of existing scientific societies, a consensus was reached on various actions regarding laboratory measurements. We analysed the number and cost of measuring 6 tumour markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate-specific antigen, carbohydrate antigen [CA] 15.3, CA125, CA19.9 and alpha-fetoprotein), thyrotropin, T3, T4, glycated haemoglobin, urea, ferritin and antigliadin antibodies, before and after implementing the consensus. Compared with the previous year, there were 55,902 fewer laboratory measurements (-19%) in 2016, with an overall savings of €82,100. The reduction in the number of measurements occurred mainly in plasma urea (-50.3%) and in the tumour markers CA125 (-16%), CA19.9 (-11.6%) and CA15.3 (-10.5%). The most pronounced savings were achieved in the measurements of urea (-€21,002), thyroid hormones (-€12,716) and thyrotropin (-€7,638). The adoption and consensus of do-not-do recommendations among healthcare levels resulted in a significant reduction in unnecessary measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Time Lapse on ASCP Board of Certification Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen A; Fenn, JoAnn P; Freeman, Vicki S; Fisher, Patrick B; Genzen, Jonathan R; Goodyear, Nancy; Houston, Mary Lunz; O'Brien, Mary Elizabeth; Tanabe, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Research in several professional fields has demonstrated that delays (time lapse) in taking certification examinations may result in poorer performance by examinees. Thirteen states and/or territories require licensure for laboratory personnel. A core component of licensure is passing a certification exam. Also, many facilities in states that do not require licensure require certification for employment or preferentially hire certified individuals. To analyze examinee performance on the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Board of Certification (BOC) Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) certification examinations to determine whether delays in taking the examination from the time of program completion are associated with poorer performance. We obtained examination data from April 2013 through December 2014 to look for changes in mean (SD) exam scaled scores and overall pass/fail rates. First-time examinees (MLS: n = 6037; MLT, n = 3920) were divided into 3-month categories based on the interval of time between date of program completion and taking the certification exam. We observed significant decreases in mean (SD) scaled scores and pass rates after the first quarter in MLS and MLT examinations for applicants who delayed taking their examination until the second, third, and fourth quarter after completing their training programs. Those who take the ASCP BOC MLS and MLT examinations are encouraged to do so shortly after completion of their educational training programs. Delays in taking an exam are generally not beneficial to the examinee and result in poorer performance on the exam. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  20. Impactful times memories of 60 years of shock wave research at Sandia National Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Asay, James R; Lawrence, R Jeffery; Sweeney, Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a history of shock compression science, including development of experimental, material modeling, and hydrodynamics code technologies over the past six decades at Sandia National Laboratories. The book is organized into a discussion of major accomplishments by decade with over 900 references, followed by a unique collection of 45 personal recollections detailing the trials, tribulations, and successes of building a world-class organization in the field. It explains some of the challenges researchers faced and the gratification they experienced when a discovery was made. Several visionary researchers made pioneering advances that integrated these three technologies into a cohesive capability to solve complex scientific and engineering problems. What approaches worked, which ones did not, and the applications of the research are described. Notable applications include the turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa and the Shoemaker-Levy comet impact on Jupiter. The personal anecdotes and recollec...

  1. Draft site-wide environmental impact statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The DOE proposes to continue operating the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) located in central New Mexico. The DOE has identified and assessed three alternatives for the operation of SNL/NM: (1) No Action, (2) Expanded Operations, and (3) Reduced Operations. In the No Action Alternative, the DOE would continue the historical mission support activities SNL/NM has conducted at planned operational levels. In the Expanded Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the highest reasonable levels of activity currently foreseeable. Under the Reduced Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the minimum levels of activity necessary to maintain the capabilities to support the DOE mission in the near term. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of SNL/NM. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives

  2. Open-ended versus guided laboratory activities:Impact on students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the process of experimental physics. Alternatively, open-ended laboratory activities can provide a more authentic learning environment by, for example, allowing students to exercise greater autonomy in what and how physical phenomena are investigated. Engaging in authentic practices may be a critical part of improving students' beliefs around the nature of experimental physics. Here, we investigate the impact of open-ended activities in undergraduate lab courses on students' epistemologies and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, as well as their confidence and affect, as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a national data set of student responses to the E-CLASS, we find that the inclusion of some open-ended lab activities in a lab course correlates with more expertlike postinstruction responses relative to courses that include only traditional guided lab activities. This finding holds when examining postinstruction E-CLASS scores while controlling for the variance associated with preinstruction scores, course level, student major, and student gender.

  3. Impacts of microcystin, a cyanobacterial toxin, on laboratory rodents in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial water blooms became a global problem/issue because beside a dramatic deterioration of water quality parameters they also produce cyanobacterial toxins being harmful for animals and humans. Cyanotoxins especially the most prominent one, microcystin-LR (MC-LR, are of major concern and they have been reported to cause even death of mammals following ingestion or ingurgitation due to hepatotoxic modes of action. The aim of the recent study is to summarize briefly the impacts of microcystin on laboratory rodents, mice and rats, being used as models for other mammals including human beings. Most experimental approaches used intraperitoneal rather than oral and intratracheal application of microcystins, especially MC-LR, being the most efficient way to induce adverse impacts on different target organs. However, no matter how the exposure of rodents was performed, microcystins induced severe harmful impacts on the different target organs, preferentially the liver, for instances hemorrhages and apoptosis in liver, liver tumours, adverse effects on gut, kidney, testis and epididymis including spermatogenesis, on lung, on serum parameters and on progeny. In addition to these histological findings, microcystin was found to affect specifically biochemical parameters of target organs such as enzymes e.g. GST, CAT, GR, GPX, SOD, AST, ALT, γ-GT, protein phosphatases, SDH, SoDH and LDH or stress proteins such as HSP-70 and further parameters such as hepatic sulfhydryl content, GSH depletion, total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Gene array analyses revealed that microcystin affects genes related to actin organization, cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular redox potential, cell signalling, albumin metabolism, glucose homeostasis pathway and organic anion transport polypeptide system. In combination with a further proteomics approach the proteomic analyses indicate that liver apoptosis induced by microcystin can be induced by two pathways: the

  4. Ballistic resistant article, semi-finished product for and method of making a shell for a ballistic resistant article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harings, Jules Armand Wilhelmina; Janse, Gerardus Hubertus Anna

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a ballistic resistant article, such as a helmet (1), comprising a double curved shell in turn comprising a stack (5) of layers (6) of an oriented anti-ballistic material, the layers comprising one or more plies and having a plurality of cuts (7), the ends of which define a

  5. Ballistic resistant article, semi-finished product for and method of making a shell for a ballistic resistant article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harings, Jules; Janse, Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a ballistic resistant article, such as a helmet (1), comprising a double curved shell (2) in turn comprising a stack (5) of layers (6) of an oriented anti-ballistic material, the layers (6) comprising one or more plies and having a plurality of cuts (7), the ends of which

  6. Impulse-variability theory: implications for ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David F; Fischman, Mark G; Weimar, Wendi H

    2011-01-01

    Impulse-variability theory (R. A. Schmidt, H. N. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979) accounts for the curvilinear relationship between the magnitude and resulting variability of the muscular forces that influence the success of goal-directed limb movements. The historical roots of impulse-variability theory are reviewed in the 1st part of this article, including the relationship between movement speed and spatial error. The authors then address the relevance of impulse-variability theory for the control of ballistic, multijoint skills, such as throwing, striking, and kicking. These types of skills provide a stark contrast to the relatively simple, minimal degrees of freedom movements that characterized early research. However, the inherent demand for ballistic force generation is a strong parallel between these simple laboratory tasks and multijoint motor skills. Therefore, the authors conclude by recommending experimental procedures for evaluating the adequacy of impulse variability as a theoretical model within the context of ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  7. Advanced geometries for ballistic neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanzer, Christian; Boeni, Peter; Filges, Uwe; Hils, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Sophisticated neutron guide systems take advantage of supermirrors being used to increase the neutron flux. However, the finite reflectivity of supermirrors becomes a major loss mechanism when many reflections occur, e.g. in long neutron guides and for long wavelengths. In order to reduce the number of reflections, ballistic neutron guides have been proposed. Usually linear tapered sections are used to enlarge the cross-section and finally, focus the beam to the sample. The disadvantages of linear tapering are (i) an inhomogeneous phase space at the sample position and (ii) a decreasing flux with increasing distance from the exit of the guide. We investigate the properties of parabolic and elliptic tapering for ballistic neutron guides, using the Monte Carlo program McStas with a new guide component dedicated for such geometries. We show that the maximum flux can indeed be shifted away from the exit of the guide. In addition we explore the possibilities of parabolic and elliptic geometries to create point like sources for dedicated experimental demands

  8. Ballistic energy transport via perfluoroalkane linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Energy transport in perfluoroalkanes oligomers of various chain lengths was studied. ► Cross-peaks among C=O stretch and CH bending modes were recorded using RA 2DIR. ► Efficient constant-speed energy transport with the speed of 1150 m/s is found. ► Ballistic energy transport mechanism is suggested. - Abstract: Intramolecular energy transport in a series of perfluoroalkane oligomers with various chain lengths of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 carbon atoms terminated by a carboxylic acid moiety on one end and –CF{sub 2}H group on another end is studied by relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Perfluoroalkane oligomers adopt an extended structure with antiperiplanar orientation of the neighboring carbon atoms. The energy transport initiated by exciting the C=O stretching mode of the acid was recorded by measuring a cross-peak amplitude between the C=O stretch and the C–H bending mode as a function of the waiting time between the excitation and probing. A linear dependence of energy transport time vs. chain length is found, which suggests a ballistic energy transport mechanism. The energy transport speed, measured from the chain-length dependence of the half-rise time, T{sub ½}, was found to be ca. 1150 m/s, which is close to the longitudinal speed of sound in Teflon polymers.

  9. A Ballistic Limit Analysis Program for Shielding Against Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Erie

    2010-01-01

    A software program has been developed that enables the user to quickly and simply perform ballistic limit calculations for common spacecraft structures that are subject to hypervelocity impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) projectiles. This analysis program consists of two core modules: design, and; performance. The design module enables a user to calculate preliminary dimensions of a shield configuration (e.g., thicknesses/areal densities, spacing, etc.) for a ?design? particle (diameter, density, impact velocity, incidence). The performance module enables a more detailed shielding analysis, providing the performance of a user-defined shielding configuration over the range of relevant in-orbit impact conditions.

  10. Ballistic performance of a Kevlar-29 woven fibre composite under varied temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykasap, O.; Colakoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    Armours are usually manufactured from polymer matrix composites and used for both military and non-military purposes in different seasons, climates, and regions. The mechanical properties of the composites depend on temperature, which also affects their ballistic characteristics. The armour is used to absorb the kinetic energy of a projectile without any major injury to a person. Therefore, besides a high strength and lightness, a high damping capacity is required to absorb the impact energy transferred by the projectile. The ballistic properties of a Kevlar 29/polyvinyl butyral composite are investigated under varied temperatures in this study. The elastic modulus of the composite is determined from the natural frequency of composite specimens at different temperatures by using a damping monitoring method. Then, the backside deformation of composite plates is analysed experimentally and numerically employing the finite-element program Abaqus. The experimental and numeric results obtained are in good agreement.

  11. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  12. Lunar impact basins revealed by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Wieczorek, Mark A; Head, James W; Baker, David M H; Solomon, Sean C; Smith, David E; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Sabaka, Terence J; Goossens, Sander J; Melosh, H Jay; Phillips, Roger J; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Williams, James G; Sori, Michael M; Soderblom, Jason M; Miljković, Katarina; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S

    2015-10-01

    Observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission indicate a marked change in the gravitational signature of lunar impact structures at the morphological transition, with increasing diameter, from complex craters to peak-ring basins. At crater diameters larger than ~200 km, a central positive Bouguer anomaly is seen within the innermost peak ring, and an annular negative Bouguer anomaly extends outward from this ring to the outer topographic rim crest. These observations demonstrate that basin-forming impacts remove crustal materials from within the peak ring and thicken the crust between the peak ring and the outer rim crest. A correlation between the diameter of the central Bouguer gravity high and the outer topographic ring diameter for well-preserved basins enables the identification and characterization of basins for which topographic signatures have been obscured by superposed cratering and volcanism. The GRAIL inventory of lunar basins improves upon earlier lists that differed in their totals by more than a factor of 2. The size-frequency distributions of basins on the nearside and farside hemispheres of the Moon differ substantially; the nearside hosts more basins larger than 350 km in diameter, whereas the farside has more smaller basins. Hemispherical differences in target properties, including temperature and porosity, are likely to have contributed to these different distributions. Better understanding of the factors that control basin size will help to constrain models of the original impactor population.

  13. Comparing the impacts of sediment-bound bifenthrin on aquatic macroinvertebrates in laboratory bioassays and field microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Rhianna L; Hoak, Molly N; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Long, Sara M

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two laboratory bioassays and two field microcosm exposures with bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) in order to evaluate the capacity of single-species laboratory bioassays to predict lethal and sublethal impacts on aquatic invertebrates in microcosms. For the laboratory species, Chironomus tepperi, larval survival was reduced by 24% at 53.66µg/g OC, while adult emergence was reduced at concentrations of 33.33µg/g OC and higher, with a 61% decrease at 77.78µg/g OC and no emergence at 126.67µg/g OC. The abundance of several other microcosm taxa was reduced in the microcosms at a similar concentration range (33.33µg/g OC and above), however there was no impact on the abundance of the congeneric species, Chironomus oppositus. The differences in impacts between test systems were potentially due to both differing species sensitivity and the interaction of ambient temperature with bifenthrin toxicity. Bifenthrin also was associated with early emergence of Chironomus sp. in both test systems, at concentrations of 10µg/g OC and higher (laboratory) and 43.90µg/g OC (microcosm), and with a significant decrease in the proportion of C. oppositus males in a microcosm. These findings indicate that while laboratory bioassays accurately predict many impacts in the field, there are some limitations to the predictive capacity of these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the research was to make evaluation of the ballistic strength of four different fiber/resin composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ballistic nylon, aramid and HPPE (High Performance Polyethylene) plainly woven fabric based composites. As a matrix system, in all cases, polyvinylbutyral modified phenolic resin was used. For the investigation, areal weight range 2 - 9 kg/m 2 chosen was, which is applicable for personal ballistic protection and the ultimate resin content range 20 - 50 vol.%. Ballistic test of the composites has shown that the best results exhibit HPPE based composites; aramid based composites have been the second best followed by the polyamide based composites. The worst results have been shown by the glass based composites. All composites with lower resin content (20%) have performed much better than their counterparts with higher resin content (50 %).The plot of the ballistic strength (V 50 ) versus areal weight has shown a linear increase of V 50 with the increase of areal weight. The ballistic strength of the composites is highly dependant on the fiber/resin ratio and increases with the increase of the fiber content. (Author)

  15. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, M.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.

    2012-08-01

    The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1-4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5-7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two processes. The first is a

  16. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutellier D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two

  17. Impact of Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory on Conceptual Comprehension of Turkish Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Sekerci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of argumentation in the chemistry laboratory on conceptual comprehension of students. This research follows a triangulation design, categorized under mixed-method design variations, which include both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The research is conducted with 91 first grade university students studying in two different classes of the Department of Science Education, Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty at the Ataturk University, located in eastern Turkey. One class was randomly designated as the experimental group, with another as the control group. Research data was collected via a General Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (GCLCT containing 33 items, a test containing ten open-ended items, a semi-structured interview form, and a written feedback form, all designed by the researchers. Data from the GCLCT were analyzed through predictive statistics method, while data from the open-ended questions, semi-structured interview and written feedback form were analyzed through the descriptive analysis method. It is concluded from this research, that there is statistically significant difference between the GCLC post-test averages of the experimental and control groups. It was found that when compared to the control group, the proportion of experimental group students who answered the GCLC post-test items correctly is higher. In addition to this, the proportion of students who demonstrated misconceptions were higher in the control group students compared to the experimental group. It is concluded by this research, that argumentation provides more effective results in terms of comprehension of fundamental chemistry concepts, when compared to a traditional approach.

  18. Assessments of the probabilities of aircraft impact with the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and Building 836, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biringer, B.E.

    1976-11-01

    This report documents a study of the annual probabilities of aircraft impact with the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) and Bldg. 836 at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque. The probability of aircraft impact into each structure was estimated using total yearly operations, effective structure area, structure location relative to air activity, and accident rate per kilometer. The estimated probability for an aircraft impact with SPR is 1.1 x 10 -4 per year; the estimated probability for impact with Bldg. 836 is 1.0 x 10 -3 per year

  19. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was established in 1949 to perform the engineering development and ordnance responsibilities associated with nuclear weapons. By the early 1960's the facility had evolved into an engineering research and development laboratory and became a multiprogram laboratory during the 1970s. Sandia is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, Incorporated. For several years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analyses: the impact of SNL activities on central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the central New Mexico region includes Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance counties. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts results from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  1. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene

  2. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K., E-mail: l.m.k.vandersypen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M. [Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratory, Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene.

  3. 19 mm ballistic range: a potpourri of techniques and recipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpluk, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    The expansion of ballistic gun range facilities at LLL has introduced state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques to glovebox-enclosed ballistic guns systems. These enclosed ballistic ranges are designed for the study of one-dimensional shock phenomena in extremely toxic material such as plutonium. The extension of state-of-the-art phtographic and interferometric diagnostic systems to glovebox-enclosed gun systems introduces new design boundaries and performance criteria on optical and mechanical components. A technique for experimentally evaluating design proposals is illustrated, and several specific examples (such as, target alignment, collateral shrapnel damage, and soft recovery) are discussed

  4. Comparative study on sintered alumina for ballistic shielding application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Francisco Cristovao Lourenco de; Goncalves, Diniz Pereira

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a development of the armor made from special ceramic materials and kevlar. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the ballistic penetration resistance on three samples taken from sintered alumina: a commercial one and two formulations A and B made in IAE/CTA. The main differences between the two formulations was the grain size and bend resistance. The knowledge of the mechanisms during the penetration and perforation process allowed to apply a ductile composite laminate made form kevlar under the alumina to delay its rupture. The last ballistic test showed how a Weibull's modulii and other mechanical properties are able to improve ballistic penetration resistance. (author)

  5. Ballistic and Diffusive Thermal Conductivity of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Riichiro; Masashi, Mizuno; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Phonon-related thermal conductivity of graphene is calculated as a function of the temperature and sample size of graphene in which the crossover of ballistic and diffusive thermal conductivity occurs at around 100 K. The diffusive thermal conductivity of graphene is evaluated by calculating the phonon mean free path for each phonon mode in which the anharmonicity of a phonon and the phonon scattering by a 13C isotope are taken into account. We show that phonon-phonon scattering of out-of-plane acoustic phonon by the anharmonic potential is essential for the largest thermal conductivity. Using the calculated results, we can design the optimum sample size, which gives the largest thermal conductivity at a given temperature for applying thermal conducting devices.

  6. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  7. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  8. Gate tuneable beamsplitter in ballistic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickhaus, Peter; Makk, Péter, E-mail: Peter.Makk@unibas.ch; Schönenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Liu, Ming-Hao; Richter, Klaus [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-12-21

    We present a beam splitter in a suspended, ballistic, multiterminal, bilayer graphene device. By using local bottomgates, a p-n interface tilted with respect to the current direction can be formed. We show that the p-n interface acts as a semi-transparent mirror in the bipolar regime and that the reflectance and transmittance of the p-n interface can be tuned by the gate voltages. Moreover, by studying the conductance features appearing in magnetic field, we demonstrate that the position of the p-n interface can be moved by 1 μm. The herein presented beamsplitter device can form the basis of electron-optic interferometers in graphene.

  9. Efficient thermal diode with ballistic spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunda; Donadio, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    Thermal rectification is of importance not only for fundamental physics, but also for potential applications in thermal manipulations and thermal management. However, thermal rectification effect usually decays rapidly with system size. Here, we show that a mass-graded system, with two diffusive leads separated by a ballistic spacer, can exhibit large thermal rectification effect, with the rectification factor independent of system size. The underlying mechanism is explained in terms of the effective size-independent thermal gradient and the match or mismatch of the phonon bands. We also show the robustness of the thermal diode upon variation of the model's parameters. Our finding suggests a promising way for designing realistic efficient thermal diodes.

  10. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in a Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y V

    2010-01-01

    The Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of a homogeneous Luttinger liquid are calculated in the ballistic regime. Nonlinearity of the electron spectrum is taken into account. It is shown that, in the framework of the defined approximations, the thermoelectric power of a Luttinger liquid is equal to zero, in agreement with the exponentially small thermopower of a one-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas. The Peltier coefficient is controlled by a nonequilibrium state of the system. It is finite and renormalized by the interaction in the case of a convective flow of a Luttinger liquid. The zero modes of bosonic excitations and the dispersion-induced contribution to the electric current operator are taken into account in calculations.

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  12. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  13. Statistics of magnetoconductance in ballistic cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.; Ishio, H.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    1995-01-01

    The statistical properties of magnetoconductance in ballistic microcavities are investigated numerically. The distribution of conductance for chaotic cavities is found to follow the renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution suggested by random-matrix theory for the Gaussian ensemble while the conductance distribution of regular cavities in magnetic fields is nonuniversal and shifted towards the maximum value for a given number of open channels. The renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution implies a universal dependence of fluctuation amplitude on the mean conductance for chaotic cavities in the absence of time-reversal symmetry. The fluctuation amplitude for regular cavities is found to be larger than the saturation value of the fluctuation amplitude of chaotic cavities predicted by random-matrix theory. The change of the mean conductance as a function of the external magnetic field is consistent with semiclassical predictions

  14. The NOL ballistic piston compressor 2: Operation up to 5,000 ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, G. L.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments are described which demonstrated the feasibility of rapidly compressing inert gases in a ballistic piston compressor to simultaneously high temperatures and densities previously unobtainable in the laboratory. With argon, temperatures of the order of 6000 K and accompanying densities of the order of 100 Amagats have been obtained; and with nitrogen, temperatures and densities of 3000 K and 400 Amagats have been approached. Details of the design, assembly, instrumentation, and operating procedures are presented, and the results of mechanical and thermal performance tests up to 5000 atmospheres pressure are described. Emphasis is placed on experiments which demonstrated the usefulness of this apparatus for spectral line broadening studies.

  15. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  16. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  17. Ballistic Simulation Method for Lithium Ion Batteries (BASIMLIB) Using Thick Shell Composites (TSC) in LS-DYNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    BAllistic SImulation Method for Lithium Ion Batteries (BASIMLIB) using Thick Shell Composites (TSC) in LS-DYNA Venkatesh Babu, Dr. Matt Castanier, Dr...and behavior of the cells through experimental and modeling at their crash worthiness laboratory • Most of the simulation work on the batteries are...at a single cell level and gap exists to simulate the batteries at their full pack capacity - Firstly, requires an enormous amount of computational

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of technology transfer from U.S. government R&D laboratories: impact of market orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Coker, Karen

    1992-05-01

    This study, based on a national survey of U.S. government laboratories, assesses the degree of success laboratories have had in transferring technology to industry, taking into account the laboratories' differing receptivity to market influences. Three success criteria are considered here, two based on self-evaluations and a third based on the number of technology licenses issued from the laboratory. The two self-evaluations are rooted in different types of effectiveness, `getting technology out the door,' in one case, and, in the other, having a demonstrable commercial impact. A core hypothesis of the study is that the two types of effectiveness will be responsive to different factors and, in particular, the laboratories with a clearer market orientation will have a higher degree of success on the commercial impact and technology license criteria. Overall, the results seem to suggest that multifaceted, multimission laboratories are likely to enjoy the most success in technology transfer, especially if they have relatively low levels of bureaucratization and either ties to industry (particularly direct financial ties) or a commercial orientation in the selection of projects.

  19. A laboratory comparison of the global warming impact of five major types of biomass cooking stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarty, N.; Ogle, D.; Still, D.; Bond, T.; Roden, C. [Aprovecho Research Center, Creswell, OR (United States)

    2008-06-15

    With over 2 billion of the world's population living in families using biomass to cook every day, the possibility of improved stoves helping to mitigate climate change is generating increasing attention. With their emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, and black carbon, among other substances, is there a cleaner, practical option to provide to the families that will need to continue to use biomass for cooking? This study served to help quantify the relative emissions from five common types of biomass combustion in order to investigate if there are cleaner options. The laboratory results showed that for situations of sustainable harvesting where CO{sub 2} emissions are considered neutral, some improved stoves with rocket-type combustion or fan assistance can reduce overall warming impact from the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) by as much as 50-95%. In non-sustainable situations where fuel and CO{sub 2} savings are of greater importance, three types of improved combustion methods were shown to potentially reduce warming by 40-60%. Charcoal-burning may emit less CO{sub 2} than traditional wood-burning, but the PIC emissions are significantly greater.

  20. Laboratorial studies on the seepage impact in open-channel flow turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Granados, Oscar; Kostecki, Stanislaw, E-mail: Oscar.Herrera-Granados@pwr.wroc.pi [Institute of Geotechnics and Hydro-engineering (I-10), Wroclaw University of Technology. Plac Grunwaldzki 9 D-2 p.112. 50-377 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-12-22

    In natural streams, the interaction between water in motion and movable beds derives in transport of material. This is a fact that causes several problems for river regulation, above all in streams which were heavily modified by human interferences. Therefore, to find solutions or at least to alleviate the negative effects that sediment transport can bring with is a topic to be researched. The impact of seepage on river sedimentation processes and open-channel flow is important for environmental issues but it is commonly neglected by water specialists. The present contribution presents the output of a series of experimental works where the influence of seepage on the open channel turbulence is analyzed at the laboratory scale. Even though that the magnitude of the groundwater flow is significantly smaller than the magnitude of the open channel flow; the output of the experiments demonstrates that seepage not only modifies the water-sediment interaction as demonstrated Herrera Granados (2008; 2010); but also is affecting the velocity field and turbulence dynamics of the open-channel flow.

  1. Laboratorial studies on the seepage impact in open-channel flow turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Granados, Oscar; Kostecki, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    In natural streams, the interaction between water in motion and movable beds derives in transport of material. This is a fact that causes several problems for river regulation, above all in streams which were heavily modified by human interferences. Therefore, to find solutions or at least to alleviate the negative effects that sediment transport can bring with is a topic to be researched. The impact of seepage on river sedimentation processes and open-channel flow is important for environmental issues but it is commonly neglected by water specialists. The present contribution presents the output of a series of experimental works where the influence of seepage on the open channel turbulence is analyzed at the laboratory scale. Even though that the magnitude of the groundwater flow is significantly smaller than the magnitude of the open channel flow; the output of the experiments demonstrates that seepage not only modifies the water-sediment interaction as demonstrated Herrera Granados (2008; 2010); but also is affecting the velocity field and turbulence dynamics of the open-channel flow.

  2. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  3. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion

  4. Survival of organic materials in hypervelocity impacts of ice on sand, ice, and water in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Mark J; Bowden, Stephen A; Cole, Michael; Price, Mark C; Parnell, John

    2014-06-01

    The survival of organic molecules in shock impact events has been investigated in the laboratory. A frozen mixture of anthracene and stearic acid, solvated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), was fired in a two-stage light gas gun at speeds of ~2 and ~4 km s(-1) at targets that included water ice, water, and sand. This involved shock pressures in the range of 2-12 GPa. It was found that the projectile materials were present in elevated quantities in the targets after impact and in some cases in the crater ejecta as well. For DMSO impacting water at 1.9 km s(-1) and 45° incidence, we quantify the surviving fraction after impact as 0.44±0.05. This demonstrates successful transfer of organic compounds from projectile to target in high-speed impacts. The range of impact speeds used covers that involved in impacts of terrestrial meteorites on the Moon, as well as impacts in the outer Solar System on icy bodies such as Pluto. The results provide laboratory evidence that suggests that exogenous delivery of complex organic molecules from icy impactors is a viable source of such material on target bodies.

  5. Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies Report: Ballistic Gelatin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas, N. C; Welsch, J. R

    2004-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is designed to simulate living soft tissue. It is the standard for evaluating the effectiveness of firearms against humans because of its convenience and acceptability over animal or cadaver testing...

  6. Ballistic Jumping Drops on Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Electrostatic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Lei; Yu, Cunlong; Dai, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Dong, Zhichao; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing. In addition, one can control the ballistic jumping direction precisely by the relative position above the electrostatic field. The approach offers a facile method that can be used to manipulate the ballistic drop jumping via an electrostatic field, opening the possibility of energy efficient drop detaching techniques in various applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Designing an Innovative Composite Armor System for Affordable Ballistic Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yushun; Rose, Douglas; Socks, Adria; Ostberg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper focuses on the frontal armor plate and back plate design problems with demonstration examples, including both results of the virtual prototyping and ballistic testing for proof-of-concept...

  8. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  9. Precession feature extraction of ballistic missile warhead with high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huixia

    2018-04-01

    This paper establishes the precession model of ballistic missile warhead, and derives the formulas of micro-Doppler frequency induced by the target with precession. In order to obtain micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile warhead with precession, micro-Doppler bandwidth estimation algorithm, which avoids velocity compensation, is presented based on high-resolution time-frequency transform. The results of computer simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. The impact of insecticides to local honey bee colony Apis cerana indica in laboratory condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani E.; Permana, Agus D.; Nuriyah, Syayidah

    2014-03-01

    Heavy use of insecticides considered as one of common practice at local farming systems. Even though many Indonesian researchers had stated the possible detrimental effect of insecticide on agriculture environment and biodiversity, researches on this subject had been neglected. Therefore, our purpose in this research is observing the impact of insecticides usage by farmer to non target organisme like local honey bee (Apis cerana indica), which commonly kept in area near agriculture system. This research consisted of field observations out at Ciburial, Dago Pakar, Bandung and laboratory tests at School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The field observations recorded visited agriculture corps and types of pollen carried by bees to the nest while laboratory test recorderd the effect of common insecticide to mortality and behavior of honey bees. Three types of insecticides used in this research were insecticides A with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 50 g/l, insecticide B with active agent Profenofos 500 g/l, and insecticides C with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 100 g/l and λ-cyhalotrin 50g/l. The results show that during one week visit, wild flower, Wedelia montana, visited by most honey bees with average visit 60 honey bees followed by corn, Zea mays, with 21 honey bees. The most pollen carried by foragers was Wedelia montana, Calliandra callothyrsus, and Zea mays. Preference test show that honeybees tend move to flowers without insecticides as the preference to insecticides A was 12.5%, insecticides B was 0%, and insecticides was C 4.2%. Mortality test showed that insecticides A has LD50 value 0.01 μg/μl, insecticide B 0.31 μg/μl, and insecticides C 0.09 μg/μl which much lower than suggested dosage recommended by insecticides producer. This research conclude that the use of insecticide could lower the pollination service provide by honey bee due to low visitation rate to flowers and mortality of foraging bees.

  11. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT.

  12. Impact of lean six sigma process improvement methodology on cardiac catheterization laboratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Gallo, Justin J; Parashar, Akhil; Agarwal, Kanika K; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh N; Spooner, Robin; Murat Tuzcu, Emin; Kapadia, Samir R

    2016-03-01

    Operational inefficiencies are ubiquitous in several healthcare processes. To improve the operational efficiency of our catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab), we implemented a lean six sigma process improvement initiative, starting in June 2010. We aimed to study the impact of lean six sigma implementation on improving the efficiency and the patient throughput in our Cath Lab. All elective and urgent cardiac catheterization procedures including diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, structural interventions and peripheral interventions performed between June 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Performance metrics utilized for analysis included turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start and manual sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. After implementation of lean six sigma in the Cath Lab, we observed a significant improvement in turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. The percentage of cases with optimal turn-time increased from 43.6% in 2009 to 56.6% in 2012 (p-trendprocess improvement initiative, lean six sigma, on improving and sustaining efficiency of our Cath Lab operation. After the successful implementation of this continuous quality improvement initiative, there was a significant improvement in the selected performance metrics namely turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of blocks impacts from acoustic emissions: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud; Shapiro, Nikolaï

    2014-05-01

    Rockfalls, debris flows and rock avalanches represent a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very dangerous. Recent studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected and characterized (volume, duration,...) thanks to the seismic signal they generate. In an avalanche, individual block bouncing and rolling on the ground are expected to generated signals of higher frequencies than the main flow spreading. The identification of the time/frequency signature of individual blocks in the recorded signal remains however difficult. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic signature of diverse simple sources corresponding to grains falling over thin plates of plexiglas and glass and over rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by a single bouncing bead into the support was first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. We obtained simple scaling laws relating the impactor characteristics (size, height of fall, material,...) to the elastic energy and spectral content. Next, we consider the collapse of granular columns made of steel spherical beads onto hard substrates. Initially, these columns were held by a magnetic field allowing to suppress suddenly the cohesion between the beads, and thus to minimize friction effects that would arise from side walls. We varied systematically the column volume, the column aspect ratio (height over length) and the grain size. This is shown to affect the signal envelope and frequency content. In the experiments, accelerometers (1 Hz to 56 kHz) were used to record the signals in a wide frequency range. The experiments were also monitored optically using fast cameras. Eventually, we looked at what types of features in the signal are affected by individual impacts, rolling of beads or by the large scale geometry of the avalanche.

  14. The method of neutron imaging as a tool for the study of the dynamics of water movement in wet aramid-based ballistic body armour panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Felix A.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Frei, Gabriel; May, Hans; Rossi, René

    2006-07-01

    A new non-destructive method based on neutron imaging (neutron radiography) to determine the exact water content in aramid-based soft body armour panels is presented. While investigating the ballistic resistance of aramid-based body armour panels under a wet condition, it is important to precisely determine their water content and its chronological development. Using the presented method, the influence of water amount and location on impact testing as well as its time dependence was shown. In the ballistic panels used, spreading of water strongly depended on the kind of quilting. Very fast water migration could be observed when the panels were held vertically. Some first results regarding the water distribution in wet panels immediately after the impact are presented. On the basis of the presented results, requirements for a standard for testing the performance of ballistic panels in the wet state are deduced.

  15. Terahertz Detection and Imaging Using Graphene Ballistic Rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; But, Dmytro B; Zhang, Jiawei; Hill, Ernie; Coquillat, Dominique; Consejo, Christophe; Nouvel, Philippe; Knap, Wojciech; Varani, Luca; Teppe, Frederic; Torres, Jeremie; Song, Aimin

    2017-11-08

    A graphene ballistic rectifier is used in conjunction with an antenna to demonstrate a rectenna as a terahertz (THz) detector. A small-area (<1 μm 2 ) local gate is used to adjust the Fermi level in the device to optimize the output while minimizing the impact on the cutoff frequency. The device operates in both n- and p-type transport regimes and shows a peak extrinsic responsivity of 764 V/W and a corresponding noise equivalent power of 34 pW Hz -1/2 at room temperature with no indications of a cutoff frequency up to 0.45 THz. The device also demonstrates a linear response for more than 3 orders of magnitude of input power due to its zero threshold voltage, quadratic current-voltage characteristics and high saturation current. Finally, the device is used to take an image of an optically opaque object at 0.685 THz, demonstrating potential in both medical and security imaging applications.

  16. Photodegradation in ballistic laminates: Spectroscopy and lifetime extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; Stallard, B.R.; White, C.A.; Garcia, M.J.; Morse, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Properties of Organic Materials Dept.

    1996-06-01

    Several years ago, the Materials and Process Sciences Center (Org. 1800) was asked by Dept. 9613 to study the materials aging issues which had led to the loss of ballistic protection by Armored Tractor (AT) windshields and windows. The authors speculated that this loss of impact strength was due to photodegradation of the polycarbonate (PC) inboard ply. They developed a spectroscopic method to identify changes in the outboard surface of the PC, and showed that the changes in the surface which occurred upon natural aging in the field could be reproduced by exposing the laminates to a simulated solar flux. Based on these results, they recommended changes in the adhesive interlayers to filter out the ultraviolet (UV) light causing the aging problem. Working with the laminate vendor, PPG, they re-designed the laminates to implement these changes and block essentially all UV light from the inboard ply. The most recent phase of this work involved accelerated solar aging of laminates made with the new design to verify that photoaging effects have been blocked by the new materials. They report here the results of that study, and recommended follow-on work.

  17. Impact of improved laboratory compliance on notification of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S C; MacEachern, A; Stevenson, E

    1997-02-01

    Although regulations in Victoria require notification of chlamydia infection by both clinician and laboratory, review found many reports that were notified only by one source (i.e., were unmatched). To identify problems with the notification system and to improve the quality of surveillance for this disease. All notified cases of chlamydia diagnosed in January or February 1995 were followed up by contacting diagnosing doctors. Identified noncompliant laboratories were asked to provide a list of all diagnoses for the period and institute ongoing reporting. Notification data were reviewed for timeliness and completeness. Clinicians never notified without laboratory confirmation. Soliciting laboratory reports increased total notifications by 30%, and there was a highly significant improvement in reporting by both clinicians and laboratories. Reasons for failure to notify by clinicians included an assumption by some clinicians that laboratories would notify and ignorance that notification was required. Notified cases generally are now accompanied by a laboratory report, and although nonnotification by clinicians continues, notification has improved. Further improvements in clinician notification may depend on doctors knowing that public health action results from reporting. An alternative to requiring doctors' time to be spent in duplicate notification would be to strengthen laboratory reporting and then check that adequate treatment and partner notification has occurred through contact with the diagnosing doctor.

  18. The Impact of Audiovisual Feedback on the Learning Outcomes of a Remote and Virtual Laboratory Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, E.; Good, M.

    2009-01-01

    Remote and virtual laboratory classes are an increasingly prevalent alternative to traditional hands-on laboratory experiences. One of the key issues with these modes of access is the provision of adequate audiovisual (AV) feedback to the user, which can be a complicated and resource-intensive challenge. This paper reports on a comparison of two…

  19. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  20. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  1. Impact of laboratory accreditation on patient care and the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Trevor F; Rotz, Philip D; Blair, Duncan H; Khine, Aye-Aye; Freeman, Richard R; Murtagh, Maurine M

    2010-10-01

    Accreditation is emerging as a preferred framework for building quality medical laboratory systems in resource-limited settings. Despite the low numbers of laboratories accredited to date, accreditation has the potential to improve the quality of health care for patients through the reduction of testing errors and attendant decreases in inappropriate treatment. Accredited laboratories can become more accountable and less dependent on external support. Efforts made to achieve accreditation may also lead to improvements in the management of laboratory networks by focusing attention on areas of greatest need and accelerating improvement in areas such as supply chain, training, and instrument maintenance. Laboratory accreditation may also have a positive influence on performance in other areas of health care systems by allowing laboratories to demonstrate high standards of service delivery. Accreditation may, thus, provide an effective mechanism for health system improvement yielding long-term benefits in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of public health programs. Further studies are needed to strengthen the evidence on the benefits of accreditation and to justify the resources needed to implement accreditation programs aimed at improving the performance of laboratory systems.

  2. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  3. Heat Coulomb blockade of one ballistic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivre, E.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Ouerghi, A.; Jin, Y.; Pierre, F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics and Coulomb interaction dictate the behaviour of small circuits. The thermal implications cover fundamental topics from quantum control of heat to quantum thermodynamics, with prospects of novel thermal machines and an ineluctably growing influence on nanocircuit engineering. Experimentally, the rare observations thus far include the universal thermal conductance quantum and heat interferometry. However, evidence for many-body thermal effects paving the way to markedly different heat and electrical behaviours in quantum circuits remains wanting. Here we report on the observation of the Coulomb blockade of electronic heat flow from a small metallic circuit node, beyond the widespread Wiedemann-Franz law paradigm. We demonstrate this thermal many-body phenomenon for perfect (ballistic) conduction channels to the node, where it amounts to the universal suppression of precisely one quantum of conductance for the transport of heat, but none for electricity. The inter-channel correlations that give rise to such selective heat current reduction emerge from local charge conservation, in the floating node over the full thermal frequency range (laws for thermal transport in nanocircuits.

  4. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Federation de Physique Andre Marie Ampere, CNRS - Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2014-01-15

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal; Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry; Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  7. Direct observation of ballistic Andreev reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, T. M.; Ryabchun, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    An overview is presented of experiments on ballistic electrical transport in inhomogeneous superconducting systems which are controlled by the process of Andreev reflection. The initial experiments based on the coexistence of a normal phase and a superconducting phase in the intermediate state led to the concept itself. It was followed by a focus on geometrically inhomogeneous systems like point contacts, which provided a very clear manifestation of the energy and direction dependence of the Andreev reflection process. The point contacts have recently evolved towards the atomic scale owing to the use of mechanical break-junctions, revealing a very detailed dependence of Andreev reflection on the macroscopic phase of the superconducting state. In present-day research, the superconducting in homogeneity is constructed by clean room technology and combines superconducting materials, for example, with low-dimensional materials and topological insulators. Alternatively, the superconductor is combined with nano-objects, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, or semiconducting nanowires. Each of these "inhomogeneous systems" provides a very interesting range of properties, all rooted in some manifestation of Andreev reflection.

  8. Ballistic Application of Coir Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Fernanda Santos da; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Eduardo Sousa; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Multilayered armor systems (MAS) composed of relatively lighter materials with capacity to provide personal ballistic protection are being extensively investigated and used in armor vests. A typical MAS to stand high impact energy 7.62 mm bullet has a front ceramic followed by an aramid fabric laminate, such as Kevlar™. Since both the army and municipal police personnel might need to wear an armor vest, a large number of vests needs to be supplied. In the case of Kevlar™, one of the most expe...

  9. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Debarati Bhattacharjee; Ajay Kumar; Ipsita Biswas

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of back face signature (BFS) or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing materia...

  10. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  11. Factors that impact clinical laboratory scientists' commitment to their work organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Richard; Akroyd, Duane; Moore, Ti'eshia M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the predictive ability of various aspects of the work environment for organizational commitment. A questionnaire measuring three dimensions of organizational commitment along with five aspects of work environment and 10 demographic and work setting characteristics was sent to a national, convenience sample of clinical laboratory professionals. All persons obtaining the CLS certification by NCA from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. Only respondents who worked full-time in a clinical laboratory setting were included in the database. Levels of affective, normative, and continuance organizational commitment, organizational support, role clarity, role conflict, transformational leadership behavior of supervisor, and organizational type, total years work experience in clinical laboratories, and educational level of respondents. Questionnaire items used either a 7-point or 5-point Likert response scale. Based on multiple regression analysis for the 427 respondents, organizational support and transformational leadership behavior were found to be significant positive predictors of affective and normative organizational commitment. Work setting (non-hospital laboratory) and total years of work experience in clinical laboratories were found to be significant positive predictors of continuance organizational commitment. Overall the organizational commitment levels for all three dimensions were at the neutral rating or below in the slightly disagree range. The results indicate a less than optimal level of organizational commitment to employers, which were predominantly hospitals, by CLS practitioners. This may result in continuing retention problems for hospital laboratories. The results offer strategies for improving organizational commitment via the significant predictors.

  12. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Lauren B; Grant, Devon A; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance.

  13. Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: michele.sciacca@unipa.it [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: ant.sellitto@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-07-04

    The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.

  14. Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang

    2014-08-20

    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as lim(L--> ∞) κ ∝ L(0.5) where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (LC) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ ∝ L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[-L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction.

  15. Verification of models for ballistic movement time and endpoint variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Drury, Colin G

    2013-01-01

    A hand control movement is composed of several ballistic movements. The time required in performing a ballistic movement and its endpoint variability are two important properties in developing movement models. The purpose of this study was to test potential models for predicting these two properties. Twelve participants conducted ballistic movements of specific amplitudes using a drawing tablet. The measured data of movement time and endpoint variability were then used to verify the models. This study was successful with Hoffmann and Gan's movement time model (Hoffmann, 1981; Gan and Hoffmann 1988) predicting more than 90.7% data variance for 84 individual measurements. A new theoretically developed ballistic movement variability model, proved to be better than Howarth, Beggs, and Bowden's (1971) model, predicting on average 84.8% of stopping-variable error and 88.3% of aiming-variable errors. These two validated models will help build solid theoretical movement models and evaluate input devices. This article provides better models for predicting end accuracy and movement time of ballistic movements that are desirable in rapid aiming tasks, such as keying in numbers on a smart phone. The models allow better design of aiming tasks, for example button sizes on mobile phones for different user populations.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  17. Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as lim L→∞ κ∝L 0.5 where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (L C ) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ∝L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[−L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction. (paper)

  18. What Should Be the United States Policy towards Ballistic Missile Defense for Northeast Asia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, Roberto L

    2005-01-01

    .... The threat of ballistic missiles from Northeast Asia is especially high. China and North Korea are seen as the top threats in the region when it comes to the delivery of WMD through ballistic missiles...

  19. Herontwerp Ballistisch vest voor Vrouwen: Fase 1 (Redesign Ballistic Vest for Women: Phase 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koerhuis, C. L; Weghorst, M. G

    2008-01-01

    .... A questionnaire was filled out by fourteen female soldiers consisting of questions about complaints, characteristics of the ballistic vest and the mobility of the combat soldier wearing the ballistic vest...

  20. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Page 1 GAO-16-339R Ballistic Missile Defense 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 28, 2016 Congressional Committees Missile Defense... Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...funding efforts to develop a system to detect, track, and defeat enemy ballistic missiles. The current system—the Ballistic Missile Defense System

  1. Diagnostics of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid capacitively coupled discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lin; Chen, Lee; Funk, Merritt; Ranjan, Alok; Hummel, Mike; Bravenec, Ron; Sundararajan, Radha; Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy distribution of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid parallel-plate capacitively coupled plasma reactor was measured. Ballistic electrons originated as secondaries produced by ion and electron bombardment of the electrodes. The energy distribution of ballistic electrons peaked at the value of the negative bias applied to the dc electrode. As that bias became more negative, the ballistic electron current on the rf substrate electrode increased dramatically. The ion current on the dc electrode also increased

  2. Design and Manufacturing Process for a Ballistic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Sebastian Marian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.

  3. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  4. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ballistic spin filtering across the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic spin-filter effect from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor has theoretically been studied with an intention of detecting the spin polarizability of density of states in FM layer at a higher energy level. The physical model for the ballistic spin filtering across the interface between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductor superlattice is developed by exciting the spin polarized electrons into n-type AlAs/GaAs superlattice layer at a much higher energy level and then ballistically tunneling through the barrier into the ferromagnetic film. Since both the helicity-modulated and static photocurrent responses are experimentally measurable quantities, the physical quantity of interest, the relative asymmetry of spin-polarized tunneling conductance, could be extracted experimentally in a more straightforward way, as compared with previous models. The present physical model serves guidance for studying spin detection with advanced performance in the future.

  6. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S

    2016-02-10

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  7. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled and ballistically-controlled reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redner, S.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of diffusion-controlled two-species annihilation, A+B → O and single-species ballistically-controlled annihilation, A+A → O are investigated. For two-species annihilation, we describe the basic mechanism that leads to the formation of a coarsening mosaic of A- and B-domains. The implications of this picture on the distribution of reactants is discussed. For ballistic annihilation, dimensional analysis shows that the concentration and rms velocity decay as c∼t -α and v∼t -β , respectively, with α+β = 1 in any spatial dimension. Analysis of the Boltzmann equation for the evolution of the velocity distribution yields accurate predictions for the kinetics. New phenomena associated with discrete initial velocity distributions and with mixed ballistic and diffusive reactant motion are also discussed. (author)

  8. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance.......). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...

  9. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major

  10. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  11. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-AH18 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...). Section 222 repeals the restriction on purchase of Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation that was required by section 222 of...

  12. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  13. Proposals for the mitigation of the environmental impact of clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Badrick, Tony

    2012-03-24

    Laboratories should be aware of the carbon footprint resulting from their activities and take steps to mitigate it as part of their societal responsibilities. Once committed to a mitigation programme, they should announce an environmental policy, secure the support of senior management, initiate documentation, institute a staff training programme, schedule environmental audits and appoint an environmental manager. Laboratories may aspire to be accredited to one of the standards for environmental management, such as the ISO 14000. As environmental and quality issues are linked, the improvement in the environmental management of an organisation will ultimately lead to improved quality system performance. Indeed, environmental management could conceivably come under overall quality management. Although there will be initial costs, good environmental practices can bring savings. Environmental improvement should be based on the 3R concept to reduce, reuse and recycle. Several policy initiatives may be introduced. These include a green purchasing policy for equipment, laboratory furniture and reagents as well as the management of packaging wastes. There are several ways to reduce energy, water usage and wastage. A reduction of test numbers and collection tubes should be attempted. Paper management involves all aspects of 3R. The recycling of solvents and general wastes should be practised where feasible. The construction new laboratories or renovations to existing ones are opportunities to make them more environmentally-friendly. The advocacy of policies to associates and the inclusion of environmentally-friendly conditions on contractors are integral parts of the programme.

  14. Open-Ended versus Guided Laboratory Activities: Impact on Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the…

  15. Rainfall and wet and dry cycle's impact on ash thickness. A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Keestra, Saskia; Peters, Piet; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Ash is the most important and effective soil protection in the immediate period after the fire (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015a). This protection can last for days or weeks depending on the fire severity, topography of the burned area and post-fire meteorological conditions. In the initial period after the fire, ash is easily transported by wind. However after the first rainfalls, ash is eroded, or bind in soil surface (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015a). Ash thickness has implications on soil protection. The soil protection against the erosion and the ash capacity to retain water increases with the ash thickness (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash cover is very important after fire because store water and releases into soil a large amount of nutrients, fundamental to vegetation recuperation (Pereira et al., 2014). Despite the importance of ash thickness in post fire environments, little information is available about the effects of rainfall and wet and dry cycle's effects on ash thickness. This work aims to fill this gap. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of rainfall and wet and dry cycles in the ash thickness of two different under laboratory conditions. Litter from Oak (Quercus robur) and Spruce (Picea abis) were collected to and exposed during 2 hours to produce ash at 200 and 400 C. Subsequently a layer of 15 mm ash was spread on soil surface in small boxes (24x32 cm) and then subjected to rainfall simulation. Boxes were placed at a 17% of inclination and a rainfall intensity of 55 mm/h during 40 minutes was applied. After the rainfall simulation the plots were stored in an Oven at the temperature of 25 C during four days, in order to identify the effects of wet and dry cycles (Bodi et al., 2013). Ash thickness was measured after the first rainfall (AFR), before the second rainfall (BSR) - after the dry period of 4 days - and after the second rainfall (ASR). In each box a grid with 57 points was designed in order to analyse ash thickness

  16. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  17. Nonlocal nature of the resistance in classical ballistic transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, E.V.; Levinson, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is made of the resistance of ballistic microstructures formed in the two-dimensional electron gas of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction representing combinations of long channels. It is shown that the nonlocal nature of the resistance (dependence on the measurement method) is unrelated to the quantum nature of the electron behavior, but is solely due to the ballistic nature of microstructures and does not disappear in the classical limit. An analog of the Landauer equation is obtained for the resistance measured by the four-probe method allowing for the geometry of the measuring probes

  18. Voltage quantization by ballistic vortices in two-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.P.; Delin, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The voltage generated by moving ballistic vortices with a mass m ν in a two-dimensional superconducting ring is quantized, and this quantization depends on the amount of charge enclosed by the ring. The quantization of the voltage is the dual to flux quantization in a superconductor, and is a manifestation of the Aharonov-Casher effect. The quantization is obtained by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld criterion to the canonical momentum of the ballistic vortices. The results of this quantization condition can also be used to understand the persistent voltage predicted by van Wees for an array of Josephson junctions

  19. A microscopic model of ballistic-diffusive crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Debarshee; Mohanty, P K

    2014-01-01

    Several low-dimensional systems show a crossover from diffusive to ballistic heat transport when system size is decreased. Although there is some phenomenological understanding of this crossover phenomenon at the coarse-grained level, a microscopic picture that consistently describes both the ballistic and the diffusive transport regimes has been lacking. In this work we derive a scaling form for the thermal current in a class of one dimensional systems attached to heat baths at boundaries and rigorously show that the crossover occurs when the characteristic length scale of the system competes with the system size. (paper)

  20. Geometrical optimization of a local ballistic magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Yuhsuke; Hara, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nomura, Tatsuya [Advanced Electronics Research Division, INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kimura, Takashi [Advanced Electronics Research Division, INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    We have developed a highly sensitive local magnetic sensor by using a ballistic transport property in a two-dimensional conductor. A semiclassical simulation reveals that the sensitivity increases when the geometry of the sensor and the spatial distribution of the local field are optimized. We have also experimentally demonstrated a clear observation of a magnetization process in a permalloy dot whose size is much smaller than the size of an optimized ballistic magnetic sensor fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas.

  1. Coupling between a Langmuir wave and a ballistic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, F.; Olivain, J.; Quemeneur, A.; Trocheris, M.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the mode-mode coupling usually neglects the ballistic contribution associated with parent waves. If this approximation is not made, a new mode, resulting from the interaction between the ballistic perturbation of pulsation ω 2 associated with one launched wave and the Landau component of pulsation ω 1 of the second one appears if ω 1 >ω 2 . The problem is solved theoretically and experimental evidence of this mode from measurements performed on a D.C. plasma column, confirms the results of this analysis

  2. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of the impact of exercise on the performance of regular and polymer-based deet repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Steven; Tepper, Martin; Gadawski, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Studies were done in Manitoba, Canada, to evaluate the impact of exercise on repellent performance against mosquitoes. Two products containing the active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) were tested; one product was a polymer-based cream (3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent) and the other product was an alcohol-based pump spray formulation (Muskol Insect Repellent). Assessments were done in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) and in the field with naturally occurring populations of mosquitoes. Repellent was applied to the forearms (laboratory) or a lower leg (field) of test subjects at 1.5 g of test product per 600 cm2 surface area (0.75 or 0.83 mg deet/cm2). For a given test day, subjects exercised or did not. Exposure to mosquito attack was for 1 min at 30-min intervals in laboratory procedures, and it was continuous in field tests. Performance was measured as complete protection time (CPT). Moderate levels of physical activity resulted in a >40% decline in mean CPT, from 468 to 267 min in the laboratory experiments and from 359 to 203 min in field tests. Repellent product did not affect the magnitude of the decline. Mean biting pressure during field trials was 21.3 bites per min, and mosquito collections were made up primarily of Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen) and Aedes vexans (Meigen).

  4. Development, Use, and Impact of a Global Laboratory Database During the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durski, Kara N; Singaravelu, Shalini; Teo, Junxiong; Naidoo, Dhamari; Bawo, Luke; Jambai, Amara; Keita, Sakoba; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Muraguri, Beatrice; Ahounou, Brice; Katawera, Victoria; Kuti-George, Fredson; Nebie, Yacouba; Kohar, T Henry; Hardy, Patrick Jowlehpah; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Kargbo, David; Mahmoud, Nuha; Assefa, Yewondwossen; Condell, Orla; N'Faly, Magassouba; Van Gurp, Leon; Lamanu, Margaret; Ryan, Julia; Diallo, Boubacar; Daffae, Foday; Jackson, Dikena; Malik, Fayyaz Ahmed; Raftery, Philomena; Formenty, Pierre

    2017-06-15

    The international impact, rapid widespread transmission, and reporting delays during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for a global, centralized database to inform outbreak response. The World Health Organization and Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network addressed this need by supporting the development of a global laboratory database. Specimens were collected in the affected countries from patients and dead bodies meeting the case definitions for Ebola virus disease. Test results were entered in nationally standardized spreadsheets and consolidated onto a central server. From March 2014 through August 2016, 256343 specimens tested for Ebola virus disease were captured in the database. Thirty-one specimen types were collected, and a variety of diagnostic tests were performed. Regular analysis of data described the functionality of laboratory and response systems, positivity rates, and the geographic distribution of specimens. With data standardization and end user buy-in, the collection and analysis of large amounts of data with multiple stakeholders and collaborators across various user-access levels was made possible and contributed to outbreak response needs. The usefulness and value of a multifunctional global laboratory database is far reaching, with uses including virtual biobanking, disease forecasting, and adaption to other disease outbreaks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The usage of optical fibers for damage detection in ballistic protection composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Irena D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedure of embedding fiber optic sensors in laminar thermoplastic composite material, as well as damage investigation after ballistic loading. Thermoplastic-reinforced composite materials were made for increased material damage resistance during ballistic loading. Damage inside the composite material was detected by observing the intensity drop of the light signal transmitted through the optical fibers. Experimental testing was carried out in order to observe and analyze the response of the material under various load conditions. Different types of Kevlar reinforced composite materials (thermoplastic, thermo reactive and thermoplastic with ceramic plate as the impact face were made. Material damage resistance during ballistic loading was investigated and compared. Specimens were tested under multiple load conditions. The opto-electronic part of the measurement system consists of two light-emitting diodes as light sources for the optical fibers, and two photo detectors for the light intensity measurement. The output signal was acquired from photo detectors by means of a data acquisition board and personal computer. The measurements showed an intensity drop of the transmitted light signal as a result of the applied loading on composite structure for all the optical fibers. All the diagrams show similar behavior of the light signal intensity. In fact, all of them may be divided into three zones: the zone of penetration of the first composite layer, the bullet traveling zone through the composite material till its final stop, and the material relaxation zone. The attenuation of the light signal intensity during impact is caused by the influence of the applied dynamic stress on the embedded optical fibers. The applied stress caused micro bending of the optical fiber, changes in the shape of the cross-section and the unequal changes of the indices of refraction of the core and cladding due to the stress-optic effect. The

  6. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  7. Rotavirus Infection in the Auckland Region After the Implementation of Universal Infant Rotavirus Vaccination: Impact on Hospitalizations and Laboratory Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Gary N; Taylor, Susan L; Drinković, Dragana; Roberts, Sally A; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Best, Emma J

    2018-01-01

    In July 2014, New Zealand introduced universal infant vaccination with RotaTeq (Merk & Co.) administered as 3 doses at 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months of age. We sought to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis (GE) hospitalizations in the greater Auckland region and analyze changes in rotavirus testing in the period around vaccine introduction. Hospitalizations, laboratory testing rates and methods were compared between the pre-vaccine period (2009-2013), post-vaccine period (January 2015 to December 2015) and year of vaccine introduction (2014). There was a 68% decline in rotavirus hospitalizations of children Auckland region. However, continued rotavirus testing at pre-vaccine rates risks generating false positive results. Laboratories and clinicians should consider reviewing their testing algorithms before vaccine introduction.

  8. The impact of recent advances in laboratory astrophysics on our understanding of the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, D W; Brickhouse, N S; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibel, E G

    2012-01-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena—the radiation and particle spectra we observe—have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  9. HELIUM-POWERED BALLISTIC TEST APPARATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This research device is used for the initial assessment of new materials and is primarily used for fragmentation testing of yarns, fabric, or laminate samples. The...

  10. The impact of meningococcal polymerase chain reaction testing on laboratory confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drew, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Laboratory methods of diagnosis were examined for 266 children with invasive meningococcal disease. Seventy-five (36%) of 207 cases with bloodstream infection had both positive blood culture and blood meningococcal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 130 (63%) negative blood culture and positive blood PCR, and 2 (1%) had positive blood culture and negative blood PCR. Sixty-three percent of cases were diagnosed by PCR alone.

  11. Impact of providing fee data on laboratory test ordering: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Leonard S; Shihab, Hasan M; Thiemann, David; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Ardolino, Margaret; Mandell, Steven; Brotman, Daniel J

    2013-05-27

    Inpatient care providers often order laboratory tests without any appreciation for the costs of the tests. To determine whether we could decrease the number of laboratory tests ordered by presenting providers with test fees at the time of order entry in a tertiary care hospital, without adding extra steps to the ordering process. Controlled clinical trial. Tertiary care hospital. All providers, including physicians and nonphysicians, who ordered laboratory tests through the computerized provider order entry system at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. We randomly assigned 61 diagnostic laboratory tests to an "active" arm (fee displayed) or to a control arm (fee not displayed). During a 6-month baseline period (November 10, 2008, through May 9, 2009), we did not display any fee data. During a 6-month intervention period 1 year later (November 10, 2009, through May 9, 2010), we displayed fees, based on the Medicare allowable fee, for active tests only. We examined changes in the total number of orders placed, the frequency of ordered tests (per patient-day), and total charges associated with the orders according to the time period (baseline vs intervention period) and by study group (active test vs control). For the active arm tests, rates of test ordering were reduced from 3.72 tests per patient-day in the baseline period to 3.40 tests per patient-day in the intervention period (8.59% decrease; 95% CI, -8.99% to -8.19%). For control arm tests, ordering increased from 1.15 to 1.22 tests per patient-day from the baseline period to the intervention period (5.64% increase; 95% CI, 4.90% to 6.39%) (P fee data to providers at the time of order entry resulted in a modest decrease in test ordering. Adoption of this intervention may reduce the number of inappropriately ordered diagnostic tests.

  12. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  13. The false security of blind dates: chrononymization's lack of impact on data privacy of laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J

    2012-01-01

    The reuse of clinical data for research purposes requires methods for the protection of personal privacy. One general approach is the removal of personal identifiers from the data. A frequent part of this anonymization process is the removal of times and dates, which we refer to as "chrononymization." While this step can make the association with identified data (such as public information or a small sample of patient information) more difficult, it comes at a cost to the usefulness of the data for research. We sought to determine whether removal of dates from common laboratory test panels offers any advantage in protecting such data from re-identification. We obtained a set of results for 5.9 million laboratory panels from the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS), selected a random set of 20,000 panels from the larger source sets, and then identified all matches between the sets. We found that while removal of dates could hinder the re-identification of a single test result, such removal had almost no effect when entire panels were used. Our results suggest that reliance on chrononymization provides a false sense of security for the protection of laboratory test results. As a result of this study, the NIH has chosen to rely on policy solutions, such as strong data use agreements, rather than removal of dates when reusing clinical data for research purposes.

  14. Mechanical properties of silicone based composites as a temperature insensitive ballistic backing material for quantifying back face deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tara D; Bain, Erich D; Cole, Shawn T; Freeney, Reygan M; Halls, Virginia A; Ivancik, Juliana; Lenhart, Joseph L; Napadensky, Eugene; Yu, Jian H; Zheng, James Q; Mrozek, Randy A

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a new witness material for quantifying the back face deformation (BFD) resulting from high rate impact of ballistic protective equipment. Accurate BFD quantification is critical for the assessment and certification of personal protective equipment, such as body armor and helmets, and ballistic evaluation. A common witness material is ballistic clay, specifically, Roma Plastilina No. 1 (RP1). RP1 must be heated to nearly 38°C to pass calibration, and used within a limited time frame to remain in calibration. RP1 also exhibits lot-to-lot variability and is sensitive to time, temperature, and handling procedures, which limits the BFD accuracy and reproducibility. A new silicone composite backing material (SCBM) was developed and tested side-by-side with heated RP1 using quasi-static indentation and compression, low velocity impact, spherical projectile penetration, and both soft and hard armor ballistic BFD measurements to compare their response over a broad range of strain rates and temperatures. The results demonstrate that SCBM mimics the heated RP1 response at room temperature and exhibits minimal temperature sensitivity. With additional optimization of the composition and processing, SCBM could be a drop-in replacement for RP1 that is used at room temperature during BFD quantification with minimal changes to the current RP1 handling protocols and infrastructure. It is anticipated that removing the heating requirement, and temperature-dependence, associated with RP1 will reduce test variability, simplify testing logistics, and enhance test range productivity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  16. Ballistic edge states in Bismuth nanowires revealed by SQUID interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murani, Anil; Kasumov, Alik; Sengupta, Shamashis; Kasumov, Yu A; Volkov, V T; Khodos, I I; Brisset, F; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Chepelianskii, Alexei; Deblock, Richard; Bouchiat, Hélène; Guéron, Sophie

    2017-07-05

    The protection against backscattering provided by topology is a striking property. In two-dimensional insulators, a consequence of this topological protection is the ballistic nature of the one-dimensional helical edge states. One demonstration of ballisticity is the quantized Hall conductance. Here we provide another demonstration of ballistic transport, in the way the edge states carry a supercurrent. The system we have investigated is a micrometre-long monocrystalline bismuth nanowire with topological surfaces, that we connect to two superconducting electrodes. We have measured the relation between the Josephson current flowing through the nanowire and the superconducting phase difference at its ends, the current-phase relation. The sharp sawtooth-shaped phase-modulated current-phase relation we find demonstrates that transport occurs selectively along two ballistic edges of the nanowire. In addition, we show that a magnetic field induces 0-π transitions and ϕ 0 -junction behaviour, providing a way to manipulate the phase of the supercurrent-carrying edge states and generate spin supercurrents.

  17. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.santoruvo@epfl.ch; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison, E-mail: elison.matioli@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-05

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  18. Skipping Orbits, Traversing Trajectories, and Quantum Ballistic Transport in Microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van

    1989-01-01

    Three topics of current interest in the study of quantum ballistic transport in a two-dimensional electron gas are discussed, with an emphasis on correspondences between classical trajectories and quantum states in the various experimental geometries. We consider the quantized conductance of point

  19. Ballistic propagation of turbulence front in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Satoru; Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fuhr, Guillaume; Beyer, Peter; Benkadda, Sadruddin

    2012-01-01

    The flux-driven nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning mode turbulence with tokamak edge geometry is performed to study the non-steady component in the edge turbulence. The large-scale and dynamical events in transport are investigated in a situation where the mean flow is suppressed. Two types of dynamics are observed. One is the radial propagation of the pulse of pressure gradient, the other is the appearance/disappearance of radially elongated global structure of turbulent heat flux. The ballistic propagation is observed in the pulse of pressure gradient, which is associated with the front of turbulent heat flux. We focus on this ballistic propagation phenomenon. Both of the bump of pressure gradient and the front of heat flux propagate inward and outward direction. It is confirmed that the strong fluctuation propagates with the pulse front. It is observed that the number of pulses going outward is close to those going inward. This ballistic phenomenon does not contradict to the turbulence spreading theory. Statistical characteristics of the ballistic propagation of pulses are evaluated and compared with scaling laws which is given by the turbulence spreading theory. It is found that they give qualitatively good agreement. (paper)

  20. Controlling ballistic missiles: How important? How to do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.; Rubin, U.

    1992-01-01

    Missiles themselves are not weapons of mass destruction; they do not give states the ability to wreak unimaginable destruction, or to radically shift the balance of power, as nuclear weapons do. Hence, the primary focus of nonproliferation efforts should remain on weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons, rather than on one of the many possible means of delivering them. Moreover, as discussed in more detail below, advanced strike aircraft can also be effective in delivering nuclear weapons, and are generally more effective than ballistic missiles for delivering conventional or chemical ordnance. Ultimately, if the industrialized nations seriously desire to control the spread of delivery means for weapons of mass destruction, they need to consider bringing controls over ballistic missiles and advanced strike aircraft more into balance. At the same time, while efforts to control ballistic missile proliferation - centered on the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) - have had some successes and could be strengthened, US policy will be most effective if it recognizes two key realities: the spread of ballistic missiles cannot be as comprehensively controlled as the spread of nuclear weapons, nor need it be as comprehensively controlled

  1. Quantum ballistic evolution in quantum mechanics: Application to quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benioff, P.

    1996-01-01

    Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single-step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators T is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e., motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is proof of a theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions that T must satisfy so that there exists a Hamiltonian description of quantum ballistic evolution for the process, namely, that T is a partial isometry and is orthogonality preserving and stable on some basis. Simple examples of quantum ballistic evolution for quantum Turing machines with one and with more than one type of elementary step are discussed. It is seen that for nondeterministic machines the basis set can be quite complex with much entanglement present. It is also proven that, given a step operator T for an arbitrary deterministic quantum Turing machine, it is decidable if T is stable and orthogonality preserving, and if quantum ballistic evolution is possible. The proof fails if T is a step operator for a nondeterministic machine. It is an open question if such a decision procedure exists for nondeterministic machines. This problem does not occur in classical mechanics. Also the definition of quantum Turing machines used here is compared with that used by other authors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. On the Trajectories of Projectiles Depicted in Early Ballistic Woodcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by quaint woodcut depictions often found in many late 16th and 17th century ballistic manuals of cannonballs fired in air, a comparison of their shapes with those calculated for the classic case of a projectile moving in a linear resisting medium is made. In considering the asymmetrical nature of such trajectories, the initial launch…

  3. The application of computed tomography in wound ballistics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiatis, Nick; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Papadodima, Stavroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Kelekis, Alexis; Kelesis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kordolaimi, Sofia; Ploussi, Agapi

    2015-01-01

    In wound ballistics research there is a relationship between the data that characterize a bullet and the injury resulted after shooting when it perforates the human body. The bullet path in the human body following skin perforation as well as the damaging effect cannot always be predictable as they depend on various factors such as the bullet's characteristics (velocity, distance, type of firearm and so on) and the tissue types that the bullet passes through. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the contribution of Computed Tomography (CT) in wound ballistics research. Using CT technology and studying virtual “slices” of specific areas on scanned human bodies, allows the evaluation of density and thickness of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, the muscles, the vital organs and the bones. Density data taken from Hounsfield units can be converted in g/ml by using the appropriate software. By evaluating the results of this study, the anatomy of the human body utilizing ballistic gel will be reproduced in order to simulate the path that a bullet follows. The biophysical analysis in wound ballistics provides another application of CT technology, which is commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. (paper)

  4. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of ballistic He penetration into W fuzz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, T. P. C.; Nordlund, K.; Morgan, T. W.; Westerhof, E.; Thijsse, B. J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented of large-scale Molecular Dynamics simulations of low-energy He bombardment of W nanorods, or so-called ‘fuzz’ structures. The goal of these simulations is to see if ballistic He penetration through W fuzz offers a more realistic scenario for how He moves through fuzz layers

  6. Medical Provider Ballistic Protection at Active Shooter Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Bozeman, William P; Callaway, David W; Winslow, James; McGinnis, Henderson D; Sempsrott, Justin; Evans-Taylor, Lisa; Alson, Roy L

    2016-01-01

    There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models. However, we acknowledge that the development and implementation of these programs may benefit from the availability of such equipment as one component of risk mitigation. Many police agencies regularly retire body armor on a defined time schedule before the end of its effective service life. Coordination with law enforcement may allow such retired body armor to be available to other public safety agencies, such as fire and emergency medical services, providing some degree of ballistic protection to medical responders at little or no cost during the rare mass casualty incident. To provide visual demonstration of this concept, we tested three "retired" ballistic vests with ages ranging from 6 to 27 years. The vests were shot at close range using police-issue 9mm, .40 caliber, .45 caliber, and 12-gauge shotgun rounds. Photographs demonstrate that the vests maintained their ballistic protection and defeated all of these rounds. 2016.

  7. Gate controlled high efficiency ballistic energy conversion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    Last year we demonstrated the microjet ballistic energy conversion system[1]. Here we show that the efficiency of such a system can be further improved by gate control. With gate control the electrical current generation is enhanced a hundred times with respect to the current generated from the zeta

  8. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Zhu, S.E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be

  9. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  10. MODELING THE FLIGHT TRAJECTORY OF OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL BALLISTIC MISSILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filipchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the basic approaches to updating the systems of combat operations modeling in the part of enemy missile attack simulation taking into account the possibility of tactical ballistic missile maneuvering during the flight. The results of simulation of combat tactical missile defense operations are given. 

  11. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  12. The potentials of porous concrete for ballistic protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Roebroeks, G.; Krabbenborg, D.; Agar Ozbek, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    A special porous concrete has been developed by the Delft University in collaboration with TNO. The concrete has a static compressive strength of 45 MPa. It fragments at impact into small size debris relative to reference concrete. The porous concrete was developed at laboratory scale and tested at

  13. Analysis of the impacts of the 1984 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act amendments on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Davis, K.D.; Johnson, R.D.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Wallace, M.T.

    1986-02-01

    The November 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on the management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These Amendments include new requirements specific to federal facilities such as the INEL. In this paper, areas of direct impact and associated INEL plans for complying with the 1984 RCRA Amendments will be described. The specific areas to be covered are the following: (1) changes in RCRA Part B permitting, including requirements for addressing past hazardous waste TSD sites; (2) the effects of increased restrictions on land disposal; (3) new requirements for undergrond tanks; (4) requirements for federal facilities; and (5) mandatory minimization of waste generation

  14. Full impact of laboratory information system requires direct use by clinical staff: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquín A; Shin, Sonya; Contreras, Carmen; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Asencios, Luis; Kim, Jihoon; Rodriguez, Pablo; Cegielski, Peter; Fraser, Hamish S F

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the time to communicate laboratory results to health centers (HCs) between the e-Chasqui web-based information system and the pre-existing paper-based system. Cluster randomized controlled trial in 78 HCs in Peru. In the intervention group, 12 HCs had web access to results via e-Chasqui (point-of-care HCs) and forwarded results to 17 peripheral HCs. In the control group, 22 point-of-care HCs received paper results directly and forwarded them to 27 peripheral HCs. Baseline data were collected for 15 months. Post-randomization data were collected for at least 2 years. Comparisons were made between intervention and control groups, stratified by point-of-care versus peripheral HCs. For point-of-care HCs, the intervention group took less time to receive drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) (median 9 vs 16 days, p60 days to arrive (pChasqui information system had reduced communication times and fewer results with delays of >2 months. Peripheral HCs had no benefits from the system. This suggests that health establishments should have point-of-care access to reap the benefits of electronic laboratory reporting.

  15. Impact of sonography in gouty arthritis: Comparison with conventional radiography, clinical examination, and laboratory findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schueller, Gerd; Aringer, Martin; Weber, Michael; Kainberger, Franz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the typical sonographic features of gray-scale and Power Doppler of acute and chronic gouty arthritis in conjunction with radiographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. Materials and methods: All hand, finger, and toe joints of 19 patients with acute and chronic gout were examined with gray-scale and Power Doppler sonography. The number and size of bone changes detected with sonography was compared to radiographic findings. Vascularization of the synovial tissue was scored on Power Doppler (grades 0-3), and was compared with clinical appearance, including swelling, tenderness, and redness (grades 0-3). Results: In acute gout, mild to moderate echogenic periarticular nodules with sonotransmission and hypervascularization of the edematous surrounding soft tissue were found. In chronic gout, tophaceous nodules completely blocked transmission of US wave, leading to strong reflexion and dorsal shadowing in a minority of cases. No significant difference in the detection of large bone changes (>2 mm) was found between sonography and radiography. However, gray-scale sonography was significantly more sensitive in the detection of small bone changes (p < 0.001). Power Doppler scores were statistically significantly higher than clinical examination scores (p < 0.001). Discussion: Sonography is superior to radiographs in evaluating small bone changes. The inflammatory process in joints can be better detected with Power Doppler sonography than with clinical examination. Typical sonographic appearance of acute and in particular of chronic gout might provide clues on gouty arthritis that adds to the information available from conventional radiography, clinical, and laboratory findings

  16. Impact of sonography in gouty arthritis: Comparison with conventional radiography, clinical examination, and laboratory findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: claudia.schueller-weidekamm@meduniwien.ac.at; Schueller, Gerd [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Aringer, Martin [Department of Rheumatology, Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kainberger, Franz [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-06-15

    Objective: To explore the typical sonographic features of gray-scale and Power Doppler of acute and chronic gouty arthritis in conjunction with radiographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. Materials and methods: All hand, finger, and toe joints of 19 patients with acute and chronic gout were examined with gray-scale and Power Doppler sonography. The number and size of bone changes detected with sonography was compared to radiographic findings. Vascularization of the synovial tissue was scored on Power Doppler (grades 0-3), and was compared with clinical appearance, including swelling, tenderness, and redness (grades 0-3). Results: In acute gout, mild to moderate echogenic periarticular nodules with sonotransmission and hypervascularization of the edematous surrounding soft tissue were found. In chronic gout, tophaceous nodules completely blocked transmission of US wave, leading to strong reflexion and dorsal shadowing in a minority of cases. No significant difference in the detection of large bone changes (>2 mm) was found between sonography and radiography. However, gray-scale sonography was significantly more sensitive in the detection of small bone changes (p < 0.001). Power Doppler scores were statistically significantly higher than clinical examination scores (p < 0.001). Discussion: Sonography is superior to radiographs in evaluating small bone changes. The inflammatory process in joints can be better detected with Power Doppler sonography than with clinical examination. Typical sonographic appearance of acute and in particular of chronic gout might provide clues on gouty arthritis that adds to the information available from conventional radiography, clinical, and laboratory findings.

  17. Ballistic parameters and trauma potential of pistol crossbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Schikorr, Wolfgang; Tesch, Ralf; Werner, Ronald; Hanisch, Steffen; Peters, Dieter; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta; Seifert, Julia

    2013-07-01

    Hand-held pistol crossbows, which are smaller versions of conventional crossbows, have recently increased in popularity. Similar to conventional crossbows, life threatening injuries due to bolts discharged from pistol crossbows are reported in forensic and traumatological literature. While the ballistic background of conventional crossbows is comprehensively investigated, there are no investigations on the characteristic ballistic parameters (draw force, potential energy, recurve factor, kinetic energy, and efficiency) of pistol crossbows. Two hand-held pistol crossbows (Barnett Commando and Mini Cross Bow, rated draw force 362.9 N or 80 lbs) were tested. The maximum draw force was investigated using a dynamic tensile testing machine (TIRAtest 2705, TIRA GmbH). The potential energy was determined graphically by polynomial regression as area under the force-draw curve. External ballistic parameters of the bolts discharged from pistol crossbows were measured using a redundant ballistic speed measurement system (Dual-BMC 21a and Dual-LS 1000, Werner Mehl Kurzzeitmesstechnik). The average maximum draw force was 190.3 and 175.6 N for the Barnett and Mini Cross Bow, respectively. The corresponding total energy expended was 10.7 and 11 J, respectively. The recurve factor was calculated to be 0.705 and 1.044, respectively. Average bolt velocity was measured 43 up to 52 m/s. The efficiency was calculated up to 0.94. To conclude, this work provides the pending ballistic data on this special subgroup of crossbows which operate on a remarkable low kinetic energy level. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the nominal draw force pretended in the sales brochure is grossly exaggerated.

  18. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    8 Ms. Marti Townsend B-294 9 Ms. Julia Estrella B-301 10 Mr. Ron...you. 8 (Applause.) 9 MR. BONNER: Thank you. 10 Will Julia Estrella come up...11 JULIA ESTRELLA : Good evening. My name is 12 Julia Estrella and I serve on the National Committee 13 of the

  19. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement: Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    beautiful shiner, and Apache trout) and four federal-candidate species (desert pupfish, Sonora chub, loach minnow, and flat-tailed horned lizard) occur...Archaeology. A Class I Inventory of Prehistoric Resources. Ethnoscience, Billings, Montana. 9-13 INV Den Beste, Ken and Lois Den Beste 1976 Backgrounded

  20. Impact of quality improvement in tuberculosis laboratories in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, I D; Albert, H; Zallet, J; Werner, U-E; Ahmed, N; Rieder, H L; Salfinger, M; Kranzer, K

    2018-03-01

    The effect of quality improvement measures on the performance of diagnostic tuberculosis (TB) laboratories in low- and lower-middle-income countries is not known, and is the subject of this review. Three databases were searched for quality improvement studies presenting data on performance parameters before and after the implementation of quality improvement interventions. Twenty-one studies were included in this review. Quality improvement measures were most frequently implemented by an external organization; settings targeted ranged from microscopy centers, hospitals, districts, regional and national reference laboratories. Quality improvement interventions and outcome measurements were highly heterogeneous. Most studies investigated interventions aimed at improving smear microscopy (n = 17). Two studies evaluated comprehensive quality improvement measures (n = 2) and another three studies focused on mycobacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing. Most studies showed an improvement in outcomes measured on before-after or time trend analysis. Quality improvement measures implemented in TB laboratories showed a positive impact on various outcomes. Due to the high heterogeneity of outcome reporting and interventions and the low quality of the studies, the effect size was not clear. Identification of standardized quality indicators and their link to the quality of patient care would improve knowledge in this field.

  1. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approaches on Students’ Academic Achievement and Laboratory Proficiency in Biology Subject in Selected Rural Schools, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyayu Molla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cooperative learning methods on students’ academic achievement and laboratory proficiency in biology subject. Quasi-experimental control group interrupted time series design was employed. Data pertaining to these variables were collected from 369 students and 18 biology teachers in three schools. A series of biological tests and semistructured questionnaire were used to collect data. Multivariate analysis (two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the test scores exposed by teaching methods, and semistructured questionnaire was administered to comprehend factors that hamper the successive execution of CL. Hence, multivariate analysis revealed that there was no significant (P>0.05 difference in the pretest score of the learner academic performance; however, there were significant differences (P<0.01 in the posttest results by teaching methods, but not by schools. Correspondingly, there were significant differences in the pretest P<0.05 and posttest (P<0.01 results of the students’ laboratory proficiency by teaching methods. The results exemplify that there was significant learning gain obtained via CLAD followed by cooperative discussion group (CDG. The result from the questionnaire survey showed that the number of students, lack of laboratory equipment, and so on hamper consecutive execution of CL.

  2. Rain water drop impact as a laboratory methodology to determinate the soils structural stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Amezquita E

    1999-01-01

    To avoid degradation, it is necessary to have (sufficiently) sensitive parameter to the use actions, so that it is possible to determine what negative changes are happening and to take the soil management measures that avoid the degradation. One of the main causes of degradation in the areas of hillside of Colombia is the erosion, which begins with the impact of the drop of rainwater on the bare soil. For this research samples of an oxic dystropepts were taken at two depths (0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm) to studying the susceptibility of its structure, to the impact of the drop falling from 2000 mm high. The samples were subjected to drop impact, in a special assembly apparatus that generated drops falling on samples that were 2-m below rotating in a rotations apparatus of generation of drops. As the time of impact advanced, the changes in the hydraulic conductivity were determined. This as parameter was used as an indicator appraiser of the structural resistance of the soils. The results show that the used methodology was sensitive to the situations of use of the soils. The initial hydraulic conductivity was higher in the production systems less intervened (natural forest, leucaena, with mulch, without mulch) and smaller in la those ones most intervened (monocrops of corn, bean, yuca), showing that human intervention has promotes a decay in the stability of soil structure

  3. Magnetospheric Effects as a New Aspect of the Asteroid Impact Problem: Necessity and Possibilities of Laboratory Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Yuri P.; Nikitin, Sergei A.; Ponomarenko, Arnold G.; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1997-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible consequences to the Earth's magnetosphere, when due to too short an advanced warning, attempts at mitigation of a near-Earth object (NEO) must be made in close proximity to the Earth. The energy Eo, and explosive plasma release during impact may be compared with the kinetic energy Ek of the NEO and with the energy, Ee (Ee approximately Ek), needed for NEO deflection by a strong (protective force) explosive, at distances close to the scale of the magnetosphere. If the energy, Em, of the Earth's dipole field latter is relatively small (Em is less than Eo for a NEO size approximately 1 km), global or even catastrophic disturbances could occur. These ecologically important magnetospheric aspects of the NEO impact problem have been discussed recently; particularly in the context of the comet SL-9/Jupiter impact. In the latter case, the effect on Jupiter's magnetosphere of the 'NEO' explosions was very small (x equals Eo/Em approximately 0.001, where Em is the 'outer' magnetic energy of the planetary dipole field) and the corresponding model of its 'fireball' development could be simulated numerically in 'zero' approximation, with the assumption of an undisturbed magnetospheric media as a whole. However, in general, and, in the rather probable case of NEO impacts with values x approximately 1, the development of such 3D, nonstationary MHD or PIC-models at this time. Such information can be obtained from new kinds of simulation experiments with the laboratory magnetosphere, the so-called 'terrella'.

  4. Safety research experiment facilities, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement was prepared for the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) Project. The purpose of the proposed project is to modify some existing facilities and provide a new test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for conducting fast breeder reactor (FBR) safety experiments. The SAREF Project proposal has been developed after an extensive study which identified the FBR safety research needs requiring in-reactor experiments and which evaluated the capability of various existing and new facilities to meet these needs. The proposed facilities provide for the in-reactor testing of large bundles of prototypical FBR fuel elements under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from those abnormal operating conditions which might be expected to occur during the life of an FBR power plant to the extremely low probability, hypothetical accidents used in the evaluation of some design options and in the assessment of the long-term potential risk associated with wide-acale deployment of the FBR

  5. Secondary School Chemistry Teacher's Current Use of Laboratory Activities and the Impact of Expense on Their Laboratory Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Livermore, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools…

  6. Measuring the impact of an instructional laboratory on the learning of introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Wieman, Carl; Holmes, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the impact of taking an associated lab course on the scores on final exam questions in two large introductory physics courses. Approximately a third of the students who completed each course also took an accompanying instructional lab course. The lab courses were fairly conventional, although they focused on supporting the mastery of a subset of the introductory physics topics covered in the associated course. Performance between students who did and did not take the lab cour...

  7. The effect of high-pressure devitrification and densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy

    Despite the clear benefits offered by more advanced transparent materials, (e.g. transparent ceramics offer a very attractive combination of high stiffness and high hardness levels, highly-ductile transparent polymers provide superior fragment-containing capabilities, etc.), ballistic ceramic-glass like fused-silica remains an important constituent material in a majority of transparent impact-resistant structures (e.g. windshields and windows of military vehicles, portholes in ships, ground vehicles and spacecraft) used today. Among the main reasons for the wide-scale use of glass, the following three are most frequently cited: (i) glass-structure fabrication technologies enable the production of curved, large surface-area, transparent structures with thickness approaching several inches; (ii) relatively low material and manufacturing costs; and (iii) compositional modifications, chemical strengthening, and controlled crystallization have been demonstrated to be capable of significantly improving the ballistic properties of glass. In the present work, the potential of high-pressure devitrification and densification of fused-silica as a ballistic-resistance-enhancement mechanism is investigated computationally. In the first part of the present work, all-atom molecular-level computations are carried out to infer the dynamic response and material microstructure/topology changes of fused silica subjected to ballistic impact by a nanometer-sized hard projectile. The analysis was focused on the investigation of specific aspects of the dynamic response and of the microstructural changes such as the deformation of highly sheared and densified regions, and the conversion of amorphous fused silica to SiO2 crystalline allotropic modifications (in particular, alpha-quartz and stishovite). The microstructural changes in question were determined by carrying out a post-processing atom-coordination procedure. This procedure suggested the formation of high-density stishovite (and

  8. Surface strengthening using a self-protective diffusion paste and its application for ballistic protection of steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, D.C.; Solberg, J.K.; Borvik, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with surface strengthening of steel plates using a self-protective diffusion paste. During the surface strengthening process, a paste containing carbon, boron or similar is applied on the steel surface. In addition to serving as a source for the various diffusion ingredients, the paste protects the steel against contact with the environment, so no packing or gas protection is necessary. Thus, the handling is in general very simple, and the surface strengthening process can be performed in a conventional air furnace. The method provides the same type of surface strengthening that is obtained by more conventional methods. In this work, the main focus will be surface strengthening by carburizing, but also boronizing and boronizing followed by carburizing have been tested out. The methods have been applied to increase the ballistic resistance of the low-strength carbon steel NVE36 (with nominal yield stress of 355 MPa) against impacts from small-arms bullets. An empirical model combining diffusion depth, heat-treatment temperature and soaking time was established on the basis of a series of experimental data. By means of this equation, the various heat-treatment parameters can be predicted when others are chosen. Ballistic perforation tests using 7.62 mm APM2 bullets showed that the low-strength carbon steel after surface strengthening obtained a ballistic limit higher than that of Hardox 400, which is a wear steel with a yield stress of about 1200 MPa.

  9. Computer and laboratory simulation in the teaching of neonatal nursing: innovation and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Aredes, Natália Del' Angelo; Fernandes, Ananda Maria; Batalha, Luís Manuel da Cunha; Apóstolo, Jorge Manuel Amado; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves

    2016-10-10

    to evaluate the cognitive learning of nursing students in neonatal clinical evaluation from a blended course with the use of computer and laboratory simulation; to compare the cognitive learning of students in a control and experimental group testing the laboratory simulation; and to assess the extracurricular blended course offered on the clinical assessment of preterm infants, according to the students. a quasi-experimental study with 14 Portuguese students, containing pretest, midterm test and post-test. The technologies offered in the course were serious game e-Baby, instructional software of semiology and semiotechnique, and laboratory simulation. Data collection tools developed for this study were used for the course evaluation and characterization of the students. Nonparametric statistics were used: Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon. the use of validated digital technologies and laboratory simulation demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) in the learning of the participants. The course was evaluated as very satisfactory for them. The laboratory simulation alone did not represent a significant difference in the learning. the cognitive learning of participants increased significantly. The use of technology can be partly responsible for the course success, showing it to be an important teaching tool for innovation and motivation of learning in healthcare. avaliar a aprendizagem cognitiva de estudantes de enfermagem na avaliação clínica neonatal a partir de um curso semipresencial com uso de simulação por computador e em laboratório; comparar a aprendizagem cognitiva dos estudantes em grupo controle e experimental ao testar a simulação em laboratório; e avaliar o curso semipresencial extracurricular oferecido sobre avaliação clínica do bebê pré-termo, segundo os estudantes. estudo quase-experimental com 14 estudantes portugueses contendo pré-teste, teste intermediário e pós-teste. As tecnologias oferecidas no curso foram serious

  10. From laboratory manipulations to Earth system models: scaling calcification impacts of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Young

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The observed variation in the calcification responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry paints a highly incoherent picture, particularly for the most commonly cultured "species", Emiliania huxleyi. The disparity between magnitude and potentially even sign of the calcification change under simulated end-of-century ocean surface chemical changes (higher pCO2, lower pH and carbonate saturation, raises challenges to quantifying future carbon cycle impacts and feedbacks because it introduces significant uncertainty in parameterizations used for global models. Here we compile the results of coccolithophore carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments and review how ocean carbon cycle models have attempted to bridge the gap from experiments to global impacts. Although we can rule out methodological differences in how carbonate chemistry is altered as introducing an experimental bias, the absence of a consistent calcification response implies that model parameterizations based on small and differing subsets of experimental observations will lead to varying estimates for the global carbon cycle impacts of ocean acidification. We highlight two pertinent observations that might help: (1 the degree of coccolith calcification varies substantially, both between species and within species across different genotypes, and (2 the calcification response across mesocosm and shipboard incubations has so-far been found to be relatively consistent. By analogy to descriptions of plankton growth rate vs. temperature, such as the "Eppley curve", which seek to encapsulate the net community response via progressive assemblage change rather than the response of any single species, we posit that progressive future ocean acidification may drive a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores. Assemblage shift may be more important to integrated community calcification response than species

  11. Numerical simulation and optimized design of cased telescoped ammunition interior ballistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-gang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the optimized design of a cased telescoped ammunition (CTA interior ballistic design, a genetic algorithm was introduced into the optimal design of CTA interior ballistics with coupling the CTA interior ballistic model. Aiming at the interior ballistic characteristics of a CTA gun, the goal of CTA interior ballistic design is to obtain a projectile velocity as large as possible. The optimal design of CTA interior ballistic is carried out using a genetic algorithm by setting peak pressure, changing the chamber volume and gun powder charge density. A numerical simulation of interior ballistics based on a 35 mm CTA firing experimental scheme was conducted and then the genetic algorithm was used for numerical optimization. The projectile muzzle velocity of the optimized scheme is increased from 1168 m/s for the initial experimental scheme to 1182 m/s. Then four optimization schemes were obtained with several independent optimization processes. The schemes were compared with each other and the difference between these schemes is small. The peak pressure and muzzle velocity of these schemes are almost the same. The result shows that the genetic algorithm is effective in the optimal design of the CTA interior ballistics. This work will be lay the foundation for further CTA interior ballistic design. Keywords: Cased telescoped ammunition, Interior ballistics, Gunpowder, Optimization genetic algorithm

  12. Safety climate in university and college laboratories: impact of organizational and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Liu, Chi-Wei; Lu, Mu-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Universities and colleges serve to be institutions of education excellence; however, problems in the areas of occupational safety may undermine such goals. Occupational safety must be the concern of every employee in the organization, regardless of job position. Safety climate surveys have been suggested as important tools for measuring the effectiveness and improvement direction of safety programs. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of organizational and individual factors on safety climate in university and college laboratories. Employees at 100 universities and colleges in Taiwan were mailed a self-administered questionnaire survey; the response rate was 78%. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that organizational category of ownership, the presence of a safety manager and safety committee, gender, age, title, accident experience, and safety training significantly affected the climate. Among them, accident experience and safety training affected the climate with practical significance. The authors recommend that managers should address important factors affecting safety issues and then create a positive climate by enforcing continuous improvements.

  13. Final environmental impact statement. Proton--Proton Storage Accelerator Facility (ISABELLE), Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed research facility (ISABELLE) to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is presented. It was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) following guidelines issued for such analyses. In keeping with DOE policy, this statement presents a concise and issues-oriented analysis of the significant environmental effects associated with the proposed action. ISABELLE is a proposed physics research facility where beams of protons collide providing opportunities to study high energy interactions. The facility would provide two interlaced storage ring proton accelerators, each with an energy up to 400 GeV intersecting in six experimental areas. The rings are contained in a tunnel with a circumference of 3.8 km (2.3 mi). The facility will occupy 250 ha (625 acres) in the NW corner of the existing BNL site. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for this proposed facility was issued for public review and comment by DOE on February 21, 1978. The principal areas of concern expressed were in the areas of radiological impacts and preservation of cultural values. After consideration of these comments, appropriate actions were taken and the text of the statement has been amended to reflect the comments. The text was annotated to indicate the origin of the comment. The Appendices contain a glossary of terms and listings of metric prefixes and conversions and symbols and abbreviations

  14. Historical milestones in measurement of HDL-cholesterol: impact on clinical and laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Michel R; Blaton, Victor H

    2006-07-23

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) comprises a family of particles with differing physicochemical characteristics. Continuing progress in improving HDL-C analysis has originated from two separate fields-one clinical, reflecting increased attention to HDL-C in estimating risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the other analytical, reflecting increased emphasis on finding more reliable and cost-effective HDL-C assays. Epidemiologic and prospective studies established the inverse association of HDL-C with CHD risk, a relationship that is consistent with protective mechanisms demonstrated in basic research and animal studies. Atheroprotective and less atheroprotective HDL subpopulations have been described. Guidelines on primary and secondary CHD prevention, which increased the workload in clinical laboratories, have led to a revolution in HDL-C assay technology. Many analytical techniques including ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, chromatography, and polyanion precipitation methods have been developed to separate and quantify HDL-C and HDL subclasses. More recently developed homogeneous assays enable direct measurement of HDL-C on an automated analyzer, without the need for manual pretreatment to separate non-HDL. Although homogeneous assays show improved accuracy and precision in normal serum, discrepant results exist in samples with atypical lipoprotein characteristics. Hypertriglyceridemia and monoclonal paraproteins are important interfering factors. A novel approach is nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that allows rapid and reliable analysis of lipoprotein subclasses, which may improve the identification of individuals at increased CHD risk. Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of HDL, has been proposed as an alternative cardioprotective marker avoiding the analytical limitations of HDL-C.

  15. Impact of recharge water temperature on bioclogging during managed aquifer recharge: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Gao, Zongjun; Zheng, Xilai; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of recharge water temperature on bioclogging processes and mechanisms during seasonal managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two groups of laboratory percolation experiments were conducted: a winter test and a summer test. The temperatures were controlled at 5±2 and 15±3 °C, and the tests involved bacterial inoculums acquired from well water during March 2014 and August 2015, for the winter and summer tests, respectively. The results indicated that the sand columns clogged 10 times faster in the summer test due to a 10-fold larger bacterial growth rate. The maximum concentrations of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the winter test were approximately twice those in the summer test, primarily caused by a 200 μg/g sand increase of both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). In the first half of the experimental period, the accumulation of bacteria cells and EPS production induced rapid bioclogging in both the winter and summer tests. Afterward, increasing bacterial growth dominated the bioclogging in the summer test, while the accumulation of LB-EPS led to further bioclogging in the winter test. The biological analysis determined that the dominant bacteria in experiments for both seasons were different and the bacterial community diversity was 50% higher in the winter test than that for summer. The seasonal inoculums could lead to differences in the bacterial community structure and diversity, while recharge water temperature was considered to be a major factor influencing the bacterial growth rate and metabolism behavior during the seasonal bioclogging process.

  16. Predictors of marijuana relapse in the human laboratory: robust impact of tobacco cigarette smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-02-01

    Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n = 51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Study 2: to isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n = 15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU), and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Study 1: 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (odds ratio: 19, p marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p 87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse, and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  18. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  19. Characterization of blocks impacts from elastic waves: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Toussaint, R.; De Rosny, J.; Shapiro, N.

    2013-12-01

    Rockfalls, debris flows and rock avalanches constitute a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very dangerous. Recent studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected and characterized (volume, duration,...) thanks to the seismic signal they generate. In an avalanche, individual block bouncing and rolling on the ground are expected to generated signals of higher frequencies than the main flow spreading. The identification of the time/frequency signature of individual blocks in the recorded signal remains however difficult. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic signature of diverse simple sources corresponding to grains falling over thin plates of plexiglas and rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by a single bouncing steel bead into the support was first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. Next, we consider the collapse of granular columns made of steel spherical beads onto hard substrates. Initially, these columns were held by a magnetic field allowing to suppress suddenly the cohesion between the beads, and thus to minimize friction effects that would arise from side walls. We varied systematically the column volume, the column aspect ratio (height over length) and the grain size. This is shown to affect the signal envelope and frequency content. In the experiments, two types of acoustic sensors were used to record the signals in a wide frequency range: accelerometers (1 Hz to 56 kHz) and piezoelectric sensors (100 kHz to 1 MHz). The experiments were also monitored optically using fast cameras. We developed a technique to use quantitatively both types of sensors to evaluate the elastic energy emitted by the sources. Eventually, we looked at what types of features in the signal are affected by individual shocks or by the large scale geometry of

  20. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  1. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils

    2006-01-01

    for rats sampled from the tail vein, which showed fluctuations in body temperature in excess of 30 h after sampling. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure within the first hours after sampling indicated that periorbital puncture was the method that had the largest acute impact on the rats......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  2. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  3. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.

  4. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: mrc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: tmachida@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  5. Determination of the propellant combustion law under ballistic experiment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Diachkovskii, A. S.; Zykova, A. I.; Kasimov, VZ; Samorokova, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    The main characteristics of ballistic experiment are the maximum pressure in the combustion chamber P max and the projectile velocity at the time of barrel leaving U M. During the work the burning law of the new high-energy fuel was determined in a ballistic experiment. This burning law was used for a parametric study of depending P max and U M from a powder charge mass and a traveling charge at initial temperature of + 20 °C was carried out. The optimal conditions for loading were obtained for improving the muzzle velocity by 14.9 %. Under optimal loading, there is defined the conditions, which is possible to get the greatest value muzzle velocity projectile at pressures up to 600 MPa.

  6. Investigation on utilization of liquid propellant in ballistic range experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saso, Akihiro; Oba, Shinji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    Experiments were conducted in a ballistic range using a HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based liquid monopropellant, LP1846. In a 25-mm-bore single-stage gun, using bulk-loaded propellant of 10 to 35 g, a muzzle speed up to 1.0 km/s was obtained. Time variations of propellant chamber pressures and in-tube projectile velocity profiles were measured. The liquid propellant combustion was initiated accompanying a delay time which was created due to the pyrolysis of the propellant. In order to obtain reliable ballistic range performance, the method of propellant loading was revealed to be critical. Since the burning rate of the liquid propellant is relatively low, the peak acceleration and the muzzle speed strongly depend on the rupture pressure of a diaphragm that was inserted between the launch tube and the propellant chamber. (author)

  7. Ballistic transport of graphene pnp junctions with embedded local gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung-Geol; Ki, Dong-Keun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Hu-Jong; Park, Jong Wan

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated graphene pnp devices, by embedding pre-defined local gates in an oxidized surface layer of a silicon substrate. With neither deposition of dielectric material on the graphene nor electron-beam irradiation, we obtained high-quality graphene pnp devices without degradation of the carrier mobility even in the local-gate region. The corresponding increased mean free path leads to the observation of ballistic and phase-coherent transport across a local gate 130 nm wide, which is about an order of magnitude wider than reported previously. Furthermore, in our scheme, we demonstrated independent control of the carrier density in the local-gate region, with a conductance map very much distinct from those of top-gated devices. This was caused by the electric field arising from the global back gate being strongly screened by the embedded local gate. Our scheme allows the realization of ideal multipolar graphene junctions with ballistic carrier transport.

  8. A Klein-tunneling transistor with ballistic graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmart, Quentin; Fève, Gwendal; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Plaçais, Bernard; Berrada, Salim; Hung Nguyen, V; Dollfus, Philippe; Torrin, David

    2014-01-01

    Today, the availability of high mobility graphene up to room temperature makes ballistic transport in nanodevices achievable. In particular, p-n-p transistors in the ballistic regime give access to Klein tunneling physics and allow the realization of devices exploiting the optics-like behavior of Dirac Fermions (DFs) as in the Veselago lens or the Fabry–Pérot cavity. Here we propose a Klein tunneling transistor based on the geometrical optics of DFs. We consider the case of a prismatic active region delimited by a triangular gate, where total internal reflection may occur, which leads to the tunable suppression of transistor transmission. We calculate the transmission and the current by means of scattering theory and the finite bias properties using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) simulation. (letter)

  9. A Klein-tunneling transistor with ballistic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmart, Quentin; Fève, Gwendal; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Plaçais, Bernard [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Université P et M Curie, Université D Diderot, 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Berrada, Salim; Hung Nguyen, V; Dollfus, Philippe [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay (France); Torrin, David [Département de Physique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-06-15

    Today, the availability of high mobility graphene up to room temperature makes ballistic transport in nanodevices achievable. In particular, p-n-p transistors in the ballistic regime give access to Klein tunneling physics and allow the realization of devices exploiting the optics-like behavior of Dirac Fermions (DFs) as in the Veselago lens or the Fabry–Pérot cavity. Here we propose a Klein tunneling transistor based on the geometrical optics of DFs. We consider the case of a prismatic active region delimited by a triangular gate, where total internal reflection may occur, which leads to the tunable suppression of transistor transmission. We calculate the transmission and the current by means of scattering theory and the finite bias properties using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) simulation. (letter)

  10. Ballistic target tracking algorithm based on improved particle filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiao-lei; Chen, Zhan-qi; Li, Xiao-yang

    2015-10-01

    Tracking ballistic re-entry target is a typical nonlinear filtering problem. In order to track the ballistic re-entry target in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian complex environment, a novel chaos map particle filter (CMPF) is used to estimate the target state. CMPF has better performance in application to estimate the state and parameter of nonlinear and non-Gassuian system. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that, this method can effectively solve particle degeneracy and particle impoverishment problem by improving the efficiency of particle sampling to obtain the better particles to part in estimation. Meanwhile CMPF can improve the state estimation precision and convergence velocity compared with EKF, UKF and the ordinary particle filter.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the radiological impact for individual waste management areas at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1987-09-01

    This study estimates the radiological impact (i.e., the potential doses) for individual waste management areas at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ranks the areas for remedial action based on the off-site doses that result from these discharges to White Oak Creek. Dose estimates are given for the drinking water pathway based on known discharges from White Oak Dam. Estimates are also made of doses for eating fish caught in the Clinch River near the confluence with White Oak Creek. The results of a search for data concerning the discharges of 90 Sr, 3 H, 137 Cs, and 60 Co from individual waste management areas are presented. A qualitative assessment is presented, and areas are ranked for remedial investigation based on the available information. 29 refs., 8 figs., 45 tabs

  12. Draft site-wide environmental impact statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1: Chapters 1-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The DOE proposes to continue operating the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) located in central New Mexico. The DOE has identified and assessed three alternatives for the operation of SNL/NM: (1) No Action, (2) Expanded Operations, and (3) Reduced Operations. In the No Action Alternative, the DOE would continue the historical mission support activities SNL/NM has conducted at planned operational levels. In the Expanded Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the highest reasonable levels of activity currently foreseeable. Under the Reduced Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the minimum levels of activity necessary to maintain the capabilities to support the DOE mission in the near term. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of SNL/NM. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives

  13. Draft site-wide environmental impact statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The DOE proposes to continue operating the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) located in central New Mexico. The DOE has identified and assessed three alternatives for the operation of SNL/NM: (1) No Action, (2) Expanded Operations, and (3) Reduced Operations. In the No Action Alternative, the DOE would continue the historical mission support activities SNL/NM has conducted at planned operational levels. In the Expanded Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the highest reasonable levels of activity currently foreseeable. Under the Reduced Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the minimum levels of activity necessary to maintain the capabilities to support the DOE mission in the near term. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of SNL/NM. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. This volume contains Appendices A--H

  14. The Effect of Temperature and Nanoclay on the Low Velocity and Ballistic Behavior of Woven Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrin, Lauren

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of nanoclay and temperature on the behavior of woven glass-fabric reinforced epoxy composite under low velocity and ballistic impacts. The materials used in manufacturing the composite were S2 (6181) glass-fibers, epoxy resin (EPON 828), hardener (Epikure 3230), nanoclay and Heloxy 61 modifier. The nanoclay addition was 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight, with respect to the resin. All specimens were manufactured at the City College facilities using vacuum infusion. Tensile tests were conducted to characterize the material and obtain the Young's modulus, ultimate stress, failure strain, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus and shear strength and their variation with nanoclay percentage and temperature. The tests were conducted at room temperature (21°C/70°F), -54°C (-65°F), -20°C (-4°F), 49°C (120°F) and 71°C (160°F). Next composite specimens with 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% nanoclay by weight, with respect to the resin, were subjected to low velocity impact at the previously specified temperatures to determine dynamic force, displacement and energy correlations. The extent of damage was studied using the ultrasound technique. Then ballistic tests were conducted on the nanoclay infused specimens at room temperature to obtain the ballistic limit (V50) and the damage behavior of the composite. The dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) software LS-DYNA was used to model and simulate the results of low velocity impact tests. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerical (FEA) results. Analytical analyses were undertaken to compare the results from the tensile experiments. The finite element analysis (FEA) allowed for further analytical comparison of the results. The FEA platform used was LS-DYNA due to its proficient dynamic and damage capabilities in composite materials. The FEA was used to model and simulate the low velocity impacts and compare the results to experiments.

  15. Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Dhungana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the operational impact of using vanadate oxidase versus diazo direct bilirubin assays for an academic medical center patient population. Design and methods: Retrospective study was done over an approximately 3.5 year period. The main automated chemistry instrumentation was a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 line. The Roche Direct Bilirubin assay was compared to Diazyme Laboratories Direct Bilirubin Assay and Randox Laboratories Direct Bilirubin assay using manufacturer's guidelines for hemolysis index, lipemia index, and analytical measurement range (AMR. Results: Retrospective data was analyzed for 47,333 serum/plasma specimens that had clinical orders for direct bilirubin. A total of 5943 specimens (12.6% exceeded the hemolysis index limit for the Roche method compared to only 0.2% and 0.05% of specimens for the Diazyme and Randox methods, respectively. The impact was particularly large on patients less than 2 years old, for which 51.3% of specimens exceeded the hemolysis index for the Roche method. A total of 1671 specimens (3.5% exceeded the lipemia index limit for the Roche method compared to less than 0.1% for the Randox method. Lastly, 988 (2.1% of specimens had direct bilirubin concentrations exceeding the upper AMR limit of 10 mg/dL [171 µmol/L] for the Roche assay compared to less than 1% of specimens for the vanadate oxidase methods. Conclusions: Vanadate oxidase direct bilirubin methods offer advantages over diazo methods in terms of less interference by hemolysis and lipemia, as well as wider AMR. The advantages are particularly evident for neonatal and infant populations. Keywords: Bilirubin, Clinical chemistry tests, Hemolysis, Hyperlipidemias, Jaundice, Photometry

  16. Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Neha; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the operational impact of using vanadate oxidase versus diazo direct bilirubin assays for an academic medical center patient population. Retrospective study was done over an approximately 3.5 year period. The main automated chemistry instrumentation was a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 line. The Roche Direct Bilirubin assay was compared to Diazyme Laboratories Direct Bilirubin Assay and Randox Laboratories Direct Bilirubin assay using manufacturer's guidelines for hemolysis index, lipemia index, and analytical measurement range (AMR). Retrospective data was analyzed for 47,333 serum/plasma specimens that had clinical orders for direct bilirubin. A total of 5943 specimens (12.6%) exceeded the hemolysis index limit for the Roche method compared to only 0.2% and 0.05% of specimens for the Diazyme and Randox methods, respectively. The impact was particularly large on patients less than 2 years old, for which 51.3% of specimens exceeded the hemolysis index for the Roche method. A total of 1671 specimens (3.5%) exceeded the lipemia index limit for the Roche method compared to less than 0.1% for the Randox method. Lastly, 988 (2.1%) of specimens had direct bilirubin concentrations exceeding the upper AMR limit of 10 mg/dL [171 µmol/L] for the Roche assay compared to less than 1% of specimens for the vanadate oxidase methods. Vanadate oxidase direct bilirubin methods offer advantages over diazo methods in terms of less interference by hemolysis and lipemia, as well as wider AMR. The advantages are particularly evident for neonatal and infant populations.

  17. Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, Daniela [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Mircea, E-mail: mircea.dragoman@imt.ro [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-07

    The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.

  18. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  19. How to optimize joint theater ballistic missile defense

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Douglas D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Many potential adversaries seek, or already have theater ballistic missiles capable of threatening targets of interest to the United States. The U.S. Missile Defense Agency and armed forces are developing and fielding missile interceptors carried by many different platforms, including ships, aircraft, and ground units. Given some exigent threat, the U.S. must decide where to position defensive platforms and how they should engage poten...

  20. System Architecture for Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Defense (ASBMD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hobgood, Jean; Madison, Kimberly; Pawlowski, Geoffrey; Nedd, Steven; Roberts, Michael; Rumberg, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Recent studies suggest that China is developing a new class of ballistic missiles that can be used against moving targets, such as ships. One such technology is anticipated to cover a range of 2,000 kilometers and operate at a speed of Mach 10. The threat is also capable of maneuvering both during the midcourse and terminal flight phases for the purposes of guidance, target acquisition, and countermeasures. This threat could greatl...

  1. Ballistic V50 Evaluation of TIMET Ti108

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    threat by 1 m/s. Future studies or adjustments to the chemistry of the Ti108 can be conducted to optimize ballistic performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...10 Fig. A-2 30-mm APDS overall back of plate .................................................... 10 List of Tables Table 1 Chemistry of Ti108...performance of different titanium alloys. Conventional Ti-6Al-4V is commonly used in aerospace frames and engine components, but has difficulty passing

  2. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  3. Enjoying food without caloric cost: The impact of brief mindfulness on laboratory eating outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Della Porta, Matthew D; Kiken, Laura G; Tillman, Shanna

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly applied to treat eating-related problems ranging from obesity to eating disorders. Yet few studies have empirically examined the mechanisms of a mindful approach to eating. The current studies examine the potential of brief mindfulness instructions to enhance the psychological and behavioral dimensions of eating. In three experiments (total N = 319 undergraduates), we examined whether brief mindfulness instructions would enhance the positive sensory experience involved in tasting food as well as healthy eating behaviors. Relative to distraction control instructions, the first two studies demonstrated that brief mindfulness instructions increased the enjoyment of a commonly pleasurable food (chocolate; Study 1), and a food with generally more mixed associations (raisins; Study 2). The third study replicated and extended these findings to show that brief mindfulness instructions also led to lower calorie consumption of unhealthy food relative to distracted or no-instruction control conditions, an effect mediated by greater eating enjoyment. Findings demonstrated the power of brief mindfulness instructions to positively impact both health-relevant behavior and sensory experience associated with eating food. Implications for both theory and clinical applications of mindfulness are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drag of ballistic electrons by an ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, V. L.; Muradov, M. I., E-mail: mag.muradov@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by a nearby one-dimensional beam of ions is considered. We assume that the ion beam is represented by an ensemble of heavy ions of the same velocity V. The ratio of the drag current to the primary current carried by the ion beam is calculated. The drag current turns out to be a nonmonotonic function of velocity V. It has a sharp maximum for V near v{sub nF}/2, where n is the number of the uppermost electron miniband (channel) taking part in conduction and v{sub nF} is the corresponding Fermi velocity. This means that the phenomenon of ion beam drag can be used for investigation of the electron spectra of ballistic nanostructures. We note that whereas observation of the Coulomb drag between two parallel quantum wires may in general be complicated by phenomena such as tunneling and phonon drag, the Coulomb drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by an ion beam is free of such spurious effects.

  5. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu

    2017-12-13

    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  6. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Ballistic concepts and management of gunshot wounds at members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeck, L; Hock, N; Goffin, J; Ngatchou, W

    2017-01-01

    Ballistic trauma is not the prerogative of battlefields and currently extends to civil environments. Any surgeon or emergency room can be faced with such trauma whose management requires an understanding of wound ballistics. The aim of this retrospective is reviewing the management of ballistic trauma within the C.H.U. Saint-Pierre hospital over a period of ten years. Data recorded included demographics data, lesions, clinical parameters, imaging, treatment and outcome. It appears that the wounds of the members have a low mortality rate but a significant rate of complications. Patients should be managed according to the ATLS protocol and according hemodynamic stability and location of the injury, benefit from imaging. Unstable patients will be operated in emergency, stable patients will be treated according to the extent of damage and the type of fracture either conservatively or by external fixator and intramedullary centromedullary. Debridement and antibiotics are recommended as a nerve exploration if there is a peripheral paralysis. The management of trauma in our sample appear not optimal in light of the literature especially in terms of setting the vascular point of debridement, antibiotic and nerve repair resulting in significant consequences. Two management protocols according to patients' hemodynamic status are offered.

  8. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6 ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: Ppush-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Valley-symmetric quasi-1D transport in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu-Jong

    We present our recent studies on gate-defined valley-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) carrier guiding in ballistic monolayer graphene and valley-symmetry-protected topological 1D transport in ballistic bilayer graphene. Successful carrier guiding was realized in ballistic monolayer graphene even in the absence of a band gap by inducing a high distinction ( more than two orders of magnitude) in the carrier density between the region of a quasi-1D channel and the rest of the top-gated regions. Conductance of a channel shows quantized values in units of 4e2/ h, suggesting that the valley symmetry is preserved. For the latter, the topological 1D conduction was realized between two closely arranged insulating regions with inverted band gaps, induced under a pair of split dual gating with polarities opposite to each other. The maximum conductance along the boundary channel showed 4e2/ h, again with the preserved valley symmetry. The 1D topological carrier guiding demonstrated in this study affords a promising route to robust valleytronic applications and sophisticated valley-associated functionalities based on 2D materials. This work was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea.

  10. Impact of attributed audit on procedural performance in cardiac electrophysiology catheter laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, V; Volkova, E; Shaukat, M; Khan, F; Segal, O; Ahsan, S; Chow, A; Ezzat, V; Finlay, M; Lambiase, P; Lowe, M; Dhinoja, M; Sporton, S; Earley, M J; Hunter, R J; Schilling, R J

    2018-06-01

    Audit has played a key role in monitoring and improving clinical practice. However, audit often fails to drive change as summative institutional data alone may be insufficient to do so. We hypothesised that the practice of attributed audit, wherein each individual's procedural performance is presented will have a greater impact on clinical practice. This hypothesis was tested in an observational study evaluating improvement in fluoroscopy times for AF ablation. Retrospective analyses of fluoroscopy times in AF ablations at the Barts Heart Centre (BHC) from 2012-2017. Fluoroscopy times were compared pre- and post- the introduction of attributed audit in 2012 at St Bartholomew's Hospital (SBH). In order to test the hypothesis, this concept was introduced to a second group of experienced operators from the Heart Hospital (HH) as part of a merger of the two institutions in 2015 and change in fluoroscopy times recorded. A significant drop in fluoroscopy times (33.3 ± 9.14 to 8.95 ± 2.50, p audit. At the time of merger, a significant difference in fluoroscopy times between operators from the two centres was seen in 2015. Each operator's procedural performance was shared openly at the audit meeting. Subsequent audits showed a steady decrease in fluoroscopy times for each operator with the fluoroscopy time (min, mean±SD) decreasing from 13.29 ± 7.3 in 2015 to 8.84 ± 4.8 (p audit can promptsignificant improvement and hence should be adopted in clinical practice.

  11. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...1,091.1 million in research and development funding for the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic

  12. Ballistic Imaging and Scattering Measurements for Diesel Spray Combustion: Optical Development and Phenomenological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    3mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector . Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays are reported...Porter, Sean P. Duran, Terence E. Parker. Picosecond Ballistic Imaging of Ligament Structures in the Near- Nozzle Region of Diesel Sprays, ILASS...Experiments in Fluids (12 2014) Sean Duran, Jason Porter, Terence Parker. Ballistic Imaging of a Diesel Injector Spray at High Temperature and

  13. An investigation of the impact of selected prereading activities on student content learning through laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Jesse (Shaya)

    This study investigated whether two prereading activities impacted student learning from hands-on science activities. The study was based on constructivist learning theory. Based on the work of Piaget, it was hypothesized that students who activated prior knowledge would learn more from the activities. Based on the work of Vygotsky it was hypothesized that students who talk more and write more would learn more from the activity. The K-W-L chart and anticipation guide strategies were used with eighth grade students at Graves Middle School in Whittier, California before learning about levers and convection currents. D. M. Ogle (1986) created the three-column K-W-L chart to have students activate prior knowledge. In the first column, the students write what they already know about a subject, in the second column, the students write what they want to know about the subject, and the students complete the third column after learning about a subject by writing answers to the questions that they asked in the second column. Duffelmeyer (1994) created the anticipation guide based on Herber's (1978) reasoning guide. In the anticipation guide, the teacher creates three or four sentences that convey the major ideas of the topic and the students either agree or disagree with the statements. After learning about the topic, students revisit their answers and decide if they were correct or incorrect and they must defend their choices. This research used the Solomon (1947) four-square design and compared both the experimental groups to a control group that simply discussed the concepts before completing the activity. The research showed no significant difference between the control group and either of the treatment groups. The reasons for the lack of significant differences are considered. It was hypothesized that since the students were unfamiliar with the prereading activities and did not have much experience with using either writing-to-learn or talking-to-learn strategies, the

  14. Underestimated impact of novel psychoactive substances: laboratory confirmation of recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Persett, Per Sverre; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Karinen, Ritva; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2017-08-01

    Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014. Oral fluid samples were collected at the OAEOC. Blood samples were collected at the OUH. The samples were screened using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Nine hundred and sixty-four cases were included, 841 (87.2%) at the OAEOC and 123 (12.8%) at the OUH. A total of 55 oral fluid samples (OAEOC) and 103 blood samples (OUH) could be analysed. NPS were not clinically suspected in any of the screened cases. At the outpatient clinic, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 42/55 (76.4%) cases, amfetamines in 40/55 (72.7%) and heroin in 39/55 (70.9%). In seven (12.7%) cases NPS were detected: 4-methylamfetamine in three cases, dimethyltryptamine in two, methylone in one, and N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine in one. Among the hospital patients, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 51/103 (49.5%) cases, amfetamines in 48/103 (46.6%), heroin in 31/103 (30.1%), and diazepam in 30/103 (29.1%). In five (4.9%) cases NPS were detected: JWH-210 in two cases, AM-2201 in two, and 5-EAPB in one. NPS were clinically not suspected, though found in eight percent of cases. Still, the vast majority of patients treated for recreational drug toxicity in Oslo have taken classical drugs. Management of these patients should be based on their clinical condition. However, it is highly important to be alert to atypical presentations possibly resulting from

  15. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  16. Development of Mortar Simulator with Shell-In-Shell System – Problem of External Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedaravicius

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell-in-shell system used in the mortar simulator raises a number of non-standard technical and computational problems starting from the requirement to distribute the propelling blast energy between the warhead and the ballistic barrel, finishing with the requirement that the length of warhead's flight path must be scaled to combat shell firing tables. The design problem of the simulator is split into two parts – the problem of external ballistics where the initial velocities of the warhead must be determined, and the problem of internal ballistics – where the design of the cartridge and the ballistic barrel must be performed.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of UF sub 6 measured with a ballistic piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, D. E.; Lalos, G. T.; Schneider, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    From experiments performed with a ballistic piston compressor, certain thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride were investigated. Difficulties presented by the nonideal processes encountered in ballistic compressors are discussed and a computer code BCCC (Ballistic Compressor Computer Code) is developed to analyze the experimental data. The BCCC unfolds the thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride from the helium-uranium hexafluoride mixture used as the test gas in the ballistic compressor. The thermodynamic properties deduced include the specific heat at constant volume, the ratio of specific heats for UF6, and the viscous coupling constant of helium-uranium hexafluoride mixtures.

  18. How Bigelow Laboratory Measured Broader Impacts: The Case Study of the Evaluation of the Keller BLOOM Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, R. A.; Repa, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss the impetus for, the results of the short and long term effects, and the impacts of the Keller BLOOM Program, hosted by Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences of West Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Each May, for the last 21 years, 16 bright high school juniors, one from each county in Maine, have been invited to spend five days with the research scientists at the lab conducting and reporting research on the bottom layers of the ocean’s food chain: phytoplankton and zooplankton. Bigelow has chosen to evaluate BLOOM through a series of questionnaires delivered during the program, and long term tracking of participants after the program, in order to better understand the impact of the program on participants. The short term effect of the experience, measured at the end of the week, found that participants are able to: 1) develop testable research questions, 2) collect multiple water samples from a local estuary, 3) measure various characteristics of those samples with the sophisticated instruments in Bigelow’s labs assisted by their research scientists, 4) analyze and integrate the results from the various labs, and 5) present their findings to a non-scientific audience. To measure long term participation effects, a random sample of 40 of the 332 participants were interviewed resulting in the following findings: 100% attend college; 62% have STEM majors; 88% graduate from college; 57% pursue STEM careers; and 60% live and work in Maine. Bigelow scientists include a description of the BLOOM Program and the evaluation results in their NSF Broader Impacts statements to demonstrate that their research activities are being integrated into a successful STEM education program. Evaluation results are also used by Bigelow scientists and program administrators to refine program content and delivery, to promote the program to potential applicants, and to strengthen proposals to funding agencies when seeking financial support for BLOOM.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  20. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    articles/eu-places-sanctions-on-russian-oligarchs-1406749975. 33. “U.S. Sanctions Not to Impact Almaz-Antei Concern Operations,” Interfax- AVN , July...in Production 2015; New S-300/400 SAM Production Site,” Interfax- AVN , May 14, 2014. 70. Aleksey Nikolskiy, “Rakety izgotovleny, zhdyom vykhoda v...Aerospace Defence Chief,” Interfax- AVN , BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union, September 5, 2012. 99. “Pervye S-500 mogut postupit v rossiyskie voyska v

  1. The impact of pneumatic tube system on routine laboratory parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Georgia V; Kontou, Panagiota I; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2017-10-26

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) is a widely used method of transporting blood samples in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the PTS transport in certain routine laboratory parameters as it has been implicated with hemolysis. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched (up until November 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of PTS transport in hematological, biochemical and coagulation measurements. The random-effects model was used in the meta-analysis utilizing the mean difference (MD). Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the Cohran's Q and the I2 index. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of publication bias were performed for all outcomes. From a total of 282 studies identified by the searching procedure, 24 were finally included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis yielded statistically significant results for potassium (K) [MD=0.04 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.015-0.065; p=0.002], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (MD=10.343 U/L; 95% CI=6.132-14.554; panalysis and random-effects meta-regression analysis according to the speed and distance of the samples traveled via the PTS revealed that there is relation between the rate and the distance of PTS with the measurements of K, LDH, white blood cells and red blood cells. This meta-analysis suggests that PTS may be associated with alterations in K, LDH and AST measurements. Although these findings may not have any significant clinical effect on laboratory results, it is wise that each hospital validates their PTS.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis and Mitigation with Applications to Ballistic and Low-thrust Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Iman

    The ever increasing desire to expand space mission capabilities within the limited budgets of space industries requires new approaches to the old problem of spacecraft trajectory design. For example, recent initiatives for space exploration involve developing new tools to design low-cost, fail-safe trajectories to visit several potential destinations beyond our celestial neighborhood such as Jupiter's moons, asteroids, etc. Designing and navigating spacecraft trajectories to reach these destinations safely are complex and challenging. In particular, fundamental questions of orbital stability imposed by planetary protection requirements are not easily taken into account by standard optimal control schemes. The event of temporary engine loss or an unexpected missed thrust can indeed quickly lead to impact with planetary bodies or other unrecoverable trajectories. While electric propulsion technology provides superior efficiency compared to chemical engines, the very low-control authority and engine performance degradation can impose higher risk to the mission in strongly perturbed orbital environments. The risk is due to the complex gravitational field and its associated chaotic dynamics which causes large navigation dispersions in a short time if left un-controlled. Moreover, in these situations it can be outside the low-thrust propulsion system capability to correct the spacecraft trajectory in a reasonable time frame. These concerns can lead to complete or partial mission failure or even an infeasible mission concept at the early design stage. The goal of this research is to assess and increase orbital stability of ballistic and low-thrust transfer trajectories in multi-body systems. In particular, novel techniques are presented to characterize sensitivity and improve recovery characteristics of ballistic and low-thrust trajectories in unstable orbital environments. The techniques developed are based on perturbation analysis around ballistic trajectories to

  3. COMPARISON OF A HEAD MOUNTED IMPACT MEASUREMENT DEVICE TO THE HYBRID III ANTHROPOMORPHIC TESTING DEVICE IN A CONTROLLED LABORATORY SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Eric; Stark, David; Bolte, John H; Kang, Yun Seok; Onate, James A

    2017-08-01

    Reports estimate that 1.6 to 3.8 million cases of concussion occur in sports and recreation each year in the United States. Despite continued efforts to reduce the occurrence of concussion, the rate of diagnosis continues to increase. The mechanisms of concussion are thought to involve linear and rotational head accelerations and velocities. One method of quantifying the kinematics experienced during sport participation is to place measurement devices into the athlete's helmet or directly on the athlete's head. The purpose of this research to determine the accuracy of a head mounted device for measuring the head accelerations experienced by the wearer. This will be accomplished by identifying the error in Peak Linear Acceleration (PLA), Peak Rotational Acceleration (PRA) and Peak Rotational Velocity (PRV) of the device. Laboratory study. A helmeted Hybrid III 50th percentile male headform was impacted via a pneumatic ram from the front, side, rear, front oblique and rear oblique at speeds from 1.5 to 5 m/s. The X2 Biosystems xPatch® (Seattle, WA) sensor was placed on the headform's right side at the approximate location of the mastoid process. Measures of PLA, PRA, PRV from the xPatch ® and Hybrid III were analyzed for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Absolute and Relative Error (AE, RE). Seventy-six impacts were analyzed. All measures of correlation, fixed through the origin, were found to be strong: PLA R 2 =0.967 pstandard yet above the average error of testing devices in both PLA and PRA, but a low error in PRV. PLA measures from the xPatch® system demonstrated a high level of correlation with the PLA data from the Hybrid III mounted data collection system. 3.

  4. Impact of organizational factors on adherence to laboratory testing protocols in adult HIV care in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Sarang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous operational research studies have demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale public sector ART programs in resource-limited settings. However, organizational and structural determinants of quality of care have not been studied. Methods We estimate multivariate regression models using data from 13 urban HIV treatment facilities in Zambia to assess the impact of structural determinants on health workers’ adherence to national guidelines for conducting laboratory tests such as CD4, hemoglobin and liver function and WHO staging during initial and follow-up visits as part of Zambian HIV care and treatment program. Results CD4 tests were more routinely ordered during initial history and physical (IHP than follow-up (FUP visits (93.0 % vs. 85.5 %; p  Conclusion Physical space plays an important role in ensuring high quality care in resource-limited setting. In the context of protocolized care, new staff members are likely to be more diligent in following the protocol verbatim rather than relying on memory and experience thereby improving adherence. Future studies should use prospective data to confirm the findings reported here.

  5. Impact of Chloramination on the Development of Laboratory-Grown Biofilms Fed with Filter-Pretreated Groundwater

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the continuous impact of monochloramine disinfection on laboratory-grown biofilms through the characterization of biofilm architecture and microbial community structure. Biofilm development and disinfection were achieved using CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) biofilm reactor systems with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupons as the substratum and sand filter-pretreated groundwater as the source of microbial seeding and growth nutrient. After 2 weeks of growth, the biofilms were subjected to chloramination for 8 more weeks at concentrations of 7.5±1.4 to 9.1±0.4 mg Cl2 L-1. Control reactors received no disinfection during the development of biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis indicated that chloramination could lead to 81.4-83.5% and 86.3-95.6% reduction in biofilm biomass and thickness, respectively, but could not eliminate biofilm growth. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that microbial community structures between chloraminated and non-chloraminated biofilms exhibited different successional trends. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that chloramination could select members of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria as the dominant populations, whereas natural development leads to the selection of members of Nitrospira and Bacteroidetes as dominant biofilm populations. Overall, chloramination treatment could alter the growth of multi-species biofilms on the PVC surface, shape the biofilm architecture, and select a certain microbial community that can survive or proliferate under chloramination.

  6. Variability of Plyometric and Ballistic Exercise Technique Maintains Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Phillip T; Greig, Matthew; Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J

    2018-06-01

    Chandler, PT, Greig, M, Comfort, P, and McMahon, JJ. Variability of plyometric and ballistic exercise technique maintains jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1571-1582, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vertical jump technique over the course of a training session. Twelve plyometric and ballistic exercise-trained male athletes (age = 23.4 ± 4.6 years, body mass = 78.7 ± 18.8 kg, height = 177.1 ± 9.0 cm) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of drop jump (DJ), rebound jump (RJ) and squat jump (SJ). Each exercise was analyzed from touchdown to peak joint flexion and peak joint flexion to take-off. Squat jump was analyzed from peak joint flexion to take-off only. Jump height, flexion and extension time and range of motion, and instantaneous angles of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were measured. Separate 1-way repeated analyses of variance compared vertical jump technique across exercise sets and repetitions. Exercise set analysis found that SJ had lower results than DJ and RJ for the angle at peak joint flexion for the hip, knee, and ankle joints and take-off angle of the hip joint. Exercise repetition analysis found that the ankle joint had variable differences for the angle at take-off, flexion, and extension time for RJ. The knee joint had variable differences for flexion time for DJ and angle at take-off and touchdown for RJ. There was no difference in jump height. Variation in measured parameters across repetitions highlights variable technique across plyometric and ballistic exercises. This did not affect jump performance, but likely maintained jump performance by overcoming constraints (e.g., level of rate coding).

  7. Ballistic thermophoresis of adsorbates on free-standing graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizon, Emanuele; Guerra, Roberto; Tosatti, Erio

    2017-08-22

    The textbook thermophoretic force which acts on a body in a fluid is proportional to the local temperature gradient. The same is expected to hold for the macroscopic drift behavior of a diffusive cluster or molecule physisorbed on a solid surface. The question we explore here is whether that is still valid on a 2D membrane such as graphene at short sheet length. By means of a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of a test system-a gold nanocluster adsorbed on free-standing graphene clamped between two temperatures [Formula: see text] apart-we find a phoretic force which for submicron sheet lengths is parallel to, but basically independent of, the local gradient magnitude. This identifies a thermophoretic regime that is ballistic rather than diffusive, persisting up to and beyond a 100-nanometer sheet length. Analysis shows that the phoretic force is due to the flexural phonons, whose flow is known to be ballistic and distance-independent up to relatively long mean-free paths. However, ordinary harmonic phonons should only carry crystal momentum and, while impinging on the cluster, should not be able to impress real momentum. We show that graphene and other membrane-like monolayers support a specific anharmonic connection between the flexural corrugation and longitudinal phonons whose fast escape leaves behind a 2D-projected mass density increase endowing the flexural phonons, as they move with their group velocity, with real momentum, part of which is transmitted to the adsorbate through scattering. The resulting distance-independent ballistic thermophoretic force is not unlikely to possess practical applications.

  8. Surgeon preferences regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Geoffrey S; Earhart, Jeffrey S; Gardner, Michael J; Davis, Jason; Merk, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    Scant evidence exists to support antibiotic use for low velocity ballistic fractures (LVBF). We therefore sought to define current practice patterns. We hypothesized that most surgeons prescribe antibiotics for LVBF, prescribing is not driven by institutional protocols, and that decisions are based on protocols utilized for blunt trauma. A web-based questionnaire was emailed to the membership of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA). The questionnaire included demographic information and questions about LVBF treatment practices. Two hundred and twenty surgeons responded. One hundred and fifty-four (70 %) respondents worked at a Level-1 trauma center, 176 (80 %) had received fellowship education in orthopaedic trauma and 104 (47 %) treated at least 10 ballistic fractures annually. Responses were analyzed with SAS 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). One hundred eighty-six respondents (86 %) routinely provide antibiotics for LVBF. Those who did not were more apt to do so for intra-articular fractures (8/16, 50 %) and pelvic fractures with visceral injury (10/16, 63 %). Most surgeons (167, 76 %) do not believe the Gustilo-Anderson classification applies to ballistic fractures, and (20/29, 70 %) do not base their antibiotic choice on the classification system. Few institutions (58, 26 %) have protocols guiding antibiotic use for LVBF. Routine antibiotic use for LVBF is common; however, practice is not dictated by institutional protocol. Although antibiotic use generally follows current blunt trauma guidelines, surgeons do not base their treatment decisions the Gustilo-Anderson classification. Given the high rate of antibiotic use for LVBF, further study should focus on providing evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  9. Ballistic Aspects of Feasibility for Prospective Satellite Navigation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the operating processes of ballistics and navigation support it is expedient to make decomposition of the general problem of coordinate-time and navigation support into the typical options of its engineering implementation.As the satellite navigation technologies the paper considers inter-satellite measurement and autonomous navigation mode of differential correction. It also assesses the possibility of their application to improve the accuracy of navigation determinations.Technologies using inter-satellite measurement tools such as GLONASS / GPS equipment, equipment of inter-satellite radio link, astro-optical space based devices are an independent class of navigation technologies.However, each of these options has both advantages and disadvantages that affect the eva luation of the appropriateness and feasibility of their use.The paper separately considers the problem of increasing survivability of space systems and conservation of ground control complex due to introduction of requirements to ensure the independent functioning of spacecraft and application of technologies of ballistics and navigation support, supposing to involve minimum means of automated ground control complex for these purposes.Currently, there is a completely developed theory of autonomous navigation based on astronomical positional gauges, which are used as onboard optical sensors of orientation and stabilization systems.To date, the differential navigation mode is, virtually, the only approach that can allow the olution of tasks in terms of increased accuracy, but with some restrictions.The implementation of differential mode of treatment is carried out through the creation of differential subsystems of the satellite navigation systems. These subsystems are usually divided into wide-range, regional and local ones.Analysis of ballistic aspects to implement discussed navigation technologies allowed us to identify constraints for improving accuracy to define

  10. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals.

  11. Results of a Round Robin ballistic load sensing headform test series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.A.G.; Anctil, B.; Markwardt, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of methods to assess the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) risk for ballistic helmets is based on plastic deformable headforms. An alternative, the Ballistic Load Sensing Headform (BLSH) can record the dynamic contact force between helmet back face and the skull. Helmet BABT methods are

  12. Electron eigen-oscillations and ballistic modes of a stable plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.

    1976-01-01

    The relation between plasma responses to singular and regular initial perturbations is established. Time scaling is introduced to separate time intervals for which eigen-oscillations (Landau solution) are dominant from such where ballistic modes prevail. The enhanced role is demonstrated of the ballistic modes for an initially perturbed field-free plasma including the phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. (author)

  13. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to Low Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Peterson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A simple strategy is identified to generate ballistic transfers between the Earth and Moon, i.e., transfers that perform two maneuvers: a trans-lunar injection maneuver to depart the Earth and a Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver to insert into orbit at the Moon. This strategy is used to survey the performance of numerous transfers between varying Earth parking orbits and varying low lunar target orbits. The transfers surveyed include short 3-6 day direct transfers, longer 3-4 month low energy transfers, and variants that include Earth phasing orbits and/or lunar flybys.

  14. Thermodynamic Bounds on Precision in Ballistic Multiterminal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Kay; Hanazato, Taro; Saito, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    For classical ballistic transport in a multiterminal geometry, we derive a universal trade-off relation between total dissipation and the precision, at which particles are extracted from individual reservoirs. Remarkably, this bound becomes significantly weaker in the presence of a magnetic field breaking time-reversal symmetry. By working out an explicit model for chiral transport enforced by a strong magnetic field, we show that our bounds are tight. Beyond the classical regime, we find that, in quantum systems far from equilibrium, the correlated exchange of particles makes it possible to exponentially reduce the thermodynamic cost of precision.

  15. Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Anthony; Schottel, Matthew; Lee, David; Scully, Robert; Hamilton, Joseph; Kent, Brian; Thomas, Christopher; Benson, Jonathan; Branch, Eric; Hardman, Paul; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes, allowing for up to four times as much data to be analyzed by one-quarter of the personnel required by earlier methods. There are two applications that comprise the DEBRIS system: the Automated Radar Debris Examination Tool (ARDENT) and the primary DEBRIS tool.

  16. Analysis and optimization of trajectories for Ballistic Missiles Interception

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Yéboles, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles are capable of placing a nuclear warhead at more than 5,000 km away from its launching base. With the lethal power of a nuclear warhead a whole city could be wiped out by a single weapon causing millions of deaths. This means that the threat posed to any country from a single ICBM captured by a terrorist group or launched by a 'rogue' state is huge. This threat is increasing as more countries are achieving nuclear and advanced launcher capabilities. In orde...

  17. Star-grain rocket motor - nonsteady internal ballistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loncaric, S.; Greatrix, D.R.; Fawaz, Z. [Ryerson University, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    The nonsteady internal ballistics of a star-grain solid-propellant rocket motor are investigated through a numerical simulation model that incorporates both the internal flow and surrounding structure. The effects of structural vibration on burning rate augmentation and wave development in nonsteady operation are demonstrated. The amount of damping plays a role in influencing the predicted axial combustion instability symptoms of the motor. The variation in oscillation frequencies about a given star grain section periphery, and along the grain with different levels of burn-back, also influences the means by which the local acceleration drives the combustion and flow behaviour. (authors)

  18. Ballistic fractures: indirect fracture to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Sherman, Don; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    Two mechanisms of injury, the temporary cavity and the sonic wave, have been proposed to produce indirect fractures as a projectile passes nearby in tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal relationship of pressure waves using strain gauge technology and high-speed video to elucidate whether the sonic wave, the temporary cavity, or both are responsible for the formation of indirect fractures. Twenty-eight fresh frozen cadaveric diaphyseal tibia (2) and femurs (26) were implanted into ordnance gelatin blocks. Shots were fired using 9- and 5.56-mm bullets traversing through the gelatin only, passing close to the edge of the bone, but not touching, to produce an indirect fracture. High-speed video of the impact event was collected at 20,000 frames/s. Acquisition of the strain data were synchronized with the video at 20,000 Hz. The exact time of fracture was determined by analyzing and comparing the strain gauge output and video. Twenty-eight shots were fired, 2 with 9-mm bullets and 26 with 5.56-mm bullets. Eight indirect fractures that occurred were of a simple (oblique or wedge) pattern. Comparison of the average distance of the projectile from the bone was 9.68 mm (range, 3-20 mm) for fractured specimens and 15.15 mm (range, 7-28 mm) for nonfractured specimens (Student's t test, p = 0.036). In this study, indirect fractures were produced after passage of the projectile. Thus, the temporary cavity, not the sonic wave, was responsible for the indirect fractures.

  19. The potentials of porous concrete for ballistic protection

    OpenAIRE

    Weerheijm, J.; Roebroeks, G.; Krabbenborg, D.; Agar Ozbek, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    A special porous concrete has been developed by the Delft University in collaboration with TNO. The concrete has a static compressive strength of 45 MPa. It fragments at impact into small size debris relative to reference concrete. The porous concrete was developed at laboratory scale and tested at small scale. In collaboration with the Military Science faculty of NLDA a procedure was developed to upscale the production. Panels of 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.10m were produced at slightly lower strength t...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Notice of prohibition of certain contracts with foreign entities for the conduct of ballistic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certain contracts with foreign entities for the conduct of ballistic missile defense research, development... foreign entities for the conduct of ballistic missile defense research, development, test, and evaluation... With Foreign Entities for the Conduct of Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development, Test, and...

  1. Ballistic current transport studies of ferromagnetic multilayer films and tunnel junctions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippard, W. H.; Perrella, A. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Three applications of ballistic electron microscopy are used to study, with nanometer-scale resolution, the magnetic and electronic properties of magnetic multilayer thin films and tunnel junctions. First, the capabilities of ballistic electron magnetic microscopy are demonstrated through an investigation of the switching behavior of continuous Ni 80 Fe 20 /Cu/Co trilayer films in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Next, the ballistic, hot-electron transport properties of Co films and multilayers formed by thermal evaporation and magnetron sputtering are compared, a comparison which reveals significant differences in the ballistic transmissivity of thin film multilayers formed by the two techniques. Finally, the electronic properties of thin aluminum oxide tunnel junctions formed by thermal evaporation and sputter deposition are investigated. Here the ballistic electron microscopy studies yield a direct measurement of the barrier height of the aluminum oxide barriers, a result that is invariant over a wide range of oxidation conditions. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Effect of measurement on the ballistic-diffusive transition in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Ziv; Yaroshevsky, Andre; Barak, Bavat; Granot, Er'el; Sternklar, Shmuel

    2013-10-01

    The dependence of the transition between the ballistic and the diffusive regimes of turbid media on the experimental solid angle of the detection system is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. A simple model is developed which shows the significance of experimental conditions on the location of the ballistic-diffusive transition. It is demonstrated that decreasing the solid angle expands the ballistic regime; however, this benefit is bounded by the initial Gaussian beam diffraction. In addition, choosing the appropriate wavelength according to the model's principles provides another means of expanding the ballistic regime. Consequently, by optimizing the experimental conditions, it should be possible to extract the ballistic image of a tissue with a thickness of 1 cm.

  3. Effect of ballistic electrons on ultrafast thermomechanical responses of a thin metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Qi-lin; Tian Xin

    2017-01-01

    The ultrafast thermomechanical coupling problem in a thin gold film irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses with different electron ballistic depths is investigated via the ultrafast thermoelasticity model. The solution of the problem is obtained by solving finite element governing equations. The comparison between the results of ultrafast thermomechanical coupling responses with different electron ballistic depths is made to show the ballistic electron effect. It is found that the ballistic electrons have a significant influence on the ultrafast thermomechanical coupling behaviors of the gold thin film and the best laser micromachining results can be achieved by choosing the specific laser technology (large or small ballistic range). In addition, the influence of simplification of the ultrashort laser pulse source on the results is studied, and it is found that the simplification has a great influence on the thermomechanical responses, which implies that care should be taken when the simplified form of the laser source term is applied as the Gaussian heat source. (paper)

  4. Time-gated ballistic imaging using a large aperture switching beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Florian; Reddemann, Manuel A; Palmer, Johannes; Kneer, Reinhold

    2014-03-24

    Ballistic imaging commonly denotes the formation of line-of-sight shadowgraphs through turbid media by suppression of multiply scattered photons. The technique relies on a femtosecond laser acting as light source for the images and as switch for an optical Kerr gate that separates ballistic photons from multiply scattered ones. The achievable image resolution is one major limitation for the investigation of small objects. In this study, practical influences on the optical Kerr gate and image quality are discussed theoretically and experimentally applying a switching beam with large aperture (D = 19 mm). It is shown how switching pulse energy and synchronization of switching and imaging pulse in the Kerr cell influence the gate's transmission. Image quality of ballistic imaging and standard shadowgraphy is evaluated and compared, showing that the present ballistic imaging setup is advantageous for optical densities in the range of 8 ballistic imaging setup into a schlieren-type system with an optical schlieren edge.

  5. Development of ballistics identification—from image comparison to topography measurement in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Chu, W; Vorburger, T V; Thompson, R; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Yen, J; Silver, R; Ols, M

    2012-01-01

    Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current automated ballistics identification systems are primarily based on image comparisons using optical microscopy. The correlation accuracy depends on image quality which is largely affected by lighting conditions. Because ballistics signatures are geometrical micro-topographies by nature, direct measurement and correlation of the surface topography is being investigated for ballistics identification. A Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Topography Measurement and Correlation System was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for certification of Standard Reference Material 2460/2461 bullets and cartridge cases. Based on this system, a prototype system for bullet signature measurement and correlation has been developed for bullet signature identifications, and has demonstrated superior correlation results. (paper)

  6. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators

  7. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators.

  8. The effects of drain scatterings on the electron transport properties of strained-Si diodes with ballistic and non-ballistic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasenjan Ghupur; Mamtimin Geni; Mamatrishat Mamat; Abudukelimu Abudureheman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multiple scattering on the electron transport properties in drain regions are numerically investigated for the cases of strained-Si diodes with or without scattering in the channel. The performance of non-ballistic (with scattering) channel Si-diodes is compared with that of ballistic (without scattering) channel Si-diodes, using the strain and scattering model. Our results show that the values of the electron velocity and the current in the strain model are higher than the respective values in the unstrained model, and the values of the velocity and the current in the ballistic channel model are higher than the respective values in the non-ballistic channel model. In the strain and scattering models, the effect of each carrier scattering mechanism on the performance of the Si-diodes is analyzed in the drain region. For the ballistic channel model, our results show that inter-valley optical phonon scattering improves device performance, whereas intra-valley acoustic phonon scattering degrades device performance. For the strain model, our results imply that the larger energy splitting of the strained Si could suppress the inter-valley phonon scattering rate. In conclusion, for the drain region, investigation of the strained-Si and scattering mechanisms are necessary, in order to improve the performance of nanoscale ballistic regime devices. (paper)

  9. A Numerical Approach to Estimate the Ballistic Coefficient of Space Debris from TLE Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkeliunas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    theoretical simulations, even few continuous mode 10 kW ground-based lasers, focused by 1.5 m telescopes with adaptive optics, were enough to prevent significant amount of the debris collisions. Simulations were done by propagating all space objects in LEO by 1 year into the future and checking whether the probability of collision was high. For those space objects different ground-based lasers were used to divert them, afterwards collision probabilities were reevaluated. However, the actual accuracy of the LightForce software, which has been developed at NASA AmesResearch Center, depends on the veracity of the input parameters, one of which is the objects ballistic coefficient. It is a measure of bodys ability to overcome air resistance, which has a significant impact on the debris in LEO, and thus it is responsible for the shape of the trajectory of the debris. Having the exact values of the ballistic coefficient would make significantly better collision predictions, unfortunately, we do not know what are the values for most of the objects.In this research, we were working with part of LightForce code, which estimates the ballistic coefficient from ephemerides. Previously used method gave highly inaccurate values, when compared to known objects, and it needed to be changed. The goal of this work was to try out a different method of estimating the ballistic coefficient and to check whether or not it gives noticeable improvements.

  10. Towards an understanding of thermally activated self-healing of an ionomer system during ballistic penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Russell J.; Zwaag, Sybrand van der

    2008-01-01

    The self-healing phenomenon exhibited by the ionomer known as Surlyn 8940 (DuPont), a partially neutralized poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) random co-polymer, during high-energy impact has been investigated here according to three separate strategies. The first consisted of a post-mortem scanning electron microscopy examination of impact surfaces of actual ballistic impacts for a range of bullets with different shapes, sizes and velocities. A complex range of competing and/or complementary processes based upon elastic and viscous responses was observed. The elastic response to impact provides for a polymer rebound or shape memory effect, while the viscous response provides for the final sealing of the cavity and is dependent upon the level of thermal frictional forces transferred during impact. The balance of these influences determines healing, and is shown to be altered by the size and shape of the bullet or indeed by the polymer morphology itself. The second strategy investigated the healing mechanism using a method that mimics the elastic response to impact in a controlled environment. This work highlighted the importance of the ionic clusters present in the ionomer and the gradient of viscoelastic properties formed at varying distances from the impact zone particularly when compared to non-ionic polymers. The repeatability of elastic healing was demonstrated, and reinforced the notion that healing arose from the inherent polymer structure of the ionomer. The third strategy investigated the role of the viscous response during impact and found that increased molecular mobility in the melt was critical to achieving optimal healing, although again the ionic clusters were found to be critical to maintaining sufficient structural integrity and preventing excess viscous flow

  11. Graphene ballistic nano-rectifier with very high responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; Zhang, Jiawei; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Wang, Hanbin; Zhang, Xijian; Wang, Qingpu; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Although graphene has the longest mean free path of carriers of any known electronic material, very few novel devices have been reported to harness this extraordinary property. Here we demonstrate a ballistic nano-rectifier fabricated by creating an asymmetric cross-junction in single-layer graphene sandwiched between boron nitride flakes. A mobility ∼200,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achieved at room temperature, well beyond that required for ballistic transport. This enables a voltage responsivity as high as 23,000 mV mW−1 with a low-frequency input signal. Taking advantage of the output channels being orthogonal to the input terminals, the noise is found to be not strongly influenced by the input. Hence, the corresponding noise-equivalent power is as low as 0.64 pW Hz−1/2. Such performance is even comparable to superconducting bolometers, which however need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, output oscillations are observed at low temperatures, the period of which agrees with the lateral size quantization. PMID:27241162

  12. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  13. The proliferation of ballistic missiles: an aggravating factor of crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Valery

    2015-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of the development of ballistic missiles from World War II, the author discusses the various uses of these missiles, on the one hand by major powers, and on the other hand by other countries like Israel, Pakistan and India, and also Egypt and Iraq. He recalls the uses of these missiles during regional conflicts (Scuds by Iraq) and then discusses the issue of proliferation of ballistic missiles. He notices that most of these weapons are present in the arsenal of major powers under the form of intercontinental missiles, intermediate range weapons or theatre weapons. On the Third World side, proliferation concerns short- and medium-range missiles produced from technology transfers or national programmes. Mobile systems are now present in all conflicts (notably Libya, Syria) and are now based on more advanced technologies for propellers as well as for control and guidance systems. In the last part, the author discusses the perspectives associated with these missiles which are a strong offensive weapon, and are also modernised to carry nuclear warheads or multiple warheads. These evolutions could put the western superiority into question again

  14. Analytical model for a cooperative ballistic deposition in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. Kamrul; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-06-01

    We formulate a model for a cooperative ballistic deposition (CBD) process whereby the incoming particles are correlated with those already adsorbed via attractive force. The strength of the correlation is controlled by a tunable parameter a that interpolates the classical car parking problem at a=0, the ballistic deposition at a=1, and the CBD model at a>1. The effects of the correlation in the CBD model are as follows. The jamming coverage q(a) increases with the strength of attraction a due to an ever-increasing tendency of cluster formation. The system almost reaches the closest packing structure as a→∞ but never forms a percolating cluster, which is typical of one-dimensional systems. In the large a regime, the mean cluster size k increases as a1/2. Furthermore, the asymptotic approach towards the closest packing is purely algebraic both with a as q(∞)-q(a)˜a-1/2 and with k as q(∞)-q(k)˜k-1, where q(∞)≃1.

  15. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy's Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site

  16. Excess of L-Alanine in Amino Acids Synthesized in a Plasma Torch Generated by a Hypervelocity Meteorite Impact Reproduced in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managadze, George G.; Engle, Michael H.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Wurz, Peter; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Shokolov, Anatoly; Sholin, Gennady; Terent'ev, Sergey A.; Chumikov, Alexander E.; Skalkin, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    We present a laboratory reproduction of hypervelocity impacts of a carbon containing meteorite on a mineral substance representative of planetary surfaces. The physical conditions of the resulting impact plasma torch provide favorable conditions for abiogenic synthesis of protein amino acids: We identified glycine and alanine, and in smaller quantities serine, in the produced material. Moreover, we observe breaking of alanine mirror symmetry with L excess, which coincides with the bioorganic world. Therefore the selection of L-amino acids for the formation of proteins for living matter could have been the result from plasma processes occurring during the impact meteorites on the surface. This indicates that the plasma torch from meteorite impacts could play an important role in the formation of biomolecular homochirality. Thus, meteorite impacts possibly were the initial stage of this process and promoted conditions for the emergence of a living matter.

  17. The impact of laboratory characteristics on molecular detection of respiratory syncytial virus in a European multicentre quality control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T. J.; MacKay, W. G.; Meijer, A.; Paget, W. J.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Schellevis, F.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for detecting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was evaluated in 25 laboratories across Europe by an external quality assessment study. In addition, factors related to the diagnostic performance of laboratories were explored. The results of

  18. Effect of joint design on ballistic performance of quenched and tempered steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Traditional usage of austenitic stainless steel filler for armour steel welding shows poor ballistic performance. • Earlier efforts show dubious success on ballistic resistance of armour steel joints. • Comparative evaluation of equal/unequal joint design on ballistic performance. • Effect of joint design covers the main aspects of successful bullet stoppage. - Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of joint design on ballistic performance of armour grade quenched and tempered steel welded joints. Equal double Vee and unequal double Vee joint configuration were considered in this study. Targets were fabricated using 4 mm thick tungsten carbide hardfaced middle layer; above and below which austenitic stainless steel layers were deposited on both sides of the hardfaced interlayer in both joint configurations. Shielded metal arc welding process was used to deposit for all layers. The fabricated targets were evaluated for its ballistic performance and the results were compared in terms of depth of penetration on weld metal. From the ballistic test results, it was observed that both the targets successfully stopped the bullet penetration at weld center line. Of the two targets, the target made with unequal double Vee joint configuration offered maximum resistance to the bullet penetration at weld metal location without any bulge at the rear side. The higher volume of austenitic stainless steel front layer and the presence of hardfaced interlayer after some depth of soft austenitic stainless steel front layer is the primary reason for the superior ballistic performance of this joint

  19. Assessment and monitoring of ballistic and maximal upper-body strength qualities in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kieran P; Haff, G Gregory; Newton, Robert U; Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether the dynamic strength index (DSI: ballistic peak force/isometric peak force) could be effectively used to guide specific training interventions and detect training-induced changes in maximal and ballistic strength. Twenty-four elite male athletes were assessed in the isometric bench press and a 45% 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) ballistic bench throw using a force plate and linear position transducer. The DSI was calculated using the peak force values obtained during the ballistic bench throw and isometric bench press. Athletes were then allocated into 2 groups as matched pairs based on their DSI and strength in the 1RM bench press. Over the 5 wk of training, athletes performed either high-load (80-100% 1RM) bench press or moderate-load (40-55% 1RM) ballistic bench throws. The DSI was sensitive to disparate training methods, with the bench-press group increasing isometric bench-press peak force (P=.035, 91% likely), and the ballistic-bench-throw group increasing bench-throw peak force to a greater extent (P≤.001, 83% likely). A significant increase (P≤.001, 93% likely) in the DSI was observed for both groups. The DSI can be used to guide specific training interventions and can detect training-induced changes in isometric bench-press and ballistic bench-throw peak force over periods as short as 5 wk.

  20. [Revolution of the health care delivery system and its impacts on laboratory testing in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Y; Ishibashi, M

    2000-02-01

    Failure to slow the exponential growth of total health care expenditures in the United States through the government policies resulted in a rapid and progressive penetration of managed care organizations(MCOs) in the early 1990s. Diagnostic testing is viewed as a "commodity" rather than a medical service under the managed care environment. Traditional hospital-based laboratories are placed in a downward spiral with the advent of managed care era. A massive reduction of in-house testing resulted from shorter lengths of patients' hospital stay and a marked decrease in admission under the dominance of managed care urges them to develop strategies for restoring tests deprived by the managed care-associated new businesses: consolidation and networking, participation in the outreach-testing market, and point-of-care/satellite laboratory testing in non-traditional, ambulatory settings are major strategies for survival of hospital laboratories. A number of physicians' office laboratories(POLs) have been closed owing to regulatory restrictions imposed by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988(CLIA '88), and to the expanded penetration of MCOs which limit reimbursement to a very few in-house procedures. It seems likely that POLs and hospital laboratories continue to reduce test volumes, while commercial reference laboratories(CRLs) gain more tests through contracting with MCOs. In the current stream of managed care dominance in the United States, clinical laboratories are changing their basic operation focus and mission in response to the aggressively changing landscape. Traditional laboratories which are unwilling to adapt themselves to the new environment will not survive in this country.