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Sample records for ballica lolium multiflorum

  1. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  2. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

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    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  3. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  4. Identification of Anguina funesta from annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, seed galls containing Anguina sp. were isolated from 14 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots submitted for phytosanitary testing. To identify the species present, the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA of the nematodes from the seed lots was analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method (11). ...

  5. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of genes from one species to the other. Espe

  6. Effects of accelerated aging on italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a productive, high quality cool-season forage that is overseeded in warm-season pastures for winter and early spring grazing. However, in some pastures and croplands it can be a serious weed. Italian ryegrass does not form an extensive seed bank and the see...

  7. Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)

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    E.A. Ferreira; J.B. Santos; Silva, A. A.; de Oliveira, J. A.; Vargas, L.

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de temp...

  8. Resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum to glyphosate

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    E.S. Roman

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqüência em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetação e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficiência de herbicidas de ação total na dessecação de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetação e de blocos ao acaso em campo, com três e quatro repetições, respectivamente. Foram avaliados herbicidas com mecanismos de ação distintos em diferentes doses: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r e diclofop, paraquat e paraquat + diuron. Os resultados, em casa de vegetação, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é totalmente controlado com glyphosate na dose de 360 g e.a. ha-1 e que doses de até 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 não afetam significativamente o acúmulo de matéria seca do biótipo resistente e produzem toxicidade inferior a 15% sobre este. Já as doses entre 1.440 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduzem significativamente a produção de matéria seca e resultam em toxicidade inferior a 45%. Em campo, os melhores controles de azevém foram propiciados pelos tratamentos clethodim (79,2 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (300 + 600 g ha-1, que não diferiram entre si. Assim, evidencia-se que a população de Lolium multiflorum avaliada neste trabalho é constituída predominantemente de um biótipo resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima EPSPs.Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is cultivated as forage and/or cover crop in no-till system. However, it is also a serious weed in wheat and other winter cereals in Southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted at greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the susceptibility of two ryegrass biotype to glyphosate as well as the efficacy of other herbicides on the post-emergence control of the species

  9. Transcriptional Profiles of Drought-Related Genes in Modulating Metabolic Processes and Antioxidant Defenses in Lolium multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ling; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Ma, Xiao; Zhou, Meiliang; Huang, Linkai; Nie, Gang; Wang, Pengxi; Yang, Zhongfu; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress that limits growth and development of cool-season annual grasses. Drought transcriptional profiles of resistant and susceptible lines were studied to understand the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). A total of 4718 genes exhibited significantly differential expression in two L. multiflorum lines. Additionally, up-regulated genes associated with drought response in the resistant lines were compared with...

  10. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg-1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P450. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  11. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  12. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; TAN, K

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p

  13. Multiple Herbicide Resistance in Lolium multiflorum and Identification of Conserved Regulatory Elements of Herbicide Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kristensen, Michael; Kudsk, Per

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of Lolium multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR) genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them as reliable markers. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of L. multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively, and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O. sativa and A. thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif is known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward toward a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management. PMID:27547209

  14. Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes

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    Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of L. multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them a reliable marker. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of Lolium multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O.sativa and A.thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward towards a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management.

  15. Anatomia foliar de Lolium multiflorum sensível e resistente ao glyphosate Leaf anatomy of Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

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    J. Galvani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de contribuir para o conhecimento anatômico da espécie Lolium multiflorum e, a partir disso, observar possíveis alterações que possam elucidar o mecanismo que confere resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com quatro biótipos dessa espécie com distinta sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo um sensível (B1S e três resistentes (B2R, B3R e B4R. As análises ocorreram a partir de secções transversais e longitudinais dos órgãos vegetativos de plantas no estádio de afilhamento. Anatomicamente, o azevém caracteriza-se por apresentar grande quantidade de estômatos e de células buliformes, bem como mesofilo homogêneo constituído apenas de células paliçádicas compactamente distribuídas. Comparativamente, não ocorrem diferenças morfológicas evidentes que possam ser usadas para diferir biótipos sensíveis de resistentes, no entanto, nota-se que biótipos resistentes, especialmente B3R e B4R, apresentaram maior densidade estomática em relação aos demais. Ainda, os biótipos resistentes apresentaram maior quantidade de espaços intercelulares no mesofilo e feixes vasculares com menor quantidade de floema em relação ao xilema, o que, por suas funções na planta, pode colaborar para a menor sensibilidade ao herbicida.This work aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the species Lolium multiflorum and to observe possible changes that may elucidate the mechanism that confers its resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, an experiment was conducted using four biotypes of this species with distinct sensitivities to the herbicide glyphosate: one susceptible (B1S and three resistant biotypes (B2R, B3R and B4R. Analyses were conducted on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the vegetative organs of the plants at the tillering stage. Anatomically, ryegrass is characterized as having a large number of stomata and buliform cells

  16. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

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    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L

  17. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Sheng, Guo-ping; Wu, Yue-jin; Yu, Zeng-liang; Bañuelos, Gary S; Yu, Han-qing

    2014-01-01

    Severe eutrophication of surface water has been a major problem of increasing environmental concern worldwide. In the present study, economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in floating mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential after ion implantation for removing nutrients in simulated eutrophic water. The specific weight growth rate of L. multiflorum with ion implantation was significantly greater than that of the control, and the peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase activities of the irradiated L. multiflorum were found to be greater than those plants without ion implantation. Higher total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were obtained for the L. multiflorum irradiated with 25 keV 5.2 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2) and 30 keV 4.16 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2), respectively (p phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those in the control and were positively correlated with TN and TP supplied. L. multiflorum itself was directly responsible for 39-49 and 47-58 % of the overall N and P removal in the experiment, respectively. The research results suggested that ion implantation could become a promising approach for increasing phytoremediation efficiency of nutrients from eutrophic water by L. multiflorum.

  18. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  19. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

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    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  20. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  1. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  2. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  3. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  4. Effect of sewage sludge and sawdust in association with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskin. on soil macroaggregates and water content Efectos de lodos urbanos y aserrín en asociación con ballica (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskn. sobre los microagregados y contenido de agua del suelo

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    Marco Sandoval E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean soils degradation is a serious problem affecting directly the productivity of most of the crops. Some evidence indicates sewage sludge can improve soil physical properties, especially when combined with sawdust. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different mixtures of sewage sludge (LU and sawdust (RA on water-stable aggregates and available water content of a degraded Alfisol cropped with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 9 (ryegrass x rates of sludge and sawdust. Treatments were 25 and 50 Mg LU ha-1 mixed with 10, 25, and 50 Mg RA ha-1. Ratio mixtures of LU/RA were set in pots with hybrid ryegrass. Soil available water content (AW, percentage of macroaggregates (MA and water-stable aggregates (AWD were evaluated. Ryegrass aboveground biomass was also measured. Mixtures of LU/RA amended to the soil increased MA and AWD, an effect that was most evident at 50 Mg ha-1. The AW value was greater when LU was amended to 50 Mg ha-1 mixed with RA at doses of 10, 25, and 50 Mg ha-1. There was greater aboveground biomass of hybrid ryegrass, directly related to increasing doses of LU and RA in the mixtures. The addition to soil of both organic residues combined, LU and RA, improved the physical parameters studied, especially in the presence of hybrid ryegrass.La degradation de los suelos chilenos es un serio problema que afecta directamente la productividad de la mayoría de los cultivos. Los lodos urbanos pueden mejorar las propiedades físicas del suelo, sobre todo si van acompanadas con aserrín. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de distintas mezclas de lodo urbano (LU y aserrín (RA sobre los agregados estables al agua y el contenido de agua disponible en un Alfisol degradado y cultivado con ballica híbrida (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., bajo invernadero. El diseno experimental fue completamente al

  5. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  6. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-12-04

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins.

  7. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  8. The influence of Seeding technique for Production Performance of Lolium multiflorum and Feeding effects of Lolium multiflorum%播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响及多花黑麦草的饲用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 郝二英; 檀晓萌; 贾淑庚; 陈辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically reviewed the influence of seeding technique on production performance of the Lolium multiflorum and the application on animal husbandry. Respectively elabo-rated the influence of different sowing time, sowing rate and different sowing methods on Lolium multiflorum production performance as well as the effect of feeding cattle, sheep, rabbits, geese, pigs in production. Aims to improve performance, reduce feed costs, improve breeding efficiency by increasing seeding technique of Lolium multiflorum in practical production.%本文系统综述了播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及在畜牧业的上的应用,分别从不同播种期、播种量及不同播种方式对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及生产中饲喂牛、羊、兔、鹅、猪等家畜的效果作以简要综述,旨在实际生产中通过提高播种技术提高多花黑麦草生产性能,降低饲养成本,提高养殖效益。

  9. Factors Influencing beta-Glucan Synthesis by Particulate Enzymes from Suspension-Cultured Lolium multiflorum Endosperm Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-03-01

    Particulate enzymes from suspension-cultured ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) endosperm cells incorporated glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose and GDP-glucose into beta-glucans. Three types of beta-glucans were produced from UDP-glucose: 1,3-beta-glucan; 1,4-beta-glucan; and mixed-linkage 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan. As in other systems, relatively more 1,4-beta-glucan was produced from a low (10 micromolar) UDP-glucose concentration, and relatively more 1,3-beta-glucan was produced from a high (1 millimolar) UDP-glucose concentration. However, in ryegrass, 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan represented a major proportion of the products at both low and high UDP-glucose concentrations. The arrangement of linkages in the 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was different at the two concentrations; at the low UDP-glucose concentration, more sequences of three consecutive 1,4-linkages were produced.The effects of pH, temperature, and metal ion concentrations on incorporation were dependent on the UDP-glucose concentration. At the low UDP-glucose concentration, incorporation into all three types of beta-glucan increased with increasing pH. At the high UDP-glucose concentration, 1,3-beta-glucan was the major product at pH 7 and below; 1,4-beta-glucan synthesis was optimal at pH 8; and synthesis of 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was greatest above pH 8.With 10 micromolar GDP-glucose as substrate, 1,4-beta-glucan, but no 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan, was produced. Incorporation from either UDP-glucose or GDP-glucose was not influenced by the presence of the other. PMID:16662263

  10. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevém (Lolium multiflorum é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma

  11. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  12. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  13. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  14. In-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 isolated from Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Priya, Kannappan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 (L. plantarum KCC-24), that was isolated and characterized from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage. The following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and in vitro antioxidant property. The isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the various fungal strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (73.43%), Penicillium chrysogenum (59.04%), Penicillium roqueforti (56.67%), Botrytis elliptica (40.23%), Fusarium oxysporum (52.47%) and it was susceptible to numerous antibiotics, survived in low pH, was resistant to stimulated gastric juices and bile salts (0.3% w/v). Moreover, L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited good proteolytic activity. In addition L. plantarum KCC-24 showed potent antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide resistant property. In conclusion, the isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited several characteristics to prove it's excellent as a potential probiotic candidate for developing quality food for ruminant animals and human.

  15. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho e as características da carcaça de cordeiros, em três sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, distribuídos aleatoriamente com suas mães, 24 horas após o nascimento, em três tratamentos: PNS: pastagem natural suplementada; PC: pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; e CON: confinamento. O ganho médio diário de 0,404 kg dos cordeiros da PC foi superior aos demais tratamentos, enquanto o ganho de 0,325 kg/dia dos animais da PNS foi superior aos ganhos de 0,213 kg/dia dos animais do CON. O abate ocorreu quando os cordeiros atingiram em torno de 31 kg. O peso da carcaça quente dos animais da PNS (15,7 kg foi semelhante ao dos animais da PC (16,8 kg e superior ao confinamento (14,3 kg. Os animais da PNS, PC e CON apresentaram resultados semelhantes para o índice de quebra ao resfriamento com valores de 2,3, 2,1 e 2,5%, respectivamente. Os rendimentos da carcaça quente dos animais de PNS (50,2% e PC (53,7% foram semelhantes e superiores aos rendimentos dos animais do CON (45,9%. A compacidade das carcaças não mostrou diferença entre PNS e PC, com valores de 0,287 e 0,307, respectivamente, os quais, porém, foram superiores aos animais do CON (0,253. As carcaças dos animais da PNS e CON não diferiram quanto à espessura de gordura com valores de 1,6 e 1,0 mm, respectivamente. Estes valores foram inferiores aos obtidos na PC (3,3 mm. Ganhos médios diários acima de 0,400 kg/dia e rendimento de carcaça quente acima de 52% podem ser obtidos com cordeiros alimentados com suas mães em pastagem cultivada de azevém, com peso de abate em torno dos 31 kg.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs under three feeding systems. Sixteen lambs, 24 hours after birth, and their mothers were randomly assigned to three treatments: NSP: natural supplemented pasture; RP: ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum lam

  16. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  17. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  18. Antagonismo das associações de clodinafop-propargyl com metsulfuron-methyl e 2,4-D no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Antagonistic action of clodinafop-propargyl associated with Metsulfuron-methyl and 2,4-D in the control of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Trezzi

    2007-12-01

    determine the existence of antagonistic effects of clodinafop-propargyl associated with metsulfuron methyl or 2,4-D to control Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. In the greenhouse experiment, 21 treatments were tested, composed by clodynafop(0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1. In the field experiment, twelve treatments were set up in a factorial 6 x 2, composed by clodinafop (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 g ha-1. In the greenhouse experiment, the control (visual evaluation, I50 from the mixtures with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1 were 33, 84 and 151% higher than clodinafop applied alone. The I50 from the rye live matter from the mixtures cited above were, respectively, 119, 244 and 72% higher than clodinafop applied alone. In the field experiment, rye live matter reduction was observed with increase of the levels of clodinafop applied alone, but rye live matter did not decrease, changing the levels of clodinafop tank-mixed with metsulfuron. The results reveal the antagonistic effect of tank-mixtures of clodinafop and metsulfuron or 2,4-D. We did make some considerations on the advantages of applying herbicides in more than one control operation, in comparison to graminicide and latifolicide mixtures.

  19. INFLUENŢA ADMINISTRĂRII UNOR AMENDAMENTE ŞI ÎNGRĂŞĂMINTE CHIMICE ASUPRA CONŢINUTULUI DE APĂ LA LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM. CULTIVATĂ PE CÂMPUL EXPERIMENTAL HIDROAMELIORAT DE LA SOCODOR (JUD. ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total water content and of the free and bound fractions in Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied in a structural solonetz having moderate depth columns and sodium sulfate salinization. The plants were cultivated in conditions of an experimental field at the Experimental Center for the saline and alkalinous soil melioration from Socodor (Arad district. Before the experiment in the field was installed an underground drainage system consisting in ceramics tubes. After this installations followed a salts washing with a rate of 2500 m³ water/hectare. Three years after these hydromeliorated complex measures was set up an experiment of application of some different types and doses of chemical fertilizers in amendmented and unamendmented conditions three times administered in the next variants: V1 - N0P0K0; V2 - N120; V3 - K50; V4 - P80; V5 - N120K50; V6 - N120P80K50. The application of the amendments as 50 tons phosphogypsum/hectare determined water content increase in the leaf cells. The same effect had the chemical fertilizer applications but this effect was different according with the type of the fertilization. The highest action of the growth of the total water content and of bound water fraction had the nitrogen fertilization especially when this fertilization was made by the balance with phosphorous and potassium. It is notice a lower effect of potassium fertilization on the water keeping in the cells due probably of high content of sodium in the halomorphous soils suggesting an unspecific involving in the maintain of the cell turgor. The phosphogypsum application diminish the supplementary fertilization efficiency with phosphorous in the plants cultivated on halomorphous soils.

  20. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  1. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    , winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species......, and these have aided in the annotation of the genomic sequence. Using this data we were able to generate annotated assemblies of the gene rich regions of the four species to complement the already sequenced Lolium perenne genome. Using these gene models we have identified orthologous genes between the species...

  2. Effects of the invasive annual grass Lolium multiflorum Lam. on the growth and physiology of a Southern African Mediterranean-climate geophyte Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl. under different resource conditions / J.L. Arnolds

    OpenAIRE

    Arnolds, Judith Lize

    2007-01-01

    Little is known of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying competitive interactions between alien invasive grasses and native taxa, and how these are affected by resource supply. Consequently, this study compared photosystem II (PS II) function, photosynthetic gas and water exchange, enzyme and pigment concentrations, flowering and biomass accumulation in an indigenous geophyte, Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl., grown in monoculture and admixed with the alien grass, Lolium mul...

  3. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  4. 甲酸与纤维素酶和木聚糖酶对多花黑麦草与白三叶混合青贮料发酵品质的影响%Effects of formic acid, cellulase and xylanase on fermentation quality of Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens mixture silage during ensiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄苏; 丁立人; 周建国; 王恬

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of formic acid, cellulase and xylanase on fermentation quality of mixture silage during ensiling, 2 000 g chopped Lolium multijlorum(80% ) and Trifolium repens(20% ) mixtures were ensiled in laboratory plastic bag either untreated (control) or treated with formic acid, cellulase, formic acid plus cellulase, xylanase, formic acid plus xylanase, cellulase plus xylanase and formic acid plus cellulase plus xylanase, respectively. Triplicate bags were opened at 0 d,2d,4d,6d,8d and 30 d of ensiling for chemical analyses. The pH value in all treated silages was lower (P<0. 05) than control at the end of ensiling. The formic acid, enzyme or formic acid plus enzyme treatments enhanced (P<0. 05) water soluble carbohydrate content significantly compared with control at all ensiling periods. The lactic acid content and acetic acid content were higher (P<0. 05) in the enzyme treatment than those in the formic acid-contained treatments and control, respectively. However, the acetic acid content was lower ( P<0. 05 ) in formic acid-contained treatments than that in enzymes treated silages. Relative to control, all treatments had lower (P< 0. 05 ) ammonia-N concentrations during ensiling. The enzyme treatments effectively (P<0. 05) decreased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents in the silages. The results suggested that the addition of formic acid and enzymes improved the Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens mixture silage quality, and the enzyme treatments were better than formic acid treatments during ensiling.%为评价甲酸与纤维素酶和木聚糖酶处理后多花黑麦草与白三叶混合青贮料发酵品质的变化,试验将混合青贮料分为对照组(未处理)、甲酸添加组、纤维素酶添加组、甲酸+纤维素酶添加组、木聚糖酶添加组、甲酸+木聚糖酶添加组、纤维素酶+木聚糖酶添加组、甲酸+纤维素酶+木聚糖酶添加组共8组,每组3个重复.青贮原料按80

  5. Potencial competitivo de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Competitive potential of ryegras (Lolium multiflorum biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade competitiva entre biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, bem como a interferência deles, em diferentes densidades, sobre o crescimento de plantas de trigo. No momento da colheita, aos 50 dias após a emergência do azevém, avaliaram-se o número de perfilhos, a altura de plantas e a área foliar. Nessa mesma ocasião, coletou-se a parte aérea e as raízes das plantas de trigo e de azevém resistente e suscetível, determinando-se a seguir a massa seca desse material em partes separadas (raiz, caule e folhas. Com base nos dados avaliados, as seguintes variáveis para o trigo e para os biótipos de azevém foram calculadas: taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC = MS A/Ndias, em que MS A é a massa seca da parte aérea e Ndias é o período em dias entre a emergência e a colheita das plantas; área foliar específica (SLA = Af/MSf, em que Af é a área foliar e MSf é a massa seca foliar; e o índice de área (IAF = Af/St, sendo St a superfície de solo, indicando qual a área de folhas por m² de solo. As características avaliadas altura de planta, massa seca e área foliar dos biótipos de azevém suscetível apresentaram menor tendência de redução e maior plasticidade fenotípica, com o incremento da densidade de plantas por área em relação aos biótipos resistentes. Com relação à competição dos biótipos de azevém com plantas de trigo, efeito negativo sobre a cultura também foi observado quando esta se encontrava sob interferência do biótipo suscetível. Conclui-se que o biótipo suscetível de azevém é mais competitivo que o resistente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness of ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, as well as their interference in wheat growth at different densities. At harvesting, 50 days after emergence, tillering, height, and leaf area of ryegrass plants were evaluated and shoot and roots of ryegrass and wheat were collected and their root, stalk and leaf dry mass was determined. Based on the data, the following variables were evaluated for ryegrass and wheat: crop growth rate (TCC = MS A/Ndays, with MS A being shoot dry mass and Ndays the number of days between emergence and plant harvesting; specific leaf area (SLA = Af /MSf,with Af being the leaf area and MSf leaf dry mass; and leaf area index (IAF = Af/St, St being soil area, indicating leaf area per soil area. Plant height, dry mass and leaf area of the susceptible ryegrass showed smaller reductions and better phenotypic plasticity, in function of the increasing density per soil area, compared to the resistant one. The susceptible biotype showed to be more competitive and its interference in wheat development was more visible at lower densities. It was concluded that the susceptible ryegrass biotype is more competitive than the resistant one.

  6. Herança da resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao glyphosate Inheritance of azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistance to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é o principal produto usado para manejo não-seletivo das plantas daninhas. Já foram identificados biótipos de azevém resistentes a esse herbicida no Rio Grande do Sul, os quais estão se tornando predominantes rapidamente. Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar o tipo de herança, o número de genes que conferem resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes em azevém. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, em seguida, efetuaram-se os retrocruzamentos resistente e sensível. Plantas F1 foram cruzadas, para obtenção da geração F2. Sobre as plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e genitores foi aplicado o glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1, para avaliar a segregação. A fim de avaliar o grau de resistência, as plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e sensível foram tratados com doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1. As plantas F1 evidenciaram resposta intermediária ao biótipo resistente e sensível, demonstrando que a interação alélica é do tipo dominância incompleta. As plantas F2 mostraram tendência para segregação 3:1, indicando que a característica resistência ao glyphosate é controlada por um gene semidominante.Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used to control weeds. Azevem plants, which are tolerant to glyphosate, have been identified in Rio Grande do Sul, where they are rapidly becoming predominant. The objective of this work was to identify inheritance type, number of genes conferring resistance, and the degree of resistance in azevem plants. Reciprocal crossings between sensitive and resistant plants have been carried out to obtain F1 seeds which were crossed among themselves to obtain F2 plants .Herbicide containing 720 g ha-1 was applied on the F1, F2, RCr, Rc and parent plants to estimate segregation. To evaluate the degree of resistance of the F1 plants, resistant and sensitive parents were sprayed with increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 and 2.880 g ha-1. F1 plants showed intermediate response to the resistant and sensitive biotypes, indicating that allelic interaction is of the incomplete dominance type. F2 plants showed a tendency for segregation 3:1, indicating that resistance to glyphosate is controlled by a semi-dominant gene.

  7. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  8. Windrow burning eliminates Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning of crop residues that have been concentrated behind the harvest combine (windrowed) is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resis...

  9. Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco;

    2010-01-01

    was hybridized to a cDNA microarray containing 10,000 unique genes from L. perenne. Comparisons and statistical analyses of the gene expression profiles revealed 0, 20, 52 and 124 differentially regulated genes 8, 48, 192 and 288 h after infection compared to non-infected controls and considering a p...

  10. Agronomic behavior of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam. in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Conterato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate forage production and number of days to flowering in 15 common ryegrass populations, one population of the KLM 138 (Uruguay and Fepagro São Gabriel cultivars, and one local population in order to select germplasm with production potential. A randomized block design consisting of three replicates and repeated measures over time (cuts was adopted. Forage production was evaluated by cutting samples of 2 linear meters per plot. The forage samples of each plot were dried and weighed for the determination of total dry matter. A total dry matter subsample of each plot, in each cut, was used to estimate leaf percentage. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using mixed models and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05, indicating little variability for this trait in the populations studied during the growth cycle. The populations differed significantly in terms of leaf dry matter percentage (P=0.0002. The highest leaf percentages during the growth cycle were observed for cultivar KLM 138. However, populations of the common Uruguayan, Dom Pedrito and Vacaria cultivars also exhibited good leaf production and may be used for initial selection of new promising materials, considering that a higher percentage of leaves promotes better quality feed offered to animals. The variation in the number of days to flowering permits selection for different maturation cycles of common ryegrass.

  11. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  12. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, condutância estomática (Gs, pressão de vapor na câmara subestomática (Ean, gradiente entre temperatura da folha e do ar (deltaT e taxa de transpiração (E foram avaliadas 50 dias após a emergência das plantas, sendo calculada também a eficiência do uso da água (WUE pela relação entre a quantidade de CO2 fixado pela fotossíntese e a quantidade de água transpirada. Foi elaborada ainda uma matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. O biótipo suscetível apresentou maior acúmulo de MSPA, comparado ao biótipo resistente ao glyphosate, quando cultivado livre ou em competição, porém foi menos eficiente quanto ao uso da água.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics associated to water use efficiency in ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, under different competition levels. The trial was installed in factorial scheme (2 x 5, with one plant of the studied biotype alone at the center of the plot, under competition against 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. The variables (shoot dry matter (MSPA, water vapor stomatal conductance (Gs, water vapor pressure from the leaf chamber (Ean, leaf and air temperature difference (deltaT and transpiration rate (E were evaluated 50 days after emergence, with water use efficiency (WUE being obtained by the relation between the amount of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the corresponding transpired water. A correlation table was built between all evaluated variables. The biotype susceptible to glyphosate accumulated dry matter more efficiently than the resistant one, when growing both alone or under competition. On the other hand, the biotype susceptible to glyphosate is less efficient in water use.

  13. Aspectos morfofisiológicos de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes ao glyphosate Morphophysiological aspects of ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galvan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea com elevado potencial de infestação em lavouras e pomares, e seu controle com glyphosate tem sido limitado devido à existência de biótipos resistentes a esse herbicida. Objetivou-se comparar quatro biótipos de azevém coletados em diferentes regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, com o intuito de testar a hipótese de que aspectos morfofisiológicos e fenológicos estejam vinculados à resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde um biótipo suscetível (B1S, Passo Fundo e três resistentes ao glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Júlio de Castilhos; e B4R, Vacaria foram colhidos aos 126, 147, 168 e 189 dias de idade. O biótipo B1S mostrou 21 dias de antecipação no florescimento em relação aos demais biótipos. O biótipo B4R produziu significativamente mais folhas (43 por planta, afilhos (14 por planta, espigas (14 por planta, sementes (3.484 por planta e matéria seca total (raízes + parte aérea = 13,8 g por planta. Conclui-se que biótipos sensíveis não podem ser diferidos de biótipos resistentes apenas por aspectos morfológicos relacionados ao vigor.Ryegrass has a high potential for infestation in crops and orchads and its control with glyphosate has been limited due to the existence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. The objective of this work was to compare four ryegrass biotypes collected from different regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to test the hypothesis that morphophysiological aspects and phenology are linked to resistance. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where four biotypes, one susceptible (B1S, Passo Fundo and three resistant to glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Julio de Castillos; B4R, Vacaria were collected at 126, 147, 168 and 189 days of age. Biotype B1S showed 21 days in advance of flowering in relation to the other biotypes. Biotype B4R produced significantly more leaves (43 per plant, tillers (14 per plant, ears (14 per plant, seeds (3484 per plant and total dry matter (roots + shoot = 13.8 g per plant. It is concluded that sensitive biotypes cannot be distinguished from the resistant ones only by morphological aspects related to vigor.

  14. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    G. Concenço; E.A. Ferreira; A.A. Silva; F.A. Ferreira; R.G. Viana; L. d'Antonino; L. Vargas; C.M.T. Fialho

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA), condutância estomática (Gs), pressã...

  15. Genetic structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum populations estimated by RAPD Estrutura genética de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum estimada por RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass is a temperate climate annual foraging grass, grown mostly in the South of Brazil, especially in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Despite its importance, little is known about its genetic diversity, both within and among the populations cultivated. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for developing breeding and conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of annual ryegrass. Three of the populations were located in Rio Grande do Sul and the fourth in Uruguay. RAPD markers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of these populations. Analysis of 375 individuals sampled from the populations, using six RAPD primers, generated a total of 82 amplified bands. They included 73 polymorphic bands (89,02%. The value of the total genetic diversity index obtained, (0,71 was high, indicating the presence of wide genetic diversity in the four populations. Genetic structure analysis revealed that 98% of total diversity is intrapopulational, whereas interpopulational genetic diversity was only 2%. These results suggest that before these populations separated, they had gone through a period of gene exchange and, even after the separation event, gene frequency stayed at levels similar to the original levels, with no differential selection for these genes in the different cultivation areas.O azevém anual é a gramínea anual forrageira de clima temperado de maior utilização no sul do Brasil, particularmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar de toda a importância que a espécie apresenta, pouco se conhece a respeito da diversidade genética presente entre e dentro das populações cultivadas. Este conhecimento é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento das estratégias de melhoramento genético e de conservação destes materiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética e a estrutura genética de quatro populações de azevém anual, sendo três populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e uma do Uruguai. O nível de diversidade e a estrutura genética destas populações foram estudados com marcadores RAPD. A análise de 375 indivíduos amostrados nas populações, com seis iniciadores, gerou um total de 82 bandas que foram utilizados nas análises, dentre as quais 73 (89,02% foram polimórficas. O valor do índice de diversidade genética total obtido, (0,71 foi elevado evidenciando a presença de uma grande diversidade genética nas quatro populações. A análise da estrutura genética revelou que 98% da diversidade total esta contida dentro das populações, enquanto que a diversidade genética entre as populações representou somente 2%. Sugere-se que antes da separação destas populações, as mesmas tenham passado por um período de troca de genes e que mesmo após o evento de separação elas mantiveram a freqüência destes em níveis semelhantes aos originais, não tendo ocorrido uma seleção diferencial destes genes nos locais de cultivo.

  16. Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well.

  17. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  18. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  19. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  20. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  1. EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN ENERGÉTICA SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE EN VACAS LECHERAS A PASTOREO Effect of temperature and energy supplementation on milk production of grazing dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Jahn; Susana Arredondo; Walter Bonilla; Alejandro Del Pozo

    2002-01-01

    Se realizó un ensayo con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la suplementación a la sombra durante los meses de verano para vacas que pastorean una pradera de trébol blanco - ballica perenne (Trifolium repens L. -Lolium multiflorum L.). Se compararon 4 tratamientos: I. Pastoreo día y noche sin suplementación; II. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación; III. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación a la sombra entre 11:30 y 17:00 h; y IV. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación al sol entre 1...

  2. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Nuan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug, Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug, and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR.

  3. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  4. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  5. Identificação e quantificação de fungos associados a sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Loureiro da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos, identificar e quantificar os fungos associados a sementes de azevém, comparar a incidência em diferentes meios de cultura, e determinar o número de escleródios de Claviceps purpurea presentes em amostras de sementes. Foram analisadas 37 amostras de sementes de azevém provenientes de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. As sementes foram plaqueadas em três meios de cultura: BDA, semi-seletivo de Reis e semi-seletivo de Segalin & Reis, analisando-se a incidência dos fungos. Para detecção de C. purpurea, foram pesados 100g de sementes por amostra e, através de exame visual, foi determinado o número de escleródios. Os fungos detectados foram Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera spp., D. siccans, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. A incidência de A. alternata variou de 0,0% a 33,7% e freqüência de 89,2% nas amostras analisadas. Para B. sorokiniana a incidência foi de 0,0% a 2,2% e frequência de 62,2%, Drechslera spp., apresentou incidência de 0,0% a 40,3% e frequência de 78,4%. D. siccans a incidência foi de 0,1% a 20,0% e frequência de 100%.Para Fusarium spp., e F. graminearum a incidência foi de 0,0% a 31,0% e 0,0% a 11,3% e frequência de 81,1% e 64,9%, de 0,0% a 43,7% de incidência e 94,6% de frequência para Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. com incidência entre 0,0% a 51,7% e frequência de 91,9%, respectivamente. O fungo C. purpurea foi encontrado em 81,1% das amostras em estudo.

  6. Influence of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. as intercrop with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the diversity of weed communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Orzech

    2014-09-01

    Spring barley weeding was significantly higher in case of cultivating it in mixed stand with Italian ryegrass (without chemical control, than in pure stand (with control. In the plots with mixed crop, lower diversity and homogeneity of weeds’ communities were recorded than in pure stand. Barley in mixed crop sown after spring barley, during both times of evaluation (spring and before harvest, increased the value of the index of dominance according to the number of species the most. As concerns the composition of species, number and biomass, the communities of pure stand and mixed crop with Italian ryegrass on the plot after potato were the most similar.

  7. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Pavlović; Charlie Reinhardt; Igor Elezović; Sava Vrbničanin

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI) in South Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected and grown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate 35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicide treatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse, one population of L. rigidum susp...

  8. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT, officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.

  9. Two new coumarin glucosides biosynthesized by transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min Yu; Liang Bin Zhou; Chun Yan Yan; Guo Yan Duan; Yu Zhao

    2008-01-01

    The glycosylation of hydroxylcoumarin was investigated by using suspension cultures of hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum,Two new coumarin glucosides (3 and 4) were biosysthesized by regioselectively glycosylation of corresponding substrates (1 and 2)in the system. The structures of two products were identified as 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 7-hydroxy-3,4-dimethylcoumarin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the ground of chemical and spectroscopic methods, respectively.

  10. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM THUNB. ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for total phenolic con- tent (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. Material and methods. The raw material used was Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root powder. Five fac- tors such as solvent type, solvent concentrations, solvent/material ratio, extraction time and microwave power were studied; TPC and AC values were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH free radical scavenging activity measurement, respectively. In addition, studies involved assaying the HPLC test of extracts and SEM of samples. Results. Optimal results pointed to acetone as the solvent, acetone concentration of 60%, solvent/material ratio of 40/1 (v/w, extraction time of 5 mins and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC obtained were approximates 44.3 ±0.13 mg GAE/g DW and 341.26 ±1.54 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The effect of mi- crowaving on the cell destruction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Some phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC method, for instance, gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol. Conclusion. These factors significantly affected TPC and AC. We can use acetone as a solvent with micro- wave-assisted extraction to achieve the best result.

  11. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... important forage and turf grasses worldwide. We used the differences in vernalisation requirement between northern and southern European provenances to manipulate the degree of flowering. Over three growing seasons, we counted the number of flower stems and measured the clone diameter. The vernalisation...

  12. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter accumulation by the biotype were assessed. In the second experiment different rates of glyphosate and grass herbicides were tested: glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p and paraquat. A third experiments was carried out under glasshouse conditions to determine the curve of dry matter accumulation. The results showed GR50 of 287.5 and 4,833.5 g e. a. ha-1 of glyphosate for the sensitive and resistant biotypes, respectively. The results showed that the resistant factor (RF was 16.8 and that the resistance mechanism alters the biological characteristics of the resistant biotype affecting its sensitivity to grass herbicides.

  13. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL" diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic, representadas por: 0L ha-1 (testemunha; 0,7L ha-1 em pré-emergência (PRE seguido da aplicação de 0,7L ha-1 em pós-emergência (POS; 1,0L ha-1 em PRE; e 1,0L ha-1 em POS. Posteriormente, aos 194 dias após a aplicação das doses, foram coletadas amostras intactas de solo na camada de 0-10cm, as quais foram utilizadas na condução de um bioensaio com azevém. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de plantas emergidas aos três e 22 DAE (dias após a emergência e a matéria seca do azevém aos 40 DAE. Verificou-se que a aplicação dos herbicidas na cultura do arroz no verão não ocasiona danos ao azevém semeado 194 dias após a aplicação do produto.Imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazethapyr and imazapic, may persist in the soil and carryover to non-tolerant crops. This work aimed at evaluating the field carryover of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr+imazapic affecting ryegrass. For this reason, a field experiment was carried out, in which different rates of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr and imazapic were applied on a tolerant rice cultivar (';IRGA 422 CL';: 0L ha-1 (check plot; 0.7L ha-1 preemergence (PRE followed by 0.7L ha-1 postemergence (POS; 1.0L ha-1 PRE; 1.0L ha-1 POS. Later, 194 days after herbicide application, intact soils cores samples were collected at 0 to 10cm depth to carry out a bioassay in greenhouse, sowing ryegrass. It was evaluated the percentage of plants established at three and 22 DAE (days after emergence and ryegrass dry biomass at 40 DAE. The results showed that herbicides applied on rice crop during summer does not cause damage to the ryegrass sowed 194 days after herbicide application.

  14. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o azoto disponibilizado para as plantas a partir de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos, foi instalado um ensaio em vasos com azevém anual. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: Casca de Castanha (CC com 0,6% de azoto (N; Estrume de Bovino (EB, com 2,3% de N; Beira Adubo (BA, um guano comercial com 3,0% de N; Nitrato de Amónio (NA, com 20,5% de N, Entec (En, adubo com um inibidor da nitrificação, com 26% de N; e Fertigafsa (Fg, adubo composto ternário 4-16-12. Estabeleceu-se também uma modalidade Testemunha (T sem N. Todos os fertilizantes foram aplicados em dose equivalente a 200 mg de N por kg da fracção terra fina de um solo com textura franco-limosa, com pH (H2O 5,2 e 27 g kg-1 de matéria orgânica. Em todos os vasos foi aplicada uma solução nutritiva sem N. A sementeira foi efectuada a 1 de Outubro de 2004. Após germinação, foram mantidas 50 plantas por vaso. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada em 6 cortes, entre 9 de Novembro de 2004 e 4 de Agosto de 2005. Foi avaliada a produção de biomassa, o N exportado e o N aparentemente recuperado (NAR. A produção média acumulada de matéria seca variou significativamente entre 1,7 e 4,1 g/vaso em T e NA, respectivamente. A modalidade NA registou a exportação mais elevada (167 mg N/vaso e o maior valor de NAR (64%. Entre os fertilizantes minerais destacou-se o menor valor de NAR associado a En (45%, enquanto que os materiais orgânicos BA e EB tiveram comportamento semelhante entre si (24 e 22%, respectivamente. Nestas condições, os fertilizantes orgânicos (BA e EB e En foram pouco efectivos na libertação de N para a cultura. Os resultados fazem antever dificuldades na gestão destes fertilizantes em culturas anuais de ciclo curto, uma vez que estas podem ficar privadas de N durante fases importantes do seu desenvolvimento.A pot experiment with italian ryegrass was carried out to evaluate the N release from several fertilisers and organic amendments. The fertilizing materials were: chestnut fruit bark (CC, with 0.6% N, farmyard manure (EB, with 2.3% N, Beira Adubo (BA, a commercial organic amendment with 3% N; ammonium nitrate (NA, with 20.5% N; Entec (En, a fertiliser with a nitrification inhibitor, with 26% N; Fertigafsa (Fg a 4-16-12 compound fertiliser, and control (T without N fertilisation. All the fertilisers were applied at a rate equivalent to 200 mg N per kg of soil (< 2mm. A silt-loam soil with pH(H2O 5.2 and 27 g kg-1 of organic matter was used in the soil/fertiliser mixtures. A nutrient solution without N was added to all the pots. The crop was sown on the 1st October, 2004. After crop emergence, the plants were thinned to 50 plants per pot. Six harvests of ryegrass were taken between November 9, 2004 and August 4, 2005. Nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery (NAR were also estimated after the determination of tissue N content. Total dry matter yields (6 cuts were significantly different between treatments. Extreme values ranged between 1.7 g/pot (T and 4.1 g/pot (NA. The higher N uptake was recorded in the NA treatment (167 mg N/pot, as well as the higher NAR (64%. Entec produced the lowest NAR (45% among the mineral fertilisers. The organic amendments BA and EB showed similar NAR, 24 and 22%, respectively. The N released from BA, EB and En during the growing season was very low. The results stress the difficulties in properly managing this kind of fertilisers in annual crops with short growing cycles, where a N shortage could occur during important phases of crop development.

  15. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Grohs; Fernando Machado dos Santos; Enio Marchezan; Paulo Fabrício Sachet Massoni; Diego Rost Arosemena; Luis Antônio de Avila

    2008-01-01

    Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL") diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazet...

  16. Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pavlović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was approximately 5.3fold more resistant than susceptible population. The other population was 2.8 fold moreresistant than susceptible population. Difference between the two suspected resistant populationswas 1.9 fold. All plants were treated with glyphosate (1000 g a.i. ha-1 and shikimicacid was extracted 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The plants of susceptible populationsaccumulated more shikimic acid than other two populations.

  17. Biotransformation of 4-Hydroxybenzen Derivatives by Hairy Root Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yan Yan; Rong-Min Yu; Zhang Zhang; Ling-Yi Kong

    2007-01-01

    The biotransformation of four 4-hydroxybenzen derivatives (1,4-benzenediol (compound 1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (compound 2), 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (compound 3) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (compound 4)) by the hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. as a new biocatalyst was investigated. It was found that the substrates were transformed to their corresponding glucosides, 4-hydroxyphenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (arbutin, compound 1a), 4-hydroxymethylphenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (gastrodin, compounds 2a, 3a) and 4-carboxyphenyl α-Dglucopyranoside (compound 4a), respectively. In the meantime, the hairy roots of P. multlflorum were able to stereoselectively and regioselectively glucosylate phenolic hydroxyl groups of compounds 1-4, but the cultures could not glucosylate the aldehyde group of compound 2 or the benzylic hydroxyl group of compound 3, and no glucosyl esterification of carboxyl groups of compound 4 was detected. On the other hand, the result also showed that the hairy roots of P. multiflorum were able to reduce the 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to its corresponding alcohol.This is the first report that substrate 4 has been converted into its α-D-glucopyranoside by a plant biotransformation system.

  18. Polygonum multiflorum Decreases Airway Allergic Symptoms in a Murine Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Wang, Chien-N; Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Chiu, Chun-Lung; Liu, Leroy F; Lin, Hung-Yun; Wu, Reen

    2016-01-01

    The root of Polygonum multiflorum (also called He-Shou-Wu in Chinese) is a common herb and medicinal food in Asia used for its anti-aging properties. Our study investigated the therapeutic potential of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) in allergic asthma by using a mouse model. Feeding of 0.5 and 1 mg/mouse PME inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma symptoms, including airway inflammation, mucus production, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), in a dose-dependent manner. To discern PME's mechanism of action, we examined the profile and cytokine production of inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We found that eosinophils, the main inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lung of OVA-immunized mice, significantly decreased after PME treatment. Th2 cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], decreased in PME-treated mice. Elevated mRNA expression of Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 in the lung tissue was also inhibited after oral feeding of PME in OVA-immunized mice. Thus, we conclude that PME produces anti-asthma activity through the inhibition of Th2 cell activation. PMID:26916919

  19. Effect of Polyamine Priming on Chilling Tolerance of Lolium perenne during Seed Imbibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingfen WANG; Puchang WANG; Jiahai WU; Lili ZHAO; Bentian MO; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of potyamine priming on physiological and biochemical variations of Lolium perenne embryos and seed germination. [Method] With annual Lolium perenne (Diamond T and Grazing-8000) as experimental materials, after priming with 0.5 mmol/L putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) for 24 h and chilling imbibition at 5 ℃ for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, the effect of Put, Spd and Spm priming on chilling tolerance and germination ability of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition was investigated. [Result] Put, Spd and Spm priming improved the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and content of soluble protein content under low temperature stress, significantly in-creased the germination rate, and shortened the average germination duration. After chilling imbibition for 48 h, compared with the control, the average germination rate of annual Lolium perenne seeds was improved by 15.5% and 12.0% after Put, Spd and Spm priming, and the average germination duration was shortened by 1.21 and 1.14 d. During seed imbibition, the chilling tolerance of Grazing-8000 was stronger than that of Diamond T. Overall, Put, Spd and Spm treatment could increase the chilling tolerance of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition, and improve the germination ability of seeds under low temperature stress. [Conclusion] Results of this study provided theoretical basis for the application of seed priming technology in the production of annual ryegrass.

  20. 饿蚂蝗的生药学鉴别%Pharmacognostic identification of Desmodium multiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴怀恩; 王进声; 陆海琳; 韦汝坤

    2012-01-01

    目的 生药学鉴别饿蚂蝗.方法 对饿蚂蝗药材进行性状鉴别、显微鉴别、紫外-可见光谱鉴别.结果 根的木质部木纤维众多;茎皮层、韧皮部及髓部可见方晶;叶主脉维管束鞘纤维断续排列成环;全草的粉末可见方晶、纤维,偶见分枝纤维,淀粉粒极多.在200 ~ 800 nm处扫描,发现6种不同的提取液都有吸收峰.结论 饿蚂蝗的生药学特征明显,可为药材鉴别提供参考.%OBJECTIVE To study the pharmacognostic characteristics of Desmodium multiflorum DC. METHODS The morphological identification, microscopic identification and UV -Vis spectrum identification were adopted, RESULTS Numerous fibers could be seen in the xylem of the root. The irregular crystals were found in the cortex, phloem and pith of the stem. The fibers of vascular bundle sheath formed into interval circularity in the main vein vascular of the leaves. Crystals,fibers and starch grains could be observed in the powder. Six kinds of extracting solution of crude drug had absorption peaks in 200 - 800 nm. CONCLUSION These results can be used for the identification of Desmodium multiflorum.

  1. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M. (Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia))

    1991-04-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized (phenyl-U-{sup 14}C)chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system.

  2. Genotype _ environment interactions for forage yield of Lolium perenne L. sward plots in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) is by far the most widely sown grass species in Ireland. Genotype by environment (G by E) interactions are a frequent occurrence in forage yield evaluations. The objectives were to determine (i) the nature and relative magnitudes of the pertinent G by E interac...

  3. Transcriptome response of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is one of the principal cool-season species used as a forage and turf within the USA. A number of benefits associated with the persistence of tall fescue have been attributed to the presence of its seed-transmissible symbiont, the fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophi...

  4. Genetic differences in root mass of Lolium perenne varieties under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, J.G.C.; Schilder, H.; Schoot, van der J.R.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although grasses have dense rooting systems, nutrient uptake and productivity can be increased, and N-leaching reduced, if rooting is further improved. The variation in root mass of 16 varieties of Lolium perenne was studied under field conditions in two experiments on sandy soil in The Netherlands.

  5. Effects of Hot Water Extracts from Polygonum multiflorum on Ovariectomy Induced Osteopenia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Kim, Jong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Ju; Son, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum (PM), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat various diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. However, the influence of PM on osteoporosis in animals is unclear. The present study investigated the antiosteoporotic effect of PM on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and its possible mechanism of action. Twenty-five female C3H/HeN mice were divided into five groups of five mice as follows. Sham-operated control mice received daily oral gavage of an equal volume of water, and OVX mice received daily oral gavage of water or an injection of β-estradiol or PM for 6 weeks. Administration of PM significantly suppressed body weight and organs weight and increased weight and length of bone compared with the OVX group. Treatment with PM reversed osteopenia in OVX mice, thereby improving the bone morphometric parameters. Moreover, histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that PM inhibited OVX-induced bone loss. Serum estradiol and bone alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly decreased in the OVX group, with the levels increasing with PM treatment. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by PM in OVX mice. These results suggest that PM is effective in preventing bone loss in OVX mice.

  6. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW, we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations.

  7. Toxicological and melanin synthesis effects of Polygonum multiflorum root extracts on zebrafish embryos and human melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Thi Hoai Dang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been commmonly used as folk medicine for treatment of various conditions, such as early graying of hair in humans. However, there have been limited studies which have evaluated the toxicological and biological effects of PM in vitro as well as in vivo. In this study, PM root extracts in ethyl acetate (PM-E and in distilled water (PM-W were examined for their effects on the development of teratogenic defects/deaths. Additionally, they were evaluated for their effects on melanin formation in human melanocytes and pigmentation in embryos/larvae of wild type strain AB zebrafish (Danio rerio. Our results showed that PM root extracts at concentrations of 40 mg/L and 105 mg/L induced the development of teratogenic defects, including yolk sac edema (or heart edema, hemovascular defects, necrosis and abnormal trunk in zebrafish embryos at 4 days post fertilization; teratogenic indexes (TIs were 1.43 and 0.63 for ethyl acetate extract and distilled water extract, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that PM-W significantly increased the pigmentation level of embryos/larvae and induced melanin formation in human melanocytes. The amount of melanin in PM-W-exposed embryos/larvae was 2.2-fold and 1.71-fold greater than those in the control embryos/larvae and control melanocytes, respectively. Our study also showed that the increased level of pigmentation in PM-W embryos/larvae or melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes were both regulated by activation of tyrosinase. Conclusively, our study suggests that PM root extracts could be used as potential agents for treatment of early hair graying as well as various other diseases related to loss of pigmentation. However, these PM root extracts may also have some negative effects on embryos; therefore it should be careful when using for women during pregnancy. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 808-818

  8. Uptake and accumulation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soils by Ryegrass( Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-you; CHEN Ying-xu; LIN Qi; WU Wei-xiang; XUE Sheng-guo; SHEN Chao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a cost-effective method for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil. A study was conducted to investigate the uptake and accumulation of PAHs in root and shoot of Lolium perenne L. Pot experiments were conducted with series of concentrations of 3.31-378.37 mg/kg for phenanthrene and those of 4.22-365.38 mg/kg for pyrene in a greenhouse. The results showed that both ryegrass roots and shoots did take up PAHs from spiked soils, and generally increased with increasing concentrations of PAH in soil. Bioconcentration factors(BCFs) of phenanthrene by shoots and roots were 0.24-4.25 and 0.17-2.12 for the same treatment. BCFs of pyrene by shoots were 0.20-1.5, except for 4.06 in 4.32 mg/kg treatment, much lower than BCFs of pyrene by roots (0.58-2.28). BCFs of phenanthrene and pyrene tended to decrease with increasing concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. Direct uptake and accumulation of these compounds by Lolium perenne L. was very low compared with the other loss pathways, which meant that plant-promoted microbial biodegradation might be the main contribution to plant-enhanced removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. However, the presence of Lolium perenne L. significantly enhanced the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soil. At the end of 60 d experiment, the extractable concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were lower in planted soil than in non-planted soil, about 83.24%-91.98% of phenanthrene and 68.53%-84.10% of pyrene were removed from soils, respectively. The results indicated that the removal of PAHs in contaminated soils was a feasible approach by using Lolium perenne L.

  9. Selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), grown for seed production

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova; Aneliya Katova

    2011-01-01

    During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops - Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and their influence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control - Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron) at rate of 100 ml/h...

  10. Effects of Cattle Barnyard Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Ahmad Darobin; Kumagai, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cattle barnyard compost (CBC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on soil and on yield and quality of maize (MZ) and italian ryegrass (IR) in double cropping system. The experiment used 4 rates of CBC and N fertilizer, respectively, i.e. CBC at rate of 0, 3, 6, 9 ton/10a and N fertilizer at rate of 0, 18, 36, 54 kg N/10a for MZ and 0, 10, 20, 30 kg N/10a for IR. Cattle barnyard compost increased organic matter and total N in soil. There was n...

  11. Phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization indicate no major race-specific interactions between Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis and Lolium multiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, F; Hug, B Müller; Widmer, F;

    2011-01-01

    (AMMI) analysis revealed five genotypes which did not cluster close to the origin of the biplot, indicating specific interactions between these genotypes and some bacterial isolates. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify marker-resistance associations using the same plant genotypes...

  12. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  13. Características agronômicas produtivas, qualidade e custo de produção de forragem em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam fertilizada com dois tipos de adubo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Filho Dari Celestino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento produtivo e qualitativo, bem como, o custo de produção de forragem da pastagem de azevém comum, em pastejo contínuo, fertilizada com dois tipos de adubos: Organo-mineral (AOM e Químico (AQ. O estabelecimento da pastagem foi em 24/04/1999, com semeadura a lanço e o nível de adubação, em cobertura, foi de 300kg ha-1 do AOM na fórmula 06-08-08 ou do AQ na fórmula 10-18-20. Não houve interação significativa entre os fertilizantes e período de avaliação para as variáveis estudadas. A fonte de nutrientes, para os valores médios, não afetou significativamente o teor de matéria seca (MS no resíduo (22,6 vs 22,2%, a taxa de acumulação diária (72,3 vs 63,3kg ha-1 de MS, a produção total de forragem (7.518 vs 6.801kg ha-1 de MS, o teor de proteína bruta (12,8 vs 12,7%, a fibra em detergente neutro (57,4 vs 57,4% e a fibra em detergente ácido (31,0 vs 32,3%, respectivamente, para o AOM e AQ. O custo total da pastagem foi de 225,90 e 253,50 R$ ha-1, e a fonte de nutrientes representou 37,6 e 44,4%, respectivamente, para o AOM e AQ. Para o custo de forragem produzida, os valores foram de 0,030 e 0,037 R$ kg-1 de MS para a pastagem fertilizada com AOM e AQ, respectivamente.

  14. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andria, Verania [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Unit of Environmental Resources and Technologies, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.a [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  15. 19a-hydroxy-3-oxo-ursa-1,12-dien-28-oic acid, an antiplasmodial triterpenoid isolated from Canthium multiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traore, Maminata; Ziegler, Hanne Lindvig; Olsen, C Erik;

    2009-01-01

    A bioactivity guided fractionation of roots of Canthium multiflorum led to the isolation of the new ursenoic acid derivative 19alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-ursa-1,12-dien-28-oic acid (1), which showed antiplasmodial effect without inducing change of the shape of membranes of erythrocytes....

  16. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L.) Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam.) or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Brito; A. L. Amaro; I. Mourão; Coutinho, J.

    2010-01-01

    A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC) de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO) em todas as pilhas. No ent...

  17. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L. Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam. or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO em todas as pilhas. No entanto, a MO potencialmente mineralizável e o teor de N orgânico nos compostos finais foram inferiores. A razão C/N diminuiu de forma semelhante para todas as pilhas de 32-38 no início do processo para 13-17 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa razão C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+, em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO 3-dos compostos finais, indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. O elevado teor de MO (784-832 g kg-1 MS e de N total (28-35 g kg-1 MS e a baixa condutividade eléctrica (0,72-1,16 dS m-1 sugerem que os compostados da FSC podem ser utilizados como correctivos orgânicos do solo. A utilização de palha ou de tojo contribuiu para melhor garantir a higienização do composto.Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF was col­lected from a dairy farm (SF and com­posted with increasing rates of Italian rye-grass straw or gorse, in static piles turned only three times. Temperatures increased to a maximum of 65 ºC after the first turn in the pile only with SF. In contrast, higher temperatures were registered much sooner in piles mixed with straw or gorse. The ad­dition of these bulking agents to SF in­creased temperatures and also the initial rates of organic matter (OM mineralisation. In contrast, potential OM mineralisation and organic N content decreased. The C/N ratio declined following a similar pattern for all compost treatments, from 32-38 at the beginning of the proc­ess, to a value of 13-17 towards the end of composting. Stabilized compost was obtained from raw SF feedstock as indi­cated by the low compost temperature, low C/N ratio and the small content of NH4+ combined with increased concentra­tions of NO3-. The high concentration of OM (784-832 g kg-1 and total N (28-35 g kg-1 in final composts in addition to a low electrical conductivity (0.72-1.16 dS m-1 suggests that SF composts may be ef­fective as soil amendments. The use of straw or gorse contributed to guarantee compost sanitation.

  18. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Sewage River Sediment by Lolium perenne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to restore heavy metal pollution of urban sewage river sediment by using Lolium perenne.[Method] Through cultivation test,the phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution in river sediment by L.perenne was analyzed from the aspects of removal effect,optimal removal time and the changes of sucrase activity,urease activity and microbe quantity.[Result] After planting L.perenne for three months,Ni content in sediment was basically stable,while the removal effect of Cr and Mn in sediment wa...

  19. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  20. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Hwang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  1. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang I.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  2. Characterization of a family of ice-active proteins from the Ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumble, Krishnanand D; Demmer, Jerome; Fish, Steven; Hall, Claire; Corrales, Sofia; DeAth, Angela; Elton, Clare; Prestidge, Ross; Luxmanan, Selvanesan; Marshall, Craig J; Wharton, David A

    2008-12-01

    Five genes coding for ice-active proteins were identified from an expressed sequence tag database of Lolium perenne cDNA libraries. Each of the five genes were characterized by the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide, a region enriched in hydrophilic amino acids and a leucine-rich region in four of the five genes that is homologous with the receptor domain of receptor-like protein kinases of plants. The C-terminal region of all five genes contains sequence homologous with Lolium and Triticum ice-active proteins. Of the four ice-active proteins (IAP1, IAP2, IAP3 and IAP5) cloned, three could be expressed in Escherichia coli and recovered in a functional form in order to study their ice activity. All three ice-active proteins had recrystallization inhibition activity but showed no detectable antifreeze or ice nucleation activity at the concentration tested. IAP2 and IAP5 formed distinct hexagonal-shaped crystals in the nanolitre osmometer as compared to the weakly hexagonal crystals produced by IAP3. PMID:18835384

  3. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J;

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...

  4. Carbon balance and water use efficiency of frequently cut Lolium perenne L. swards at elevated carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.; Groenwold, J.; Pot, C.S.; Geijn, van de S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of doubled atmospheric [CO2] on the carbon balance of regularly cut Lolium perenne L. swards was studied for two years under semi-field conditions in the Wageningen Rhizolab. CO2 and H2O vapour exchange rates of the swards were measured continuously for two years in transparent enclosures

  5. EFFICIENCY OF INDIRECT SELECTION FOR DRY MATTER YIELD BASED ON FRESH MATTER YIELD IN LOLIUM PERENNE L. SWARD PLOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...

  6. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...

  7. Expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Frei, Ursula;

    2008-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been exploited as a resource for microsatellite marker development. Out of 955 simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing ESTs, 744 were used for primer design. Primer amplification was te...

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIA; Shi-rong TANG; Xue-hai JU; Li-na SHU; Shu-xing TU; Ren-wei FENG; Lorenzino GIUSTI

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multifiorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1 000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2.Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

  9. 黑麦草属DNA条形码鉴定技术研究%Establishment of DNA barcode of common species of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 吴申懋; 陈沁

    2014-01-01

    以毒麦、田毒麦、多花黑麦草、多年生黑麦草、硬直黑麦草、高羊茅与狗牙根等禾本科的7种植物为材料,拟采用 DNA 测序、特异性位点比对、种间遗传距离测定、建立系统树等分析候选 DNA 条形码 psbA-trnH 鉴别黑麦草属常见植物的能力。实验结果表明,以 psbA-trnH 为 DNA 条形码时,建立的系统发育树能较好区分毒麦和田毒麦与其他几种植物。psbA-trnH 序列可以作为黑麦草属植物的潜在条形码。%7 kinds of plants such as Lolium temulentum、Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab.、Lolium multiflorum、Lolium perenne、Lolium rigidum、Festuca、Cynodon are used as materials, which belong to Poaceae, to analyze psbA-trnH candidate DNA barcode’s ability of identifying the common species of Lolium by DNA sequencing, specific loci comparisons and interspecific genetic distance measurement, establishing the system tree and other technical means. The results show that Lolium temulentum and Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab. can be divided well by the established system tree when we use psbA-trnH sequence as a DNA barcode. psbA-trnH could be used as a potential DNA barcode to correctly identify the plants in Lolium.

  10. Correlations between productivity elements in Lolium perenne L. species for new varieties resistant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder [6, 9, 15].With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.

  11. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...... using 454 next-generation sequencing technology, resulting in approximately 800,000 high quality single reads. Here we report on the sequencing and the assembly of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Moreover, the assembly and annotation of the male-sterile and fertile mitochondrial......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a key grassland species in temperate climates. As an out breeding crop, ryegrass is currently being bred as population and synthetic families, thereby not fully exploiting the genetically available heterosis. Thus, hybrid breeding has the potential...

  12. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies...

  13. Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and Its Processed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Qiu, Xiao-Hui; Bai, Jun-Qi; Gao, You-Heng; Xu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In order to quickly and simultaneously obtain the chemical profiles and control the quality of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and its processed form, a rapid qualitative and quantitative method, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n)) has been developed. The analysis was performed within 10 min on an AcQuity UPLC™ BEH C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile at flow rate of 400 μL/min. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high resolution MS(n) data, a diagnostic ion searching strategy was used for rapid and tentative identification of main phenolic components and 23 compounds were simultaneously identified or tentatively characterized. The difference in chemical profiles between P. multiflorum and its processed preparation were observed by comparing the ions abundances of main constituents in the MS spectra and significant changes of eight metabolite biomarkers were detected in the P. multiflorum samples and their preparations. In addition, four of the representative phenols, namely gallic acid, trans-2,3,5,4'-tetra-hydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin and emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were quantified by the validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. These phenols are considered to be major bioactive constituents in P. multiflorum, and are generally regarded as the index for quality assessment of this herb. The method was successfully used to quantify 10 batches of P. multiflorum and 10 batches of processed P. multiflorum. The results demonstrated that the method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the discrimination and quality control of this traditional Chinese herb. PMID:26712736

  14. Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and Its Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Hua Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to quickly and simultaneously obtain the chemical profiles and control the quality of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and its processed form, a rapid qualitative and quantitative method, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn has been developed. The analysis was performed within 10 min on an AcQuity UPLC™ BEH C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile at flow rate of 400 μL/min. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high resolution MSn data, a diagnostic ion searching strategy was used for rapid and tentative identification of main phenolic components and 23 compounds were simultaneously identified or tentatively characterized. The difference in chemical profiles between P. multiflorum and its processed preparation were observed by comparing the ions abundances of main constituents in the MS spectra and significant changes of eight metabolite biomarkers were detected in the P. multiflorum samples and their preparations. In addition, four of the representative phenols, namely gallic acid, trans-2,3,5,4′-tetra-hydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin and emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were quantified by the validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. These phenols are considered to be major bioactive constituents in P. multiflorum, and are generally regarded as the index for quality assessment of this herb. The method was successfully used to quantify 10 batches of P. multiflorum and 10 batches of processed P. multiflorum. The results demonstrated that the method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the discrimination and quality control of this traditional Chinese herb.

  15. Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and Its Processed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Qiu, Xiao-Hui; Bai, Jun-Qi; Gao, You-Heng; Xu, Wen

    2015-12-26

    In order to quickly and simultaneously obtain the chemical profiles and control the quality of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb. and its processed form, a rapid qualitative and quantitative method, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n)) has been developed. The analysis was performed within 10 min on an AcQuity UPLC™ BEH C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile at flow rate of 400 μL/min. According to the fragmentation mechanism and high resolution MS(n) data, a diagnostic ion searching strategy was used for rapid and tentative identification of main phenolic components and 23 compounds were simultaneously identified or tentatively characterized. The difference in chemical profiles between P. multiflorum and its processed preparation were observed by comparing the ions abundances of main constituents in the MS spectra and significant changes of eight metabolite biomarkers were detected in the P. multiflorum samples and their preparations. In addition, four of the representative phenols, namely gallic acid, trans-2,3,5,4'-tetra-hydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin and emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were quantified by the validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. These phenols are considered to be major bioactive constituents in P. multiflorum, and are generally regarded as the index for quality assessment of this herb. The method was successfully used to quantify 10 batches of P. multiflorum and 10 batches of processed P. multiflorum. The results demonstrated that the method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the discrimination and quality control of this traditional Chinese herb.

  16. Herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium spp. populations – resistance factors and cross-resistance spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In monitoring trials investigating the occurrence and spread of herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium populations 26 samples could be included since 2008. Biotypes which showed resistance to postemergence herbicides were included into a detailed greenhouse trial in 2014. Based on dose-response experiments, resistance factors and cross resistance patterns for cycloxydim, flufenacet, glyphosate, iodosulfuron, meso- and iodosulfuron, pinoxaden and pyroxsulam could be determined. Resistance to ALS as well as ACCase inhibitors was found. In a few cases also resistance to flufenacet could be detected. In contrast, no resistance to glyphosate was discovered. Resistant populations were found in four German federal states (Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Sachsen and Schleswig-Holstein. Two populations were resistant to all cereal selective post-emergence herbicides and to flufenacet. Some populations from Switzerland indicated presence of ACCase inhibitor resistance. In the future, more problems with herbicide resistant Lolium species as weeds in cereals may arise due to limited amount of available selective herbicides and climatic change with more favourable conditions for Lolium spp. as weeds.

  17. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  18. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to elevated CO2 under cadmium stress in Lolium perenne L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Ju, Xuehai; Liao, Shangqiang; Song, Zhengguo; Li, Zhongyang

    2011-10-15

    The increasing atmospheric CO(2) and heavy metal contamination in soil are two of the major environmental problems. Knowledge of the Cd stress coping mechanisms is needed to understand the regulation of the plants' metabolism under the increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels. Lolium perenne L. was grown hydroponically under two concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (360 and 1000μLL(-1)) and six concentrations of cadmium (0-160μmolL(-1)) to investigate Cd uptake, Cd transportation, and variations in phytochelatin (PC) concentration. Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were decreased, but transport index (Ti) was increased under elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). Regardless of CO(2) concentrations, Cd and PC concentrations, especially the concentrations of high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) were higher with increasing Cd concentration in growth media and longer Cd exposure time. Under the elevated CO(2), more high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) in shoots and roots were synthesized compared to ambient CO(2), with higher SH:Cd ratio in roots as well. These results indicate that under elevated CO(2), L. perenne may be better protected against Cd stress with higher biomass, lower Cd concentration and better detoxification by phytochelatins.

  19. Pollen-Mediated Movement of Herbicide Resistance Genes in Lolium rigidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Loureiro

    Full Text Available The transfer of herbicide resistance genes by pollen is a major concern in cross-pollinated species such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum. A two-year study was conducted in the greenhouse, under favorable conditions for pollination, to generate information on potential maximum cross-pollination. This maximum cross-pollination rate was 56.1%. A three-year field trial was also conducted to study the cross-pollination rates in terms of distance and orientation to an herbicide-resistant pollen source. Under field conditions, cross-pollination rates varied from 5.5% to 11.6% in plants adjacent to the pollen source and decreased with increasing distances (1.5 to 8.9% at 15 m distance and up to 4.1% at 25 m in the downwind direction. Environmental conditions influenced the cross-pollination both under greenhouse and field conditions. Data were fit to an exponential decay model to predict gene flow at increasing distances. This model predicted an average gene flow of 7.1% when the pollen donor and recipient plants were at 0 m distance from each other. Pollen-mediated gene flow declined by 50% at 16.7 m from the pollen source, yet under downwind conditions gene flow of 5.2% was predicted at 25 m, the farthest distance studied. Knowledge of cross-pollination rates will be useful for assessing the spread of herbicide resistance genes in L. rigidum and in developing appropriate strategies for its mitigation.

  20. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  1. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Grown for Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and theirinfluence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control – Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at rate of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750 g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazone + 90 g/l dicamba – 1250 ml/ha had high selectivity to perennial ryegrass, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year. Herbicide for grass weeds control: Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinafop-prop-argyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha, applied at the same stage can be applied in seed production stands of perennial ryegrass. Herbicide for grass weeds control – Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxydim + Atplus 463 at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha showed phytotoxic effect on L. perenne and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomass productivity. Realization of the biological potential concerning seed and dry mass yield of perennial ryegrass demands application of selective herbicides Arat, Korida 75 VDG and Cambio SL in control of broadleaf weeds and Topik 080EK in control of grass weeds.

  2. Responses of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Grown in Mudflats to Sewage Sludge Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yan-chao; GU Chuan-hui; TAO Tian-yun; ZHU Xiao-wen; XU Yi-ran; SHAN Yu-hua; FENG Ke

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment (SSA) is an alternative waste disposal technique and a potential way to increase fertility of mudflats for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the suitability of SSA by assessing the nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) uptakes, heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass, and yield response of ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.) at 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates at various growth stages. The results showed that the highest biomass of ryegrass at seedling and vegetative stages were at 300 and 150 t ha-1 SSA rate, respectively. The increments of ryegrass yield at reproductive stage at 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates were 98.0, 122.6, 88.1, and 61.2%, compared to unamended soil. N and P concentrations in ryegrass increased with increasing SSA rates at all stages except N and P in roots dropped signiifcantly at 300 t ha-1 rate at vegetative stage. The metal concentration for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb in shoot of ryegrass at 300 t ha-1 SSA rate increased by 0.63-, 2.34-, 15.02-, 0.97-, 10.00-, 0.01- and 1.13-fold, respectively, compared to unamended soil. However, heavy metal concentrations in shoot of ryegrass were lower than the standard for forage products in China. The study suggested that sewage sludge amendment in mudlfat soils might be feasible. However, the impacts of sludge application on edible crop plants and soil environment need further investigations.

  3. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice;

    2009-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) measures dissociation of double stranded DNA of a PCR product amplified in the presence of a saturating fluorescence dye. Recently, HRM proved successful to genotype DNA sequence polymorphisms such as SSRs and SNPs based on the shape of the melting...... curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...

  4. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were veri.ed with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (.uoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and .uorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  5. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  6. Effects of Condensed Tannins from Quebracho Extract on the Kinetic of in vitro Gas Production on Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Sandrine C.; Borba, Alfredo Emílio Silveira de

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on the kinetic of gas production in vitro, on the three main species of Azorean pasture: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne, using Quebracho extract as the source of CT, and also to calculate total tannins and condensed tannins on the species studied. Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were tested in vitro with the inclusion of Quebracho extract in doses of 0%, 2.5% and 5% DM. The ...

  7. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  8. Effect of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on some characteristics of “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on visual quality, some characteristics of roots and chlorophyll changes of ryegrass, an experiment was carried out in Research Greenhouses of Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran, in spring and summer of 2009. The ryegrass was “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass, which is composed of three lolium (Lolium perenne L. cultivars. After autoclave of the soil, addition of inoculums of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to pots and sowing of the seeds, plants were given enough time to grow. After establishment, humic acid was sprayed on leaves at concentrations of 0 (as control, 100, 400 and 1000 mg/L, and the above-mentioned characteristics were measured until the 9th week after starting the treatments. The results showed that humic acid was significantly effective on chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll content, root length and fresh and dry weights of roots; but had no effect on visual quality, root volume and colonization percentage. Mycorrhiza fungi were effective on all characteristics. Among the mycorrhiza fungi, G. mosseae was better than G. intraradices on root factors, while had no positive effect on aerial parts. Colonization percentage was almost equal in both fungi. The effect of mycorrhiza fungi on the above-mentioned characteristics, with respect to the inoculums solution, was probably due to the production of hormone-like effects and enhanced hypha density in soil.

  9. Plant Response to Salmon Wastes and Sewage Sludge Used as Organic Fertilizer on Two Degraded Soils Under Greenhouse Conditions Respuesta de Plantas a la Fertilización Orgánica con Residuos de Salmonicultura y Lodos Municipales en Dos Suelos Degradados Bajo Condiciones de Invernadero

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    José Celis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of urban sewage and farmed salmon sludge, as well as their fertilizer potential, was evaluated by a battery of tests carried out with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Winter Star. Wastes were evaluated in a Patagonian soil (Andic cryofluvent and a granitic soil (Ultic Palexeralf. The treatments were municipal sewage sludge (MSS, salmon ground-farming waste (PSW and salmon lake-farming waste (LSW at different rates: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 t ha-1. Bioassays in lettuce were conducted for germination index (GI, radicle and hypocotyl structure length. Test in ryegrass were conducted for aboveground biomass yield. The phytotoxicological results from Patagonian soil showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 among sludge, where the highest values for GI, radicle and hypocotyl length were for LSW, followed by PSW. Results from granitic soil showed no significant differences among sludge added. In both soils, MSS treatment at application rate of 150 t ha-1 presented the smallest radicle length, not showing development of the hypocotyl structure. Biomass data indicated that MSS, PSW and LSW sludge can be applied at 25 to 150 t ha-1 on Patagonian soil and only LSW sludge on granitic soil. However, its addition should be complemented with N and K inorganic fertilizer to increase pasture yield. MSS and PSW sludge applied at 150 t ha-1 was clearly detrimental for crop yield, especially when applied to granitic soil.En este estudio se evaluó el potencial tóxico y fertilizante de lodos urbanos y biosólidos residuales de salmonicultura, usando para ello lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. y ballica anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Winter Star. Estos biosólidos fueron adicionados en mezclas a un suelo patagónico (Andic cryofluvent y a un suelo granítico (Ultic Palexeralf. Los tratamientos fueron lodo municipal (MSS, biosólido de salmonicultura en tierra (PSW y biosólido de salmonicultura lacustre

  10. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde;

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage ma...

  11. Isolation and characterisation of laccase cDNAs from meristematic and stem tissues of ryegrass (¤Lolium perenne¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, B.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Plant laccases are believed to be involved in dehydrogenative polymerisation of lignin. We report here the first cloning of monocot laccases. Five different laccase-encoding cDNA sequences were identified from ryegrass (Lolium perenne); four from stem and one from meristematic tissue. Three c...

  12. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

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    Smaranda Mâşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  13. Enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants differentially affects Rubisco activity during low temperature treatment in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Grzesiak, Maciej; Kalita, Katarzyna; Rapacz, Marcin

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene was shown to be a point for optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It can be expected to be a stress-regulated event that depends on plant freezing tolerance. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among Rubisco activity, the expression of two Rubisco activase splicing variants and photoacclimation to low temperature. The experiment was performed on two Lolium perenne genotypes with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. The study investigated the effect of pre-hardening (15°C) and cold acclimation (4°C) on net photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical activity, Rubisco activity and the expression of two splicing variants of the Rubisco activase gene. The results showed an induction of Rubisco activity at both 15°C and 4°C only in a highly freezing-tolerant genotype. The enhanced Rubisco activity after pre-hardening corresponded to increased expression of the splicing variant representing the large isoform, while the increase in Rubisco activity during cold acclimation was due to the activation of both transcript variants. These boosts in Rubisco activity also corresponded to an activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation induced at low temperature exclusively in the highly freezing-tolerant genotype. In conclusion, enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants caused an increase in Rubisco activity during pre-hardening and cold acclimation in the more freezing-tolerant Lolium perenne genotype. The induction of the transcript variant representing the large isoform may be an important element of increasing the carbon assimilation rate supporting the photochemical mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to cold. PMID:27152456

  14. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rod W.King; Lewis N.Mander; Torben Asp; Colleen P. MacMillan; Cheryl A.Blundell; Lloyd T.Evans

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea.For flowering,it is GAs which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass,Lolium.As we show here,GA1 and GA4 are restricted in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex.In contrast,GAs is effective because of its structural protection at C-2.Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1,[14C]GA4,and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h),but not [14C]GA5.Coincidentally,genes encoding two 2β-oxidases and a putative 16-17-epoxidase were most expressed just below the shoot apex (4 mm),expression of these GA deactivation genes is reduced,so allowing GA1 and GA4 to promote sub-apical stem elongation.Subsequently,GA degradation declines in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development.Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g.2α-hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation).Additionally,a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl) enhanced the activity of applied GA4,as did limiting C-16,17 epoxidation in 16,17-dihydro GAs or after C-13 hydroxylation.Overall,deactivation of GA1 and GA4 just below the shoot apex effectively restricts their florigenicity in Lolium and,conversely,with GAs,C-2 and C-13 protection against deactivation allows its high florigenicity.Speculatively,such differences in GA access to the shoot apex of grasses may be important for separating floral induction from inflorescence emergence and thus could influence their survival under conditions of herbivore predation.

  15. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

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    Langdon Tim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons

  16. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    OpenAIRE

    Qianhe eLiu; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Hong eXue; Susanne eRasmussen

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve c...

  17. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve c...

  18. Pepsin-Cellulase Digestibility of Pasture Silages: Effects of Pasture Type, Maturity Stage, and Variations in the Enzymatic Method Digestibilidad mediante Pepsina-Celulasa de Ensilajes de Pradera: Efectos del Tipo de Pradera, Estado de Madurez y Variaciones en el Método Enzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic in vitro digestibility has been studied as a method to predict energy values of forages for ruminants, although results have been affected by type of forage and methodological details of the technique. This work was performed to evaluate the effects of cellulase concentration (0.75, 1.0 and 6.25 g L-1, incubation time (24 or 48 h and type of final washing of the residue (water or acetone on the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DMD, organic matter (OMD and content of digestible organic matter in the DM (D value of silages made at three maturity stages from three types of pastures: a permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus; b Italian ryegrass ley (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c oats (Avena sativa L. and d mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. Regression equations among cellulase results and in vitro values obtained with rumen fluid were also developed. Higher enzyme concentration, longer incubation time and final washing with acetone, resulted in a significant (P La digestibilidad enzimática in vitro ha sido estudiada para predecir el valor energético de forrajes para rumiantes, aunque el tipo de forraje y los detalles metodológicos han afectado los resultados obtenidos. Este trabajo pretende evaluar los efectos de la concentración de celulasa (0,75; 1,0 y 6,25 g L-1, tiempo de incubación (24 o 48 h y tipo de lavado final (agua o acetona del residuo, sobre la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DMD, materia orgánica (OMD y el contenido de materia orgánica digestible en la materia seca, o valor D (D value de ensilajes hechos con tres estados de madurez, de diferentes praderas: a pradera permanente (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens y Holcus lanatus; b ballica Italiana (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c avena (Avena sativa L.; y d pradera mixta (L. perenne

  19. Sementes nocivas que ocorreram em amostras de sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, analisadas no Rio Grande do Sul nos anos de 1978 e 1979 Weed seeds in ryegrass seeds, analysed in Rio Grande do Sul, during 1978 and 1979

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    H. Giaretta

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram levantadas informações sobre a qualidade da semente de azevém utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul e produzida no próprio Estado ou em outras uni dades da Federação e mesmo em outros Países, nos anos de 1978 e 1979. Estas informações foram obtidas através de fichas e Boletins de Análise de Sementes dos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes (LAS do Rio Grande do Sul. Em 1978 analisou-se 2.319 t de azevém sendo 74% da semente oriunda do Rio Grande do Sul e 26% introduzida, enquanto que das 4.772 t analisadas em 1979 99,6% são do Rio Grande do Sul e 0,4% são introduzidas. O percentual de sementes de azevém, produzidas no Estado, contaminadas com sementes nocivas foi de 61,5% em 1978 e de 60,0% em 1979; e o de sementes int roduzidas no Estado foi de 45,6% em 1978 e de 29,4%em 1979. Foi observado que ent re as sementes originárias do RS destacaram -se com maior ocorrênci a em 1978 as espécies nocivas de Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens e Echinochloa spp, enquanto que nas sementes int roduzidas desta caram-se Sida spp e Rumex spp; em 1979, na semente oriunda do Estado desta caram-se Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica e Setaria geniculata, enquanto que nas sementes introduzidas a maior ocorrência foi de Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp e Solanum spp.This paper presents a quality record of rye-grass seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul or imported from other countries. It refers to the presence of weeds in ryegrass during 1978 and 1979. These record were obtained in the Analysis Bulletins at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas (IPAGRO Rio Grande do Sul°Brasil and in those from other institutions. This State produced 74% of 2.319 t analysed seeds and 26% come from other places in 1978. In 1979 4.772 t were registred, 99,6% from here and 0,4% from outside. The percentage of ryegrass seeds contaminated with weed seeds produced in the State, in 1978, were 61,5% and 45,6% in the imported seeds. In 1979 these values were 60,0% and 29,4%, respectively. The commonest seeds of weed species that were found among the samples, in the seeds produced at Rio Grande do Sul, in 1978 were: Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens and Echinochloa spp. In 1979 the weeds were: Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica and Setaria geniculata. In seeds imported from other countries we found, in 1978, Sida spp and Rumex spp; in 1979 Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp and Solanum spp.

  20. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident.

  1. Comparative metabolite fingerprinting of the rumen system during colonisation of three forage grass (Lolium perenne L. varieties.

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    Alison H Kingston-Smith

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota enable ruminants to degrade complex ligno-cellulosic compounds to produce high quality protein for human consumption. However, enteric fermentation by domestic ruminants generates negative by-products: greenhouse gases (methane and environmental nitrogen pollution. The current lack of cultured isolates representative of the totality of rumen microbial species creates an information gap about the in vivo function of the rumen microbiota and limits our ability to apply predictive biology for improvement of feed for ruminants. In this work we took a whole ecosystem approach to understanding how the metabolism of the microbial population responds to introduction of its substrate. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy-based metabolite fingerprinting was used to discriminate differences in the plant-microbial interactome of the rumen when using three forage grass varieties (Lolium perenne L. cv AberDart, AberMagic and Premium as substrates for microbial colonisation and fermentation. Specific examination of spectral regions associated with fatty acids, amides, sugars and alkanes indicated that although the three forages were apparently similar by traditional nutritional analysis, patterns of metabolite flux within the plant-microbial interactome were distinct and plant genotype dependent. Thus, the utilisation pattern of forage nutrients by the rumen microbiota can be influenced by subtleties determined by forage genotypes. These data suggest that our interactomic approach represents an important means to improve forages and ultimately the livestock environment.

  2. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  3. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  4. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  5. Genotyping by RAD sequencing enables mapping of fatty acid composition traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Matthew; Yadav, Rattan; Lee, Michael; Armstead, Ian; Sanderson, Ruth; Scollan, Nigel; Powell, Wayne; Skøt, Leif

    2013-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most important forage crop in temperate livestock agriculture. Its nutritional quality has significant impact on the quality of meat and milk for human consumption. Evidence suggests that higher energy content in forage can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants. Increasing the fatty acid content (especially α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid) may thus contribute to better forage, but little is known about the genetic basis of variation for this trait. To this end, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified associated with major fatty acid content in perennial ryegrass using a population derived from a cross between the heterozygous and outbreeding high-sugar grass variety AberMagic and an older variety, Aurora. A genetic map with 434 restriction-associated DNA (RAD) and SSR markers was generated. Significant QTLs for the content of palmitic (C16:0) on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 7; stearic (C18:0) on LGs 3, 4 and 7; linoleic (C18:2n-6) on LGs 2 and 5; and α-linolenic acids (C18:3n-3) on LG 1 were identified. Two candidate genes (a lipase and a beta-ketoacyl CoA synthase), both associated with C16:0, and separately with C18:2n-6 and C18:0 contents, were identified. The physical positions of these genes in rice and their genetic positions in perennial ryegrass were consistent with established syntenic relationships between these two species. Validation of these associations is required, but the utility of RAD markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for fatty acid composition in a global forage crop. PMID:23331642

  6. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperl, Anna; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs) and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs). The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA), are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA), or kinetin (KIN). The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA, and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and sucrose pool

  7. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  8. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne growing in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.B. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)]|[Writtle Coll. (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600{mu}mol/mol) CO{sub 2} concentration, high (560Kg/ha) or low (140Kg/ha) nitrogen addition and with a frequent (every 4 weeks) or infrequent (every 8 weeks) cutting regime. Plants were in the second year of a 3 year experiment. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most {open_quote}realistic{close_quote} system of CO{sub 2} fumigation currently available. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal CO{sub 2} assimilation by between 34 and 88% whilst reducing rates of stomatal conductance by between 1 and 42%. However, analysis of the A vs. Ci response showed considerable acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated CO{sub 2} - Vc{sub max} as an in vivo measure of RubisCO activity, decreased by between 29 and 35% in high CO{sub 2}, whilst J{sub max}, as a measure of the RubP regeneration capacity, showed no significant change. Two out of three additional perennial grassland species studied showed similar acclamatory behavior to Ryegrass. Diurnal assimilation rate, J{sub max} and, in most cases, Vc{sub max}, increased significantly directly after cutting of Ryegrass stands, but nitrogen treatment had little effect on any of these parameters. Neither stomatal density, stomatal index nor stomatal pore length of Ryegrass were significantly altered by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}. The results are discussed in terms of the limitation imposed on maximizing photosynthetic and growth responses of Ryegrass at elevated CO{sub 2}, by the ability of perennial species to increase long-term sink capacity under these conditions.

  9. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  10. Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yanniccari; C. Istilart; D.O. Giménez; H. Acciaresi; De Castro, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alt...

  11. Study of Seed Germination Characteristics of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb%何首乌种子发芽试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华磊; 徐绯; 赵致; 李金玲; 刘红昌; 罗春丽; 罗夫来; 黄明进

    2012-01-01

    通过研究温度、培养方式、盐分胁迫对何首乌种子发芽的影响,为何首乌种子发芽率检验及田间播盐种胁提迫供条参件考下。,随采着用盐培浓养度皿的法升培高养,种种子子,发统芽计率发呈芽下率降。趋结势果,表低明盐,条何件首下乌,种发子芽在率2与5℃对时照,差发异芽不率显最著高;在在同一温度条件下,暗培养比光培养发芽率高,纸间比纸上发芽率高。结果表明:何首乌种子发芽率检验播时种,应育选苗择田在盐2分5℃浓,度无不光能照高条于件3下g/,L双,过层高滤则纸影间响培何养首,在乌发种芽子试发芽验。第9天,作为计算种子发芽势的天数。%A germination trial with Polygonum multiflorum seed was conducted to investigate effects of different temperatures, cultivating methods and salt stresses on its seed germination. It is found that the highest germination rate occurred at 25℃ . The germination rate decreased with the increase of salt concentration. Insignificant difference in the germination rate was found between the low salt treatment and the control without salt stress. At the same temperature, the germination rate was higher in dark than that in light, and was higher in the filters than that on the filters. It was concluded that the germination trial should carry out under the conditions of 25℃ , light and the seeds were cultured between the papers. The seed germinate potential should be calculated on the 9 th -day of the germination trial. The salt concentration in seedling field should not be more than 3 g/L, otherwise, the germination would be affected.

  12. Effects of drought stress on some biochemical indices of four groundcovers (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankenia spp with potential usage in landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samieiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, stress management is considered to be very important in landscapes. The present research was conducted to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation at 4 levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of lawn irrigation requirement on some biochemical indices of four groundcover plants (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankinia spp to be used in landscapes, with 3 replications. Results showed that Frankinia spp had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and the lowest chlorophyll content (15.9 mg/g fresh weight, the 75% stress treatment had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and control treatment had the highest chlorophyll content (32.6 mg/g fresh weight. For total carbohydrates, the highest and the lowest amounts (1.54 and 0.79 mg/g fresh weight belong to Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, respectively. Also, among the species, Trifolium repens showed the highest antioxidant activity (75.05%. In general, regulated deficit irrigation affected different biochemical characteristics of the examined groundcover plants significantly. But, applying it up to the damaging point for landscape plants can be an important management strategy for reduction of water consumption in green spaces.

  13. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum s...

  14. 何首乌种质资源核型分析及进化趋势研究%Analysis of Karyotype and Evolution Trend of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红昌; 王珍; 张素琴; 王华磊; 赵致

    2013-01-01

    以32份何首乌种质为研究材料,采用常规压片法,对其进行核型分析及进化趋势研究.结果表明:(1)32份何首乌种质存在二倍体(2n=2x=22)和三倍体(2n=3x=33)两种倍型;核型不对称系数As.K%和AI值分别在51.85%~61.52%和0.37~1.40;核型有“1A”、“1B”和“2A”3种类型,属于进化程度较低的植物.(2)在32份何首乌种质中,53.13%的种质为三倍体,表明多倍化在何首乌种质的进化中起着重要作用,但染色体结构变异也是其进化的主要途径之一.(3)何首乌各种质染色体形态变化较大,进化程度参差不齐,可能与种质的生境有一定相关性.(4)何首乌最初的起源中心可能在高纬度地区,在向低纬度地区迁移过程中发生了染色体数目及结构的变化.%Karyotypes and evolutionary trend of 32 Polygonum multiflorum germplasm resources were studied via squash method.The results showed that:(1)The ploidy levels were divided into diploid (2n=2x=22) and triploid (2n=3x=33).Asymmetry index As.K% and AI value ranged from 51.85% to 61.52%and from 0.37 to 1.40,respectively.The karyotypes of all the test materials consisted of "m" and "sm"chromosomes,which include "1A","1B" and "2A".The results indicated that the evolutionary degree of P.multiflorum was relatively low.(2)53.13% germplasms were triploid in 32 germplasm resources,which showed that polyploidization played an important role in the evolution of P.multiflorum.However,chromosome structural variation was one of the most important evolutionary ways.(3)Chromosomal morphological change of 32 germplasms resources was divergent and evolutionary degree was not consistent.The results showed that the existence of different ploidy levels is associated with the different habitats.(4)The primal centre of origin of P.multiflorum may be in the high latitudes,the chromosomal morphology and structures varied gradually when P.multi florum migrated to low latitudes.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig;

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies....... greenhouse emissions and nitrogen loss. GWS model building includes 1) development of a robust quantitative genotyping method for an outcrossing species, 2) tailoring of multi-locational, multi-annual phenotype data, 3) association analysis and development of prediction models. As part of (2) the aim...... with commercial varieties used as checks. The first analyses focused on yield (green and dry matter) and the data were analyzed using a mixed model including fixed effect of experiment, effect of check variety, and random effects within experiment effects to recover interblock information, effects of pedigree...

  16. Large-scale development of gene-associated SNP markers for linkage mapping in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; Panitz, Frank;

    2011-01-01

    assays. A reference set of 9,399 Lolium perenne L. genes was assembled with 802,156 high quality cDNA reads sequenced with the Roche 454FLX Titanium sequencing system and used for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 1,200 SNPs fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total......Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly becoming the DNA maker system of choice due to their extensive occurrence in the genome and the ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics......-assisted breeding strategies, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available in perennial ryegrass. The advent of next generation sequencing opened up the opportunity for efficient and high throughput in silico SNP discovery in absence of a reference genome sequence. However, the percentages...

  17. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  18. Study on the Geographic Distribution and Ecological Environmental Characteristics of Polygonum multiflorum Based on GIS%基于地理信息系统的何首乌地理分布及分布区的生境特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚; 江滨; 曾元儿

    2011-01-01

    目的:借助地理信息系统(GTS)研究何首乌在中国的地理分布以及分布区的生境特征,为何首乌资源的保护和人工栽培提供参考.方法:建立何首乌分布区数据库,在ArcGIS 9.3软件中制作何首乌分布区的县界多边形电子地图,结合中国地貌、土壤和植被图运用多边形叠加分析的方法提取何首乌分布区的地貌、土壤和植被类型.采用频数分布统计法研究何首乌分布区的气候特征.结果:何首乌资源分布区有90%的县市的年平均气温在13~22℃,有85%的县市的年均日照时数在1100~2300h,77%的县市的年均降水量在800~1 600mm;66%的面积处于2 000m以下的中低海拔地区,土壤以红壤、黄壤为主,植被类型主要是灌丛和矮林.结论:借助GIS技术进行何首乌生态环境特征分析,方便快捷、可靠,可为何首乌资源的保护和人工栽培提供参考.%OBJECTIVE: To study the geographic distribution and ecological environmental characteristics of Polygonum multi-florum by using GIS, and to provide reference for the protection and cultivation of P. Multiflorum. METHODS: Database of the geographic distribution of P. Multiflorum was established, county boundary polygon digital maps of the distribution of P. Multiflorum was drew up using ArcGIS9.3 software. The geomorphic types, soil types and vegetation types of the distribution area were extracted from digital maps by using the polygon overlay analysis. The climatic characteristics of the distribution area of P. Multiflorum were studied using frequency distribution statistics. RESULTS: The annual average temperature in 90% of the distribution area was in the range of 13~22 °C, the average annual sunshine hour in 85% of the distribution area was in the range of 1 100-2 300 h, the average annual precipitation in 77% of the distribution area was in the range of 800~1 600 mm; 66% of the distribution area were located at low-middle altitude mountain areas below 2

  19. HPLC法检测中药洗发水中何首乌二苯乙烯苷的含量%Detection of the content of the stilbene glycoside from the polygonum multiflorum in herbal shampoo with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇; 万玉华; 黄春静; 吴志强; 张榕文

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extraction of stilbene glycosides from the polygonum multiflorum in herbal shampoo. U-sing HPLC method of the stilbene glycoside content in the herbal shampoo. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were; the concentration of 60% ethanol, ultrasonic extraction time of 30 min, the solid-liquid ratio of 1:4, the extracting content of stilbene glycosides is highest with HPLC and the content up to 25.12 μg/g.%用乙醇萃取中药洗发水中何首乌二苯乙烯苷,采用HPLC法测定中药洗发水中的二苯乙烯苷含量.结果表明,最佳萃取条件为乙醇浓度60%,超声萃取30 min,溶剂倍量为4倍时,采用HPLC法测得二苯乙烯苷含量最高,可达25.12 μg/g.

  20. A novel P106L mutation in EPSPS and an unknown mechanism(s) act additively to confer resistance to glyphosate in a South African Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv S; Dale, Richard P; Zelaya, Ian A; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; McIndoe, Eddie; Cairns, Andrew

    2011-04-13

    Glyphosate resistance evolution in weeds is a growing problem in world agriculture. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) of glyphosate resistance in a Lolium rigidum population (DAG1) from South Africa. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the existence of at least three EPSPS homologues in the L. rigidum genome and identified a novel proline 106 to leucine substitution (P106L) in 52% DAG1 individuals. This mutation conferred a 1.7-fold resistance increase to glyphosate at the whole plant level. Additionally, a 3.1-fold resistance increase, not linked to metabolism or translocation, was estimated between wild-type P106-DAG1 and P106-STDS sensitive plants. Point accepted mutation analysis suggested that other amino acid substitutions at EPSPS position 106 are likely to be found in nature besides the P106/S/A/T/L point mutations reported to date. This study highlights the importance of minor mechanisms acting additively to confer significant levels of resistance to commercial field rates of glyphosate in weed populations subjected to high selection pressure.

  1. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Seeds of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Karl; Collette, Vern; Hancock, Kerry R

    2016-09-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are forage species of the grass family (Poaceae) that are key components of temperate pasture-based agricultural systems. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric flavonoids that, when provided as part of a farm animal's diet, have been reported to improve animal production and health. Up to now, forage grasses have been deemed not to produce PAs. This paper reports for the first time the detection of polymerized PAs in aqueous methanolic extracts of seed tissue of both perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, using LC-MS/MS. We have determined the structure of the PAs to be trans-flavan-3-ol-based, consisting predominately of afzelechin and catechin and linked primarily by B-type bonds. Investigations into the leaf tissue of both species failed to detect any PAs. This discovery opens the possibility of using genetic engineering tools to achieve tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. PMID:27532250

  2. The photosynthetic acclimation response of Lolium perenne to four years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, R. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the photosynthetic responses of field grown Lolium perenne to ambient (354 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) C{sub a} were measured. The experiment utilized the FACE facility at Eschikon, Switzerland; here the L. Perenne swards had been grown at two nitrogen treatments, with six cuts per year, for 4 years. The study revealed a significant decrease in Rubisco activity (Vcmax) in the low nitrogen FACE plots; this is consistent with the theories of source-sink imbalance resulting in feedback inhibition and down-regulation. Such negative acclimation was not wholly supported by diurnal investigations which revealed an average stimulation of 53.38% and 52.78% in the low and high nitrogen, respectively. However, light response curves and AI investigations also suggested down-regulation, especially in the low nitrogen. SI is expected to decrease in response to elevated C{sub a}, if any change is seen. This was indeed observed in the high nitrogen plots but for the low nitrogen a significant increase was found. Conclusions drawn from this project center around the implications of negative acclimation to future crop productivity. For instance, inter-specific differences in response to elevated C{sub a} may result in ecosystem changes and new management techniques may be necessary. However, real predictions cannot be made from leaf level studies alone as these may not represent the overall changes at the whole plant level.

  3. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: biewhart@livjm.ac.uk; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  5. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation using different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on sorption of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soils and groundwater on sites of the former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are contaminated with various complex iron-cyanides (Fe-CN). Phytoremediation is a promising tool in stabilization and remediation of Fe-CN affected soils, however, it can be a challenging task due to extreme adverse and toxic conditions. Phytoremediation may be enhanced via rhizosphere microbial activity, which can cooperate on the degradation, transformation and uptake of the contaminants. Recently, increasing number of scientist reports improved plants performance in the removal of toxic compounds with the support of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF). Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations, were used to study the effect of ryegrass roots (Lolium perenne L.) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum on Fe-CN sorption. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than for the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Sorption experiments revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study indicates contribution of AM fungi in phytoremediation of Fe-CN contaminated soil.

  6. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  7. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  8. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  9. The photosynthetic response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in its fifth year of free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) at Eschikon, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.P.; Long, S.P.; Williams, J.

    1998-12-31

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv.Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}) [CO{sub 2}], high (560 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) or low (140 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) nitrogen addition and were harvested five times a year during the growing season. The plants were sown during 1992, additional plots being sown during 1995. These were in their fifth year and second year of growth respectively. Exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most realistic system of fumigation currently available. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased diurnal CO{sub 2} uptake by between 40 to 83% while reducing stomatal conductance by between 1 and 38% in all of the 1992 grown plants measured at high [CO{sub 2}]. Analysis of the A/c{sub i} response of 1992 grown plants showed no acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}] - both V{sub c,max} (a measure of the maximum in vivo rate of carboxylation) and J{sub max} (a measure of the maximum capacity for the regeneration of RuBP) showed no significant change during any of the periods of regrowth. In contrast the leaves of 1995 grown plants, appeared to be experiencing an acclimatory change in their photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. However, this negative response seemed to be removed directly after a harvest when the source:sink balance had increased. The apparent lack of an acclimatory response after almost 5 years of growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}], suggests that L. perenne may be close to achieving the appropriate photosynthetic adjustments which would allow it to attain a significantly higher photosynthetic potential.

  10. Identification of extracellular siderophores and a related peptide from the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae in culture and endophyte-infected Lolium perenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Lee, T. Verne; Fraser, Karl; Johnson, Linda; Arcus, Vickery; Lott, J. Shaun; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    A number of genes encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) have been identified in fungi of Epichloë/Neotyphodium species, endophytes of Pooid grasses, including sidN, putatively encoding a ferrichrome siderophore-synthesizing NRPS. Targeted gene replacement and complementation of sidN in Epichloë festucae has established that extracellular siderophore epichloënin A is the major product of the SidN enzyme complex (Johnson et al., 2007a). We report here high resolution mass spectrometric fragmentation experiments and NMR analysis of an isolated fraction establishing that epichloënin A is a siderophore of the ferrichrome family, comprising a cyclic sequence of four glycines, a glutamine and three Nδ-trans-anhydromevalonyl–Nδ-hydroxyornithine (AMHO) moieties. Epichloënin A is unusual among ferrichrome siderophores in comprising an octapeptide rather than hexapeptide sequence, and in incorporating a glutamine residue. During this investigation we have established that desferrichrome siderophores with pendant trans-AMHO groups can be distinguished from those with pendant cis-AMHO groups by the characteristic neutral loss of an hydroxyornithine moiety in the MS/MS spectrum. A minor component, epichloënin B, has been characterized as the triglycine variant by mass spectrometry. A peptide characterized by mass spectrometry as the putative deoxygenation product, epichloëamide has been detected together with ferriepichloënin A in guttation fluid from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants infected with wild-type E. festucae, but not in plants infected with the ΔsidN mutant strain, and also detected at trace levels in wild-type E. festucae fungal culture. PMID:22196939

  11. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhe eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilising invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesising fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesise that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne.

  12. Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free Lolium perenne L.under drought strees conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren'Anzhi; Gao Yubao; Wang Wei; Wang Jinlong

    2006-01-01

    Endophyte-infected fED seeds of Lolium perenne L.were used to attain endophyte-free fED population by heating the seeds at 43℃ for 15 min and then 57℃ for 25 min.Relative water content(RWC),chlorophyll,soluble sugar and starch content of EI and EF populations under normal and drought stress conditions were compared to investigate the effect of endophyte infection on the host plant.Under severe stress.RWC of EI leaf was significantly higher than that Of EF leaf,i.e.EI plants took more advantages over EF plants in water-holding ability.Under mild stress,endophytc could enhance soluble sugars in host plants to improve their osmotic ability.With stress intensification,the improvement of endophyte no longer existed,and more photosynthetic products(such as starch)accumulated in EI plants to survive through the undesirable condidons.In the next spring,EI populations will recover more rapidly than EF populations.The biomass of a population is closely related to its photosynthesis.Under severe stress,EI population significantly accumulated more biomass than EF population.As far as photosynthetic pigments were concerned,contents of Chla,Chlb and Car of EI plants were close to those of EF plants,which suggested that endophyte infection didn't alleviate photosynthetic pigments from being destroyed by drought stress,and endophyte might improve photosynthesis ability of its host plant in other ways.

  13. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  14. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne in response to three years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymus, G.J. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Writtle College (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Pure stands of Ryegrass were in their third year of growth in the field, exposed to either ambient (355 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}), or elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. A Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system was used to maintain the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration whilst limiting experimental constraints on the field conditions. The theoretically predicted increase in the net rates of CO{sub 2} uptake per unit leaf area (A {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) as a consequence, primarily, of the suppression of photorespiration by CO{sub 2} a competitive inhibitor of RubP oxygenation by Rubisco, was observed for the Lolium perenne studied. Also observed was a general decline in leaf evapotranspiration (E) consistent with observations of increased water use efficiency of crops grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. Enhancement of leaf A in the FACE grown L. perenne ranged from 26.5 1 % to 44.95% over the course of a diurnal set of measurements. Whilst reductions in leaf E reached a maximum of 16.61% over the same diurnal course of-measurements. The increase in A was reconciled with an absence of the commonly observed decline in V{sub c}{sub max} as a measure of the maximum in vivo carboxylation capacity of the primary carboxylasing enzyme Rubisco and J{sub max} a measure of the maximum rate of electron transport. The manipulation of the source sink balance of the crop, stage of canopy regrowth or height in the canopy had no effect on the observation of a lack of response. The findings of this study will be interpreted with respect to the long term implications of C{sub 3} crops being able to adapt physiologically to maximize the potential benefits conferred by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}.

  15. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabajó con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evaluó periódicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicación y sobre los niveles de azúcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 días post-aplicación. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicación, el glifosato provocó una disminución del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulación de azúcares libres superior al 90% con relación al control, desde el primer día post-aplicación en adelante. La inhibición del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitación del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte aérea. Por tanto, la acumulación de azúcares libres en hojas podría explicarse por la caída en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detectó inhibición del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados.The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of

  16. Combined impact of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ and salinity on the condition of Lolium perenne long-term assimilation apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and atmosphere by heavy metals negatively affects physiological and biochemical processes in plants. The objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of heavy metals Pb2+ and Cd2+ on the background of salinity on the surface of assimilation and the state of stomata device and the content of plastid pigments in leaves of Lolium perenne L. Decrease in the area of plant leaves on the background of the impact of pollutants has been determined. By the degree of increase of negative impact on this index, variants of the experience can be arranged as follows: Pb2+ + Cd2+ < NaCl < Pb2+ + Cd2+ + NaCl. The investigated factors have the strongest impact on the area of assimilation surface. The reason for its significant decrease in plants of studied variants compared to the control is that both suppression of growth and reduction of leaves area occurs, along with the inhibition of their formation. The damaging effect of sodium chloride is also traced in drying of leaf tips, the latter become lighter in color and some of them get yellow. Under the action of heavy metals and salinity decrease in the leaf index for L. perenne is observed, especially in case of combined actions of toxins, and this rate varies more significantly than the other ones. Salinization of growing substrate significantly reduces the number of stomata on the underside of the leaf epidermis. On the contrary, under the influence of heavy metals their number increases, and under the action of Pb2+ + Cd2+ on the background of chloride salinity it becomes even higher compared with the variant where heavy metals only affect the plants. The length of guard cells of the stomata in the variants with metals in NaCl remains practically unchanged compared with the control, but at joint action it is reduced. The width of stomatal pore in the variants differs insignificantly. The same is applied to the length, except for variants where the plants were exposed

  17. Spring nitrogen fertilization of ryegrass-bermudagrass for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forage grasses is critical for optimizing biomass and utilization of manure soil nutrients. Field studies were conducted in 2007-09 to determine the effects of spring N fertilization on amelioration of high soil P when cool-season, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is...

  18. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  19. Non-overwintering cover crops: a significant source of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.; ten Holte, L.; Janssen, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    In field experiments in 1982-89 at 2 sites in the Netherlands, potatoes cv. Bintje and sugarbeet cv. Monohil or Ovatio in a wheat/potatoes/wheat/sugarbeet rotation were preceded during winter by fallow or a green manure crop of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetila with 0 (G0), 100 (G100) or 200 kg N/ha (G2

  20. Non-overwintering cover crops: significant source of N.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; ten Holte, L.; Janssen, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    In field experiments in 1982-89 at 2 sites in the Netherlands, potatoes cv. Bintje and sugarbeet cv. Monohil or Ovatio in a wheat/potatoes/wheat/sugarbeet rotation were preceded during winter by fallow or a green manure crop of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetila with 0 (G0), 100 (G100) or 200 kg N/ha (G2

  1. Morphological traits associated with weed-suppressive ability of winter wheat against Italian ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed-suppressive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars have been suggested as a complement to chemical and cultural methods of weed control. The objectives of this study were to assess the range of weed-suppressive ability against Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] ...

  2. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Lolium Multifolorum%模拟酸雨对黑麦草种子萌发及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 邵辉; 吴坤胜; 柯健; 高素权; 李刚; 吴胜

    2011-01-01

    以一年生黑麦草(Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum)种子为材料,研究不同pH值的模拟硫酸型酸雨作用下,种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性发生的变化.实验分别测定了种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数及幼苗鲜重、叶片导电率等指标.结果表明,一年生黑麦草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数整体变化趋势比较一致,随着模拟酸雨pH值的增大而减小.幼苗叶片的生长量变化差异比较大,单株幼苗的平均鲜重随模拟酸雨酸性的减弱而增大,所测幼苗叶片的相对电导率值随模拟酸雨pH值的升高而减小,与对照相比差异显著,表明幼苗叶片受到了酸雨的破坏.试验表明,一年生黑麦草种子在pH≥3.09的弱酸条件下能够正常萌发和生长,具有一定的耐酸性,但是在pH≤2.03的强酸条件下,种子的萌发和幼苗的生长受到了显著的抑制.%Using Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum seed as material to study the effect of different pH simulated acid rain on the seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics. The experiment tested the gemination power, germination rate, germination index,seedling fresh weight and permeability of plasma membrane etc indexes. The results indicated that the germination power, gemination rate and germination indexes all decreased with the simulated acid rain density increasing. There were great changes among the indexes of seedling growth increment: seedling fresh weight increased with simulated acid rain pH rising. And permeability of plasma membrane decreased with the acid rain pH increasing, which showed that seedling leaves were destroyed by the acid rain. The study indicated that the seed of nnual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum could sprout and grow normally under the condition of weak acid ( pH ≥3.09), and had certain acidtolerance. But seed germination and seedling growth were seriously restrained under the condition of strong acid (pH ≤2.03 ).

  3. Review on the Research of the Components, Pharmacological Actions and Toxicity of Polygonum Multiflorum Thunb(Heshouwu)%何首乌成分、药理及毒副作用相关的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼招欢; 吕圭源; 俞静静

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To sum up researches on components, pharmacological actions and toxicity of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb(Heshouwu). [Method] The research reference about Heshouwu in CNKI, VIP and PUBMAD database is col ected and calssified to three aspects on components, pharmacological actions and toxicity.[Result]①On components:Heshouwu contains stilbene, lecithin, anthraquinone, flavonoids, tannin and trace elements. The stilbene and anthraquinone are the mainly active components. Producing area, growth years, harvest time and processing methods are factors affecting the content of the components such as TSG in Heshouwu; Macroporous adsorption resin is the main separation method for preconcentration of TSG and anthraquinone constituents; ② On pharmacological actions and toxicity: Heshouwu has effects of hypolipidemic and liver protection, antioxidative, anti-osteoporosi, hpyerglycemic, antidepressive and antibiosis, the hypolipidemic and liver protection are the main effects which have been studied more. A reversible liver injury which displays as abnormal liver function parameter and bile metabolic disorder would be induced if the Heshouwu is administrated with a large dosage for long term. The possible components which would induce the toxicity in Heshouwu are tannin and anthraquinone, and the anthraquinone is the component with double effects of toxicity and therapy which should be considered in clinical application. [Conclusion]Reducing lipid and protecting liver is the main pharmaceutical function of the herb. As a commonly used Chinese herb for liver protection, the studies on alcoholic hepatic injury protection of Heshouwu may be a point for the researchers to focus on. The comparison studies on hypolipidemic and liver protection between Hesouwu and its processing products, and the correlations between components and pharmacological actions are worth study further.%[目的]总结何首乌在成分、药理和毒副作用方面的研究情况。[方法]查

  4. The endophytic symbiont Epichloë festucae establishes an epiphyllous net on the surface of Lolium perenne leaves by development of an expressorium, an appressorium-like leaf exit structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Becker, Yvonne; Green, Kimberly; Scott, Barry

    2016-07-01

    Epichloë festucae forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. This biotrophic fungus systemically colonizes the intercellular spaces of aerial tissues to form an endophytic hyphal network. E. festucae also grows as an epiphyte, but the mechanism for leaf surface colonization is not known. Here we identify an appressorium-like structure, which we call an expressorium that allows endophytic hyphae to penetrate the cuticle from the inside of the leaf to establish an epiphytic hyphal net on the surface of the leaf. We used a combination of scanning electron, transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize this novel fungal structure and determine the composition of the hyphal cell wall using aniline blue and wheat germ agglutinin labelled with Alexafluor-488. Expressoria differentiate immediately below the cuticle in the leaf blade and leaf sheath intercalary cell division zones where the hyphae grow by tip growth. Differentiation of this structure requires components of both the NoxA and NoxB NADPH oxidase complexes. Major remodelling of the hyphal cell wall occurs following exit from the leaf. These results establish that the symbiotic association of E. festucae with L. perenne involves an interconnected hyphal network of both endophytic and epiphytic hyphae. PMID:26991322

  5. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’) leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway and

  6. Determination and characterization of cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins (PC₂₋₆) in Lolium perenne L. exposed to Cd stress under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xue Hai; Tang, Shirong; Jia, Yan; Guo, Junkang; Ding, Yongzhen; Song, Zhengguo; Zhao, Yujie

    2011-06-15

    Metal-binding thiols, involved in detoxification mechanisms in plant and other organism under heavy metal stress, are receiving more and more attentions, and various methods have been developed to determine related thiols such as cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). In present study, an HPLC method was established for simultaneous determination of Cys GSH and PC(2-6) after treatment with disulfide reductant of tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) and thiolyte reagent of monobromobimane (mBBr). The separation of thiol derivatives was performed on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 30 mm, 1.8 μm) with a linear gradient elution of 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-acetonitrile (ACN) at 0.8 mL min(-1). The temperature of the column was maintained at 25°C. The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 380 and 470 nm, respectively. The thiol derivatives were well separated in 19 min, and the total analysis time was 30 min. The established method was proved selective, specific and reproducible, and could be applicable to determine Cys, GSH and PC(2-6) and to evaluate their roles in detoxification mechanisms in Cd-treated Lolium perenne L. under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)). It was found that the total SH contents and proportions of thiols in roots and shoots were dependent on Cd concentration, whereas the total SH contents decreased and the proportions of thiols altered without significance at elevated CO(2) level.

  7. 同一生境下多年生黑麦草与节节麦的核型比较%Chromosome karotype comparative of Lolium perenn and Aegilops squarrosa in the same habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华; 汪丽丽

    2010-01-01

    对同一生境下多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenn L.)和节节麦(Aegilops squarrosa L.)的根尖细胞染色体作了分析,并从细胞学角度比较了两者的同源性.结果表明:多年生黑麦草的核型公式为:2n=6x=42=24m+18sm(2SAT),属于六倍体的"2B"型,在第19号染色体上有一对随体,最长与最短染色体的比为2.13,臂比大于2的染色体占全套染色体的30%,核型不对称系数为60.48%;节节麦的核型公式为2n=2x=14=10m+4sm(2SAT),属于二倍体的"2A"型,在第4号染色体有一对随体,最长与最短染色体长度比为1.49,臂比大于2的染色体占全套染色体的14%,不对称系数为58.2%,表明同一生境下多年生黑麦草比节节麦更为进化,两者在染色体水平上没有亲缘关系.

  8. Differential susceptibility and resistance to glyphosate in annual ryegrass and wavy-leaved fleabane

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Regina da Costa; Humberto Henrique Ansolin; Leonardo Bianco Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and wavy-leaved fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) were tested, aiming to investigate the dose-response of biotypes of both species to glyphosate. Glyphosate herbicide at doses varying from 0 up to 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 was sprayed onto annual ryegrass plants showed four leaves and wavy-leaved fleabane showed three pair of leaves. The fresh weight of shoot was obtained at 21 days after herbicide application. The response of biotypes of L. multiflorum and C. bonarie...

  9. In situ Rumen Degradation Kinetics of High-Protein Forage Crops in Temperate Climates Cinética de Degradación Ruminal in situ en Forrajes de Alto Contenido Proteico en Clima Templado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Valderrama L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and in situ degradation kinetics of eight high protein forage crops: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., forage oat (Avena sativa L., mixed pasture, and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture in early vegetative stages, two forage lupins (Lupinus albus L. in early bloom stages, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. and kale (Brassica napus var. pabularia (DC. Rchb. leaves at root maturity. Dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradation kinetics were evaluated by the nylon bag technique through the in situ procedure described by 0rskov and MacDonald (1979 using three ruminally cannulated sheep. Chemical composition of the forage crops showed on average 13.7% DM; 21.4% CP; 31.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 17.7% crude fiber (CF, 80.6% digestibility of organic matter (DOMD and 12.13 MJ kg-1 metabolizable energy (ME. The high total degradability of forage crops reported here (> 87% DM; > 93% CP can be associated with the presence of large quantities of fraction a (> 34% DMa; > 29% CPa and high degradability of fraction b, resulting in low amounts of undegradable fraction (U (7.02% DM and 3.55% CP. Correlations between CPb and DMb degradability (r = 0.79 and CPc and DMc degradation rates (r = 0.78 were high, however differences in c were not explained by differences in CP or NDF contents, nor by the amounts of a or b fractions. Degradation for DM and CP during the first 6 h of incubation was strongly and inversely correlated to b (36 h (r = 0.93 (P El presente estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el valor nutricional y la cinética de degradación in situ de ocho forrajes de alto valor proteico: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., avena (Avena sativa L., pastos mixtos y pastos de ballica (Lolium multiflorum Lam., en las primeras etapas vegetativas, dos lupinos forrajeros (Lupinus albus L. en etapas inicio de la floración, hojas de remolacha azucarera (Beta vulgaris L. y de col (Brassica

  10. Produção de forrageiras de inverno em diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos superficiais sob pisoteio animal em várzea Lowland winter species production under different distances between superficial drainage channels and animal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de espécies forrageiras de inverno em diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos superficiais e efeito do pisoteio animal em propriedades físicas de solo de várzea, num Planossolo, em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, 1996. Foi utilizado delineamento de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com parcelas principais para os espaçamentos entre drenos (4, 8, 12 e 16m e subparcelas para as espécies de inverno, conforme segue: aveia (Avena strigosa, azevém (Lolium multiflorum, L. multiflorum + trevo branco (Trifolium repens, L. multiflorum + trevo vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum, L. multiflorum + comichão (Lotus corniculatus, L. multiflorum + serradela (Ornitophus micranthus. O comportamento das espécies de inverno nos diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos foi avaliado através de coletas de massa seca, realizadas de metro em metro do dreno até o centro da parcela. O pastejo teve início aos 75 dias após a emergência (DAE com carga animal adequada ao resíduo e peso vivo de 150 a 200kg/animal. Verificou-se que não houve diferença no desenvolvimento das espécies forrageiras quanto aos espaçamentos entre drenos superficiais. As propriedades físicas do solo foram influenciadas pelo pisoteio animal, ocorrendo aumento da densidade superficial do solo e diminuição da microporosidade, macroporosidade e porosidade total.The research evaluated the development of winter species under dijferent distances between superficial drainage channeis as well as the ejfect of animal stepping on the physical properties of an Albaqualf soil located in Santa Maria, Brazil 1996. The experimental design was a split piot, where the main plots were distances between drainage channeis, 4, 8, 12 and 16 meters and subplots were the winter species: Avena strigosa, Lolium multiflorum, L. multiflorum + Trifolium repens, L. multiflorum + T. vesiculosum, L. multiflorum + Lotus corniculatus, L. multiflorum + Ornitophus

  11. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Aleksandar S.; Dželetović Željko S.; Vučković Savo M.; Sokolović Dejan R.; Delić Dušica I.; Mandić Violeta T.; Anđelković Bojan S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata) was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A) thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full devel...

  12. Combined Waste Resources as NPK Fertiliser: Results from a Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Returning waste to agricultural land is a holistic systems approach to meet the challenging task of future food supply. As nutrient contents in organic material often are unbalanced in comparison to the plants’ needs, the aim of this paper was to study the fertilisation effect of waste-based NPK compound fertiliser products and their potential to substitute conventional fertilisers in agricultural plant production. A pot experiment with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. italicum) a...

  13. Herbage yield and botanical composition of grass-legume mixture at different time of establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Simić A.; Vasiljević S.; Vučković S.; Tomić Z.; Bjelić Z.; Mandić V.

    2011-01-01

    For comparative testing of the total productivity of mixtures (intercrops) of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), a trial was carried out during the 2007-2009 growing seasons at experimental fields of the Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun. Intercrops included two red clover varieties (К-17 and Una) and tetraploid Italian ryegrass (К-29t) in different proportional ratios (100:0%, 75:25%, 50:50%, 25:75...

  14. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  15. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-01-01

    We applied a 15N dilution technique called “Integrated Total Nitrogen Input” (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7 mg N pot−1) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2 mg N pot−1. Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5–10 kg N ha−1 yr−1. PMID:26257870

  16. 几种有机硅助剂对草甘膦在单子叶植物体内吸收、转移和分布的影响%Influence of Organosilicone Surfactants on Uptake,Translocation and Distribution of Glyphosate on Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武菊英; Dastgheib,F

    2001-01-01

    采用14C-草甘膦同位素标记法研究了4种有机硅助剂Silwet L-77、Silwet 800、Freeway 和Boost 在体积分数0.1%用量下对草甘膦在黑麦草(Lolium perenne L. cv.Grasslands Greenstone)体内吸收、转移和分布的影响。结果表明:与单用草甘膦相比,4种助剂的加入显著地降低了草甘膦在黑麦草体内的吸收和转移量,助剂之间无显著性差异。处理后24和72 h测定,草甘膦主要分布在幼嫩组织中,其次是根部,在老叶片中的转移量最少。无论转移量高低,草甘膦在植物体内的分布总是表现为地上部的比例高于地下部。有机硅助剂对草甘膦在各组织中的分布比例没有影响。%Radiolabelled glyphosate was used to investigate the effects of organosilicone surfactants Silwet L-77, Silwet 800, Freeway and Boost on the foliar uptake, translocation and distribution of the formulated glyphosate Roundup○ R in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L cv. Grasslands Greenstone) over a 72 h time-course. Results indicated that addition of organosilicone surfactants significantly decreased the amount of uptake and translocation of glyphosate into ryegrass 24 and 72 h after treatment. Four organosilicone surfactants showed similar antagonism of foliar uptake. The amount of glyphosate translocation varied according to plant parts, the highest one was in young tissues, and the least one was in leaf 1. Distribution of glyphosate with or without organosilicone surfactants to shoots was much higher than that of to roots 24 and 72 h after treatment. Addition of organosilicone surfactants had no effect on the distribution rate to shoots and roots.

  17. 水杨酸浸种处理对黑麦草种子萌发及幼苗抗旱性的影响%Effects of soaking seeds with salicylic acid on seed germination and drought resistance of Lolium perenne seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 杨絮茹; 周蕴薇

    2011-01-01

    用0.25、0.50和0.75 mmol/L水杨酸(SA)对黑麦草‘托亚'(Lolium perenne 'Taya')进行浸种处理,研究不同浓度SA对种子萌发的影响及0.50 mmol/L SA浸种处理对黑麦草幼苗抗旱性的影响.结果表明,0.25~0.75 mmol/L SA浸种预处理有效地提高了黑麦草种子的发芽率和发芽势以及幼苗的鲜质量和干质量,以0.50mmol/L SA处理促进发芽的效果最为显著.水分胁迫下,0.50 mmol/L SA浸种抑制黑麦草幼苗质膜透性的增加和丙二醛的累积,促进脯氨酸含量的增加和超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶活性的升高,过氧化氢酶活性也表现出相对的稳定性.因此,SA浸种对水分胁迫具有一定的缓解效应.

  18. 何首乌醇提物对脂多糖诱导大鼠肝TLR4/TRIF/IRF-3信号通路的影响%Effect of ethanol extracts from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb on expressions of signal pathway TLR4/TRIF/IRF-3 in LPS induced rats liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛宏梅; 谢丽华; 樊星; 吴纯启; 王茜莎; 王全军

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究大鼠经革兰阴性菌外膜成分脂多糖(LPS)诱导后,何首乌醇提物(PMT)对大鼠的肝毒性,并探讨其肝损伤机制与固有免疫炎症信号通路Toll样受体4(TLR4)-干扰素调节因子3(IRF-3)的关系。方法雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、对乙酰氨基酚(APAP,625 mg/kg)组、PMT 6 g/kg(PMT-L)和12 g/kg(PMT-H)组、脂多糖(LPS,4 g/L)组、(LPS+APAP)和(LPS+PMT-L/-H)组。后4组经尾静脉注射LPS 4 mg/kg,2 h后各实验组分别灌胃给予相应药物每日1次,连续7 d。观察每日大鼠体质量变化,分别在给药结束后2 h、14 h、5 d和8 d经HE染色检测大鼠组织形态变化,采用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-qPCR)法及Western印迹法检测肝细胞中TLR4信号通路干扰素TIR结构域衔接蛋白(TRIF)、IRF-3的表达情况。结果大鼠尾静脉注射LPS诱导后2 h,肝实质出现微小肉芽肿,其后,LPS组大鼠肝损伤逐渐恢复。诱导第8天时,LPS组大鼠肝组织结构清晰完整,LPS+APAP组和LPS+PMT各剂量组肝细胞灶状坏死,伴炎细胞浸润。RT-qPCR检测法和Western印迹法检测结果显示,单独灌胃何首乌醇提物的大鼠肝细胞中TLR4、TRIF和IRF-3的mRNA和蛋白表达水平与正常组相比无显著差异,而经LPS诱导的大鼠肝细胞TLR4、TRIF和IRF-3 mRNA和蛋白表达水平显著高于正常对照组,与LPS组相比有显著性差异(P<0.05),但PMT各剂量组间相比无显著差异。结论何首乌醇提物经LPS诱导能引起肝损伤,其引起的肝毒性与正性调控TLR4/IRF-3信号通路的表达有关,其肝损伤程度与给药剂量无关,提示TLR4/IRF-3信号通路的激活是LPS诱导何首乌醇提物肝损伤的作用机制之一。%Objective To research the toxicity of ethanol extracts from Poylgonum multiflorum Thunb(PMT)induced by en⁃dotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide(LPS)in rat liver,and then

  19. Differential susceptibility and resistance to glyphosate in annual ryegrass and wavy-leaved fleabane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and wavy-leaved fleabane (Conyza bonariensis were tested, aiming to investigate the dose-response of biotypes of both species to glyphosate. Glyphosate herbicide at doses varying from 0 up to 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 was sprayed onto annual ryegrass plants showed four leaves and wavy-leaved fleabane showed three pair of leaves. The fresh weight of shoot was obtained at 21 days after herbicide application. The response of biotypes of L. multiflorum and C. bonariensis to glyphosate was clearly different. For L. multiflorum, the S2, R1, and R3 biotypes supported glyphosate doses 1.5, 3.0, and 8.3 times higher than the biotype S1. For C. bonariensis, the S2 and R biotypes supported glyphosate doses 2.0 and 15.5 times higher than the biotype S1. We found a low glyphosate-resistant (R1 and a high glyphosate-resistant (R2 biotypes of L. multiflorum, in agricultural regions where other biotypes had been found. In addition, a high glyphosate-resistant (R biotype of C. bonariensis was identified in an agricultural area of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, where weed resistant was not previously found.

  20. Effects of Vermicompost on the Seed Germination and Early Development of Lolium perenne and Agrostis stoloniferal%蚓粪对黑麦草和匍匐剪股颖种子萌发及初期生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红红; 张宝泉; 程积民; 程光庆; 赵新宇; 高阳

    2014-01-01

    探讨以不同体积比(O%,20%,40%,60%,80%,100%)混合的蚓粪与供试土壤基质对黑麦草绅士(Lolium perenne‘ Esquire’)和匍匐剪股颖帕特(Agrostis stoloni feral ‘Puter’)种子萌发及初期生长的影响,旨在为蚓粪能够更好地应用于草坪草建值提供更有力的科学依据.结果表明:黑麦草20%处理组的萌发率和发芽势最高,同时平均萌发时间最短,相比于对照提前了近1d,且差异显著(P<0.05),但初期生长的叶片数和地上生物量在不同处理组之间无显著差异.匍匐剪股颖在20%处理下的平均萌发时间最短,生长初期60%处理下的叶片数显著多于对照,达到了3.01片·株-1,且地上生物量最大,平均每株比对照高出0.42 mg.故在黑麦草种子萌发和初期生长过程中,蚓粪最适宜的添加体积比为20%,而匍匐剪股颖在种子萌发期的适宜蚓粪添加比为20%,而在初期生长中的添加比为60%.表明针对不同的草坪草及其不同生长阶段,应选择适宜的蚓粪添加量.

  1. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Ibanor Anghinoni; Davi Teixeira dos Santos; Fabiana Kellermann de Freitas; Marilia Terra Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam) manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm), obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez mese...

  2. Padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem por novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual e aveia-preta manejada sob diferentes alturas em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Displacement patterns and herbage capture by steers in Italian ryegrass and black oat pastures managed under different heights in integrated crop-livestock system

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Baggio; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Jamir Luís Silva da Silva; Ibanor Anghinoni; Marília Lazzarotto Terra Lopes; Juliana Muliterno Thurow

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo avaliaram-se estratégias alimentares de novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.) em quatro alturas de manejo (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm) para investigar se as alturas do pasto podem influenciar os padrões de deslocamento e captura da forragem por animais em pastejo e seus impactos em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. As alturas de manejo foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualisados com três repetiçõe...

  3. Plant uptake of selenium, arsenic and molybdenum from soil treated with coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codling, E.E.; Wright, R.J. [US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Chemistry Dept.

    1998-01-01

    Three coal combustion byproducts, flyash (FA), scrubber sludge (SS) and gypsum (G), added to soil at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg only limited annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) growth at the 80 g/kg rate. FA and SS increased selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in ryegrass but only Se from FA would present a potential food chain risk. G did not significantly increase ryegrass concentrations of Se, As and Mo and should not produce elevated trace element levels in plant material or the environment when added to soil at high rates.

  4. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The fate of nitrogen from N-15-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to two soils was studied under field conditions. Labelled and stored urine equivalent to 204 kg N ha(-1) was either incorporated in soil or applied to the soil surface prior to sowing of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.),...... mineralized in the sandy loam soil, when urine was applied prior to sowing. Thus, the fertilizer effect of urine N may be significantly lower than that of urea N on fine-textured soils, even when gaseous losses of urine N are negligible....

  5. Uso de suplementos para acasalamento de bezerras Angus aos 14 meses de idade

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Alves; M.G. Rocha; L. Pötter; S.C.B. Stivanin; V.S. Hampel; Á.M. Fonseca Neto; M.J.O Sichonany; P.H. Moterle

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte em três sistemas alimentares: exclusivamente em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ou em pastagem de azevém e recebendo 0,93% do peso corporal de grão de milho inteiro ou grão de aveia branca como suplemento. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com medidas repetidas no tempo. A utilização da pastagem de azevém, com ou sem uso de grão de milho ou aveia como supleme...

  6. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Fia; Antonio T. de Matos; Fátima R. L. Fia; Mateus P. de Matos; Túlio F. Lambert; Felipe S. Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs) utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC) com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO), proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no trata...

  7. Nitrogen-salt interaction in ryegrass : implications for soil potassium testing

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Carpio, José Manuel; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; Cabrera Capitán, Francisco; López Núñez, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Split additions of NO3-N (irrigation with a solution of 50 mg Nl-1) under saline conditions (irrigation with a 10 mM NaCl solution, which did not negatively affect plant growth) and non-saline conditions (water), enhanced the Na uptake by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. “Barwoltra”) grown in two soils potentially rich in K. The Mg uptake was also enhanced. This was not observed for split additions of P. After an initial “luxury” K plant uptake, the K supply could be insufficient...

  8. Produção de cordeiros em pastagem de azevém e trevo-branco sob diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem Lamb production in a mixture of italian ryegrass and white clover under different forage mass levels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Weber do Canto; Eduardo Londero Moojen; César de Faccio Carvalho; José Henrique Souza da Silva

    1999-01-01

    Na presente pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem na produção de cordeiros. O experimento foi estabelecido em Tupanciretã, região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em uma pastagem de azevém cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam) + trevo-branco cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L.), submetida a diferentes níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, estudando-se os n...

  9. Intensive rainfed and irrigated forage crop production for Mediterranean Italian Buffalo feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Berardo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo intensive husbandry represents the most lucrative dairy activity in Campania Region. The main forage crop system used in this area are based on winter Italian reygrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and spring corn (Zea mays L.. The continuous growing of this crops stressed the soil with a consequent reduction of yield potential. The experiment aimed to assess the agronomic and nutritive feeding value of Italian ryegrasscorn vs other cropping systems (models based on double rotated legumes and graminaceous crops grown under irrigated and rainfed water supply.

  10. Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franko;

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted...... selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique...... genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed...

  11. Etude des groupements d'adventices dans le Maroc occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douira, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the weeds groupings in western Morocco. An ecological floristic study was carried out in the principal areas of Morocco severely infested by the sterile oats. From 110 readings taken in cereals, the 324 listed species belong to 47 botanical families including 39 dicotyledons. Six families: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Apiaceae add up 59% of the total staff complement alone. The biological aspect shows a prevalence of the therophytes with 80%, followed by the hemicryptophytes and the geophytes with respectively 11 and 7%. Mediterranean taxa are dominating with 62% of the total staff complement. The taking into account of the index partial of noxiousness made it possible to release 27 problematic species whose Avena sterilis, Phalaris paradoxa, Phalaris brachystachys, Scolymus maculates, Lolium multiflorum, Papaver rhoeas and Lolium rigidum are most harmful by far. The factorial analysis of correspondences (A.F.C., by the means of the edaphic variables, made it possible to highlight six ecological groups.

  12. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are increasingly becoming the DNA marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77% of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86% genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises a total of 838 DNA markers (767 gene-derived markers and spans 750 centi Mogan (cM with an average marker interval distance of less than 0.9 cM. Moreover, it locates 732 expressed genes involved in a broad range of molecular functions of different biological processes in the perennial ryegrass genome. Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone in the establishment of genetic and genomics resources available for this species and constitute a further step towards molecular breeding strategies. Moreover, the high density genetic linkage map predominantly based on gene-associated DNA markers provides an important tool for the assignment of candidate genes to quantitative trait loci (QTL, functional genomics and the integration of genetic and physical maps in perennial ryegrass, one of the most important temperate grassland species.

  13. 冬小麦和黑麦草作为寒冷季节人工湿地栽培作物处理城市污水效果研究%Effects on the wastewater treatment with Triticum aestivum L. and Lolium perenne L. as cultivated plant in hydroponic ditch and hybrid constructed wetland in cold season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任勇翔; 杨春辉; 孙军峰; 马刚; 鲁浩; 杨永哲; 王志盈

    2012-01-01

    为提高低温时人工湿地对水中污染物的处理效率,筛选我国北方冬季人工湿地宜栽作物,在西安市某污水厂建立了中试系统.系统进水为污水厂初沉池出水,水培槽为系统预处理设施.人工湿地分为潜流和垂直流,深度分别为0.1m和0.3m,栽培作物分别为冬小麦和黑麦草.研究结果表明:冬季人工湿地中的黑麦草仍有较显著分蘖现象,冬小麦未见分蘖.冬春季黑麦草湿地系列对COD、NH+-N和TP的去除率均高于冬小麦湿地系列,非结冰期,0.1m黑麦草系列人工湿地COD、NH+-N和TP出水浓度可满足城镇污水处理厂国家污水综合排放标准中的二级标准.黑麦草适宜作为寒冷地区人工湿地栽培作物.%The winter wheat {Triticum aestivum L. ) and the lawn plant (Lolium perenne L. ) were used as cultivated plants in hydroponic ditch and hybrid constructed wetland for enhancing the removal of pollutants in the municipal wastwater in a pilot study. These ecological wastewater treatment system were located in a wastewater treatment plant in Xi an, China, and the effluent from the primary clarifier in the wastwater treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the experimental systems. The depth of the water in hydroponic ditch and substrate of the horizontal and vertical constructed wetland were 0. 1 m and 0. 3 m, respectively. The growth status of the two cultivated plants and their effects on the purification of the water quality during winter and spring were also brought into comparison. The results showed that L. perenne grew and developed much better than T. aestivum. Significant tillers of L. perenne and insignificant tillers of T. aestivum were both observed during the winter. The concentrations of COD, NH+4 -N and TP in the effluent from L. perenne systems with the depth of 0. 1 m in winter before freezing were lower than the 2nd class standard as specified in the Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, while only the

  14. Transformation of Lolium perenne with a fructan:fructan l-fructosyltransferase gene from Agropyron cristatum and enhancement of drought tolerance in transgenic plants%转果聚糖合成关键酶基因多年生黑麦草的获得及抗旱性的提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芸; 何近刚; 孙学舞; 吴金霞

    2011-01-01

    Acl-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) cloned from Agropyron cristatum was transformed into embryogenic callus lines of Lolium perenne using an Agrobacterium mediated method. Transgenic plants were analyzed by basra spraying and PCR amplification. In total, 18 independent transgenic lines were obtained with significantly improved drought tolerance. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ac1-FFT expressed strongly in transgenic L. perenne plants but not in control plants. Water soluble carbohydrate and fructan contents of Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne were significantly higher than those in control plants. Relative water content and chlorophyll content were significantly higher, while electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly lower in the Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne than in control plants for 6 days after drought treatment. Relative water content, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and MDA content were restored to their original levels after rewatering in Ac1-FFT transgenic plants but not in control plants. This suggests that the damage to Ac1-FFT transgenic plants was reversible but it was not in control plants. Acl-FFT expression and fructan biosynthesis may play an important role in improving drought tolerance of Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne.%以多年生黑麦草(品种卡特)胚性愈伤组织为转化受体,利用农杆菌介导的遗传转化方法将冰草果聚糖:果聚糖-1-果糖基转移酶基因(Ac1-FFT)导入黑麦草中,对再生植株喷洒basta溶液和PCR法检测,共获得18个阳性株系,RT-PCR结果表明,该基因在转基因黑麦草中正常表达.转基因黑麦草株系中的可溶性总糖含量和果聚糖含量明显高于对照植株.耐旱性提高,干旱胁迫6 d时其相对含水量和叶绿素含量明显高于对照植株,且下降速度慢,但其电解质渗漏率和丙二醛含量显著低于对照植株,复水后很快复原,而对照植株无法恢复,说明转基因植株中

  15. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  16. The impact of drought stress on the yields and food value of selected forage grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Staniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare yields and nutritional value of selected species and cultivars of forage grasses under the optimal moisture conditions and long-term drought stress. The regenerative capacity of plants after dehydration was also assessed. The pot experiment was conducted in years 2009–2010 in IUNG-PIB’s greenhouse in Puławy, Poland. Nine cultivars of four species: Dactylis glomerata (‘Amera’, ‘Minora’, Festuca pratensis (‘Skra’, ‘Fantazja’, Festulolium braunii (‘Felopa’, ‘Agula’, ‘Sulino’, and Lolium multiflorum (‘Gisel’, ‘Lotos’ were investigated in well-watered conditions (70% field water capacity – FWC and under a long-term drought stress (40% FWC. The study showed that stress caused by soil moisture deficiency significantly reduced yields of D. glomerata, F. pratensis, F. braunii, and L. multiflorum. The total yield of dry matter under stress conditions was about 31% lower, compared to the performance achieved on the optimally moisturized treatment. The smallest reduction in dry matter yield under the conditions of water deficit was recorded for D. glomerata, which makes it the most resistant to stress, followed by F. pratensis. The resistance of F. braunii and L. multiflorum to stress was similar and significantly lower. There was a various response of different grasses to the water stress. On the basis of the value of the DSI (drought susceptibility index, the tested cultivars were ranked depending on the sensitivity to drought, starting with the most resistant cultivar: ‘Minora’, ‘Skra’, ‘Fantazja’, ‘Amera’, ‘Sulino’, ‘Agula’, ‘Gisel’, ‘Lotos’, and ‘Felopa’. The digestibility of dry matter and nutrient value of the grasses depended on both the level of soil moisture and grass species. Under the water stress, the digestibility and protein value increased compared to the control objects. Lolium multiflorum and F. braunii had the best

  17. Abundancia y biomasa de organismos edáficos en tres usos del terreno en el altiplano de Pasto, Colombia Abundance and biomass of soil organisms in three land use systems in the high plateau of Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Castro P.

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la vereda Cruz de Amarillo, municipio de Pasto (1º 7' norte y 77º 17´ oeste, 2.850 msnm, 12º C y humedad relativa del 83%. Se seleccionaron tres usos del terreno: praderas de Lollium multiflorum (ryegrass y Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyo y un bosque secundario. En cada uno se trazó una línea recta y se tomaron ocho muestras, separadas 10 m, cada 15 días. El muestreo se hizo siguiendo la metodología del Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programe (TSBF. La fauna se recolectó manualmente y posteriormente se hizo el conteo y la valoración de la biomasa; los organismos se identificaron hasta nivel de familia y en algunos casos sólo hasta orden. También se determinó humedad gravimétrica, porosidad y contenido de materia orgánica. Los datos se analizaron de acuerdo con un diseño de bloques completos al azar. La pradera de L. multiflorum y el bosque secundario presentaron los mayores valores de abundancia de lombrices (5.648 y 4.864 ind m-2 y biomasa (141.3 y 670.7 g.p.f.m-2. En la pradera de P. clandestinum abundaron los ácaros (2.768 ind m-2 con una biomasa de 0.22 g. p. f m-2. En todos los usos del suelo la mayor abundancia de organismos y biomasa se presentó en la profundidad de 0 - 10 cm.At the county of Cruz de Amarillo, municipality of Pasto, Colombia , located al 2850 masl, a field study to determine the numbers of organisms and its biomass was carried out. Three land use systems were selected: prairie with the grass Lolium multiflorum (Ryegrass, pasture with Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu and secondary forest. The prairie of .L multiflorum and the secondary forest showed the highest values of abundance of earth worms (5648 and 4864 ind m-2, respectively. Biomass was 141.3 and 670.7 gpfm-2 for L. multiflorum and P. clandestinum, respectively. Mites were abundant (2768 ind m-2 with a biomass of 0.22 gpfm-2. At all land use systems, the highest abundance of organisms and biomass at 2 depth of

  18. Efficient Phosphorus Cycling in Food Production: Predicting the Phosphorus Fertilization Effect of Sludge from Chemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Øgaard, Anne; Brod, Eva

    2016-06-22

    This study examined the P fertilization effects of 11 sewage sludges obtained from sewage treated with Al and/or Fe salts to remove P by a pot experiment with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a nutrient-deficient sand-peat mixture. Also it investigated whether fertilization effects could be predicted by chemical sludge characteristics and/or by P extraction. The mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) value varied significantly but was low for all sludges. MFE was best predicted by a negative correlation with ox-Al and ox-Fe in sludge, or by a positive correlation with P extracted with 2% citric acid. Ox-Al had a greater negative impact on MFE than ox-Fe, indicating that Fe salts are preferable as a coagulant when aiming to increase the plant availability of P in sludge. The results also indicate that sludge liming after chemical wastewater treatment with Al and/or Fe salts increases the P fertilization effect.

  19. Contribution of a phytotoxic compound to the allelopathy of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka

    2013-11-01

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) has not changed over 121 million years. There may be unknown special strategy for the survival. Gingko litter inhibited the growth of weed species ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). The inhibition was greater with the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the gingko tree. A phytotoxic substance, 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid (HHPEBA) was isolated in the litter. HHPEBA concentration was greater in the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the tree. HHPEBA inhibited the ryegrass growth at concentrations greater than 3 μM. HHPEBA was estimated to be able to cause 47-62% of the observed growth inhibition of ryegrass by the gingko litter. Therefore, HHPEBA may contribute to the inhibitory effect caused by ginkgo litter and may provide a competitive advantage for gingko to survive through the growth inhibition of the neighboring plants.

  20. GWN-3189 B – A new selective herbicide based on Triallate for control of herbicide resistant grass weed in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlschlegel, Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With substantial work on the formulation, Gowan offers a new herbicide (GWN-3189 B based on Triallate for use on winter wheat, winter barley, winter rye, winter triticale and spring barley. GWN-3189B will be applied from pre-emergence to early post-emergence of the crop and offers a broad spectrum against grass-weeds. GWN-3189 B is selective on all cereal species. As soil herbicide GWN-3189 B offers interesting alternatives in grass-weed resistance management. The efficacy on grass weed, especially on Alopecurus myosuroides (blackgrass, Apera spica venti (silky bentgrass and Lolium multiflorum (italian ryegrass is demonstrated with results of field trials performed in France, Great Britain and Germany.

  1. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Joice Mari Assmann; João Alfredo Braida; Luís César Cassol; Emanuelle Cavazini Magiero; Claudia Manteli; Ederson Griz

    2009-01-01

    O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS) pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS) e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum). Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O sol...

  2. Grain feeding coordinately alters expression patterns of transcription factor and metabolic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, C N; Perkins, S D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to improve meat quality and production efficiency in cattle is limited by an inability to enhance marbling and simultaneously limit undesirable adipose tissue accretion. The objective of this study was to examine expression of regulatory genes in subcutaneous (SCF) adipose tissue of heifers in response to increasing days on feed (DOF) and finishing strategy. Crossbred heifers (n = 24) were allotted as follows: Group 1 = 0 d, Group 2 = 99 d on winter annual ryegrass (grass; Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Group 3 = 218 g on grass, Group 4 = 99 d on grass followed by 119 d on grain. Adipose tissue samples were collected at time of harvest and frozen. Carcass characteristics were measured 24 h postharvest. As expected, HCW (P grade increased (P grade (P meat quality whereas gene expression studies suggest several novel genes are associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue development in growing and finishing cattle. PMID:23482578

  3. eaf tissue flows in ryegrass managed under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônique Foggiato da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic, structural variables and leaf biomass flows of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. were evaluated under two stocking rates: ‘Low’ and ‘High’. These rates were determined by heifers exclusively on pasture or on pasture and supplemented with corn grain. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, two stocking rates, two and four replications of area for the stocking rates ‘low’ and ‘high’, respectively. The morphogenetic variables, the number of green leaves and tiller density were similar in both stocking rates. Leaf senescence rate was higher with low stocking rate. Heifers grazed with similar intensity and frequency in both stocking rates. The increase by 33.6% in the stocking rate caused by the use of supplement does not change the leaf biomass flow of Italian ryegrass, but alters its potential efficiency of use near the reproductive stage of the plant.

  4. Silagem de milho e grão de sorgo como suplementos para vacas de descarte terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria Corn silage and sorghum grain supplementation to cull cows finished on cultivated winter pasture

    OpenAIRE

    L.F.G. Menezes; L.R. Segabinazzi; I.L. Brondani; J. Restle; M.Z. Arboitte; F. Kuss; P.S. Pacheco; J.R.P. Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com silagem de milho ou grão de sorgo no desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, submetidas ao pastejo restrito em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa) + azevém (Lolium multiflorum). Foram utilizadas 30 vacas mestiças Charolês-Nelore, com idade média de oito anos, distribuídas em igual número e ao acaso em três tratamentos: silagem de milho (TSI) ou grão de sorgo moído (TSO) como suplemento, e não suplementação (TPH). A suple...

  5. Sulfur flow in a soil-plant system-effects of long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Eriksen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Ingvar;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of long-term treatment and soil type on sulfur (S) flow patterns within soil and from soil to plant was studied in a pot experiment with Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum cv. SW Fredrik) with (+S) or without (-S) added S. Soil samples were taken from two field treatments (farmyard...... manure (FYM) application or crop residue (CR) incorporation) at four sites with differing soil types within the Swedish long-term fertility experiment series. To follow gross processes, the initial soil sulfate pool was labeled with carrier-free H235SO4. The -S treatment resulted in visual symptoms of S...... organic S) in the soil were involved in the S transformations. The long-term FYM treatment had resulted in higher S cycling rates and a slightly higher resistance to S deficiency than the CR treatment. The influence of soil type on S flow patterns was important, but probably only partly related...

  6. Will technological modernization for power generation at an oil refinery diminish the risks from air pollution to the Atlantic Rainforest in Cubatão, SE Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Ricardo K; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the level of atmospheric contamination by S, N and metals before, during and after the installation of a new thermoelectric plant that provides power to an oil refinery in Cubatão, SE Brazil. We measured the foliar accumulation in Lolium multiflorum "Lema" with the aim of evaluating risks to the Atlantic Rainforest that grows in the region. Al, Co, Cr, Cu, K, N, Ni, S, V and Zn were appropriate markers of the new air contamination profile associated with the modern technology. With the exception of V, the leaf contents of these elements significantly increased between the pre-operation to post-operation phases (Al, Co, N, K, S), or only during the transition phase (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni), and returned to the previous levels after the total shutdown of the old system. Therefore, the expected environmental gain was not achieved with the installation of the new technology.

  7. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  8. Efeito da suplementação energética sobre a carcaça de vacas de diferentes idades, terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria sob pastejo horário

    OpenAIRE

    Restle João; Vaz Fabiano Nunes; Alves Filho Dari Celestino; Pascoal Leonir Luiz; Oliveira André Nunes de; Faturi Cristian; Arboitte Miguelângelo Ziegler

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar níveis de suplementação energética sobre as características de carcaça de vacas de descarte, de diferentes idades, submetidas ao pastejo horário em pastagem de Lolium multiflorum + X triticosecale. Foram utilizadas 40 vacas de descarte Charolês, divididas em quatro classes em função da idade ao abate (IA), ou seja: 4 (IA4), 5 e 6 (IA5-6), 7 e 8 (IA7-8) ou mais de 8 anos (IA+8), e distribuídas ao acaso em quatro níveis de suplementação energética (NS): 0; 0...

  9. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  10. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  11. DETERMINATION OF GINSENG POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM REFINEMENT BY HPLC%HPLC法测定人参首乌精的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲华

    2003-01-01

    目的:采用HPLG法测定人参首乌精中人参皂苷Rg1的含量.方法:色谱条件以THMEROQUEST-ODS2(150mm×4.6mm,5um)为色谱柱,乙腈一0.05%磷酸(99:400)为流动相,检测波长203nm,流速1.0ml/min,外标法定量.同时考察了方法的线性、精密度、重现性、稳定性、回收率.结果:线性相关系数r=0.99999,精密度RSD(%)为0.2,重现性RSD(%)为1.42,稳定性RSD(%)为0.85,回收率为97.47%.结论:此方法可以作为人参首乌精的含量检测方法.

  12. Investigating the Mechanism of Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been used extensively for more than 20 yr. The first glyphosate-resistant weed biotype appeared in 1996; it involved a rigid ryegrass population from Australia that exhibited an LD50 value approximately 10-fold higher than that of sensitive biotypes....

  13. Plant growth regulation in seed crops of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Lemaire, Charles; Abel, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield components were recorded in plants of perennial ryegrass cv. Calibra a medium late, forage type (4n) in a two factorial block design with Nitrogen (N) and plant growth regulator (PGR) application in 2014 and 2015 at Aarhus University (AU), Flakkebjerg. For each plant, reproductive...

  14. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    on salt stress tolerance. Ryegrass families where sown in rockwool blocks (in four replicates) in greenhouse, and allowed to establish over 60 days using standard fertilization and watering. Three consecutive treatments, with increasing salt (NaCl) concentrations, were applied. Ten days after initiation...... and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  15. Can herbage nitrogen fractionation in Lolium perenne be improved by herbage management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Amburgh, van M.E.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2008-01-01

    The high degradability of grass protein is an important factor in the low nitrogen (N) utilization of grazing bovines in intensive European grassland systems. We tested the hypothesis that protein degradability as measured by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) protein fractionat

  16. Chemical composition of lamina and sheath of Lolium perenne as affected by herbage management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grass in terms of form and relative amounts of energy and protein affects both animal production per unit of intake and nitrogen (N) utilization. Quality can be manipulated by herbage management and choice of cultivar. The effects of N application rate (0, 90 or 390 kg N ha¿1 year¿1),

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen;

    2015-01-01

    enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some of the...

  18. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory;

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS) data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone...... to QTL, functional genomics and the integration of genetic and physical maps in perennial ryegrass, one of the most important temperate grassland species....

  19. Transfer DREB into Lolium perenne L. To improve its drought tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinrong; Sun Zhenyuan; Jiang Changshun; Dong Zhaoyong; Zhang Yizheng

    2006-01-01

    A method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for perennial ryegrass was developed using the calli of ryegrass derived from mature embryos. The calli were inoculated with a disarmed A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector p2328. Vector p2328 contained transcription factor DREB1B and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes which were driven by promoters of rd29B and CaMV35S, respectively. The inoculated calli were selected on paromomycin- or kanamycin-containing media till the established plants being transferred to soil. Six transgenic plants with DREB1B had been obtained from perennial ryegrass strain Tove. PCR and Southern-blotting showed that npt II and DREB1B genes were integrated in perennial ryegrass genome. Stress treatment confirmed that transgenic plants with higher drought tolerance were obtained.

  20. Effects of humic acid and competing cations on metal uptake by Lolium perenne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Within the biotic ligand model, which describes relationships between chemical speciation and metal binding at an organism's surface, multicomponent (long-term) metal uptake by plants has seldom been studied. In the present work, we exposed perennial ryegrass to nutrient solutions with two levels of

  1. Genomics-Assisted Exploitation of Heterosis in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul

    ryegrass for the development of improved varieties. During his PhD studies, Mohammad Shofiqul Islam studied the feasibility of developing novel hybrid breeding schemes based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems in perennial ryegrass. He successfully completed the assembly and annotation of a male......-fertile perennial ryegrass mitochondrial genome, and identified candidate genes responsible for the CMS phenotype by comparing male-fertile and male-sterile mitochondrial genomes. His findings constitute a good basis for continuing research to produce hybrid grass varieties to address the future needs......, breeding activities have been carried out to improve the population and develop synthetic varieties. This does not fully exploit the potential of heterosis, however. Hybrid breeding is an alternative strategy and provides opportunities to fully exploit the genetically available heterosis in perennial...

  2. Modeling Lolium perenne L. roots in the presence of empirical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant root models are designed for understanding structural or functional aspects of root systems. When a process is not thoroughly understood, a black box object is used. However, when a process exists but empirical data do not indicate its existence, you have a black hole. The object of this re...

  3. Application of molecular markers for variety protection of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Deneken, Gerhard; Roulund, N;

    2008-01-01

    Before seed of most major agricultural and vegetable varieties can be sold in the EU, the variety must be included on a National List (NL) of a member state or on the Common Catalogue (a compilation of the NLs of the member states). In many countries, particularly in the EU, the controlling......). At the moment, the DUS criteria are assessed in the EU member states mainly using a series of replicated field tests and trials. DUS testing takes a minimum of two years and requires considerable resources. Thus, there is much interest in reducing the time, resources, land use and hence cost, of variety...

  4. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Stephen L; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990's. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect on

  5. Grazing ecology of female lambs on Italian ryegrass plus red clover pasture under different defoliation intensities Ecologia do pastejo por cordeiras em pastagem de azevém e trevo-vermelho sob diversas intensidades de desfolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pasture dynamics and ingestive behavior of female lambs was studied on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. plus red clover (Trifolium pratense L. mixture under a range of defoliation intensities. Rotational grazing was used and the grazing interval was determined by the thermal sum of 313 degree days. The initial pre-grazing canopy height disappearance values were 65 (very high, 58 (high, 47 (medium and 37% (low. The sward vertical structure was similar among defoliation intensities. The forage allowance decreased linearly as defoliation intensities increased, with 0.35 bite/minute reduction for each 1% increase in forage allowance. The bite rate and number of bites/feeding station decreased with reduced contribution of leaves in the sward structure. It was associated, respectively, with an increase and a decrease of NDF and CP levels in forage as grazed by female lambs. The pasture cycle proves to be more important than defoliation intensities as a source for changes in feeding stations and displacement patterns of female lambs.Estudou-se a relação entre a dinâmica do pasto e o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L. em diferentes intensidades de desfolha. O pastejo foi rotacionado e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 313 graus-dia. Os valores de desaparecimento da altura do dossel no pré-pastejo foram de 65 (muito alta, 58 (alta, 47 (média e 37% (baixa, respectivamente. A estrutura vertical do pasto foi semelhante entre as intensidades de desfolha testadas. A oferta de forragem diminuiu linearmente com o aumento da intensidade de desfolha, com redução de 0,35 bocado/minuto a cada 1% a mais na oferta de forragem. A taxa de bocados e o número de bocados/estação alimentar reduziram com a diminuição da contribuição de folhas na estrutura da pastagem, acompanhada do aumento do teor de FDN e

  6. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  7. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  8. Efeitos do livre acesso de bezerros ao creep-feeding sobre os esempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas Effects of free access of beef calves to creep-feeding on productivity and reproductive performance of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do livre acesso ao creep-feeding sobre os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas mantidas em pastagem nativa melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., trevo branco (Trifolium repens Lam. e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel foram avaliados nesta pesquisa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por quatro tratamentos segundo esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sexos: vacas amamentando bezerros ou bezerras; dois sistemas de alimentação: vacas amamentando bezerros (as com ou sem acesso a creep-feeding, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais. As vacas primíparas do sistema com creep-feeding apresentaram peso corporal e escore de condição corporal, no final do experimento, mais altos que as do sistema sem creep-feeding (412 kg e 3,94 vs. 399 kg e 3,77, respectivamente. Vacas do sistema com creep-feeding tiveram ganho de peso médio diário mais elevados que o de vacas com bezerros não-suplementados (0,549 vs. 0,449 kg/dia. O creep-feeding e o sexo dos animais não influenciaram a taxa de prenhez das vacas primíparas.The research evaluated the effects of the creep-feeding on the productive and reproductive performance of the primiparous cows, maintained on improved natural pasture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., white clover (Trifolium repens Lam. and cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel. A completely randomized experimental design composed by four treatments according to 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sex: cows suckling male or female calves; two systems of feeding: cows suckling male or female with or without access creep-feeding, totalizing 16 experimental units. The primiparous cows of the creep-feeding system showed body weight and corporal condition, in the end of the experiment, higher in relation to the ones without creep-feeding system (412 kg and 3.94 versus 399 kg and 3.77, respectively. Cows in the creep-feeding system showed average

  9. Deficiencias de nutrientes en suelos semiáridos. I: ajuste de un método en invernáculo Nutrient deficiencies in semiarid soils. I: adjustment of a method in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo A. Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue llevado a cabo con el objetivo de estimar las carencias de nutrientes minerales y sus prioridades en suelos agrícolas de regadío del área de influencia de Villa Mercedes (San Luis, Argentina, utilizando una técnica simple que combina métodos sustractivos y aditivos en invernáculo. Las experiencias se realizaron comparando ocho tratamientos sustractivos (C, C-Mg, C-Ca, C-P, C-K, C-S, C-EM, y T, y cuatro aditivos (N, NP, NS, y NPS, en un Haplustoll éntico a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm empleando como planta índice Lolium multiflorum Lam. Los resultados muestran que: 1 no existen deficiencias nutritivas de K, Mg, Ca ni EM (elementos menores, en las profundidades estudiadas, 2 el S fue deficiente en las dos profundidades, 3 el P presenta una disminución de rendimientos en superficie mientras que es deficiente en profundidad. Asimismo se obtuvo una correlación positiva (r = 0,9128 entre el consumo de agua realizada por el cultivo y los rendimientos de materia seca obtenidos de los diferentes tratamientos.This study was carried out in order to estimate the mineral nutrient deficiencies and their priorities in irrigated arable soils in the area of Villa Mercedes (San Luis, Argentine by means of a simple technique, which combines subtractive and additive methods in greenhouse. The trials were performed by comparing eight subtractive treatments (C, C-Mg, C-Ca, C-P, C-K, C-S, C-ME and T and four additive ones (N, NP, NS and NPS, in an Entic Haplustoll, at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm and using Lolium multiflorum Lam. as index plant. The achieved results show that: 1 there are no nutrient deficiencies of K, Mg, Ca, or ME (minor element, in depths studied; 2 S was deficient in both depths; 3 P presents a marked decrease of yield at surface level while it is found to be deficient at greater depths. In addition, there appeared a positive correlation (r = 0.9128 between the water consumed by the crop and the yields

  10. Variação da agregação induzida por plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno e plantio direto de milho em um solo podzólico Variation in aggregation indüced by winter cover crops and corn no-tillage in a hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo no inverno por diferentes plantas sobre a estabilidade de agregados estáveis em água, desenvolveu-se um experimento de maio/93 a maio/95, em solo Podzóiico vermelho-amarelo (PV da área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno: ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvensis, ervilhaca (Vicia saliva L., chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius Lam., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Shieb e pousio invernal. As coletas de amostras do solo para as análises da estabilidade de agregados foram feitas a 5cm de profundidade e em quatro épocas: florescimento das plantas de cobertura de solo, logo após a semeadura do milho, florescimento e colheita do milho. No primeiro ano de avaliação (93/94, quarto ano de execução do experimento, verificou-se uma superioridade da aveia preta em relação ao tremoço, ervilhaca, chícharo e ervilha forrageira, durante o ciclo vegetativo das plantas de cobertura de inverno, já no ano agrícola 94/95 não houve grandes diferenças na estabilidade estrutural entre os tratamentos.A field study was carried out from May of 1993 to May of 1995 at Federal University of Santa Maria campus at the Soil Science Department experimental área, using an experiment installed on a typic Hapludalf (yellow-red podzolic since 1989. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of some winter cover crops on water aggregate stability afterfour andfive year ofno- tiliage system. The cover crops used were: forage pea (Pisum arvensis, common vetch (Vicia saliva, wild winter pea (Lathyrus sativus, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Iam, blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius and black oat (Avena strigosa. The fallow was used as a control treatment. Soil samples to measure aggregate stability were extracted from 0 to 5cm depth atfour dates

  11. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte sob alternativas de mineralização em pastagem de azevém Development of beef heifers under mineralization alternatives, on Italian ryegrass pasture

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    Luciana Pötter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo diferentes alternativas de suplementação mineral, associadas ou não à adição de ionóforo. Os tratamentos testados foram: "Sal comum": mineralização com cloreto de sódio; "Sal 40P": mineralização com sal mineral contendo 40g de fósforo por kg de produto; "Sal 40P + ionóforo": mineralização com 40g de fósforo + 2.000mg de lasalocida sódica por kg de produto. Os valores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, Ca e P na forragem aparentemente consumida, consumo de sal, escore de condição corporal, relação peso: altura e GMD foram semelhantes (P>0,05 entre animais que receberam "Sal comum", "Sal 40P" e "Sal 40P + ionóforo". Em pastagem de azevém, sem restrição ao consumo voluntário, a lasalocida sódica adicionada ao sal mineral proporciona maior peso vivo de bezerras aos 12 meses de idade e um retorno financeiro positivo.Body development of beef heifers grazing Italian ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was evaluated. The animals received different alternatives of mineral supplement: associated or not to ionophore addition and the treatments were: 'Common salt': mineralization with sodium chloride; '40P salt': mineralization with mineral salt plus 40g of phosphorus per kilo of product; 40P salt + ionophore: mineralization with 40g of phosphorus plus 2000mg of lasalocid per kg of product. The values of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and Ca and P of the apparently consumed forage, salt intake, body condition and body weight:height relation were similar (P>0.05 between animals receiving 'common salt', '40P salt' and '40P salt+ionophor'. For beef heifers grazing ryegrass pasture without intake restriction, the lasalocid associated to mineral salt provides a greater body weight at twelve months age and a positive financial.

  12. Desempenho animal em pasto de aveia e azevém com distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares Animal performance in oat and Italian ryegrass pastures under leaf lamina biomass levels

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    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de biomassas de lâminas foliares no desempenho animal. Utilizou-se mistura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., para determinar quantidades adequadas de sua biomassa no manejo da pastagem. Foram realizados dois experimentos, na estação fria de 2002 e 2003. Na avaliação de 2002, os valores de biomassa de lâminas foliares foram de 360 kg ha-1 (baixa e 630 kg ha-1 (alta. Em 2003, foram obtidas biomassas de 352, 422 e 507 kg ha-1, classificadas como baixa, média e alta, respectivamente. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variada; os animais utilizados foram terneiros da raça Charolês e cruzados com Nelore, com idade inicial de nove meses. As variáveis de produção animal avaliadas, nos dois anos, foram: ganho médio diário, carga animal e ganho de peso vivo por área. As distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares mantidas não são fatores limitantes ao desempenho animal.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different leaf lamina biomass over animal performance. A mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was used to determine adequate levels of leaf lamina biomass for pasture management. Two trials were made, in 2002 and 2003 cool seasons. In 2002 evaluation, leaf lamina biomass values were of 360 kg ha-1 (low and 630 kg ha-1 (high. In 2003, values obtained for leaf lamina biomasses were of 352, 422 and 507 kg ha-1, being classified as low, medium and high, respectively. Grazing method was continuous, with variable stocking rate; testing animals were calves of Charolais breed and its crosses with Nelore breed, with initial age of nine months. Evaluated variables in animal production, in both years, were: average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain per area. Leaf lamina biomasses evaluated are not limiting factors to animal performance.

  13. Avaliação de sistemas alimentares para terneiros desmamados aos três meses de idade Evaluation of feeding systems for calves weaned at three months old

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    Roblein Cristal Coelho Filho

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o desempenho de torneiros desmamados aos 3 meses de idade em quatro diferentes sistemas alimentares: S1 - Campo Nativo + Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, S2 - Campo Nativo + Pastagem cultivada de inverno (Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum; S3 - Pensacola (Paspalum notatum var. Saurae + silagem de sorgo; e S4 - Pensacola + pastagem cultivada de inverno, bem como a qualidade destes sistemas expresso em proteína bruta e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, foi realizado um experimento nas dependências da Pulquéria Agropecuária, em São Sepé, Depressão Central do RS, em solo da unidade de mapeamento Cerrito, classificado como Laterítico Bruno Avermelhado distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualisado, tendo os animais como repetições. Utilizaram-se 30 torneiros cruza Nelore x Charolés, em pastejo contínuo com lotação variável. O período experimental foi de 244 dias (verão/outono e inverno/primavera. Os animais foram pesados com intervalos médios de 28 dias. O sistema S4, apresentou um Ganho Médio Diário de peso (545g superior aos demais (PA trial was conducted to evaluate lhe performance of calves weaned of three months old in four systems: S1 - Natural pasture + Sorghum bicolor silage; S2 - Natural pasture + Winter pasture (Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum; S3 - Bahiagrass (Paspalurn notatum var. Saurae + Sorghum silage and S4 - Bahiagrass + Winter pasture. The experiment was installed in Pulquéria Agropecuária, São Sepé, RS, in a Ridish-Brown Latheritic Soil. It was evaluated the crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestibility of the forage. Thirty calves, Nelore x Charolais Breed, were used as replications, in a completely randomized design. with continuous grazing and variable stocking rate in the pastures. The experimental period was of 244 days (summer/autumn and winter/spring . The calves were weighted at a 28 day intervals. S4 system presented a

  14. Desenvolvimento de bezerras de corte após a desmama sob níveis de concentrado After weaning beef heifers development under supplementation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pötter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento de bezerras de corte recebendo diferentes níveis diários de suplemento concentrado: 0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso corporal em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e duas repetições de área. As bezerras tiveram condições similares de disponibilidade de pasto (massa de forragem e oferta de lâminas verdes em todos os tratamentos. Aumentos na quantidade fornecida de suplemento interferiram positivamente no ganho médio diário, na carga animal, no ganho de peso por área e na eficiência de transformação da forragem. Bezerras suplementadas apresentaram maior peso corporal e maior escore de condição corporal aos 13 meses de idade em relação às não suplementadas. Em aveia preta e azevém, fornecer até 0,9% do peso corporal dos animais em suplementação concentrada é uma alternativa para serem obtidas novilhas mais pesadas e com melhor escore de condição corporal.It was evaluated the performance of beef heifers receiving different levels of supplement: 0; 0.3; 0.6 and 0.9% of body weight day-1, in black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and two area replicates. Beef heifers from different treatments had access to the same forage allowance (herbage mass and supply of green leaves. Increases on supplement quantity positively interfered on average daily gain, stocking rate, weight gain per area and forage transformation efficiency. Supplemented heifers had greater weight and body condition at 13 months of age than the non supplemented ones. In black oats plus Italian ryegrass pasture, providing up to 0.9% of body weight of the animal concentrate supplementation is an alternative for obtaining heavier heifers and in better body condition score.

  15. Seed germination and seedling vigour of italian ryegrass, cocksfoot and timothy following harvest and storage Germinação de sementes e o vigor de plantas jovens de azevem italiano, dactilis e timóteo após a colheita e o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanisavljevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During post-harvest maturation, different species vary in the length of dormancy breaking or germination increases. Seed dormancy and slow seedling development often limit establishment of forage grass stands. Seed germination and seedling vigour of Italian ryegrass (Lolium italicum A. Braun, Synonym Lolium multiflorum L., cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. and timothy (Phleum pretense L. were observed after harvest and storage. After harvest in June, seeds were stored under standard storage conditions and sampled every 30 days after harvest (DAH, up to 270 DAH, and then every 60 days up to 990 DAH. At each date, seeds were tested for final germination percentage and for seedling vigour traits. Timothy seeds had a maximum germination (88% and the best seedlings vigour at 90 DAH, which implies that early autumn (September-October is the best sowing period for freshly harvested seeds of timothy. Timothy seed germination was poor from 270 DAH (73%. The best germination and vigour of Italian ryegrass and cocksfoot seedlings were between 270 and 330 DAH, which equates to spring sowing time (March-April in the succeeding year. Cocksfoot and Italian ryegrass seeds maintained satisfactory germination levels up to 630 DAH (81% and 810 DAH (81%, respectively. The data can serve for the determination of a proper storage duration management between harvest and sowing of the tested species under ambient conditions of south-eastern Europe.Durante o armazenamento, diferentes espécies comportam-se diferentemente quanto à dormência e crescimento de plântulas. A dormência o desenvolvimento lento das plântulas limitam a época do plantio das gramíneas forrageiras plurianuais. A germinação de sementes e o crescimento das plântulas de azevem italiano (Lolium italicum A. Braun sin. Lolium multiflorum L., Dactilis (Dactilis glomerata L. e de timoteo (Phleum pratense L. foi pesquisada durante a maturação pós-colheita e a silagem. Após a colheita, em junho

  16. Cross-resistance profile of mesosulfuron-methyl-resistant Italian ryegrass in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Yong In; Bugos, Nilda R

    2007-04-01

    Diclofop-resistant Lolium species (ryegrass) is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to mesosulfuron-methyl, a recently commercialized herbicide for ryegrass control in wheat; to determine the cross-resistance pattern of a Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Italian ryegrass) accession, 03-1, to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; and to determine the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl. Seventeen ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and Louisiana, including standard resistant and susceptible accessions, were used in this experiment. Fourteen of the 17 accessions were more resistant (four- to > 308-fold) to diclofop than the standard susceptible biotype. One accession, 03-1, was resistant to mesosulfuron-methyl as well as to other ALS inhibitor herbicides such as chlorsulfuron, imazamox and sulfometuron. Accession 03-1, however, did not show multiple resistance to the ACCase inhibitor herbicides diclofop, fluazifop, clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden, nor to glyphosate. The in vivo ALS activity of the 03-1 biotype was less affected by mesosulfuron-methyl than the susceptible biotype. This indicates that the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl is partly due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. It is concluded that diclofop-resistant ryegrass in the southern United States can be generally controlled by mesosulfuron-methyl. However, mesosulfuron-methyl must be used with caution because not all ryegrass populations are susceptible to it. There is a need for more thorough profiling of ryegrass resistance to herbicides.

  17. Effects of post-harvest treatments on concentrations and profile of fatty acids in fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, A.C.; Elgersma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant lipids are complex, polar and highly unsaturated constituents of membranes. During collection and/or handling of a plant sample, the membrane integrity gets lost due to plant injury and losses of fatty acids (FA) can occur as a result of oxidative or enzymatic processes. Quantitative and quali

  18. Nuclear changes induced by the nematodes Xiphinema diversicaudatum and Longidorus elongatus in root-tips of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B S; Robertson, W M; Trudgill, D L

    1982-09-01

    The DNA content and size of individual nuclei from galls of perennial ryegrass root-tips induced by X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus were measured. Feeding by X. diversicaudatum increased the DNA content of the nuclei by varying amounts. No regular doubling pattern of the DNA content was discernible. The DNA values varied up to between 32-64C. Generally the size of the nuclei was not increased, although some were larger than control nuclei. The modified nuclei probably have an altered metabolic function, which increases the food value of the gall to the nematode. Some bi-nucleate cells were also observed, which probably result from mitosis without cytokinesis. A preliminary examination of nuclei from galls induced by L. elongatus revealed similar nuclear changes, but no bi-nucleate cells were found.

  19. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium of nine genes with putative effects on flowering time in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Alice; Lenk, Ingo; Petersen, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    in floral organ identity were found to be highly conserved and showed extended LD. For LpMADS4, LpMADS5, LpCO, LpSFT and LpTFL1, LD extended over the entire region analyzed. The results are compared to previously published results on resistance genes within the same collection of genotypes and the prospects...... to LpMADS1) and five additional MADS-box genes, were analyzed for nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD). For each gene, about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 10 to 20 genotypes of perennial ryegrass of diverse origin. Four to twelve haplotypes per gene were observed. On average......, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 127 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the nine genes (π = 0.00790). Two MADS-box genes, LpMADS1 and LpMADS10, involved in timing of flowering showed high nucleotide diversity and rapid LD decay, whereas MADS-box genes involved...

  20. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  1. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.;

    2001-01-01

    1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt...

  2. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias;

    2015-01-01

    the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the sequence assembly to characterize transcriptional changes in the stigma during pollination with both compatible and incompatible pollen. Characterization of the pollen transcriptome identified homologs to pollen...

  3. Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan;

    2008-01-01

    replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the Vrn...

  4. A Bioactivity-Based Method for Screening, Identification of Lipase Inhibitors, and Clarifying the Effects of Processing Time on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Polygonum Multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-xu Chang; Ai-hua Ge; Yan Jiang; John Teye Azietaku; Jin Li; Xiu-mei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for the treatment of many complex diseases. However, the bioactive components are always undefined. In this study, a bioactivity-based method was developed and validated to screen lipase inhibitors and evaluate the effects of processing on the lipase inhibitory activity of TCM by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fraction collector (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS-FC). The results showed tha...

  5. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  6. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances.

  7. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  8. Efeito da idade do desmame no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte até os 14/15 meses de idade Effect of weaning age on beef heifers growth until 14/15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do desmame precoce, em média aos 77 dias pós-parto, e do desmame convencional, em média aos 147 dias pós-parto, no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte. Foram utilizadas 161 bezerras Braford, nascidas nos anos de 2004, 2005 e 2006. Após os desmames as bezerras foram mantidas em pastagens cultivadas de verão (Pennisetum americanum e de inverno e primavera (Avena strigosa Schreb + Lolium multiflorum Lam. Foram avaliados os pesos corporais, ganhos de pesos médios diários e condição corporal a cada 28 dias. Houve interação entre idades de desmame e ano para peso corporal e ganho de peso. O desmame precoce não influenciou os pesos corporais, embora o peso corporal tenha sido menor aos 147 dias nos animais nascidos em 2005 e 2006. O ganho médio diário entre as idades de desmame foi similar nos três anos no desmame precoce (0,538; 0,477 e 0,472 kg, respectivamente e aumentou significativamente no desmame convencional com o avançar dos anos (0,516; 0,704 e 1,040 kg, respectivamente. Na pastagem de Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum, o ganho médio diário foi similar entre idades de desmame. O peso no início do período reprodutivo no desmame precoce em 2004 (283,4 kg foi maior que em 2005 (260,7 kg, enquanto no desmame convencional não houve diferença entre os anos (272,9 e 263,8 kg, respectivamente. A condição corporal no início do período reprodutivo foi afetada pelo ano de observação. A idade da bezerra esteve positivamente correlacionada com os pesos ao desmame convencional (r = 0,510 e ao início do período reprodutivo (r = 0,491. O desmame precoce e o convencional não inviabilizam o acasalamento das novilhas aos 14-/15 meses de idade.The influence of the early weaning, on average 77 days after the birth, or the conventional weaning, on average 147 days on beef heifer development was evaluated. One hundred and sixty-one Braford calves, born in 2004, 2005 and 2006 were kept after weaning on

  9. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  10. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. J.; McCormick, M. E.; Derouen, S. M.; Blouin, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages. PMID:25178371

  11. Tricolorin A as a Natural Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Lotina-Hennsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricolorin A acts as pre- and post-emergence plant growth inhibitor. In pre-emergence it displays broad-spectrum weed control, inhibiting germination of both monocotyledonous (Lolium mutliflorum and Triticum vulgare and dicotyledonous (Physalis ixocarpa and Trifolium alexandrinum seeds, being the dicotyledonous seeds the most inhibited. Tricolorin A also inhibited seedling growth, and seed respiration, and since the concentrations required for inhibiting both germination and respiration were similar, we suggest that respiration is one of its targets. Tricolorin A at 60 µM acts as a post- emergence plant growth inhibitor by reducing dry plant biomass by 62%, 37%, 33%, and 22% for L. multiflorum, T. alexandrinum, T. vulgare, and P. ixocarpa, respectively, 18 days after its application. In order to determine the potency of tricolorin A as a plant growth inhibitor, paraquat was used as control; the results indicate that tricolorin A acts as a non-selective post-emergence plant growth inhibitor similar to paraquat, since both reduced the biomass production in P. ixocarpa and T. alexandrinum. Therefore, we suggest that tricolorin A will be a good biodegradable herbicide for weeds.

  12. Cr-resistant rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with Prosopis juliflora and their potential as phytoremediation enhancing agents in metal-degraded soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad U; Sessitsch, Angela; Harris, Muhammad; Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Arslan, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is characterized by distinct and profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soil and environmentally stressed conditions and is believed to harbor some novel heavy metal-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere. This study was performed to isolate and characterize Cr-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere and endosphere of P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. A total of 5 and 21 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and endosphere, respectively, and were shown to tolerate Cr up to 3000 mg l(-1). These isolates also exhibited tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and high concentration (174 g l(-1)) of NaCl. Moreover, most of the isolated bacterial strains showed one or more plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the predominant species included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Aerococcus. As far as we know, this is the first report analyzing rhizo- and endophytic bacterial communities associated with P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. The inoculation of three isolates to ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) improved plant growth and heavy metal removal from the tannery effluent contaminated soil suggesting that these bacteria could enhance the establishment of the plant in contaminated soil and also improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of heavy metal-degraded soils.

  13. Cr-resistant rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with Prosopis juliflora and their potential as phytoremediation enhancing agents in metal-degraded soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis juliflora is characterized by distinct and profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soil and environmentally stressed conditions and is believed to harbor some novel heavy metal-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere. This study was performed to isolate and characterize Cr-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere and endosphere of P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. A total of 5 and 21 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and endosphere, respectively, could tolerate Cr up to 3000 mg l-1. These isolates also exhibited tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and high concentration (174 g l-1 of NaCl. Moreover, most of the isolated bacterial strains showed one or more plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated a higher and wider range of population of Cr-resistant bacteria in the endosphere than rhizosphere and the predominant species included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Aerococcus. As far as we know, this is the first report detecting rhizo- and endophytic bacterial population associated with P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. The inoculation of three isolates to ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. improved plant growth and heavy metal removal from the tannery effluent contaminated soil suggesting that these bacteria could enhance the establishment of the plant in contaminated soil and also improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of heavy metal-degraded soils.

  14. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (Pwinter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.

  15. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  16. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  17. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening.

  18. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  19. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution.

  20. High-irradiance responses induced by far-red light in grass seedlings of the wild type or overexpressing phytochrome A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of phytochrome-mediated high irradiance responses (HIR), previously characterised largely in dicotyledonous plants, was investigated in Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in both wild-type Oryza sativa L. and in transgenic plants overexpressing oat phytochrome A under the control of a 35S promoter. Coleoptile growth was promoted (maize, ryegrass) or inhibited (wild-type rice) by continuous far-red light (FRc). However, at equal fluences, hourly pulses of far-red light (FRp) were equally effective, indicating that the growth responses to FRc were not true HIR. In contrast, in maize and rice, FRc increased anthocyanin content in the coleoptile in a fluence-rate dependent manner. This response was a true HIR as FRp had reduced effects. In maize, anthocyanin levels were significantly higher under FRc than under continuous red light. In rice, overexpression of phytochrome A increased the inhibition of coleoptile growth and the levels of anthocyanin under FRc but not under FRp or under continuous red light. The effect of FRc was fluence-rate dependent. In light-grown rice, overexpression of phytochrome A reduced leaf-sheath length, impaired the response to supplementary far-red light, but did not affect the response to canopy shade-light. In grasses, typical HIR, i.e. fluence-rate dependent responses showing reciprocity failure, can be induced by FRc. Under FRc, overexpressed phytochrome A operates through this action mode in transgenic rice. (author)

  1. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  2. Distribution of Fucosylated Xyloglucans among the Walls of Different Cell Types in Monocotyledons Determined by Immunofluorescence Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maree Brennan; Philip J.Harris

    2011-01-01

    Xyloglucans in the non-lignified primary cell walls of different species of monocotyledons have diverse structures,with widely varying proportions of oligosaccharide units that contain fucosylated side chains(F side chains).To determine whether fucosylated xyloglucans occur in all non-lignified walls in a range of monocotyledon species,we used immunofluorescence microscopy with the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M1.The epitope of this antibody,α-L-Fucp-(1→2)-β-D-Galp.occurs in F side chains.In most non-commelinid monocotyledons,the epitope was found in all non-lignified walls.A similar distribution was found in the palm Phoenix canariensis,which is a member of the basal commelinid order Arecales.However,in the other commelinid orders Zingiberales,Commelinales,and Poales,the occurrence of the epitope was restricted,sometimes occurring in only the phloem walls,but often also in walls of other cell types including stomatal guard and subsidiary cells and raphide idioblasts.No epitope was found in the walls of the commelinids Tradescantia virginiana(Commelinaceae,Commelinales)and Zea mays(Poaceae,Poales),but it occurred in the phloem walls of two other Poaceae species,Lolium multiflorum and L.perenne.The distribution of the epitope is discussed in relation to xyloglucan structures in the different taxa.However,the functional significance of the restricted distributions is unknown.

  3. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

  4. Assessing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Loss in a Forage-Based System Using a Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Piccini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture, N supply often exceeds crop requirements, even in nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ. In farmland, the N surplus gives rise to NO3− leaching and consequent groundwater pollution. The present study aimed at proposing measures to reduce N leaching and hence improve N efficiency in a buffalo livestock farm located in the NVZ of Latina plain (Central Italy. The farm was cultivated with forage crops in a double annual crop rotation: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. in winter and silage corn (Zea mays L. in summer. Mineral and organic fertilizers were supplied to both crops. The annual N budget and soil solution NO3-N concentrations were evaluated using a modeling approach. The performance of the WinEPIC model in simulating the response of the NO3-N concentration in percolation to the N application rate was assessed and validated by field measurements of the NO3-N concentration in the soil solution. Three scenarios were proposed to identify the best practice to minimize the environmental impact of N application without significant yield loss. Also, recommendations of best practices in N fertilization and animal manure spreading were given. This study thus provides useful preliminary information for decision-making in agriculture/environmental policies.

  5. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  6. Effects of feeding Italian ryegrass on the growth performance and meat quality of New Zealand rabbit%意大利黑麦草对新西兰兔增重及肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇涛; 辛国荣; 周柏权; 李明贤; 夏芳芳; 胡志坚; 游奕来; 李伯欣; 甘道建

    2014-01-01

    构建合理的意大利黑麦草饲喂畜禽模式是推广“意大利黑麦草—水稻”草田轮作这一典型生态农业系统的重要基础.试验对意大利黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum)代替部分精饲料饲养新西兰兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)的效果进行研究经过60天的分组饲喂试验发现,采用意大利黑麦草代替50%精饲料饲喂的新西兰兔其去皮重和胴体重分别提高6%和8%.意大利黑麦草饲喂新西兰兔的兔肉中脂肪含量显著低于精饲料组(P<0.05),且16种人体必需氨基酸含量明显高于精饲料组和杂草组,表明利用意大利黑麦草作为青饲料代替部分精饲料能够明显改善新西兰兔的兔肉品质.

  7. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils. PMID:24912225

  8. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. PMID:25577699

  9. Estimating total nitrogen deposition in agroecosystems in northern China during the wheat cropping season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christie; PETER; Fangmeier; ANDREAS

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been poorly documented in northern China, an intensive agricultural and industrial region with large emissions of NHx and NOy. To quantify N deposition, total airborne N deposition was determined at three agricultural sites using a manual integrated total nitrogen input (ITNI) system during growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) from September 2005 to May 2006. Total estimated N deposition averaged 54.9 and 43.2 kg N/hm2 across the three sites when wheat was grown to flowering and maturing, respectively. The average value was 50.2 kg N/hm2 when ryegrass was the indicator plant. Both indicator species gave similar total airborne N input results. The intermediate level of N supplied resulted in the highest N deposition, and the ratio of N acquired from deposition to total N content of the whole system decreased with increasing N supply to the roots. The contribution of atmospheric N to the total N content of the wheat and ryegrass sand culture systems ranged from 10% to 24%.

  10. Comparative analysis of multiple disease resistance in ryegrass and cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Barker, Reed; Pfender, William; Warnke, Scott; Sim, Sung-Chur; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-08-01

    Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) is among the most important forage crops in Europe and Australia and is also a popular turfgrass in North America. Previous genetic analysis based on a three-generation interspecific (L. perennexL. multiflorum) ryegrass population identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot (Magneporthe grisea) and four QTLs for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). The current analysis based on the same mapping population detected seven QTLs for resistance to leaf spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) and one QTL for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in ryegrass for the first time. Three QTLs for leaf spot resistance on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 4 were in regions of conserved synteny to the positions of resistance to net blotch (Drechslera teres) in barley (Hordeum vulgare). One ryegrass genomic region spanning 19 cM on LG 4, which contained three QTLs for resistance to leaf spot, gray leaf spot, and stem rust, had a syntenic relationship with a segment of rice chromosome 3, which contained QTLs for resistance to multiple diseases. However, at the genome-wide comparison based on 72 common RFLP markers between ryegrass and cereals, coincidence of QTLs for disease resistance to similar fungal pathogens was not statistically significant.

  11. Seasonal Abundance and Phenology of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Graminaceous Hosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Bond, J

    2015-08-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a graminaceous feeder, and the most injurious insect pest of heading rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Rice growers are aware of the economic importance of host grasses in O. pugnax abundance. However, the need for increased knowledge of host sequence relative to O. pugnax abundance is vital. Densities of O. pugnax on 15 graminaceous hosts were evaluated in the central Mississippi Delta from April through August in 2011 and 2012. Two cultivated and 13 wild host grasses were sampled using a sweep net. Overall, populations of O. pugnax were lower in 2012 than in 2011. Italian ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lambert), was the main host that supported O. pugnax survival and reproduction from overwintering to early summer. Echinochloa spp., Digitaria spp., and Eriochloa spp. maintained greater populations of O. pugnax in the summer. Browntop millet, Urochloa ramosa (L.) Nguyen, and broadleaf signalgrass, U. platyphylla (Munro ex C. Wright) R. D. Webster, were important for populations of O. pugnax populations immediately prior to overwintering. Host switching was also an important factor that contributed to O. pugnax abundance. The evolution of Italian ryegrass resistance to the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate in the central Mississippi delta has become an important component of O. pugnax population dynamics because of its increased abundance in and around agricultural areas. Cultural control measures on host grasses before flowering could result in less use of insecticides, thereby reducing cost of rice production. PMID:26314038

  12. EFEITO DO CREEP FEEDING E CREEP GRAZING NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DA PASTAGEM DE TIFTON E AZEVÉM E NO DESEMPENHO DE OVINOS

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    Cláudio José Araújo da Silva1, 2, 3, 4, 3,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of creep feeding and creep grazing on the pasture characteristics and on performance and productivity of sheep. Three systems of lambs production on Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. pastures oversown with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam were studied: lambs with dams until slaughter without supplementation (1; lambs with dams until slaughter fed concentrate in creep feeders at 2% BW.day-1 (2; and lambs with dams until slaughter and supplemented with white clover (Trifolium repens in creep grazing system ad libitum (3. The characteristics of the pasture did not differ (P>0.05 among the systems. Individual lamb growth was higher with creep feeding (307g/day and creep grazing (274g/day compared to no supplemented systems (204g/day; p<0.05. Animal productivity per area on supplemented treatments (2.4 kg BW/ha/day was significantly greater than no supplemented one (1.8kg BW/ha/day; p<0.05. White clover showed to be a particularly good supplement for raising lambs on pastures. It may be concluded that systems of feeding lambs in creep feeding and creep grazing yielded favorable productivity mainly if there is forage deficit in spring.

  13. Infestation and natural parasitism of aphids in single and mixed pastures of black oats and ryegrass

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    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some species of aphids are major pests on cereal crops and grass pastures. Usually these pests are not adequately controlled in pasture lands that become sources of aphid infestations to cereal crops. The dynamics of aphids and the incidence of natural enemies are less known in pasture systems than in cereal fields. The objective of this work was to assess the aphid infestation and natural aphid parasitism in different pasture composition. Three hypotheses were tested: 1- the aphid species composition in pastures may vary according to the cereal species in the field; 2- the mixture of two plant species can modify the amount and diversity of aphids; 3- the plant species composition of pasture fields influences the parasitism of aphids. Empirical data were obtained from three Poaceae fields: black oats (Avena strigosa L., ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., and a mixed field of black oats and ryegrass. The most abundant aphid species was Rhopalosiphum padi followed by Sitobion avenae. Plant species composition increases the amount and the parasitism rates of aphids. The mixture of heavily infested black oats with a poorly infested ryegrass resulted in reduction of aphid infestation in comparison with heavily-infested single plant species field. This is possible because the conditions are favorable for the development of parasitoid populations. Aphidius colemani was the main parasitoid found in these areas.

  14. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  15. The use in grass production of clinoptilolite as an ammonia adsorbent and a nitrogen carrier

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    Milovanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinoptilolite-rich tuff (NZ from Zlatokop deposit (Vranjska Banja, Serbia has been studied as a nitrogen carrier for grass production. Mechanism of binding ammonium cations present in water solutions by NZ has been examined as well as possibility of adsorption of ammonia released in fresh cattle manure during its fermentation. The NH4+ binding from solutions proceeds via an ion-exchange process which follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Adsorption isotherms studied at 298-318 K follow the Freundlich isotherm equation. The NZ readily adsorbs ammonia liberated from manure and an addition of 10 wt.% of NZ to manure can preserve up to 90% of ammonia. The potential benefit of this effect has been examined in greenhouse pot experiments with the Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, var. Macho using three different types of soil (silty, clayey and sandy. The zeta potential measurements show that stability of their colloidal dispersions differs mutually and that addition of the NZ differently affects the stability and nitrogen cycling. All results indicate that NZ can be applied in grass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018 and Norwegian Programme in Higher Education, Research and Development HERD

  16. Suaveolic Acid: A Potent Phytotoxic Substance of Hyptis suaveolens

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    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae is an exotic invasive plant in many countries. Earlier studies reported that the aqueous, methanol, and aqueous methanol extract of H. suaveolens and its residues have phytotoxic properties. However, to date, the phytotoxic substances of this plant have not been reported. Therefore, the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of phytotoxic substances of H. suaveolens. Aqueous methanol extract of this plant was purified by several chromatographic runs through bioassay guided fractionation using garden cress (Lepidium sativum as a test plant. Final purification of a phytotoxic substance was achieved by reverse phase HPLC and characterized as 14α-hydroxy-13β-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (suaveolic acid by high-resolution ESI-MS, 1H-,13C-NMR, CD, and specific rotation. Suaveolic acid inhibited the shoot growth of garden cress, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli at concentrations greater than 30 µM. Root growth of all but lettuce was also inhibited at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The inhibitory activities were concentration dependent. Concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of suaveolic acid for those test plant species were ranged from 76 to 1155 µM. Therefore, suaveolic acid is phytotoxic and may be responsible for the phytotoxicity of H. suaveolens plant extracts.

  17. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  18. Does drought modify the decomposability of grassland species ? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskov, B.; Heim, A.; Abiven, S.

    2009-04-01

    Climate projections in Europe predict an increase in length and frequency of droughts within the next decades. This might be particularly an issue in sensitive ecosystems that are considered as carbon sink, like for example alpine grasslands. A variation in moisture content directly affects both litter decomposition and biomass production. Additionally, drought may alsopotentially affect the biochemical quality of plant litter reaching the soil. Under water limiting conditions, significant modifications of plant tissues composition have been observed (for example an increase of the cutin content), which could modify decomposition dynamics of the litter layer. In this study, we followed the decomposition of three grassland species (Poa pratensis L., Lolium multiflorum et Trifolium repens L.) that grew i/ under real climate and ii/ during an artificial drought. These plants were sampled on an experimental site (Chamau, Switzerland) during a three-year drought simulation experiment. The biochemical characteristics of the different plants were estimated by C, N content, water-soluble C, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and lignin CuO oxidation. We followed the microbial community structure before and after the decomposition study using a Biolog system. The decomposition of the organic matter was followed under controlled conditions (23°C, water level regularly adjusted). The decomposition dynamics were measured by CO2 trapping in NaOH. First results show that Trifolium litter that grew under drought decomposes more slowly than one that grew under regular conditions. No significant difference was found for the other species.

  19. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

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    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
     
    KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by

  20. PRODUÇÃO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE EM PASTAGEM DE AVEIA PRETA E AZEVÉM SUBMETIDA À ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA

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    Gelci Carlos Lupatini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated animal production on black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum pasture submitted to nitrogen top fertilization of 0; 150 and 300 kg ha-1, in the form of urea. We used 36 calves with average age and average weight of 10.5 months and 180 kg, respectively, as test-animals. The grazing system used was continuous with variable stocking rate. The block design was completely randomized with three replicates (paddock. Average weight gain was similar for the levels evaluated (0.925; 0.969 and 1.045 kg day-1, respectively. Stocking rate and live weight gain per hectare showed a linear relation with nitrogen levels. The efficiency of animal production was 2.040 and 1.766 kg of weight gain per kg of nitrogen used for the dose of 150 and 300 of N, respectively. The stocking rate and live weight gain per hectare of beef calves increased with the nitrogen levels, from 0 to 300 kg of N ha-1. However, the best efficiency in weight gain per unit of nitrogen applied was obtained with the dose of 150 kg of N ha-1.

  1. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

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    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  2. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

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    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  3. Solubilization of beta-glucan synthases from the membranes of cultured ryegrass endosperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-06-01

    beta-Glucan synthases were solubilized by treating membrane preparations from suspension-cultured ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) endosperm cells with detergents. Of the seven detergents tested only digitonin and octyl glucoside dissociated active synthases from the membranes. The digitonin-solubilized enzymes produced 1,4-beta-glucans and 1,3:1,4-beta-glucans, whereas the digitonin-insoluble enzymes produced, in addition, 1,3-beta-glucans. Chromatography of the digitonin-solubilized beta-glucan synthases on DEAE-Sepharose resulted in their partial purification. The octyl glucoside-solubilized enzymes produced more 1,3-beta-glucans than did the membrane-bound preparations. These results suggest that the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase is a separate enzyme and is not involved in 1,3:1,4-beta-glucan synthesis. Digitonin not only dissociated synthases from the membranes, but also stimulated synthase activity. This effect may be related to the inhibition by digitonin of glucosyl transfer from UDP-glucose to form steryl glucosides. PMID:6214254

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

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    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  5. Aboveground biomass of intercropping forages in orchard and its effect on soil fertility%果园套种牧草地上生物量的动态变化及其对土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丹娟; 黄玉清; 莫凌; 黎彦余; 王静; 王三秋

    2011-01-01

    以菊苣(Cichorium intybus)、黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum)、鸡脚草(Dactylis glomerata)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、4个紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)品种(Hunter Rive、Overseason、WL525HQ、Eureka)和3个白三叶(Trifolium repens)品种(Haifa、Rivenda、Koala)为对象,研究了其地上部分生物量的动态变化以及种植牧草后土壤养分的变化,为果园套种牧草选择适宜的种类。结果表明,菊苣、黑麦草、Hunter Rive和Haifa 4个牧草具有较高的草产量,黑麦草草产量主要集中在3月,Hunter Rive和Haifa以6月份的草产量较高,菊苣各月草产量较为平均,此4种牧草搭配,可满足家畜不同时期和牧草营养多样化的需求。种植牧草后的土壤中水解性氮和有机质的含量明显提高,土壤酸度降低,有利于促进果树生长。%Eleven kinds of forage plants,including Cichorium intybus,Lolium multiflorum,Dactylis glomerata,Festuca arundinacea,four alfalfa varieties(Hunter River,Overseason,WL525HQ,Eureka) and three white clover varieties(Haifa,Rivenda,koala) were intercropped in pear orchard to monitor the aboveground biomass change of forages and investigate the effect of intercropping forages on soil fertility for selecting the suitable forage plants.The results of this study showed that C.intybus,L.multiflorum,Hunter Rive and Haifa had a higher yield and their fresh yield were more than 30 000 kg/ha and dry yield more than 4000 kg/ha.The highest yield of L.multiflorum was found in March,while the yield of Hunter River and Haifa were highest in June,and the yield of C.intybus was similar between March and June,and these four forages intercropping in pear orchard together provided the rational nutrition supplies for livestock.The intercropping forages in pear orchard greatly increased the soil pH value,organic matter content and hydrolytic N at 0-20 cm soil layer,which would encourage pear trees to grow well.

  6. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

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    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In pasture-based dairy herds where silage is a widely adopted supplement, optimized feeding requires reliable estimations of nutritional quality of this conserved forage. Metabolizable energy, an important nutritional fraction, can be predicted from digestibility-related traits, such as the digestible organic matter contained in the dry matter (D-value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of D-value and dry matter digestibility (DMD of grass silages made from four different pastures and maturity stages, using the pepsin-cellulase method. Fungal cellulase was used, applying different enzyme concentrations, incubation times and types of final wash. The silages were prepared from permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. and Holcus lanatus L., rotation pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, oats (Avena sativa L., and mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. These were harvested at three different physiological stages (vegetative, ear emergence and dough grain. The treatment using an incubation time of 24 h, a cellulase concentration of 6.25 g L-1 and final wash with water (Treatment 3 presented the best prediction capacity of the in vivo D-value (R² = 0.78 and in vivo DMD (R² = 0.71. In vivo D-value prediction improved (R² = 0.8 when a chemical determination (crude fibre, gross energy, neutral detergent fibre, total ash or acid detergent fibre was included in addition (multiple regression to D-value obtained with cellulases (Treatment 3. Results of DMD obtained with cellulases show good precision, but underestimate in vivo values, and are closer to those obtained with ruminal fluid. Suitable equations could be used to improve accuracy.En sistemas lecheros pastoriles que utilizan ensilaje como suplemento, se requiere conocer el valor nutricional de éste para optimizar la alimentación del ganado. La energía metabolizable, importante fracci

  7. A Simulation Model of Mesophytic Perennial Grasslands Un Modelo de Simulación de Pradera Perenne Mesofítica

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    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are complex ecosystems and their processes are affected by soil, meteorological, and management variables. In this context, dynamic simulation models are useful to understand these processes and to design grassland use strategies. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simulation model of perennial pasture growth based on soil and climate variables. A first approach considered that soil fertility levels were adequate; therefore, soil water availability and phytomass level were the main variables affecting pasture growth. The subroutines considered were water balance, pasture growth, and root biomass dynamics. The hypotheses regarding the functioning of the system were formulated as a group of equations which were solved numerically with a program written in Visual Basic®. Model validation was performed by statistical comparison between simulated DM and DM obtained from experiments conducted in Valdivia (39°47' S., 73°15' W; 9 m a.s.l.. In these experiments we measured DM accumulation on naturalized grassland and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.-white clover (Trifolium repens L. pastures under frequent defoliation. Soil data, temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall were obtained from a meteorological station located in Valdivia. The coefficient of determination between simulated values and those measured in the experiments were higher in the DM accumulation (R² = 98% simulations. When pasture was subjected to frequent defoliation, the degree of fit of the model was lower (R² = 60%; however, the model was able to predict the trend in the data.Los pastizales son ecosistemas complejos y sus procesos se ven afectados por variables edáficas, meteorológicas y de manejo. En este contexto, los modelos dinámicos de simulación son utiles para la comprensión de estos procesos y disenar estrategias de utilización de las praderas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue elaborar y validar un modelo de simulación de crecimiento de

  8. Prospección de las combinaciones de herbicidas para prevenir malezas tolerantes y resistentes al glifosato Exploration of herbicide associations to prevent glyphosate tolerant and resistant weeds

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    R.A. VIDAL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El intenso empleo de glifosato contribuyó a la difusión de malezas con tolerancia a este herbicida, incluyendo especies como Ipomoea nil, bejuco en Argentina, o corriola, o corda-de-viola en Brasil. A su vez, el uso intensivo de imadozolinonas en ciertas regiones de Argentina contribuyó a la aparición de biotipos resistentes a herbicidas que actúan inhibiendo la enzima ALS como Amaranthus quitensis, yuyo colorado o ataco, conocido como carurú en Brasil. En ese país, también, aumentó la difusión de malezas con resistencia a glifosato como en Euphorbia heterophylla, leiteiro o amendoim-bravo y en Lolium multiflorum, azevém. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el antagonismo o el sinergismo de todas las combinaciones posibles entre dos de los siguientes herbicidas: glifosato, imazetapir, clomazone y lactofen, en el control de las malezas mencionadas. Biotipos susceptibles para todos herbicidas fueran usados en la investigación. Plántulas de yuyo colorado juveniles con dos cm de altura y de las otras malezas mencionadas con siete cm, fueron tratadas con los siguientes herbicidas en g ha-1 i.a.: glifosato 108; imazetapir 10; clomazone 160 y lactofen 30, aplicados solos. Otros seis tratamientos fueron incluidos en todas las combinaciones posibles entre dos de los herbicidas y dosis mencionados. También se empleó un testigo sin tratar. El efecto de la combinación de los herbicidas dependió de la especie evaluada y también de los herbicidas utilizados. Se obtuvo sinergismo solamente para la mezcla glifosato más imazetapir en ataco. Clomazone fue el herbicida con más antagonismo, y lactofen tuvo efecto neutro en la mayoría de las mezclas. Las combinaciones son consideradas potencialmente útiles en el control de malezas tolerantes o resistentes a glifosato.The intense use of glyphosate in Argentina has increased the spread of weeds with tolerance to this herbicide, like Ipomoea nil. Cases of weed resistance to ALS

  9. Composição química da cera epicuticular de biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate Chemical composition of the epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate

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    A.A. Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a composição química da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, buscando relações entre suas características e a resistência dos biótipos ao herbicida. A cera epicuticular foi extraída e quantificada e os seus constituintes analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa, acoplada a espectrômetro de massa (CG-EM. Para determinação da composição química, amostras de lâmina foliar foram retiradas 30 dias após a emergência das plantas, coletando-se a primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível. A quantidade de cera epicuticular extraída não diferiu entre os biótipos. Entre os compostos que constituem a cera epicuticular, os álcoois são os mais abundantes, sendo representados por apenas um composto: o hexacosan-1-ol (46,80% no biótipo resistente e 52,20% no biótipo suscetível. Ao comparar a polaridade da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém, constatou-se que tanto no biótipo resistente quanto no suscetível a cera epicuticular apresentou mais de 50% de componentes polares (álcoois e aldeídos em sua constituição, sendo esse valor igual a 69,80% no biótipo resistente e 64,94% no biótipo suscetível. Por meio da caracterização apresentada, pode-se afirmar que existem pequenas diferenças na cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate; o biótipo resistente apresentou grau de polaridade pouco superior ao do biótipo suscetível, porém essa diferença não pode ser considerada marcante a ponto de determinar maior ou menor tolerância de um biótipo ou outro ao herbicida glyphosate.The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition of epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, searching for relationships between their characteristics and the resistance of the biotypes to the product. The

  10. Suplementação Energética sobre a Qualidade da Carcaça e da Carne de Vacas de Diferentes Idades, Terminadas em Pastagem Cultivada de Estação Fria sob Pastejo Horário Energetic Supplementation on Carcass and Meat Quality of Cull Cows of Different Ages, Finished on Cultivated Winter Pasture Under Temporary Grazing

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    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar diferentes níveis de suplementação energética sobre a qualidade da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, de diferentes idades, terminadas no sistema de pastejo horário sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum mais triticale (X triticosecale. Foram utilizadas 40 vacas de descarte Charolês, agrupadas em quatro classes, em função da idade ao abate: quatro, cinco ou seis, sete ou oito e nove ou mais anos de idade, distribuídas ao acaso em quatro níveis de suplementação energética (NS: 0; 0,3; 0,6; e 0,9% do peso vivo. O grão de sorgo triturado foi o suplemento utilizado. Não houve interação significativa entre nível de suplemento e idade do animal. O nível de suplementação utilizado não afetou as características cor, textura e marmoreio da carne, assim como a composição física da carcaça, características sensoriais da carne e quebras ao descongelamento e à cocção. Com o aumento da idade, decresceu a porcentagem de músculo na carcaça, sendo de 68,5; 66,7; 65,1; e 64,3%, respectivamente. As vacas mais jovens apresentaram menor porcentagem de gordura (14,4% do que os animais mais velhos, que apresentaram 17,9; 19,2; e 18,7% para idade ao abate de cinco ou seis, sete ou oito e nove ou mais anos, respectivamente. As vacas mais jovens apresentaram menor relação músculo + gordura / osso do que as abatidas com idade intermediária. As vacas abatidas aos quatro anos apresentaram carne mais macia (5,92 pontos que vacas abatidas aos sete ou oito anos de idade (4,69 pontos.The objective of this experiment was to study different levels of energy supplementation on the carcass and meat qualitative characteristics of beef cull cows of different ages, under temporary grazing on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum plus triticale (X triticosecale. Fourty Charolais cows were divided into four age classes: four, five or six, seven or eight and nine or more years, and randomly alloted

  11. Structural and morphogenical characteristics of black oats and Italian ryegrass on pasture submitted to two grazing intensities Características estruturais e morfogênicas de aveia-preta e azevém-anual em pastagem submetida a duas intensidades de pastejo

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    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenical and structural characteristics of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. on pastures managed under two grazing intensities were quantified by using marked tiller technique. The expected intensities of disappearance of forage mass initial value were 35% (low and 65% (high. Experimental animals were sheep and interval among grazing was determined through 300 degree-day thermal sum. The experimental design was completely randomized with two grazing intensities and two replicates. Leaf blades of oats and ryegrass were removed at an average proportion of 57.5% of their initial length for both grazing intensities. Among the morphogenical characteristics of oats, only elongation rate of defoliate leaf differed between grazing intensities, with values of 0.059 and 0.081 cm/degree-day for low and high intensities, respectively. Grazing intensities did not alter structural characteristics of oats mixed with ryegrass and red clover. High grazing intensity enables maintenance of a higher number of ryegrass expanding leaves (1.7 leaves/tiller, thus it is suggested for management of pastures with oats mixed with Italian ryegrass and red-clover on intermittent grazing.As características morfogênicas e estruturais de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., em pastagem manejada sob duas intensidades de pastejo, foram quantificadas por meio da técnica de perfilhos marcados. As intensidades pretendidas de desaparecimento do valor da massa de forragem inicial foram 35% (baixa e 65% (alta. Os animais experimentais foram ovinos e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 300 graus-dia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com duas intensidades de pastejo e duas repetições. As lâminas foliares de aveia e azevém foram removidas na proporção média de 57,5% do seu comprimento inicial em ambas as intensidades de pastejo. Entre as

  12. Effect of Compost Application on Some Properties of a Volcanic Soil from Central South Chile Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost sobre Algunas Propiedades de un Suelo Volcánico de La Región Centro-Sur de Chile

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    Pedro José Valarini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil compost application is a common soil management practice used by small farmers of Central-South Chile that produces positive effects on soil properties and also promotes presence and activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. This fungi form symbiosis with plant roots improving plant nutrition, as well as producing glomalin, a glycoprotein that has been associated with soil aggregation stability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate, in an Ultisol from Central-South Chile, the effect of different doses of compost on some soil characteristics at the end of the third year of a crop sequence including wheat (Triticum aestivum L., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and grassland (Lolium multiflorum Lam. associated with Trifolium repens L.. Studied soil characteristics included chemical (pH, available-P, organic C, biological (C and N biomass, AMF spore number, root colonization percentage, mycelium length, and glomalin content, as well as physical parameters (water holding capacity [WHC], and water stable aggregates [WSA]. Results showed that, in general, compost application increased soil pH, mycorrizal roots, mycelium length, glomalin levels, and WSA. Significant relationships were found between C and N biomass, C biomass and WSA, C biomass and glomalin, WSA and WHC, among others. Results suggest that compost application to this type of soil is a feasible option as a fertilizer substitute, and a way to avoid soil erosion by small local farmers involved in organic agriculture.La aplicación de compost al suelo, práctica habitual en predios de pequeños agricultores de la región centro-sur de Chile, produce efectos positivos en sus propiedades y promueve la presencia y actividad de los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (AMF. Estos hongos forman simbiosis con las raíces de las plantas mejorando su nutrición y además producen una glicoproteína llamada glomalina, la cual ha sido relacionada con la estabilidad de los agregados de

  13. Introducción de cultivos de cobertura en la rotación soja-maíz: efecto sobre algunas propiedades del suelo Inclusion of cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation: effect on some soil properties

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    Silvina Beatriz Restovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco limosos de la Pampa Ondulada bajo siembra directa (SD con predominio de soja y, secundariamente maíz, registran una progresiva disminución de su fertilidad física y química. La introducción de cultivos de cobertura (CC en sistemas agrícolas cada vez menos diversificados podría constituir una herramienta agronómica para mitigar esta degradación edáfica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto de diferentes CC sobre algunas propiedades del suelo (porosidad, distribución de tamaño de poros, estabilidad estructural, densidad aparente, carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, carbono lábil y 2 analizar la evolución de las propiedades edáficas durante la introducción de CC en la secuencia soja-maíz bajo SD. En 2005, se instaló un ensayo sobre un Argiudol típico (franco limoso con diferentes especies de ciclo otoño-invernal, utilizadas como CC. Las especies fueron: cebada forrajera (Hordeum vulgare L., ray grass (Lolium multiflorum L., avena (Avena sativa L., cebadilla (Brumus unioloides L., vicia (Vicia sativa L., colza (Brassica napus L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L., una consociación de vicia y avena y un testigo sin CC. Los cambios en las propiedades edáficas producidos durante la introducción de CC fueron: aumento de la macroporosidad y de su estabilidad y aumento del COS y de su fracción lábil. Estos cambios fueron de mediana a baja magnitud, se registraron principalmente próximos a la superficie (0-5 cm, estuvieron asociados a los momentos en los que se realizaron aportes importantes de C y fueron fáciles de revertir en asociación con períodos de lluvias intensas. El efecto acumulado de la rotación mostró mayor aporte de COS al sistema en presencia de CC. De los CC probados, se destacó el nabo forrajero como generador de porosidad y la avena como estabilizadora del sistema poroso.Silt loam soils of the Rolling Pampas cultivated with soybean and, secondarily, corn under no

  14. The effects of soil fumigation on the growth and mineral nutrition of weeds and crops=Efeito da fumigação do solo no crescimento e nutrição mineral de plantas daninhas e culturas

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    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and soil microorganisms interact with each other in the soil/root interface, promoting the development and establishment of both. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and nutrient accumulation in eight species of weeds (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L. Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Lolium multiflorum L. and in bean and corn crops grown for 50 days in a substrate fumigated with methyl bromide. Assessments relating to the height, leaf area, leaf number, dry weight of shoots and roots and relative content of nutrients were carried out 50 days after seedling emergence. A positive effect of soil fumigation was observed on the growth, leaf number, leaf area, plant height and accumulation of nutrients in monocot weeds in relation to dicots. Conyza bonariensis was the most affected by soil fumigation, with levels of dry matter, leaf number, leaf area, height and accumulation of nutrients approximately 50% lower than plants grown in normal soil. Fumigation also influenced the growth cycle of the plants, which was lower for B. pilosa, E. indica and C. echinatus. We also observed a 20 and 30% lower phosphorus accumulation in Bidens pilosa and Conyza bonariensis, respectively, when grown in the sterilized soil. Overall, the bean and corn crops were less affected by soil fumigation than the weeds.Plantas daninhas e microrganismos do solo se interagem na interface solo/raiz promovendo vantagens para o desenvolvimento e estabelecimento de ambos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em oito espécies de plantas daninhas (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Lolium multiflorum L. e nas culturas de feijão e milho, cultivadas, por 50 dias, em substrato fumigado com brometo de

  15. Effects of Corynespora cassiicola on Lantana camara Efeitos de Corynespora cassiicola sobre Lantana camara

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    J.L. Passos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study combines the examination of toxins produced by C. cassiicola and the effects of the fungus colonization on L. camara. C. cassiicola was cultivated on solid media and the crude extracts CAE and CE were produced. Both extracts were submitted to a seed germination and growth assay utilizing Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Lolium multiflorum and Amaranthus hypochodriacus. The effect of the extracts on the ATP-synthesis in isolated spinach chloroplasts was also tested. Bioassay guided chromatographic fractionation identified the most active extract (CAE. From this extract ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one (C1 and fatty acids were isolated. The C1 compound reduce ATP synthesis in isolated spinach chloroplasts. The interference of fatty acids with ATP synthesis and also with weed growth provides one explanation of the phytogrowth-inhibitory properties of such fungal extracts. Histological observations involving fungus-plant interaction were made on L. camara plants inoculated with C. cassiicola conidia suspension. After inoculations, fragments of the leaf blades were prepared for observation by light and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal colonization of Lantana camara was typical of a necrotroph and penetration initiated a hypersensitive response. L. camara reacted to the pathogen penetration through thickening of the epidermis walls, cytoplasm granulation and a cicatrisation tissue.O presente estudo combina a investigação de toxinas produzidas por C. cassiicola e os efeitos da colonização do fungo sobre L. camara. C. cassiicola foi cultivado em meio sólido do qual se obtiveram os extratos brutos CAE e CE. Ambos os extratos foram submetidos aos testes de germinação e crescimento utilizando Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Lolium multiflorum e Amaranthus hypochodriacus e sobre a síntese de ATP em cloroplastos isolados de espinafre. Os bioensaios direcionaram o fracionamento cromatográfico permitindo a

  16. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

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    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  17. 15N-labeled glyphosate synthesis and its practical effectiveness Síntese do glifosato marcado com nitrogênio-15 e sua eficiência prática

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    Claudinéia Raquel de Oliveira Tavares

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the herbicide with the greatest participation in the world market, and it has been used intensively in agriculture for over 30 years, especially because of its relatively low cost and high effectiveness on different species. This study describes a synthesis method of glyphosate in the form of the isopropylamine salt enriched in the stable nitrogen isotope (15N. The 15N-herbicide synthesis was performed using a phosphomethylation reaction with dialkyl phosphite and 15N-glycine. The tests were conducted at a microscale and equimolar quantities. A 20% yield was obtained at the established conditions. To test the effectiveness of the synthesized glyphosate, an experiment was performed in a growth chamber with the weed Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass, which is mentioned to be effectively controlled as indicated in package inserts ofisopropylamine salt-based products (glyphosate. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates, and treatments consisted of isopropylamine salt sources at the commercial dose recommended for the product (720 g a.i. ha-1. The production of green and dry phytomass of the above-ground part and roots was evaluated 21 days after application (DAA, and the treatment toxicity was evaluated 7, 14, and 21 DAA. The isopropylamine salt sources did not differ, recognizing them as useful isotopic tracers.O glifosato é o herbicida de maior participação no mercado mundial, sendo utilizado intensivamente na agricultura há mais de 30 anos, principalmente devido ao custo relativamente baixo e à alta eficiência sobre diferentes espécies. Descreve-se um método para a síntese do glifosato na forma do sal isopropilamina enriquecido no isótopo estável do nitrogênio (15N. A síntese do herbicida-15N foi realizada utilizando-se da reação de fosfometilação com diaquil fosfito e glicina-15N. Os testes foram realizados em microescala e em quantidades equimolares. Foi possível obter um rendimento de

  18. Composição botânica e estrutural e valor nutricional de pastagens de azevém consorciadas Botanic and structural composition and nutritional value on intercropped ryegrass pastures

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    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência de espécies em consórcio com azevém sobre a composição botânica e estrutural e o valor nutritivo dos pastos em um sistema de transição agroecológica. Foi avaliada a cultura do azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. consorciada com aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. e amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e três repetições. O primeiro pastejo foi realizado 21 dias após a emergência das plantas nas pastagens de azevém + aveia-preta e azevém + amendoim-forrageiro e 28 dias após a emergência na pastagem de azevém + trevo-branco. O segundo pastejo na pastagem de azevém + aveia-preta ocorreu 30 dias após o primeiro pastejo, enquanto nas demais pastagens ocorreu 37 dias depois. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS do início do período de exclusão até o pico de produção de MS foram de 77,7; 75,0 e 71,3 kg/ha/dia de MS para as pastagens consorciadas com trevo-branco, amendoim-forrageiro e aveia-preta, respectivamente. A razão folha/colmo até o segundo pastejo foi elevada em todas as pastagens. A redução dos teores de PB conforme os dias de exclusão no pasto de azevém + aveia-preta é menor que nos pastos de azevém consorciado com trevo-branco ou amendoim-forrageiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of species intercropped with ryegrass on the botanical and structural composition and the nutritional values of pastures in an agroecological transition system. It was evaluated ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. intercropped with black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb., white clover (Trifolium repens L. and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. It was used a complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions. The first grazing was done 21 days after emergence of the plants on the pastures with ryegrass

  19. Comportamento de vacas em lactação em pastagem manejada sob princípios agroecológicos Behavior of grazing lactating cows in agro-ecological managed pastures

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de vacas holandesas em lactação durante o período hibernal em pastagem constituída de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. As avaliações foram feitas em três ciclos de pastejo, em 17/06, 04/08 e 16/09 de 2004. Em cada avaliação, utilizaram-se seis vacas entre o 2º e o 5º mês de lactação. O registro de dados foi realizado por dois observadores das 18 às 6h e das 8 às 16h, a cada 10 minutos. As características comportamentais observadas foram os tempos de pastejo em capim-elefante e em aveia + azevém, em pastejo total (pastejo de capim-elefante + aveia e azevém, em ruminação e ócio. Concomitantemente, avaliaram-se os dados da massa de forragem inicial, da qualidade da forragem ingerida e das condições ambientais. A maior intensidade de pastejo ocorreu após cada ordenha, verificando-se posteriormente um decréscimo, tanto durante o dia quanto à noite. Em média, o turno que os animais demandaram mais tempo de pastejo foi o diurno. O tempo destinado pelas vacas ao consumo de aveia e de azevém foi maior no período em que o capim-elefante apresentava menor porcentagem de lâminas foliares. O tempo de ócio diminuiu e o de ruminação aumentou no decorrer dos pastejos, como resultado do declínio na porcentagem de lâminas foliares e da elevação na porcentagem de colmos das espécies de ciclo hibernal. O capim-elefante foi pastejado em todas as avaliações. A presença de espécies de ciclos diferentes possibilitou aos animais equilibrarem a dieta volumosa.The objective of this trial was to study the behavior of lactating Holstein cows grazing pasture containing elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Data from six early to mid lactating cows were collected every 10 minutes interval

  20. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

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    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos no desenvolvimento de bezerros submetidos a: a três tratamentos, consitindo de cargas animais pós-parto (CA de 240 kg de peso vivo (PV/ha (tratamento 1, T1, de 320 kg de PV/ha (T2, ambas em campo nativo, e de 400 kg de PV/ha em pastagem melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. por 80 dias pós-parto e, posteriormente, em CA igual à do T2 em campo nativo (T3; b duas idades de desmame, consistindo de desmame aos 100 (DP ou 180 (DC dias de idade, foram avaliados utilizando 92 bezerros filhos de vacas primíparas Hereford e Braford. O sexo dos bezerros influenciou significativamente o peso ao nascer, não sendo observado efeito da raça da vaca. Os tratamentos e a raça da vaca não influenciaram o ganho médio diário (GMD dos bezerros do nascimento ao desmame precoce. Bezerros filhos de vacas Braford tiveram maiores pesos no DP (PDP que os filhos de vacas Hereford, enquanto os tratamentos não influenciaram o PDP. Os bezerros filhos de vacas Braford no T2 tiveram GMD até os 180 dias (GMD180 e PV aos 180 dias (PAJ180 superiores aos bezerros filhos de vacas Braford no T1 e Hereford no T2. Os bezerros do DP tiveram GMD180 e PAJ180 significativamente inferiores aos bezerros do DC. Entretanto, não se verificaram efeitos de tratamentos e idade de desmame sobre o GMD até os 365 dias e o peso ajustado aos 365 dias de idade. Portanto, os três manejos pós-parto das vacas e as duas idades de desmame dos bezerros avaliados não influenciaram o desenvolvimento dos bezerros a um ano de idade.The effects on the performance of calves submitted to: a three treatments, consisted of post-partum stocking rates (CA of 240 kg of live weight (LW/ha (treatment 1, T1, of 320 kg of LW/ha (T2, both on natural pastures, and of 400 kg of LW/ha on improved pasture of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. during the first 80 days post-partum, and after on natural pasture at the same stocking rate as T2 afterwards (T3; b two weaning ages, consisted of

  1. Diferentes massas de forragem sobre as variáveis morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém anual Different herbage masses on morphogenetic and structural traits of Italian ryegrass

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    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. foram avaliadas sob pastejo de borregas, em diferentes massas de forragem (MF: "Alta", "Média" e "Baixa", correspondentes a 1800-2000; 1400-1600 e 1000-1200kg ha-1 de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O método de pastejo foi de lotação contínua, com número variável de animais. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de correlação e regressão polinomial. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâminas intactas e desfolhadas e o número de folhas em senescência de azevém aumentaram linearmente com a elevação dos valores das massas de forragem. O número de folhas verdes ajustou-se ao modelo de regressão quadrático; o número de folhas em expansão e a densidade populacional de perfilhos não se ajustaram a nenhum modelo de regressão. Em pastagem de azevém, o manejo com massas de forragem dentro da faixa compreendida entre 1.100 e 1.800kg ha-1de MS não provoca alterações nas características morfogênicas dessa gramínea, mas causa diferenças nas características estruturais do dossel. Quando o azevém é manejado com 1.460kg ha-1de MS, seus perfilhos mantêm maior número de folhas verdes e com 1.800kg ha-1 de MS existe maior número de lâminas foliares em senescência e com maior comprimento.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., utilized by female lambs and managed with different forage masses (FM were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replications and three treatments, consisting of forage masses: "High", "Mean" and "Low", corresponding to 1,800-2,000; 1,400-1,600 and 1,000-1,200kg ha-1 of dry matter (DM, respectively. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. Data were subjected to correlation analysis and polynomial

  2. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

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    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO, proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no tratamento da ARC. Como tratamento testemunha, as mesmas espécies vegetais foram cultivadas em solução de Hoagland. A matéria seca produzida pelas forrageiras ao longo dos 53 dias de monitoramento dos SACs variou de 7,4 a 14,0 e 0,5 a 2,7 t ha-1, e os rendimentos acumulados de proteína bruta variaram de 1.017 a 2.187 e 66,6 a 316,8 kg ha-1 para o azevém e a aveia, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que, dentre as forrageiras estudadas, o azevém se mostrou mais adequado para ser cultivado em SACs utilizados no pós-tratamento da ARC efluente de filtros anaeróbios, já que apresentou maior rendimento de matéria seca e proteína bruta e, portanto, melhor adaptação ao sistema.Two winter grasses, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, were grown in constructed wetlands (SACs used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing (ARC with the aim to evaluate their agronomic performance. These forage crops were submitted to different organic loads (650 to 1500 kg ha-1 d-1 of COD, offered by the application of anaerobic effluent filters, used in the treatment of ARC. As a control treatment, the same plant species were grown in a Hoagland solution. The forage dry matter produced by over 53 days of monitoring SACs ranged from 7.4 to 14.0 and from 0.5 to 2.7 t ha-1, and the crude protein yield ranged from 1017 to 2187 and 66.6 to 316.8 kg ha-1 for ryegrass and oats, respectively. The results showed that, among the

  3. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

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    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'MerckeronPinda' + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE + azevém anual (AZ Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', como SF1; CE + ECE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', como SF2; e CE + ECE + AZ + trevo vermelho (TV Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', como SF3. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. O azevém anual foi estabelecido entre as linhas do CE durante o período hibernal; o TV foi semeado e o AF foi preservado nos respectivos tratamentos. Para avaliação, foram usadas vacas da raça Holandesa que receberam 5,5kg dia-1 como complemento alimentar. Foram avaliadas a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, a massa de forragem desaparecida (MFD, a matéria seca desaparecida com base em 100kg de peso vivo (MSD e a produção de forragem (PF, as composições botânica e estrutural do CE. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (SF e duas repetições (piquetes em parcelas subdivididas no tempo (pastejo. Durante o período experimental (341 dias, foram efetuados nove ciclos de pastejo. Os valores médios de TA, MFD, MSD e PF foram de 53,16kg ha-1; 36,13%; 2,77kg de matéria seca por 100kg de peso vivo e 17,80t ha-1. Para a variável ECE, houve aumento significativo no SF1. Considerando a carga animal, o SF3 apresentou melhor desempenho.The objective of this research was to evaluate of tree pasture-based systems (PS with elephantgrass (EG Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'Merckeron Pinda' + spontaneous growing species (SGS, annual ryegrass (RG Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', for PS1; EG + SGS + forage peanut (FP Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', for PS2; and EG + SGS + RG + red clover (RC Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', for PS3. EG was planted in lines with a distance of 4m

  4. Composição química de sementes de azevém em resposta ao retardamento da secagem e ao armazenamento Chemical composition of ryegrass seeds in response to drying delay and storage

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    Luiz Eichelberger

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na composição química de sementes de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivar Comum-RS, em resposta ao retardamento da secagem (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 horas e ao armazenamento (zero, quatro e oito meses, e correlacionar tais alterações com a qualidade fisiológica. A secagem foi retardada por meio do acondicionamento das sementes em caixas de poliestireno, contendo cada uma 24 kg de sementes, e realizada sobre piso de concreto, à sombra, por 12 horas, completando-a em estufa com circulação de ar. O retardamento da secagem por até 14 horas não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Quando as sementes foram armazenadas por quatro e oito meses, os teores de proteína solúvel apresentaram correlação positiva com a germinação. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes correlacionou-se de forma negativa com o teor de aminoácidos e positiva com o teor de açúcares solúveis. O retardamento da secagem aumentou o teor de aminoácidos e reduziu açúcares solúveis, amido solúvel, proteína solúvel e peso de mil sementes. Durante o armazenamento houve aumento dos teores de aminoácidos, amido solúvel e proteína solúvel, e a redução de açúcares solúveis e peso de mil sementes.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. Comum-RS, seeds, in response to drying delay (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 hours and storage (zero, four and eight months and to correlate these changes with physiological quality. Drying was delayed by conditioning seeds in polystyrene boxes, containing 24 kg of seeds each one, and was done on a shadowy concrete floor for 12 hours, being completed in an oven with circulation of forced air. Drying delay up to 14 hours did not compromise physiological quality of seeds. When seeds were stored for four and eight months, contents of soluble protein showed

  5. Silagem de milho e grão de sorgo como suplementos para vacas de descarte terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria Corn silage and sorghum grain supplementation to cull cows finished on cultivated winter pasture

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    L.F.G. Menezes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com silagem de milho ou grão de sorgo no desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, submetidas ao pastejo restrito em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa + azevém (Lolium multiflorum. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas mestiças Charolês-Nelore, com idade média de oito anos, distribuídas em igual número e ao acaso em três tratamentos: silagem de milho (TSI ou grão de sorgo moído (TSO como suplemento, e não suplementação (TPH. A suplementação com silagem de milho proporcionou aos animais maior escore corporal ao final do experimento (4,35 pontos contra 4,15 do TPH e 4,22 pontos para o TSO. Não houve efeito do volumoso ou concentrado suplementar sobre o peso corporal, ganho de peso diário e ganho em escore corporal. Não houve efeito de tratamento (P>0,05 sobre pesos e rendimentos quentes e frios da carcaça, espessura de gordura subcutânea, conformação, espessura de coxão, área de Longissimus dorsi e percentagem de cortes comerciais. A suplementação resultou em maior percentagem de gordura na carcaça e influenciou a cor e o marmoreio da carne. A silagem de milho e o grão de sorgo servem como alternativa para a suplementação de vacas de descarte em pastagem de aveia e azevém, uma vez que melhora as características da carcaça, embora sem efeito sobre o desempenho quando comparado à pastagem exclusiva.The effect of supplementation with corn silage or sorghum grain on the performance and characteristics of carcass and meat of cull cows, under temporary grazing on oats (Avena strigosa + ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum pasture was evaluated. Thirty crossbred Charolais-Nellore cull cows, with averaging eight-yearold,were randomly distributed in three treatments. The animals received corn silage (TSI or sorghum grain (TSO as supplement, while another lot did not receive supplementation (TPH. Animals supplemented with corn silage showed higher final body condition

  6. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

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    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  7. CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG STEERS AND HEIFERS, FINISHED WITH SUPPLEMENTATION ON CULTIVATED PASTURE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS E NOVILHAS SUPERJOVENS, TERMINADOS COM SUPLEMENTAÇÃO EM PASTAGEM CULTIVADA

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    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of young castrated steers and heifers. Twelve animals of each sex were used, fed during growth with energetic supplementation on Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa cultivated pasture, and finished on Pennisetum purpureum, and slaughtered at fourteen months of age. Farm live weight hot carcass and weight were higher for steers, being of 365.8 and 203.4 kg, respectively, than for heifers being 310.3 and 168.6 kg, in the same order.  Males were superior in carcass length (118.1 vs. 111.3 cm, leg length (69.2 vs. 64.1 cm and in the longissimus dorsi area (58.0 vs. 52.4 cm2. No difference was observed for subcutaneous fat thickness, but heifers showed meat with better marbling (5.58 points than the males (3.67 points. No differences for sensorial and organoleptical characteristics were observed between the two sexes. In conclusion,   excepting relation to weight, young heifers have carcass and meat characteristics similar to males.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, Hereford x Nellore, meat tenderness, cultivated pasture, sex.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as características de carcaça e da carne de novilhos castrados e novilhas superjovens. Foram usados doze animais de cada sexo, recriados com suplementação energética sobre pastagem cultivada de Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa e terminados em pastagem cultivada de Pennisetum purpureum, onde permaneceram até o abate aos quatorze meses de idade. Os pesos de fazenda e de carcaça quente foram superiores nos machos, sendo de 365,8 e 203,4 kg, respectivamente, enquanto as fêmeas apresentaram 310,3 e 168,6 kg, citados na mesma ordem. Os machos foram superiores nos comprimentos de carcaça (118,1 vs. 111,3 cm e de perna (69,2 vs. 64,1 cm e na área de Longissimus dorsi (58,0 vs. 52,4 cm². Não houve diferença na espessura de gordura subcutânea da carcaça, mas as fêmeas apresentaram carne mais

  8. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

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    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with

  9. Padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem por novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual e aveia-preta manejada sob diferentes alturas em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Displacement patterns and herbage capture by steers in Italian ryegrass and black oat pastures managed under different heights in integrated crop-livestock system

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    Carolina Baggio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliaram-se estratégias alimentares de novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. em quatro alturas de manejo (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm para investigar se as alturas do pasto podem influenciar os padrões de deslocamento e captura da forragem por animais em pastejo e seus impactos em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. As alturas de manejo foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualisados com três repetições. Procedeu-se a três avaliações diurnas, por observação visual direta: duas avaliações de acordo com o estádio vegetativo e a terceira com o estádio reprodutivo. A redução da altura de manejo do pasto esteve relacionada a maior carga animal e resultou em menor massa de forragem e massa de lâminas foliares. Nessa condição de limitação, os animais aumentaram a taxa de bocados, o número de bocado por estação alimentar, o número total de bocados, o número de estação alimentar visitada e reduziram o tempo de permanência na estação alimentar. Esse padrão de resposta resultou em menor deslocamento entre estações alimentares, no entanto, a quantidade de deslocamento total foi maior. Os animais modificam seus padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem em resposta à altura de manejo do pasto. A limitação de forragem pode ter impacto no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária.This experiment was aimed to evaluate the grazing strategies of steers in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. pastures managed with four sward heights, 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. The hypothesis that different sward heights could determine variations on the displacement patterns and herbage capture by grazing animals, with potential impacts in a crop-livestock system was tested. The treatments (sward heights were distributed in a randomized block design with three replicates. Diurnal evaluations were performed by

  10. Milk quality of Jersey cows kept on winter pasture supplemented or not with concentrate Qualidade do leite de vacas Jersey mantidas em pastagem cultivada de inverno e suplementadas ou não com concentrado

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    Helenice de Lima Gonzalez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of supplementation in pasture cultivated with Avena strigosa (black oats, Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass and Vicia sativa L. (common vetch on the composition and somatic cells count (SCC of Jersey cow milk. Eight cows of the Jersey breed were separated by milk production, lactation period and live weight and were randomly blocked into two homogeneous groups (one with supplementation and other only on pasture, in a randomized complete design. Both groups were allowed to pasture for about 7 hours per day in a rotational grazing system in strips, with a one-day occupation period. The supplemented group was fed daily with 8 kg of supplement made of soy bean meal, soy shells, calcium limestone and mineral salt. The results showed significant differences between the two groups, because the percentage of total solids, protein and milk fat were higher in the supplemented cows. The lactose percentage was not influenced by the supplement intake. The somatic cell count, although there was a lower statistical difference for the group on pasture, showed small numerical oscillation between the groups and therefore should not be considered an effect of supplementation. The supplement supply to Jersey cows during lactation caused an increase in the total milk solid percentage, because it raised the fat and protein concentration.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de suplementação em pastagem cultivada constituída por Avena strigosa (aveia-preta, Lolium multiflorum (azévem-anual e Vicia sativa L. (ervilhaca sobre a composição e a contagem de células somáticas (CCS do leite de vacas Jersey. Foram utilizadas oito vacas da raça Jersey, distribuídas ao acaso, após estratificação por produção de leite, período de lactação e peso corporal, em dois grupos homogêneos (um com suplementação e outro apenas em pastagem, em delineamento experimental completamente

  11. Produção e qualidade de azevém-anual submetido a adubação nitrogenada sob pastejo por cordeiros Production and quality of annual ryegrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization under grazing by lambs

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    Luiz Giovani de Pellegrini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi verificar como a adubação nitrogenada pode afetar a produção e a qualidade da massa de forragem em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua de cordeiros de corte. O azevém foi implantado em 6 de junho de 2006, em sistema de plantio direto com densidade de semeadura de 45 kg de sementes/ha. A adubação de base foi de 300 kg/ha, sem nitrogênio, com 60 kg/ha P2O5 e 60 kg/ha K2O. As adubações corresponderam a quatro doses de nitrogênio (N na forma de ureia (45% de N em aplicação de cobertura após 35 dias do plantio: 0; 75; 150; ou 225 kg/ha de N. O período de avaliação foi de 84 dias. Para cada kg de nitrogênio aplicado na pastagem de azevém, verificaram-se aumentos lineares de 2,82 kg/ha de massa de forragem, 1,28 kg/ha de massa seca de folhas verdes, 2,47 perfilhos/m² e 15,84 kg/ha de massa de forragem total. As doses de nitrogênio aplicadas não influenciaram os teores de proteína bruta (21,21%, fibra detergente ácido (25,90% e fibra detergente neutro (54,93% da forragem colhida por meio da simulação do pastejo. O aumento nas doses de nitrogênio interferem positivamente na taxa de acúmulo, o que proporciona maior massa de forragem total.The aim of this work was to evaluate how nitrogen fertilization can affect forage mass production and quality on annual Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture under continuous stocking of beef lambs. Ryegrass was established on June 6th, 2006, on no-tillage cropping system with seed density of 45 kg seeds/ha. Base fertilization was 300 kg/ha without N, with 60 kg/ha P2O5 and 60 kg/ha K2O. Fertilization consisted on four doses of nitrogen (N using urea fertilizer (45% de N in covering application 35 days after seeding: 0; 75; 150; or 225 kg/ha N. Periods of evaluations lasted 84 days. For each kg of nitrogen applied on ryegrass pasture, it was observed linear increases of 2.82 kg/ha of forage mass, 1.28 kg/ha of

  12. Características da pastagem de azevém e produtividade de cordeiros em pastejo Ryegrass pasture characteristics and lamb productivity in grazing

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    Ticiany Maria Dias Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da pastagem de azevém, a qualidade da forragem e a produtividade animal por área em três sistemas de produção: cordeiros desmamados precocemente, aos 40 dias de idade, e mantidos em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. até o abate; cordeiros sem desmame, mantidos na mesma pastagem de azevém até o abate; cordeiros sem desmame recebendo suplemento (1% do peso vivo em creep feeding a partir dos 40 dias de idade. O sistema de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua com carga animal variável, mantendo-se a oferta de massa de lâminas foliares em 1.000 kg de MS/ha. A produção média de massa seca da pastagem foi 3.236,6 kg MS/ha, a de lâminas foliares, de 1.008,7 kg MS/ha, e a taxa de crescimento do pasto, de 58,38 kg MS/ha/dia. Com cordeiros desmamados, a altura média da pastagem foi de 20,95 cm, significativamente maior que a daquela com cordeiros sem desmame. A massa de inflorescências nas pastagens dos cordeiros desmamados foi superior (61,7 kg/ha quando comparado aos outros sistemas. O sistema de terminação de cordeiros desmamados permitiu maior carga animal (929,74 kg PV/ha em comparação aos demais, considerando apenas os cordeiros sem suplementação (259,9 kgPV/ha ou com suplementação em creep feeding (254,3 kgPV/ha. A qualidade da forragem não diferiu entre os sistemas de terminação. A estrutura da pastagem sofreu alterações na ausência das ovelhas, devido à maior seletividade dos cordeiros. O sistema de terminação em pastagem com desmame precoce foi o menos produtivo, em razão do baixo desempenho individual dos cordeiros, por isso, não deve ser recomendado a ovinocultores.The objective of this study was to evaluate the ryegrass pasture production, forage quality and animal productivity in three sheep production systems: lambs weaned at 40 days of age and finished in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. until slaughter; lambs kept with their dams in the same pasture

  13. Tratamento das águas do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro em filtro anaeróbio seguido por sistema alagado construído: I - remoção de matéria orgânica Treatment of the wastewater of coffee fruit processing in anaerobic filter system followed by constructed wetland system: I - removal of organic material

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    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas de tratamento, compostos por três filtros anaeróbios com escoamento descendente, seguidos por seis Sistemas Alagados Construídos (SACs, tiveram suas condições operacionais avaliadas quando utilizados no tratamento da água residuária do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. Os filtros foram confeccionados em PVC (1,5 m de altura e 0,35 m de diâmetro e preenchidos com brita nº 2. Os SACs foram constituídos por caixas de madeira (1,5 m de comprimento, 0,4 m de altura e 0,5 m de largura, sendo impermeabilizados e preenchidos com brita "zero". A ARC teve o pH corrigido com cal até valores próximos a 7,0, e a concentração de nutrientes alterada, de forma a se obter uma relação DBO/N/P de 100/5/1. Em metade dos SACs foi plantado o azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., e na outra metade, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Como resultado, observou-se que as espécies vegetais cultivadas nos SACs não influenciaram nas eficiências globais de remoção de poluentes pelos sistemas. Os sistemas que receberam as menores cargas orgânicas apresentaram as maiores eficiências de remoção de matéria orgânica, alcançando 78% para DQO e 70% para DBO. A remoção de SST foi superior a 70% em todos os sistemas avaliados, indicando a viabilidade da aplicação de filtro anaeróbio seguido por SACs no tratamento da ARC.Six treatment systems, composed of three downflow anaerobic filters followed by six Constructed Wetlands (SACs, had their operating conditions evaluated when used in the treatment of wastewater from coffee fruit processing (ARC. The filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m in diameter and filled with n. 2 crushed stone. SACs were constructed of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide being sealed with an HDPE geomembrane and filled with "zero" crushed stone. The pH of the ARC was corrected with lime to values near 7.0 and nutrient concentration altered in order to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 500

  14. Tratamento das águas do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro em filtro anaeróbio seguido por sistema alagado construído: II - remoção de nutrientes e compostos fenólicos Wastewater treatment of coffee fruit processing in anaerobic filter system followed by constructed wetland: II - removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds

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    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas de tratamento foram compostos por três filtros anaeróbios com escoamento descendente, seguidos por seis sistemas alagados construídos (SACs, sendo avaliados, sob o ponto de vista operacional, no tratamento da água residuária do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. Os filtros foram confeccionados em PVC (1,5 m de altura e 0,35 m de diâmetro e preenchidos com brita nº 2 e os SACs foram constituídos por caixas de madeira (1,5 m de comprimento, 0,4 m de altura e 0,5 m de largura, sendo impermeabilizados e preenchidos com brita "zero". A ARC teve o pH corrigido com cal até valores próximos a 7,0, e a concentração de nutrientes alterada, com a adição de fertilizantes, de forma a se obter uma relação DBO/N/P igual a 100/5/1. Em metade dos SACs, foi plantado o azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., e na outra metade, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Como resultado, observou-se que as espécies vegetais cultivadas nos SACs influenciaram nas eficiências de remoção de fósforo pelos sistemas (SAC3 e SAC4; SAC5 e SAC6. Os sistemas que receberam as menores cargas de nutrientes e compostos fenólicos, via ARC, apresentaram as maiores eficiências de remoção destas variáveis, tendo sido alcançadas remoções de 40% do N T e 50% do P T. A remoção de compostos fenólicos totais foi superior a 65% na maior parte dos sistemas. Desta forma, considera-se ser viável a aplicação de filtros anaeróbios seguidos por sistemas alagados construídos no tratamento da ARC.Six treatment systems composed of three anaerobic filters with downflow followed by six constructed wetlands (SACs have been operationally evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from coffee fruit processing (ARC. The filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m in diameter and filled with n. 2 crushed stone. SACs were constructed of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide being sealed with an HDPE geomembrane and filled with "zero" crushed stone

  15. Produção animal em misturas forrageiras de estação fria semeadas em uma pastagem natural Animal production in mixtures of temperate species seeded in a natural pasture

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    Roblein Cristal Coelho Filho

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros de produção e qualidade de forragem e a análise econômica da pastagem, realizou-se um trabalho na área experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, entre maio e novembro de 1993. Os tratamentos foram aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. com: l trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi e 2 ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L., sobressemeadas em campo nativo e sendo pastejadas por terneiras cruza Nelore x Charolês. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualisado, com duas repetições, que foram potreiros de 1,5ha aproximadamente. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável, mantendo-se a disponibilidade de forragem entre 1500 e 2000kg/ha de Matéria Seca (MS, com uma pressão de pastejo real em tomo de 10%. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, sendo os animais pesados a cada 28 dias, para o ajuste de lotação. Para os parâmetros ganho médio diário de peso, ganho de peso vivo por área, taxa de acúmulo e produção de MS da pastagem, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. O tratamento com ervilhaca mostrou-se superior quanto ao teor de proteína bruta e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (P Aiming to evaluate parameters of forage production and quality and the economic analysis of pasture, a trial was conducted in the experimental área of the Animal Science Department of UFSM, Brazil, between May and November of 1993. The mixtures were constituited by oat (Avena strigosa Schreb + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. with: 1 arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and 2 Yetch (Vicia sativa L., seeded in a natural pasture and grazed by Nelore x Charolês calves. The experiment was a completely randomized design, with two replications, characterized by paddocks of 1.5ha approximately. The grazing system was continuous with stocking rate variable, for mantaining the forage availability between 1500 and 2000kg Dry

  16. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate = Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate

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    Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção animal de novilhos e vegetal de campo natural e de campo natural sobre-semeado com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus com e sem a utilização do herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos foram: CN – campo nativo, com roçada anual; CNI – campo nativo com sobre-semeadura, adubação e roçada anual; G1 – Idem ao CNI com aplicação de herbicida no primeiro ano; G3 – idem ao G1 com supressão da vegetação natural com herbicida no segundo e terceiro ano; GA3 – Idem ao G3 com adubação duplicada nos três anos. O delineamento experimental foi blocos completamente casualizados com duas repetições. Os resultados apresentados são do terceiro anode avaliação. Para ganho médio diário, houve diferenças (p £ 0,1 entre tratamentos e períodos, que variaram de 0,214 kg animal-1 dia-1 em CN a 1,406 para os tratamentos com introdução de espécies. Quanto à variável ganho por área, os ganhos variaram de 84 a 410 kg PV ha-1. As cargas variaram de 283 a 679 kg PV ha-1. O uso do herbicida não apresentou efeitos sobre a produção; e a introdução de espécies de estação fria por sobre-semeadura melhorou a produção animal emCN, que possibilitou a colheita de maiores ganhos animal-1 dia-1 e por área.This study evaluated animal production of steers and pasture production of natural grassland and grassland overseeded withItalian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, with and without the use of glyphosate herbicide. Treatments consisted of: NG –natural grassland, with annual mowing; ING – natural grassland with overseeding, fertilizing and annual mowing; G1 – Same ING, but with glyphosate application in the first year; G3 – same as G1, with suppression of natural vegetation using herbicide in the second and third years; GF3 – same as G3, with doubled fertilizing in the three

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras em pastagem consorciada de inverno sob diferentes intensidades de desfolha Ingestive behavior of lambs on mixed winter pasture under different grazing intensities

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    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação entre a estrutura do pasto, as variáveis ambientais e o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras Ile de France × Texel em pastagem consorciada de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L. sob quatro intensidades de desfolha (muito alta, alta, média e baixa. Utilizaram-se pastejos intermitentes considerando a soma térmica de 300 graus-dia como critério para determinar os intervalos de pastejo. As avaliações do comportamento ingestivo foram feitas por meio de observação visual em quatro períodos contínuos de 24 horas realizados no período de maio a outubro de 2006. O maior tempo de pastejo ocorreu na intensidade baixa. Altas intensidades de desfolha ocasionaram aumento da densidade populacional de perfilhos de azevém e não alteraram o peso desses perfilhos. A massa de bocados e a qualidade da dieta selecionada pelas cordeiras foram semelhantes entre as intensidades testadas. Em pastagem de aveia+azevém+trevo-vermelho, quando o intervalo de pastejo é determinado pela soma térmica de 300 graus-dia, a utilização de intensidades de desfolha que variam de baixa a muito alta não altera o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras. O comportamento ingestivo é afetado pelo ciclo do pasto e pelo fotoperíodo e a seletividade dos animais reduz ao final do período de utilização da pastagem, quando ocorre aumento no tempo de pastejo e na distância percorrida em busca de locais de alimentação.The relationship between the pasture structure, environmental variables and the ingestive behavior of crossbred Ile de France-Texel lambs on a mixed winter pasture of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. under four grazing intensities ('very high', 'high', 'average', and 'low' was evaluated. Intermittent grazing was used, considering the thermal sum of 300 degree-days to determine the grazing

  18. Infestation and natural parasitism of aphids in single and mixed pastures of black oats and ryegrass Infestação e parasitismo natural de afídeos em pastagens com espécie única ou mistura de aveia preta e azevém

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    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some species of aphids are major pests on cereal crops and grass pastures. Usually these pests are not adequately controlled in pasture lands that become sources of aphid infestations to cereal crops. The dynamics of aphids and the incidence of natural enemies are less known in pasture systems than in cereal fields. The objective of this work was to assess the aphid infestation and natural aphid parasitism in different pasture composition. Three hypotheses were tested: 1- the aphid species composition in pastures may vary according to the cereal species in the field; 2- the mixture of two plant species can modify the amount and diversity of aphids; 3- the plant species composition of pasture fields influences the parasitism of aphids. Empirical data were obtained from three Poaceae fields: black oats (Avena strigosa L., ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., and a mixed field of black oats and ryegrass. The most abundant aphid species was Rhopalosiphum padi followed by Sitobion avenae. Plant species composition increases the amount and the parasitism rates of aphids. The mixture of heavily infested black oats with a poorly infested ryegrass resulted in reduction of aphid infestation in comparison with heavily-infested single plant species field. This is possible because the conditions are favorable for the development of parasitoid populations. Aphidius colemani was the main parasitoid found in these areas.Algumas espécies de pulgões são importantes pragas de cereais, atacando também pastagens de gramíneas. Normalmente, essas pragas não são controladas nas pastagens e podem tornar-se fontes de infestação dos afídeos para os cereais cultivados. A dinâmica dos afídeos e de seus inimigos naturais é pouco conhecida em sistemas de pastagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a infestação de pulgões e seu parasitismo natural em áreas com diferentes composições de pastagens. Três hipóteses foram testadas: 1 - a composição de esp

  19. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

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    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  20. Parâmetros produtivos de uma pastagem temperada submetida a alternativas de utilização Productive parameter of a winter pasture submitted to alternatives of utilization

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros produtivos da pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. submetida a diferentes alternativas de utilização: 1 Suplemento: animais recebendo suplementação energética (sorgo moído diária de 1% do peso vivo (PV, em pastagem de aveia + azevém, com adubação de 150 kg/ha de nitrogênio (N; 2 Nitrogênio: animais em pastagem de aveia + azevém, com adubação de 300 kg/ha de N; 3 Pastagem: animais em pastagem de aveia + azevém, com adubação de 150 kg/ha de N. Foram utilizadas 94 bezerras de corte com peso médio inicial de 197 kg, da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore, sob pastejo contínuo, com lotação variável. Foram avaliados: disponibilidade de forragem (DF, taxa de acúmulo da forragem (TAC, produção total de matéria seca (PMS e perdas de forragem (PF, em kg/ha de matéria seca (MS e em porcentagem do PV. Na composição botânica da pastagem, foram avaliados os valores de massa de lâmina foliar de aveia (LAV, massa de lâmina foliar de azevém (LAZ, massa de colmo (MC, massa de inflorescência de azevém (INFOAZ e massa de material morto (MM. A partir da DF, foram calculados os valores de disponibilidade de material verde (DMV e de lâmina foliar verde (DLFV. Não foi observada diferença entre tratamentos avaliados para DF, DMV, TAC, PMS e PF, em kg de MS/ha e em %PV. Nos tratamentos Nitrogênio e Suplemento, houve maior contribuição de folhas verdes que o tratamento Pastagem.This trial was developed with aim of evaluating the productive parameters of a pasture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. submitted to alternatives of utilization. The treatments were: 1 'Supplement': pasture of oat + ryegrass + animals fed energy supplementt in a daily quantity of 1.0% of live weight (LW with nitrogen (N fertilization of 150 kg/ha; 2 'Nitrogen': pasture of oat + ryegrass with N fertilization of

  1. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

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    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  2. Produção animal e retorno econômico em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria Animal production and economic return in mixtures of annual temperate grasses

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    João Restle

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a produtividade animal em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria sob pastejo contínuo foram avaliados. As misturas MTA - Triticale (X Triticosecale + azevém (Lolium multiflorum, MAA - Aveia preta (Avena strigosa + azevém, MTAA - Triticale + aveia preta + azevém foram usadas. A semeadura a lanço foi realizada em 21/04/95, sendo adubada com 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, sendo a adubação de cobertura de 175 kg/ha de nitrogênio. O início do pastejo ocorreu em 10/06/95, estendendo-se até 14/11/95. O ganho de peso médio diário foi similar entre as misturas, sendo de 693, 685 e 665 g, para MTA, MAA e MTAA, respectivamente. A carga animal média foi superior na mistura MTA em relação às demais, sendo de 1210, 1055 e 1116 kg de PV/ha. A mistura MTA apresentou o maior ganho de peso vivo/ha (650,7 kg/ha, seguida pela MTAA (592,4 kg/ha e MAA (568,8 kg/ha. O custo/ha foi superior na MTA (R$ 320,42, seguido pela MTAA (R$ 316,47 e MAA (R$ 312,69; a receita líquida foi também superior na MTA (R$ 167,60, seguida pela MTAA (R$ 127,83 e MAA (R$ 113,91. A mistura de triticale mais azevém foi a mais indicada, pois apresentou o maior ganho de peso por unidade de área, resultando em maior retorno econômico.The animal performance and productivity in mixtures of annual temperate grasses under continuous grazing condition were evaluated. The mixtures MTR - Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., MOR - Oat (Avena strigosa Schreb plus ryegrass, MTOR - Triticale plus oat plus ryegrass, were used. The broadcasting sowing was realized at 04/21/95, being fertilized with 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, being the broadcasting fertilization of 175 kg/ha of nitrogen. The beginning of the grazing occurred at 06/10/95, and was extended until 11/14/95. The average daily weight gain was similar among the mixtures, being 693, 685 and 665 g, for MTR, MOR and MTOR, respectively. The average stocking rate was superior in the MTR

  3. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte submetidas a estratégias de suplementação em pastagens de aveia e azevém Ingestive behavior of beef heifers submitted to strategies of supplementation on oats and ryegrass pastures

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    Carolina Bremm

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte recebendo suplemento em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua. Como tratamentos, foram avaliadas quatro estratégias de suplementação: sem suplemento - animais em pastagem de aveia (AV e azevém (AZ; crescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis crescentes de suplemento (0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso vivo -PV; fixo - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo nível fixo de suplemento (0,9% PV; e decrescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis decrescentes (1,5; 1,2 e 0,9% do PV de suplemento. As características estruturais (massa de forragem, massa de forragem verde, oferta de forragem, oferta de lâminas foliares verdes, relação folha:colmo, proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de aveia e proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de azevém e bromatológicas (proteína bruta, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, nutrientes digestíveis totais e fibra em detergente neutro do pasto foram semelhantes entre as estratégias de suplementação, mas variaram conforme os períodos de utilização do pasto. Os tempos diários de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e de permanência no cocho (min/dia e a massa de bocado (g MO/boc diferiram entre as estratégias de suplementação e as características do pasto no decorrer do ciclo. A taxa de bocado/minuto foi influenciada apenas pelo ciclo do pasto.It was evaluated the ingestive behavior of beef heifers on black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pastures under different strategies of supplementation and continuous stocking system. The treatments evaluated were: 'no supplement'- animals on black oats (BO and Italian ryegrass (IR pasture; 'increasing' - animals on BO and IR pasture receiving increasing levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% of live weight - LW of supplement; 'fixed' - animals on

  4. Rendimento de forragem e valor nutritivo de gramíneas anuais de estação fria submetidas a sombreamento por Pinus elliottii e ao sol pleno Forage yield and nutritive value of cool-season annual forage grasses shaded by Pinus elliottii trees and at full-sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Santiago Barro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sombreamento provocado por duas densidades arbóreas em uma floresta de Pinus elliottii Engelm. com 10 anos de idade sobre o rendimento e o valor nutritivo da forragem de três gramíneas de ciclo hibernal. Como tratamentos, avaliou-se a combinação de dois fatores (3 x 3 em um delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, no qual as parcelas foram as condições luminosas (proporcionadas por duas densidades arbóreas: 555 e 333 árvores/ha e luz solar plena e as subparcelas as espécies forrageiras azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.; e aveia-branca (A. sativa L. cv. Fapa 2. A semeadura foi realizada entre 25/7/2005 e 5/8/2005 e entre 26 e 27/4/2006. O rendimento de matéria seca foi estimado em avaliações durante o estádio vegetativo (aos 104 dias após a semeadura em 2006 e em pleno florescimento (aos 132 e 170 dias, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. O valor nutritivo da forragem foi avaliado considerando os teores médios de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O sombreamento moderado reduziu em 57% o rendimento médio de forragem dos três genótipos avaliados, mas aumentou em 2,3% o teor de proteína bruta (PB e em 5,5% a digestibilidade in vitro (DIVMO quando as plantas estavam em florescimento pleno. Entre as espécies forrageiras avaliadas, a aveia-branca e a aveia-preta apresentam maior potencial para utilização em sistemas silvipastoris na Região Sul.It was evaluated the shading effect induced by two tree densities of a ten-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. forest, and at full sun, on forage dry matter yield and nutritive value of three cool-season annual grasses. Treatments were a combination of two main factors: a three light conditions induced by two tree densities (333 e 555 stems/ha and at full sun; b three cool-season annual forage grasses: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam

  5. Avaliação das proporções dos cortes da carcaça, características da carne e avaliação dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Evaluation of carcass cuttings proportion, meat characteristics and evaluation of live weight components of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Batista Medeiros Frescura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a composição física da carcaça, as características da carne e a proporção dos não-componentes da carcaça do peso vivo de cordeiros abatidos aos 28 kg submetidos a diferentes sistemas alimentares. Dezoito cordeiros (Ile de France x Texel foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, com as respectivas mães, em três tratamentos: PCA - pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., CON - confinamento sem alimentação privativa e CCF - confinamento com alimentação privativa para os cordeiros. A alimentação privativa foi oferecida aos cordeiros pelo sistema de creep feeding. Não houve diferença para o percentual do pescoço entre PCA, CON e CCF, com valores de 9,27; 9,17 e 8,72%, respectivamente. Para o percentual de perna, os animais da CON (34,02% e CCF (34,17% apresentaram valores semelhantes entre si e superiores aos da PCA (31,73%. A maciez medida na porção do Longissimus dorsi entre a 9ª e 12ª costelas foi semelhante entre os animais dos três tratamentos, de 2,33; 3,03 e 3,08 para PCA, CON e CCF, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a palatabilidade e suculência da carne. O percentual de pele dos animais da PCA (11,05% e do CON (10,50% foram semelhantes entre si, enquanto o PCA apresentou valores mais elevados que o percentual dos animais do CCF (9,70%. Para o percentual do conteúdo gástrico, os valores observados para os animais do CCF (11,47% foram superiores àqueles da PCA (5,09% e semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais do CON (8,72%.This study aimed to evaluate carcass physical comp0sition, meat characteristics and live weight carcass no component of lambs slaughter at 28 kg under different feeding systems. Eighteen lambs (Ile de France X Texel were randomly allotted, with their respective mothers, to three treatments: RP - ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam., COM - confinament of lamb and sheep together and CCF - confinament with creep feeding. A

  6. Desempenho de pastagem nativa e pastagem sobre-semeada com forrageiras hibernais com e sem glifosato Performance of native pasture and pasture sodseeded with winter species with or without glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Melo Rizo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em Bagé-RS, visando avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS, taxa de lotação (kg de PV ha-1, ganho de peso vivo por animal (GMD, kg an-1 dia-1 e ganho por hectare (GPV ha-1 em: T1-pastagem nativa (testemunha; T2-pastagem nativa sobre-semeada com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus; T3- semelhante ao anterior, mais aplicação de glifosato; T4- semelhante ao anterior, porém com adubação dobrada. Foram utilizados novilhos Braford. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com ajustes na lotação para manter um nível de oferta de forragem de 10% (10kg de MS 100kg PV-1 dia-1. Para a determinação da MS da pastagem, utilizou-se o método da dupla amostragem com uso de disco e para a determinação da taxa de acúmulo de MS, utilizou-se o método da gaiola de exclusão. As análises estatísticas foram feitas no programa SAS (1997. O delineamento experimental foi blocos inteiramente casualizados, tendo dois blocos e quatro tratamentos. A introdução de espécies hibernais em pastagem nativa com ou sem uso de glifosato contribuiu para aumentar a produtividade do campo nativo. A sobre-semeadura de espécies hibernais permitiu maior carga e ganho por animal e por área comparados com a pastagem nativa.The experiment was developed in Bagé-RS, Brazil, to evaluate the dry matter production (DM, stocking rate (kg LW ha-1, live weight gain per animal (ADG, kg head-1 day-1 and gain per area (GPA, kg LW ha-1 in: T1-native pasture (control; T2-native pasture sodseeded with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus; T3-similar to anterior, plus glyphosate spraying; T4-similar to anterior, but with double fertilization. It were utilized Braford steers. The grazing method was the continuous stocking, with stocking adjustments to maintain a level of forage on offer of 10% (10kg of DM 100kg LW-1 day-1. To

  7. Produção de cordeiros em pastagem de azevém e trevo-branco sob diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem Lamb production in a mixture of italian ryegrass and white clover under different forage mass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weber do Canto

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem na produção de cordeiros. O experimento foi estabelecido em Tupanciretã, região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em uma pastagem de azevém cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam + trevo-branco cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., submetida a diferentes níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, estudando-se os níveis de RMS mantidos na pastagem de 1.119, 1.320, 1.477, 1.695, 2.146, 2.166, 2.410 e 2.483 kg de matéria seca por hectare (MS/ha. O período experimental foi de 30/09 a 08/12/1992 e os animais utilizados foram cordeiros cruza Ile de France x Corriedale desmamados aos 80 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo/ha (GPV/ha, carga animal, animais dia/ha e a eficiência de conversão de MS em kg de peso vivo de cordeiros. Os resultados obtidos mostraram uma relação linear positiva entre o GMD e GPV/ha com o aumento nos níveis de RMS/ha, observando-se nos níveis de RMS superiores a 2.400 kg um GMD de 0,12 kg/cordeiro/dia e um GPV/ha médio de 497 kg. Não houve relação quanto à carga animal e animais.dia/ha; verificou-se uma relação linear negativa entre a eficiência de conversão de MS com os níveis de RMS estudados. Os resultados demonstram o efeito dos níveis de RMS na resposta animal.The objective of this research was to analyse the effects of different forage mass levels on lamb production. The experiment was conducted in Tupanciretã, Planalto Médio region at the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a mixture of italian ryegrass cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam. + white clover cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., under different forage mass (FM levels. The experimental design used was completely randommized, and the FM levels studied were: 1,119, 1,320, 1,477, 1,695, 2,146, 2,166, 2,410 and 2

  8. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  9. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L

    2016-08-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds. PMID:27174047

  10. Comparative sequence analysis of VRN1 alleles of Lolium perenne with the co-linear regions in barley, wheat, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Gundlach, Heidrun;

    2011-01-01

    requirement. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed microcolinearity to the corresponding region on chromosome 3 in Oryza sativa with conserved gene order and orientation, while the micro-colinearity to the corresponding region in Triticum monococcum was less conserved. Our study...

  11. Preliminary report on slime mold disease of Lolium perenne caused by Physarum cinereurn%多年生黑麦草粘菌病研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂华; 王开冻; 席刚俊

    2010-01-01

    多年生黑麦草是长江三角洲地区的园林绿化植物,在每年7月上中旬至8月中旬会发生严重的粘菌病,造成黑麦草生长不良.该病由灰绒泡菌(Physarum cinereum)粘菌引起.经过2年多的野外调查,该粘菌主要危害多年生黑麦草,狗牙根、白三叶.

  12. Detection of favorable alleles for plant height and crown rust tolerance in three connected populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Laurence; Flajoulot, Sandrine; Garon, Jérôme; Julier, Bernadette; Béguier, Vincent; Barre, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Plant height, which is an estimator of vegetative yield, and crown rust tolerance are major criteria for perennial ryegrass breeding. Genetic improvement has been achieved through phenotypic selection but it should be speeded up using marker-assisted selection, especially in this heterozygous species suffering from inbreeding depression. Using connected multiparental populations should increase the diversity studied and could substantially increase the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection. The objective of this study was to detect the best alleles for plant height and rust tolerance among three connected populations derived from elite material by comparing an analysis per parent and a multipopulation connected analysis. For the studied traits, 17 QTL were detected with the analysis per parent while the additive and dominance models of the multipopulation connected analysis made it possible to detect 33 and 21 QTL, respectively. Favorable alleles have been detected in all parents. Only a few dominance effects were detected and they generally had lower values than the additive effects. The additive model of the multipopulation connected analysis was the most powerful as it made it possible to detect most of the QTL identified in the other analyses and 11 additional QTL. Using this model, plant growth QTL and rust tolerance QTL explained up to 19 and 38.6% of phenotypic variance, respectively. This example involving three connected populations is promising for an application on polycross progenies, traditionally used in breeding programs. Indeed, polycross progenies actually are a set of several connected populations.

  13. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Rod W; Mander, Lewis N; Asp, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex. In contrast, GA5 is effective because of its structural protection at C-2. Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1, [14C]GA4, and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h), but not [14C]GA5. Coincidentally, genes...... in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development. Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g. 2 -hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation). Additionally, a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl...

  14. Carbon allocation to roots, rhizodeposits and soil after pulse labelling: a comparison of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Neergaard, de A.

    2004-01-01

    Organically managed farm areas in Denmark are expanding and typically contain clover-grass leys that are known to stimulate accumulation of organic matter in arable soils. We compared the C allocation to roots and soil from clover and grass, and determined for how long assimilated C remained mobile

  15. Pigmentos fotossintéticos em azevém suscetível e resistente ao herbicida glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Edu Kaspary

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum suscetíveis e resistentes ao glyphosate, por dois diferentes métodos, bem como, estabelecer uma correlação entre o índice de clorofila obtido pelo equipamento portátil e a metodologia clássica (clorofila extraível. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e laboratório da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus de Frederico Westphalen - RS - em esquema fatorial 2X4, em que o fator A equivaleu aos biótipos de azevém (resistente e suscetível a glyphosate e o fator B a estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas (afilhamento, vegetativo I e II, e reprodutivo. O biótipo de azevém suscetível apresentou maiores teores de clorofila a, b, total e carotenoides, inferindo em um maior potencial competitivo frente ao biótipo resistente ao herbicida. A determinação do teor de clorofila pelo determinador portátil apresentou alta correlação com o método clássico de determinação de pigmentos fotossintéticos, podendo, assim, ser usado com precisão na avaliação deste, proporcionando economia de tempo bem como do uso de reagentes.

  16. Performance and economic analyses of year-round forage systems for forage-fed beef production in the Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, G; Rodriguez, J; Gillespie, J; Bhandari, B; Wang, J J; McMillin, K W

    2014-12-01

    On a global scale, most beef is produced from grazing pastures or rangelands. Certain limitations exist, however, such as not having adequate animal rates of gain for marbling and availability of adequate forage nutritional value and quantity for constant animal weight gains. In the last 20 yr, there has been an increased interest in forage-fed beef for multiple reasons (health related, environmental concerns, and welfare issues). Starting on June 5, 13, 14, and 8 in 4 consecutive yr, 54 steers (initial BW=259±5.6 kg; average of 9 mo of age) were randomly allotted to 3 yr-round forage systems. Each system occupied 6 ha/replicate and had the same stocking rate. System 1 had annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) for winter grazing and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) for summer grazing; while Systems 2 and 3 added rye and a clover mix to the ryegrass and diversified the use of pastures in the fall (dallisgrass [Paspalum dilatatum] and clovers [Trifolium spp.]). System 3 added the use of annual summer forages. During their respective growing season for each forage or forage mix, mass and height did not limit animal performance; however, there was a sampling date effect (P0.05) were detected between systems in ADG year round, during the winter season, or carcass characteristics. Return over total direct costs and total specified expenses were greater for Systems 1 and 2, while System 3 was the lowest. Hay making and bale sales played a major role in explaining the economic results of this study. Where possible, year-round forage systems are a viable alternative for forage-fed beef production; however, the low gains during summer and forage availability during the transition period when hay is necessary deserve further research to find alternatives to improve productivity during those times of the year.

  17. Intergeneric somatic hybrids of rice [Oryza sativa L. (+) Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelodar, N B; Blackhall, N W; Hartman, T P; Brar, D S; Khush, G; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C; Power, J B

    1999-08-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were obtained following the electrofusion of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv 'Taipei 309', 2n = 2x = 24) cell suspension-derived protoplasts with non-dividing leaf protoplasts of Porteresia coarctata (2n = 4x = 48), a saline-tolerant wild species. Fusion-treated protoplasts were plated on the surface of cellulose nitrate filter membranes, overlaying Lolium multiflorum nurse cells. The nurse cells were embedded in KPR medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and semi-solidified with SeaPlaque agarose. Putative somatic hybrid cell colonies were selected on the basis of their growth, whereby faster growing colonies were transferred preferentially to MS-based medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) kinetin, 0.5 mg l(-1)α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose to induce shoot regeneration. One hundred and nineteen regenerated plants were micropropagated clonally on MS-based medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine, 50 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose, prior to DNA extraction of plant samples. Putative somatic hybrids were initially identified by RAPD analysis, and 8 plant lines were selected for further investigation by flow cytometric ploidy determination and cytology. Plants of one line had an allohexaploid chromosome complement (2n = 6x = 72) and, following examination of its vegetative clones by GISH, were confirmed as somatic hybrids containing full chromosome complements of both O. sativa and P. coarctata. PMID:22665191

  18. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography;Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da, E-mail: adillbamberg@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel], E-mail: thiago_cccp@hotmail.com; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de, E-mail: pauletto@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Solos], E-mail: lfspin@ufpel.edu.b, E-mail: anacrlima@hotmail.co, E-mail: Gome, E-mail: Algenor da Silv, E-mail: algenor@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria Clima Temperado. Estacao Experimental Terras Baixas; Timm, Luis Carlos, E-mail: lctimm@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-09-15

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  19. Padrões de deslocamento de bezerras de corte que receberam suplementos isolipídicos em pastagem de azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.O Sichonany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o uso de estações alimentares, o deslocamento e a taxa de bocado de bezerras de corte que foram mantidas exclusivamente em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou receberam suplementos (grão de milho ou gordura. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com número variável de animais. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com medidas repetidas no tempo. O número de bocados realizados por estação alimentar é similar quando as bezerras recebem suplemento ou não. As equações de predição mostram que a massa de lâminas foliares exerce maior influência no tempo por estação alimentar quando as bezerras permanecem exclusivamente em pastejo de azevém ou recebem grão de milho como suplemento, enquanto para bezerras que recebem gordura, essa variável é influenciada pela oferta de forragem. O deslocamento (passos entre estações e passos por minuto de bezerras exclusivamente em pastejo e que recebem grão de milho é influenciado pela estrutura e qualidade do pasto. A taxa de bocado dos animais suplementados com grão de milho e gordura é influenciada pela proporção de lâminas foliares no dossel. Equações de regressão múltipla, considerando-se os atributos do pasto e da pastagem, podem ser utilizadas como modelos preditores do uso de estações alimentares, deslocamento e taxa de bocado de bezerras de corte.

  20. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-01

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  1. Rainfall intensity and phosphorus source effects on phosphorus transport in surface runoff from soil trays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Francirose; Sharpley, Andrew; Prochnow, Luis Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields amended with mineral fertilizers and manures has been linked to freshwater eutrophication. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different rainfall intensities and P sources differing in water soluble P (WSP) concentration on P transport in runoff from soil trays packed with a Berks loam and grassed with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Triple superphosphate (TSP; 79% WSP), low-grade super single phosphate (LGSSP; 50% WSP), North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP; 0.5% WSP) and swine manure (SM; 70% WSP), were broadcast (100 kg total P ha-1) and rainfall applied at 25, 50 and 75 mm h-1 1, 7, 21, and 56 days after P source application. The concentration of dissolved reactive (DRP), particulate (PP), and total P (TP) was significantly (Prunoff with a rainfall intensity of 75 than 25 mm h-1 for all P sources. Further, runoff DRP increased as P source WSP increased, with runoff from a 50 mm h-1 rain 1 day after source application having a DRP concentration of 0.25 mg L-1 for NCRP and 28.21 mg L-1 for TSP. In contrast, the proportion of runoff TP as PP was greater with low (39% PP for NCRP) than high WSP sources (4% PP for TSP) averaged for all rainfall intensities. The increased PP transport is attributed to the detachment and transport of undissolved P source particles during runoff. These results show that P source water solubility and rainfall intensity can influence P transport in runoff, which is important in evaluating the long-term risks of P source application on P transport in surface runoff.

  2. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  3. Prevention of natural grassland invasion by Eragrostis plana Nees using ecological management practices

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    Telmo Focht

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different types of disturbance on the ability of the natural grassland to avoid the invasion of Eragrostis plana Nees (South African lovegrass. The experiment was carried out in Dom Pedrito, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in an area free of South African lovegrass, from Feb. 2004 to Apr. 2007. The treatments were: 1 grassland management regimes: exclusion; low grazing intensity (rotational grazing, ±10 cm; and high grazing intensity (continuous grazing, ±5 cm; 2 initial levels of soil disturbance: high grassland, ±10 cm; low grassland, ±5 cm height; and low grassland with scarified soil; 3 fertilization regimes: without fertilization; phosphorus; and nitrogen. The experimental design was a split-split-plot type in complete blocks, with three replicates. Three winter cultivated species - Trefoil repens L., Lotus corniculatus L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and South African lovegrass -were sown in 54 split-splitplots (split-plots: low grassland, and low grassland with scarified soil. The other 27 split-split-plots (split-plots: high grassland were sown only with South African lovegrass. The grassland height, plant number of South African lovegrass, grassland dry mass and photosynthetic active radiation intercepted (FARint at the soil level were recorded. The fertilization regimes did not influence the South African lovegrass plant number. The initial levels of soil disturbance and grassland management regimes influenced the invasion of South African lovegrass. The invasion was favored by the lower grassland height and lower forage mass, higher intensity of the soil disturbance, and higher FARint due to the continuous grazing. On the contrary, higher grassland height, higher forage mass, lower soil disturbance and lower FARint, associated with rotational grazing or exclusion, showed higher potential to control the invasion of South African lovegrass in the natural grassland.

  4. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

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    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  5. Avaliação populacional de lagartas e inimigos naturais em azevém, com rede de varredura

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    Specht Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os noctuídeos constituem as principais pragas fitófagas de gramíneas e decisões sobre seu controle baseiam-se em porcentuais de desfolhamento, desconsiderando o grau de incidência da praga. Este estudo objetivou testar a rede de varredura na avaliação das populações de Noctuidae e principais grupos de inimigos naturais, em azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., nos turnos da manhã e da noite. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas lavouras, em Salvador do Sul, RS. Realizou-se um experimento com coletas semanais e outro, complementar, com coletas em cada fase de desenvolvimento do azevém, mantendo criação laboratorial. No primeiro, foram coletadas 2.044 lagartas, das quais somente 151 foram coletadas no período matinal; à noite foram detectadas diferenças estatísticas entre datas de coleta e tamanho das lagartas. Também foram capturadas 387 aranhas, 577 microimenópteros e 983 outros insetos de interesse no controle biológico; houve significância estatística entre turnos e datas em relação a Carabidae, Forficulidae, Tachinidae, Nabidae, Vespidae, microimenópteros e Araneae. Do segundo experimento, obtiveram-se 11 espécies, das quais Pseudaletia sequax Franc., 1951, foi a predominante. O emprego da rede de varredura permite avaliar as populações de Noctuidae e principais grupos de inimigos naturais, em azevém, no turno da noite.

  6. Ecohydrology of Graciosa semi-natural grasslands: water use and evapotranspiration partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; Paredes, Paula; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Madruga, João S.; Pereira, Luís S.

    2016-04-01

    Semi-natural grasslands are a main landscape of Graciosa and other Islands of Azores. The present study aims at calibrate and validate the soil water balance model SIMDualKc for those grasslands aiming at assessing the dynamics of soil water and evapotranspiration. This objective relates with the need to improve knowledge on the ecohydrology of grasslands established in (volcanic) Andosols. This model adopts the dual crop coefficient approach to compute daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and to perform its partition into transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (Es). The application refers to a semi-natural grassland sporadically sowed with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Model calibration and validation were performed comparing simulated against observed grassland evapotranspiration throughout two periods in consecutive years. Daily ET values were derived from eddy covariance data collected at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), at Graciosa, Azores (Portugal). Various statistical performance indicators were used to assess model accuracy and results show a good adequacy of the model for predicting vegetation ET in such conditions. Surface flux energy balance was also evaluated throughout the observation period (2014-2016). The ratio Es/ET shows that soil evaporation is much small than T/ET due to high soil cover by vegetation. The model was then applied to contrasting climatic conditions (dry vs. wet years) to assess related impacts on water balance components and grassland transpiration.

  7. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest.

  8. Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Huang, Yanbo; Nandula, Vijay K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate based herbicide programs are most preferred in current row crop weed control practices. With the increased use of glyphosate, weeds, including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), have developed resistance to glyphosate. The identification of glyphosate resistant weeds in crop fields is critical because they must be controlled before they reduce the crop yield. Conventionally, the method for the identification with whole plant or leaf segment/disc shikimate assays is tedious and labor-intensive. In this research, we investigated the use of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to extract spectral curves derived from the whole plant of Italian ryegrass to determine if the plant is glyphosate resistant (GR) or glyphosate sensitive (GS), which provides a way for rapid, non-contact measurement for differentiation between GR and GS weeds for effective site-specific weed management. The data set consists of 226 greenhouse grown plants (119 GR, 107 GS), which were imaged at three and four weeks after emergence. In image preprocessing, the spectral curves are normalized to remove lighting artifacts caused by height variation in the plants. In image analysis, a subset of hyperspectral bands is chosen using a forward selection algorithm to optimize the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) between GR and GS plants. Then, the dimensionality of selected bands is reduced using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, the maximum likelihood classification was conducted for plant sample differentiation. The results show that the overall classification accuracy is between 75% and 80% depending on the age of the plants. Further refinement of the described methodology is needed to correlate better with plant age.

  9. Ecopiling: A combined Phytoremediation and Passive Biopiling System for Remediating Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils at Field Scale

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    Kieran J Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil (1613 mg Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH kg-1 soil. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilisers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and white clover (Trifolium repens was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but 1 subsample (152mg TPH kg-1 soil. The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labour and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs. The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is aesthetically pleasing.

  10. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  11. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

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    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  12. Uso do bagaço de mandioca em substituição ao milho no concentrado para bovinos em crescimento: 1. Consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Paulo Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca, no concentrado das rações, sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e proteína bruta (PB de bovinos em crescimento. Dezesseis bezerros mestiços machos inteiros foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados completos, em dois períodos. Quatro tipos de concentrado foram testados em associação com o fornecimento à vontade de feno de aveia/azevém (Avena strigosa, L.; Lolium multiflorum, L. e suplementação média de concentrado de 0,83% PV. Os concentrados fornecidos aos animais diferenciaram-se pelo nível de substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca: T1 = 0,0, T2 = 33,0, T3 = 66,0 e T4 = 99,0%. A substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca no concentrado apresentou relação quadrática com o consumo de MS, MO e PB. O consumo máximo de MS, MO e PB foi, respectivamente, 88,53; 82,34; e 10,61 g/kg0,75. Os níveis de substituição de milho por bagaço de mandioca que geraram os consumos máximos foram 48,74; 44,14; e 43,75%, respectivamente, para MS, MO e PB. Níveis mais altos de substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca no concentrado reduziram o consumo dos componentes estudados.

  13. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  14. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  15. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nigel V; Sackett, Tara E; Thomas, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  16. Stage-dependent border cell and carbon flow from roots to rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Ryan E; Dumlao, Matthew R; Samar, Danial; Silk, Wendy K

    2008-04-01

    Rising CO(2) levels in the atmosphere have drawn attention to the important role of soil in sequestering carbon. This project goal was to quantify soil carbon deposition associated with border cell release and exudation from root growth zones. Carbon was measured with a Carlo Erba C/N analyzer in soil from the rhizosphere of mature grasses and, in separate experiments, in soil collected around root growth zones. Root border cells in "rhizosphere soil" (silica sand) were counted using a compound microscope after soil sonication and extraction with surfactant. For sand-grown Bromus carinatus, Zea mays, and Cucumis sativus, young seedlings (with roots shorter than 2 cm) released thousands of border cells, while older root tips released only hundreds. For a variety of native annual and perennial grasses and invasive annual grasses (Nassella pulchra, B. carinatus, B. diandrus, B. hordeaceus, Vulpia microstachys, Aegilops triuncialis, Lolium multiflorum, Zea mays), the rhizosphere of mature root systems contained between 18 and 32 μg C g(-1) sand more than that of the unplanted controls. Spatial analysis of the rhizosphere around the cucumber growth zone confirmed C enrichment there. The root tip provided C to the rhizosphere: 4.6 μg C in front of the growing tip, with the largest deposition, 20.4 μg C, to the rhizosphere surrounding the apical 3 mm (root cap/meristem). These numbers from laboratory studies represent the maximum C that might be released during flooding in soils. Scaling up from the organ scale to the field requires a growth analysis to quantify root tip distributions in space and time.

  17. Performance and carcass quality of lambs evaluated in two feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Freitas Motta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance and carcass quality of Corriedale crossbred lambs (n=28 in two feeding systems during finishing: a weaned and grazing on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. in late season; b maintained with their mothers and grazing on May-deferred native pasture. The following measurements were made at the beginning of the experimental period and at intervals of 20 days: body weight, front height, rear height, body length, chest circumference, and body condition. Additionally, body structure was evaluated by the frame size index [FSI = (front height + rear height + body length + body weight/4], and compactness as body weight/body length. Eight animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period, four per treatment, for the evaluation of carcass traits (body and regional components, cooking loss, and carcass yields (commercial, slaughter, and farm. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test or by the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P0.05. However, animals maintained with their mothers on deferred native pasture showed better productive performance characterized by higher total gains in weight, body condition, chest circumference, and compactness. Postslaughter evaluation showed significantly higher (P<0.05 hot and cold carcass weight and better commercial and slaughter carcass yields, in addition to longer carcasses with greater depth and leg proportion in lambs kept with their mothers on native pasture compared to those kept on annual ryegrass, which only exhibited a greater percentage of gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass from water%植物对水中菲和芘的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌婉婷; 高彦征; 李秋玲; 谢正苗; 熊巍

    2006-01-01

    以菲和芘为多环芳烃(PAHs)代表物,采用水培体系研究了黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum Lam)对水中PAHs的吸收作用,重点研究了植物吸收菲和芘的时间动态.水中菲和芘起始浓度分别为1.00mg/L和0.12mg/L.0~288h内,黑麦草根和茎叶中菲和芘含量均先快速增加而后降低,积累量不断增大,植物根系和茎叶富集系数则先快速升高而后趋于稳定.茎叶中菲和芘含量、茎叶对菲和芘的富集系数比根低1~3数量级,积累量也明显小于根系.黑麦草根系对水中芘有更强的富集能力,其根系富集系数比菲大85%~179%;而其茎叶对菲的富集作用则略强.菲和芘在植物体内有明显的传导作用.0~288h,传导系数(TF)先显著升高而后趋于恒定;但实验条件下,菲和芘的TF值均很小,分别不高于0.031和0.009,且芘的TF值明显小于菲,表明供试植物对芘的传导能力更弱.

  19. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  20. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  1. Effect of spraying Arthrobotrys conoides conidia on pastures to control nematode infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Kimie Falbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spraying pastures with conidia of the fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309 for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematode infection-pressure in lambs was assessed. A 12,000-m2 area was divided into six 2,000-m2 fenced areas. Two groups were formed: the treatment group comprised three fenced areas, where conidia were sprayed on the pasture weekly at 7.5 x 104 conidia m-2; and the control group, also comprising three fenced areas, where conidia were not sprayed. The pastures included lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Five naturally infected lambs, were placed between July and September in each fenced area. The effectiveness of biological control was assessed between May and September 2009 by counting the number of third-stage larvae (L3 in each pasture. Additionally, the egg output of the sentinel animals was monitored by counting the number of gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG and the average weight gain was measured. The negative impact on soil was assessed by counting the number of free-living nematodes and phytonematodes. The number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the treated pastures decreased. This was significant at two examination days (end August and end of September. At the end of the study, conidia treatment reduced gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture by 52.4% compared to the control group; this difference was statistically significant. Regarding the whole examination period the average reductions in EPG in treatment group was 49.1% compared to the control group. The most common genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Animal weight gain and soil nematode counts did not differ significantly.

  2. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  3. Nitrogen Mineralization Potentials of Upland Soils in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJIA-ZHOU; QINHUA-CHANG

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization potentials of 15 soil samples were studied by the methods of soil aerobic incubation,and the correlation between the potentials and the amounts of nitrogen taken up by rye grass(Lolium,multiflorum Lam.) in pot culture was calculated.The soils were collected from Hubei Province in Central China.Soil nitrogen mineralization potentials(No) were calculated and optimized by a quick-BASIC program,No ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 340mg kg-1,which accounted for 9.1%to 34.6% of the total nitrogen content.Among the examined soils,yellow-brown soil collected from Wuhan had the largest No and brown-red soil from Xianning had the smallest one.The mineralization rate constants(k) ranged from 0.00556d-1 to 0.01280d-1,in average 0.00882 d-1,Chao soil from Wuhan had the greatest k while yellowcinamon soil from Zhaoyang had the smallest one.There were apparent differences between mineralization parameters(NO and k) optimized and non-optimized ones,Optimized No had a better correlation than non-optimized No with the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass.No,No×k and Nt(accumulated mineralized nitrogen Within time t ) could be used as indexes of soil nitrogen supply,Among them Nt was the best,which was significantly correlated with the amounts of nirogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass harvested at three different times.

  4. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  5. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): I. Indices of phosphate rock use opportunity (PRUOIS) and of phosphate rock suitability for direct use (PRSIDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several issues of phosphate rock (PR) use are discussed in this paper. Maize for green fodder (Zea mays L) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were grown in 7 kg of dry soil and in small pots of 1.25 kg dry soil capacity, respectively, on several base unsaturated soils belonging to Hapludoll and Hapludalf soil groups. The amount of phosphate rock (PR) to apply was based on experimental data considering soil adsorbed acidity (Ah), humus content (H2 ), cation exchange capacity (T), sum of exchangeable bases (SEB) and mobile (easily soluble) phosphate content (PAL) in the soil. The factors were combined in a rock phosphate use, opportunity index of the soil (PRUOIS): PRUOIS=(Ah*H2*100)/SEB*100.0245*PAL Rock phosphate suitability for direct use was evaluated by means of the rate of PR-P dissolution (PRPRS) in a 0.6% ammonium heptamolybdate in 0.01M calcium chloride solution (ppm P) and by carbonate content (%CaCO3) in PR. Both of these parameters combined provided a phosphate rock suitability index for direct use (PRSIDU): PRSIDU [ppmP/min]=PRPRS*(1-0.03*CaCO3) Water insoluble P sources studied were PR from Kola-Russia, Morocco, Kneifiss-Siria, El Hassa-Jordan, Gafsa- Tunisia, North-Carolina (USA), and Arad-Israel. All PRs were compared with TSP applied at the same rate of P. Neither PRUOIS or PRSIDU considered separately could satisfactorily explain the variance of PR efficiency. An index obtained by multiplicative combination of PRUOIS x PRSIDU did correlate significantly with indices on the agronomic efficiency of PR. (author)

  6. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  7. Content of Nutritional Elements in Sudangrass and Ryegrass Determined by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xi; LU Jian-wei; Saman P Seneweera; WU Ji; CHEN Fang; LU Jun-ming; LI Xiao-kun

    2011-01-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is a new type of cropping system,which has developed rapidly in recent years in the south of China.The contents of nutritional elements for forage grass in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system were determined by ICPAES.The results showed that there were abundant and essential nutritional elements for animals in sudangrass and ryegrass.The contents of P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Cu,Zn and Mn for sudangrass were 0.20% ~0.29%,1.94%~2.57%,0.62% ~0.97%,0.39% ~0.69%,0.12% ~0.18%,108.35~ 180.12,3.04~5.96,6.17~10.02,20.37~31.36 and 46.80~101.29 mg · kg-1,respectively.The contents of P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Cu,Zn,Mn for ryegrass were 0.39%~0.70%,3.77%~5.07%,0.61%~0.84%,0.28%~0.47%,0.32%~0.41%,291.65 ~ 632.20,2.13~3.23,13.29~15.19,30.73 ~ 42.98 and 92.08~156.04 mg · kg-1,respectively,and there were differences between various periods in nutritional elements in the two forage grasses.The application of ICP-AES could reflect fast and efficiently the content of nutritional elements for forage grass as animals feed.

  8. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  9. Biodegradação dos herbicidas imazetapir e imazapique em solo rizosférico de seis espécies vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Müller Souto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A fitoestimulação é uma das técnicas de fitorremediação que pode ser utilizada para a redução da concentração dos herbicidas no solo. Para tanto é necessário a seleção de plantas que estimulem a atividade dos microrganismos degradadores da rizosfera. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a biodegradação de cinco doses do herbicida composto pela mistura formulada de imazetapir+imazapique (75 + 25 g e.a. L-1 em solo rizosférico proveniente de seis espécies vegetais com potencial para a fitoestimulação. A biodegradação do herbicida nas doses de 0, 250, 500, 1.000 e 4.000mL ha-1 no solo rizosférico de Canavalia ensiformis, Glycine max, Lolium multiflorum, Lotus corniculatus, Stizolobium aterrimum, Vicia sativa e no solo sem cultivo foi avaliada através da quantificação da produção de C-CO2 do solo e da degradação do herbicida no solo por cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massa. A produção de C-CO2 do solo após a contaminação com a mistura de imazetapir+imazapique foi maior nos solos rizosféricos das seis espécies vegetais se comparado ao solo não cultivado. O solo rizosférico de Stizolobium aterrimum apresentou a maior degradação do herbicida imazetapir nas maiores doses avaliadas, sendo uma espécie promissora para a fitoestimulação.

  10. Grazing and nitrogen on the growth of roots in the mixture of oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo von Linsingen Piazzetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of grazing and its absence, and the nitrogen on the morphology of roots of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. mixed with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. The experimental design was a randomized block design in split-split, the main portion was study the effects of grazing and its absence, in the subplots the nitrogen doses of 75 and 150 kg ha-1 and in the sub-subplots were at sampling period. There was used the cylinder method to collect the root, being measured the length, surface area, mean diameter and volume by image analysis system Win / MacRizho (4.1c. Determined the dry mass of roots and shoot, and estimated the density of the root tissue and shoot:root ratio. From these results we determined the rate of root growth relative (RGR, relative root expansion rate (RRER and rate of accumulation of dry matter daily (RADM. In the first period, was higher RGR, RRER, the second period there was a reduction of the same, probably due to the period of drought and plant senescence. There was also reduced due to grazing RADM. With grazing, the length, surface area, mean diameter and root volume were higher, indicating that there was greater root growth of plants grazed compared to ungrazed. The systems studied had no effect on the dry weight of roots. There were found greater specific mass and shot:root ratio in the system without grazing. There was no significant difference between the nitrogen studied. At mixed of black oat and ryegrass, the grazing and nitrogen dose until 150 kg ha-1 little affect root growth. The nitrogen dose changed a little the growth rates and expansion of the roots. On the other hand, the grazing favored the length, area, volume and root diameter.

  11. 黄精核糖体灭活蛋白双元表达载体的构建与鉴定%Construction of Binary Vector pGV4945 of Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Gene from Polygonatum multiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常维山; Henry De Greve; 翟静; Nele Buys; Jan Pierre Hernal Steens

    2004-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs)have been known to have cytotoxic activity by cleaving a specific adenine residue of 28S rRNA. RIPs can be divided into, type 1 and type 2. Type 2 is a toxic protein that was consisted of two Gal/GalNAc-binding chains, A and B Chains that connected through a disulfide linkage. The A chain of RIP has RNA N-glycosidase activity to cleave a specific adenine base from ribosomal RNA,

  12. Studies on biotransformation of arbutin by 4-hydroxy phenol in hairy root of Polygonum multiflorum%何首乌毛状根生物转化对苯二酚生产熊果苷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严春艳; 张章; 于荣敏; 孔令义

    2007-01-01

    目的:利用何首乌毛状根悬浮培养体系生物合成熊果苷,并对转化条件进行考察.方法:利用何首乌毛状根培养体系对底物对苯二酚进行生物转化,通过HPLC制定熊果苷标准曲线,以转化产物熊果苷的产量和转化率为指标,研究了共培养时间、底物加入浓度、培养瓶体积对生物合成熊果苷的影响.同时考察了产物在培养基中的分泌情况.结果:产物在培养物和培养基中同时存在.熊果苷标准曲线Y=440 740X-1.473(r=0.999 7).当底物加入质量浓度为1 100 mg·L-1,共培养72 h时,熊果苷的产量(2.22 g·L-1)和转化率(81.45%)达到最优.3 L大瓶培养获得成功.结论:本研究大大提高了以生物转化方法生产熊果苷的产量和转化率,并达到了3 L大瓶培养规模.此外,本研究也为利用生物技术方法大规模生产熊果苷提供了有价值的参考资料.

  13. Application of Choline Chloride and Paclobutrazol in Rapid Propagation of Polygonum multiflorum%氯化胆碱和多效唑在何首乌快繁中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为军; 张慧英; 张静

    2009-01-01

    以何首乌茎段和顶芽为材料,对何首乌的组培快速繁殖技术进行了研究.试验结果表明:以MS为基本培养基,附加BA1.0 mg·L-1+IBA0.05 mg·L-1,芽增殖倍数为3.20,苗增高4.69 cm,当添加50 mg·L-1氯化胆碱时,芽增殖倍数为5.30倍,苗增高6.50 cm.诱导生根以1/2MS+NAA0.5 mg·L-1+PP333 2.0 mg·L-1的培养基最好,生根率为96.7%,苗也较粗壮,移栽成活率达90.0%,比不添加PP333的1/2MS+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1的成活率提高了47.1%.试验证明氯化胆碱对何首乌试管苗增殖有利,而多效唑对其生根有促进作用.

  14. 何首乌对衰老大鼠海马BDNF mRNA表达的影响%Influence of Polygonum Multiflorum on The BDNF mRNA of Hippocampus in The Senile Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡秋; 谭红; 李芳芳; 马俊骥

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨何首乌对衰老大鼠海马BDNF mRNA表达的影响.方法 给大鼠注射大剂量D-半乳糖,通过行为学测试和RT-PCR方法,观测海马BDNF mRNA含量的变化.结果 与对照组比较,D-半乳糖组大鼠海马BDNF mRNA含量降低,何首乌组海马BDNF mRNA含量亦降低.结论 何首乌不影响BDNF mRNA的表达量.

  15. Overland flow connectivity in olive orchard plots with cover crops and conventional tillage, and under different rainfall scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; García-Ruiz, Roberto; Guzmán, Gema; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    The study of overland flow connectivity (QC) allows understanding the redistribution dynamics of runoff and soil components as an emergent property of the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes. However, very few studies have dealt with runoff connectivity in olive orchards. In this study we simulated QC in four olive orchard plots, located on the Santa Marta farm (37° 20' 33.6" N, 6° 13' 44" W), in Seville province (Andalusia) in SW Spain. The olive plantation was established in 1985 with trees planted at 8 m x 6 m. Each bounded plot is 8 m wide (between 2 tree lines) and 60 m long (total area of 480 m2), laid out with the longest dimension parallel to the maximum slope and to the tree lines. The slope is uniform, with an average steepness of 11%. Two plots (P2 and P4) were devoted to conventional tillage (CT) consisting of regular chisel plow passes depending on weed growth. Another set of two plots had two types of cover crops (CC) in the inter tree rows (the area outside the vertical olive canopy projection): uniform CC of Lolium multiflorum (P3) and a mixture of L. rigidum and L. multiflorum together with other species (P5). The tree rows were treated with herbicide to keep bare soil. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three rainfall scenarios: i) low rainfall intensity (Sc-LowInt) and using the MD flow accumulation algorithm; ii) moderate rainfall intensity (Sc-ModInt) and using MD8; and iii) high rainfall intensity (Sc-HighInt) and using D8. After analysing the values of rainfall intensity during two hydrological years (Oct'09-Sep'10 and Oct'10-Sep'11) we associated the three scenarios with the followings months: Sc-LowInt during the period Jan-Mar, that summarizes 42% of all annual rainfall events; Sc-ModInt during Oct-Nov and Apr-May (32% of all events); and Sc-HighInt during the period Jun-Sep and in December (26% of all events). Instead of using the C

  16. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  17. Cover crop management in the weed control and productive performance in cornManejo de plantas de cobertura no controle de plantas daninhas e desempenho produtivo da cultura do milho

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    Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar espécies vegetais com potencial alelopático, associados às práticas de manejo e ao uso de herbicida nicosulfuron, no controle de plantas daninhas e nos componentes de produtividade da cultura do milho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi composto por três fatores: espécies de cobertura, manejo das coberturas e aplicação ou não de herbicida nicosulfuron em pós-emergência. As variáveis avaliadas foram: número de plantas daninhas, número de fileiras de grãos, número de grãos por fileira, número de grãos por espiga e produtividade de grãos de milho. A cobertura de azevém, em geral, reduz o número de plantas daninhas emergidas e favorece o desempenho produtivo do milho. O manejo das plantas de cobertura com roçada e retirada da palha reduz a produtividade do milho. A maior produtividade do milho, foi observada com a aplicação de nicosulfuron em pós-emergência, independente da cultura de cobertura ou do manejo adotado. The objective of the study was evaluate the allelopathy of cover species, associated to management practices and use of nicosulfuron herbicide on the productive performance of corn. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments were: cover species, cover management and application or not of post-emergence herbicide. The variables evaluated were: number of weeds, number of rows kernels, number of kernels rows, number of kernels ear and grain yield of corn. Lolium multiflorum, reduced the number of emerged weeds and provides the best results in productive performance. The management simulated grazing, does not favor the yield of corn. The application of nicosulfuron in post-emergence, along with the allelopathic activity increases the productive performance of corn, regardless of cover crop or soil management.

  18. Effects of Earthworms and Ryegrass on the Removal of Fluoranthene from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yong-Ping; LIU Man-Qiang; YIN Qi-Peng; LI Hui-Xin; HU Feng

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms can promote the bioremediation of contaminated soils through enhancing plant growth and microorganism development.The individual and combined effects of earthworms and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) on the removal of fluoranthene from a sandy-loam alluvial soil were investigated in a 70-d microcosm experiment.The experiment was set up in a complete factorial design with treatments in four replicates:without earthworms or ryegrass (control,CK),with earthworms only (E),with ryegrass only (P),and with both earthworms and ryegrass (EP).The residual fluoranthene,microbial biomass C,and polyphenol oxidase activity in the soil changed significantly (P < 0.01) with time.In general,the residual concentration of fluoranthene in the soil decreased sharply from 71.8-88.7 to 31.7-37.4 mg kg-1 in 14 d,and then decreased gradually to 19.7-30.5 mg kg-1 on the 70th d.The fluoranthene concentration left in the soil was the least with both earthworms and ryegrass,compared to the other treatments at the end of the experiment.Half-life times of fluoranthene in the E,P,and EP treatments were 17.8%-36.3% smaller than that of CK.More fluoranthene was absorbed by earthworms than ryegrass.However,the total amounts of fluoranthene accumulated in both the ryegrass and earthworms were small,only accounting for 0.01%-1.20% of the lost fluoranthene.Therefore,we assumed that microbial degradation would play a dominant functional role in fluoranthene removal from soil.We found that earthworms significantly increased microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity (P < 0.01) in the presence of ryegrass at the end of the experiment.Furthermore,microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) and negatively related to the residual fluoranthene concentration.This implied that earthworms might promote the removal of fluoranthene from soil via stimulating microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity.

  19. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

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    Tang Hai-Ming

    Full Text Available Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L. system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. (R-R-Ry, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L. (R-R-Mv, rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L. (R-R-Ra and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa. The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05 than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.

  20. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    and four replicates; T1 was only planted with Lolium multiflorum and Lotus corniculatus, T2 was planted with both above mentioned plants inoculated with microbial consortium (mixture of strains: Pantoea sp. strains, ITSI10, BTRH79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain, MixRI75)and T3 was kept unplanted to support bioremediation. Germination percentage (GP) was monitored weekly until three weeks after seed sowing. Biometric parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoots) and leaf chlorophyll content were recorded in periodic intervals. Soil samples were taken in regular intervals (after every 6 month) and PHC content was measured by GC-FID. In the presentation we will report about the development of plants and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Lysimeter. The degradation of TPH will be reported for 7 layers inside each Lysimeter as well as in leachate samples.

  1. Estado nutricional, vigor e produção em videiras cultivadas com plantas de cobertura

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    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies perenes ou anuais de plantas de cobertura podem ser cultivadas em vinhedos para proteger a superfície do solo e também controlar a disponibilidade de água e nutrientes à videira. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o estado nutricional, o vigor e a produção de uva em videiras consorciadas com espécies anuais e perenes de plantas de cobertura submetidas a dois manejos. O experimento foi conduzido nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, em vinhedo da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, em São Joaquim (SC, sobre um Cambissolo Húmico Distrófico. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha, caracterizado pela presença de plantas espontâneas controladas por dessecação na linha e por roçadas nas entrelinhas; a espécie perene de planta de cobertura, festuca (Festuca arundinacea; duas sucessões de espécies anuais, azevém-moha (Lolium multiflorum-Setaria italica e aveia-branca trigo-mourisco (Avena sativa-Fagopyrum esculentum; e dois tipos de manejo das plantas, com e sem transferência do resíduo produzido na linha para a entrelinha das videiras. Foram coletadas folhas completas no pleno florescimento e na mudança da cor das bagas para análise dos teores totais de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Determinaram-se o comprimento dos ramos e de seus entrenós, a massa dos ramos podados e calculou-se o índice de Ravaz. Na colheita, foram determinados o comprimento, largura e massa de cachos, a produção de uva por planta e a massa de 100 bagas. As videiras consorciadas com espécies de plantas de cobertura anuais apresentaram maior teor de N total nas folhas na floração, maior vigor e produção de uva. O manejo das plantas de cobertura, mediante transferência dos resíduos culturais da linha de videiras para a entrelinha, não afetou o vigor da videira nem a produção de uva, mas diminuiu o teor total de N nas folhas, na fase da floração. O cultivo da festuca como cobertura do solo do vinhedo pode ser uma alternativa eficaz para se diminuir o vigor da videira.

  2. Avaliação econômica da terminação de bovinos de corte em pastagem irrigada

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    J.C.R. Soares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a viabilidade econômica de três sistemas de produção por meio da mensuração dos custos de produção e da análise dos indicadores financeiros. Os três sistemas (S1, S2 e S3, situados na fronteira oeste do Rio Grande do Sul, foram avaliados no período de outubro de 2010 a outubro de 2011. A pastagem estabelecida no S1 foi de azevém (Lolium multiflorumLame trevo branco (Trifolium repensLam; no S2, trevo branco, trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratenseLam, cornichão (Lotus corniculatusLam, azevém e aveia preta (Avena strigosaSchreb; e no S3, azevém, cornichão, trevo branco e trevo vermelho. Os animais foram pesados na entrada e na saída das pastagens. A coleta de dados para mensuração do custo foi realizada mensalmente utilizando-se planilhas apropriadas. As produtividades foram de 369, 772 e 637kg/ha para os sistemas S1, S2 e S3, respectivamente. O S2 apresentou o maior custo total (R$ 2.101,59/ha, enquanto o menor foi obtido pelo S1 (R$ 1.626,93/ha. Na análise do custo operacional médio dos três sistemas, os itens que apresentaram maiores valores foram a implantação de pastagem, a energia elétrica, a manutenção da pastagem e a depreciação. Quanto às margens, os sistemas S1, S2 e S3 apresentaram, respectivamente, R$ 33,46, 1.162,55 e 701,01/ha para margem bruta; R$ -63,51, 955,40 e 541,05/ha para margem operacional; e R$ -583,18, 291,61 e -28,99/ha para lucro total. A rentabilidade foi de -0,47, 4,37 e 3,01% e a lucratividade foi de -5,94, 39,92 e 27,38% para o S1, S2 e S3, respectivamente. A irrigação de pastagens para terminação de bovinos é viável economicamente, no entanto a sua adoção deve sempre visar a altas produtividades zootécnicas devido ao seu elevado custo de produção.

  3. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

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    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  4. Infiltração de água e perdas de água e solo por erosão influenciadas por diferentes métodos de melhoramento da pastagem nativa gaúcha

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    E. A. Cassol

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisação do crescimento da pastagem nativa no período do inverno na região Sul do Brasil tem incentivado técnicas de melhoramento das pastagens. Com o objetivo de estudar a infiltração de água no solo e as perdas de solo e água por erosão influenciadas por métodos de melhoramento da pastagem nativa, realizou-se um estudo em área da Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, no município de Eldorado do Sul (RS, em um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo submetido ao uso prolongado com pastagem nativa, no qual se fez a introdução de uma mistura das espécies hibernais: aveia preta (Avena strigosa , azevém (Lolium multiflorum e trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado e com cinco tratamentos que diferiram quanto à maneira de introdução das novas espécies: testemunha (a lanço, gradagem, plantio direto, convencional e subsolagem. As parcelas tinham a dimensão de 3,5 x 11,0 m e uma declividade aproximada de 0,107 m m-1. Aplicaram-se chuvas simuladas de 64 mm h-1, durante 75 min, em três épocas: (a aos 55 dias do preparo do solo e semeadura, logo após o primeiro pastejo, (b aos 125 dias do preparo do solo e semeadura, e (c logo após o segundo pastejo, aos 175 dias do preparo do solo e semeadura. Entre as chuvas simuladas, realizou-se um pastejo por dois dias. A subsolagem apresentou a maior taxa constante de infiltração e a menor taxa constante de enxurrada. As perdas de solo foram pequenas nas três épocas avaliadas. As maiores perdas de água ocorreram na testemunha e as menores na subsolagem, indicando ter sido este último tratamento efetivo em quebrar camadas compactadas subsuperficiais.

  5. Recria de bezerros em pastagem de aveia e azevém utilizando suplementação energética com níveis de promotor de crescimento

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    Piuco Marcos André

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção animal em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo ou não suplementação, com e sem promotor de crescimento. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Bovinocultura de Leite do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, no período de abril a setembro de 2003. Os animais utilizados foram bezerros machos desaleitados, da raça Holandês com idade média inicial de 3 meses e peso médio inicial de 88,7kg. Estes animais foram submetidos a pastejo contínuo com lotação fixa (carga média de 1.479kg de Peso Vivo por hectare (PV ha-1 em pastagem de aveia e azevém recebendo ou não suplementação, com e sem um promotor de crescimento natural à base de óleos essenciais extraídos de plantas. Os tratamentos foram: S-0% = pastagem sem suplementação; S-1% = pastagem + 1% do peso vivo (PV em matéria seca (MS do suplemento ao dia; S-1% PC250 = pastagem + 1% do PV em MS do suplemento ao dia (com 250g de promotor de crescimento por tonelada de suplemento; S-1% PC500 = pastagem + 1% do PV em MS do suplemento ao dia (com 500g de promotor de crescimento por tonelada de suplemento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de um quadrado latino 4x4, com duas repetições. As medidas dos animais e seu ganho médio diário (GMD, a massa de forragem (MF, altura da pastagem (ALT, taxa de acúmulo da pastagem (TAMS, taxa de desaparecimento de matéria seca (TDMS e valor nutritivo da pastagem foram avaliadas. O GMD médio foi de 622g animal-1dia-1 para os animais suplementados e 294,5g animal-1dia-1para os não suplementados (P0,05. As diferenças de MF total são conseqüência da taxa de desaparecimento, já que as taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram semelhantes. O promotor de crescimento não afetou o desempenho e o desenvolvimento dos animais.

  6. Desempenho da mistura de aveia preta e azevém em função da adubação orgânica e mineral

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    Anderson Cesar Ramos Marques

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Maximizar a eficiência dos sistemas de produção existentes, reduzindo a entrada de insumos externos e dos custos de produção é a lógica da agropecuária moderna. Baseado nisso, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência das adubações orgânica e mineral no desenvolvimento e produção de massa seca (MS do consórcio de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, com os seguintes tratamentos: sem adubação; adubação mineral; adubação organomineral (50% mineral e 50% orgânica e adubação orgânica. O experimento foi instalado em 15 de maio e conduzido até 28 de setembro de 2010. Foram realizadas três avaliações nesse período, por meio de cortes, para estimar a produção de MS e, semanalmente, verificaram-se o número de folhas, de afilhos e o comprimento da parte aérea das plantas de cada espécie. O efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis número de afilhos, número de folhas e comprimento da parte aérea apresentou significância apenas nas primeiras avaliações. A produção de MS da cultura da aveia preta foi maior no primeiro corte, decaindo posteriormente, em função do ciclo precoce da espécie. O azevém teve elevada produção somente no último período, em função da característica de seu ciclo. Somando-se a MS obtida nos três períodos, concluiu-se que o dejeto de produção leiteira proporciona produção semelhante à favorecida pela adubação mineral. O mesmo comportamento foi observado para as características morfogênicas avaliadas, diferindo da testemunha.

  7. Avaliação da progênie de ovelhas Merino Australiano cruzadas com carneiro Dorper ou Southdown

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    G. Bianchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do genótipo do carneiro (Dorper ou Southdown, do sexo e do tipo de parto sobre características de crescimento de 268 cordeiros filhos de ovelhas Merino Australiano. Até o desmame, todos os animais permaneceram sobre pastagem de trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense , chicória (Cychorium intibus , trevo-branco (Trifolium repens , festuca (Festuca arundinacea e azevém (Lolium multiflorum , com carga animal de 10 ovelhas com seus cordeiros/ha. A partir do desmame (29,95±4,94kg de peso vivo e 109,45±7,41 dias de idade, os cordeiros permaneceram sobre a mesma pastagem utilizada durante a lactação, sendo terminados posteriormente sobre um cultivo de soja (Glycine max , com carga animal de 30 cordeiros/ha. Não foi verificado efeito do genótipo do carneiro (P>0,05 sobre nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Por outro lado, do nascimento ao desmame e do desmame até o embarque dos cordeiros para abate, os machos (criptorquidas apresentaram ganhos de peso diário superiores (241 e 212g/dia; 121 e 94g/dia, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente; P≤0,001, o que proporcionou um peso vivo ao embarque 14,9% superior em relação às fêmeas (40,89 e 35,59kg, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente; P≤0,001. Os cordeiros de parto simples apresentaram maiores (P≤0,001 pesos vivos e medidas corporais ao nascimento, bem como maior velocidade de crescimento até o desmame (239 e 214g/dia, parto simples e duplo, respectivamente; P≤0,001. Porém, após o desmame, os cordeiros de parto duplo apresentaram maior ganho de peso (98 e 117g/dia (P≤0,05 e uma superioridade (P≤0,001 em quilogramas de cordeiros desmamados (26,80 e 49,61kg ou embarcados (33,91 e 64,69kg por ovelha parida. Independentemente do sexo e do tipo de parto, todos os cordeiros superaram as exigências de peso e condição corporal mínima requerida para comercialização de cordeiros pesados no Uruguai, na metade do tempo que em média ocorre

  8. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Louise M.; Popay, Alison J.; Finch, Sarah C.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Cave, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25–42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur

  9. Suplementação e cultura de levedura na alimentação de bezerros de corte em pastagem de aveia e azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E.F. Prohmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação e o uso de cultura de levedura sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD, os parâmetros ruminais e a concentração de ureia plasmática em bezerros sob pastejo de aveia preta (Avena strigosa e azevém (Lolium multiflorum, e estudaram-se a produção e a composição química da forragem. Utilizaram-se 32 bezerros, em pastejo contínuo e lotação variável. Os tratamentos foram: apenas mistura mineral (MM; mistura mineral mais levedura (MML; mistura mineral mais ração (MMR; e mistura mineral mais ração mais levedura (MMRL. A MM contendo casca de soja foi ofertada em 150g/animal/dia, e a levedura foi adicionada à MM na quantidade de 10g/animal/dia. A ração contendo 75% de NDT e 23% de PB foi fornecida para um consumo diário médio de 12g/kg de peso corporal. O GMD, para os respectivos tratamentos, foi 0,610; 0,599; 0,809 e 0,818kg/animal, na ordem citada. A concentração de amônia ruminal e a de ureia plasmática não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A biomassa forrageira diminuiu ao longo do ciclo vegetativo, com rendimentos inicial e final de 1.364 e 879kg de MS/ha, e os teores médios de NDT e PB de 71,7 e 11,7%, respectivamente. O fornecimento do suplemento melhorou o desempenho dos animais, e a adição de levedura não influenciou as variáveis estudadas.

  10. Effect of early weaning on the performance of three-year-old, first-calf beef heifers and calves reared in the subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Kalmbacher, R S

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of early weaning fall-born calves on heifer and calf performance in Florida. Over two consecutive years, 3-yr-old Braford and Brahman x Angus first-calf heifers were assigned randomly to one of two treatments; early-weaned (EW, n = 20 and 30 for yr 1 and 2, respectively) and normal-weaned (NW, n = 20 and 38 for yr 1 and 2, respectively). Calves were EW on January 23 and 3 for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Following EW, all first-calf heifers were returned to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures with the mature cowherd. Early-weaned calves were maintained on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) pastures at 8.2 and 10.7 calves/ha for yr 1 and 2, respectively, and were provided supplemental grain mixture (14% CP) at 1.0% of BW daily. Normal-weaned calves remained with their dams in the mature cowherd on bahiagrass. Final calf BW was collected on April 17 (d 84) and April 24 (d 111) for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Early-weaned calves had a greater (P < 0.001) ADG (0.17 kg/d) in yr 1, but a lower (P < 0.001) ADG (-0.24 kg/d) in yr 2 compared with NW calves. Early weaning resulted in heavier first-calf heifers with greater BCS at the time of normal weaning (August 1; 491 vs. 452 kg, with BCS = 6.34 vs. 4.75 for EW and NW heifers, respectively; SEM = 5.0 and 0.07). Heifers with EW calves had a higher (P < 0.07) pregnancy rate during both years than normal-weaned heifers (89.5 vs. 50.0 and 96.7 vs. 80.0% pregnant during yr 1 and 2, respectively). Early-weaned, first-calf heifers also had a lower (P < 0.05) calving interval in yr 2 (384 vs. 404 d; SEM = 6.0). These data suggest that EW will improve body condition of first-calf heifers resulting in an increased pregnancy rate. Early-weaned calves maintained on winter ryegrass provide producers with the ability to optimize early-weaned calf performance, while capitalizing on low cost of gain and favorable spring markets. PMID:12772839

  11. Partitioning SNPs Identified By GBS into Genome Annotation Classes and Calculating SNP-Explained Variances for Heading Date and Disease Resistance from the Resulting Genomic Relationship Matrices - Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc;

    2015-01-01

    , and an average protein Annotation Edit Distance (AED) of 0.14. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) data was generated after genome complexity reduction with ApeKI for 995 breeding families. Data was aligned against the annotated sequence assembly, and we identified variants at over 1.8 million positions, which were......,273 SNPs), genes with NB-ARC domains (9,056 SNPs), intron (168,023 SNPs), and inter-genic (1,420,866 SNPs). Genomic relationship matrices were created for each annotation class and SNP-explained variances for heading date and disease resistance were calculated...

  12. Effects of Glomus intraradices on Growth and Cd Enrichment of Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)%Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集镉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茵

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽方法模拟不同镉污染状况,研究接种丛枝菌根真菌(AM)Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集、运转镉的影响.结果表明,土壤镉水平增加明显提高了黑麦草菌根侵染率,而显著降低了黑麦草的生长量,但对磷浓度无显著影响,表明Glomus intraradices对镉胁迫具有一定的耐性,并对黑麦草的磷营养和生长未表现出促进作用.Glomus intraradices的存在明显促进了黑麦草对镉的富集,菌根形成强化镉在根系的固持作用,减少镉向地上部运转,进而降低黑麦草地上部的镉浓度,减轻了镉对地上部的毒害,表现在根富集系数均大于1,运转系数远远小于1.这一结果对镉污染农田修复以及草坪草和牧草品质的改善都有重要意义.%To investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) on the bioremediation of Cd contaminated soils, pot experiments were conducted to adopt simulating contaminations on sandyloam soil. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal(Clomus in-traradices) on plant growth and Cd enrichment and translocation were determined at three Cd application levels (0,15,45 mg/kg). Cd in soil significantly increased the infection rate of ryegrass by G. Intraradices while decreased dry weight of rye-grass. P concentration of ryegrass plant was not significantly affected by inoculation of AM fungi. These results implied that G. Intraradices had some endurance to Cd contamination in soil, while no promotion on P uptake and the growth of ryegrass. Cd enrichment in ryegrass was stimulated by inoculation with G. Intraradices. AM fungi strengthened the bio-fixing of Cd in root and reduced Cd translocation from root to shoot, thus decreased Cd concentration in shoot, which were explained by the fact that the enrichment coefficient of Cd in root was above 1 while the translocation coefficient was below 1. AM fungus could adjust the distribution proportion of Cd in host plant and protect host plants against heavy metal contamination. These functional characters of AM fungi could play a great role in remediation of Cd contaminated farmland and improving the quality of turf and forage grasses.

  13. Effects of a compost made from the solid by-product ("alperujo") of the two-phase centrifugation system for olive oil extraction and cotton gin waste on growth and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J

    2007-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted on a low-fertility calcareous soil in order to evaluate the effect on ryegrass growth and nutrient uptake of an organic fertiliser obtained by composting "alperujo" and cotton gin waste. Compost, alone and combined with nitrogen fertilisation, was added to the soil at three rates and three harvests were obtained. The compost application enhanced plant growth in the first and third harvest. However, the additional nitrogen fertilisation clearly improved soil productivity due to the scarce availability of this nutrient in the compost. Also, a general increase in the plant contents of phosphorus and potassium in the first two harvests was recorded, whereas treatments with the maximum compost rate showed the highest plant content of copper in the last two harvests. Decreases in calcium in the last two harvests, in magnesium in all of them and in iron and manganese in the last harvest were also observed. PMID:16762544

  14. Optimizing the number of consecutive seed harvests in red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for yield, yield components and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René;

    2013-01-01

    . The diploid amenity cv. Allegro and forage type cv. Borvi of perennial ryegrass can be harvested in five consecutive years without a significant yield reduction. The tetraploid type cv. Tivoli had the highest thousand seed weight and a significant yield decrease from the first to the second year of seed...

  15. Effect of fungal endophytes against rust disease of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on growth and physiological indices%内生真菌对感染锈病黑麦草生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏芝; 南志标

    2011-01-01

    The biological, photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) perennial ryegrass (fairway cultivar) with Puccinia spp. Infections were studied in a field experiment. The height and biomass of E+ plants were significantly higher than those of E -plants, and the loss of diseased leaves of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants irrespective of whether they were slightly or severely infected. The same response also occurred in the dwarf diseased leaves. For slight and severely affected plants, the contents of leaf relative water, soluble sugar, chlorophyll, pro-line, and net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance as well as the activities of super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase of E+ plants were significantly greater than those of E- plants. However, the malondialdehyde content of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants. In conclusion, endo-phyte infection improved rust disease resistance of perennial ryegrass under field conditions.%在田间条件下对带内生真菌和不带内生真菌球道黑麦草品种被锈菌不同程度感染后的生长、光合特性和生理指标进行测定.结果表明,带内生真菌的植株无论感病轻重,其病叶损失率和植株矮化程度均显著低于不带内生真菌的植株(P<0.05).并且在轻度和重度病株中,内生真菌可提高黑麦草叶片相对含水量、可溶性糖含量、叶绿素含量,净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度,叶内游离脯氨酸含量、超氧化物歧化酶与过氧化物酶的活性;同时有效地降低了丙二醛的含量,说明内生真菌的存在可提高寄主黑麦草在田间条件下的抗锈病能力.

  16. Relating physical and chemical properties of four different biochars and their application rate to biomass production of Lolium perenne on a Calcic Cambisol during a pot experiment of 79 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, José M. de la, E-mail: jmrosa@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); Paneque, Marina [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); Miller, Ana Z. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); CEPGIST/CERENA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Knicker, Heike [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Three pyrolysis biochars (B1: wood, B2: paper-sludge, B3: sewage-sludge) and one kiln-biochar (B4: grapevine wood) were characterized by determining different chemical and physical properties which were related to the germination rates and to the plant biomass production during a pot experiment of 79 days in which a Calcic Cambisol from SW Spain was amended with 10, 20 and 40 t ha{sup −1} of the four biochars. Biochar 1, B2 and B4 revealed comparable elemental composition, pH, water holding capacity and ash content. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the aromaticity of all the biochars as well as several specific differences in their composition. The FESEM-EDS distinguished compositional and structural differences of the studied biochars such as macropores on the surface of B1, collapsed structures in B2, high amount of mineral deposits (rich in Al, Si, Ca and Fe) and organic phases in B3 and vessel structures for B4. Biochar amendment improved germination rates and soil fertility (excepting for B4), and had no negative pH impact on the already alkaline soil. Application of B3, the richest in minerals and nitrogen, resulted in the highest soil fertility. In this case, increase of the dose went along with an enhancement of plant production. Considering costs due to production and transport of biochar, for all used chars with the exception of B3, the application of 10 t ha{sup −1} turned out as the most efficient for the crop and soil used in the present incubation experiment. - Highlights: • Turning organic waste into biochar to improve soil fertility of calcic Cambisols. • Kiln wood biochar resulted in low water retention capacity and specific surface area. • Feedstock drives the differences in the composition and functionalities of biochars. • 10 t biochar ha{sup –1} was the most efficient dose for improving soil fertility.

  17. Influence of weaning age on the reproductive efficiency of primiparous cows Influência da idade de desmame na eficiência reprodutiva de vacas primíparas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of weaning age (90 days or 156 days of female beef calves were evaluated on their subsequent performance from the beginning of the first pregnancy and the end of the second breeding season, at 22/24 months of age. During pregnancy, heifers were managed as a single group on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture; after calving, on bristle oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; and on Brachiaria humidicula pasture during the second reproductive period. The characteristics studied were not influenced by calf weaning age. Heifers submitted to early or conventional weaning weighed 354.5 and 351.9 kg in the post-calving, and 363.4 and 359.2 kg when they weaned their calves. Average daily gain during the breeding season was 0.562 kg, and body condition score was 3.10 and 3.93 at the beginning and end of the experiment, respectively. Average calf birth and weaning weights were not influenced by dam weaning age, and were 28.7 ± 0.74; 86.5 ± 3.26 and 27.4 ± 0.92; 90.3 ± 4.04 kg, respectively, for dams submitted to early or conventional weaning. Dystocia, calving, birth, and weaning rates were not different between weaning ages, with mean values of 29.5; 95.3; 77.3 e 73.4%. Conception rates were 47.9% in the initial third and 40.8% in the second third versus 11.3% in the final third of the breeding season. Heifer average age at conception was 438 and 434 days for early weaning and conventional weaning. Pregnancy rates and production efficiency estimates at calving and calf weaning were not affected by heifer weaning age. Heifer early weaning did not affect their subsequent performance until the end of the second breeding season, at 22/24 months of age.Avaliaram-se os efeitos da idade de desmame (aos 90 dias e aos 156 dias de bezerras de corte sobre o seu desempenho subsequente entre o início da primeira gestação e o final do segundo período reprodutivo, aos 22/24 meses de idade. Durante a gestação, as

  18. Manejo de novilhas prenhes aos 13/15 meses de idade em sistemas a pasto Pregnant heifers management at 13/15 months of age in grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o desenvolvimento de 32 novilhas primíparas gestantes Aberdeen Angus e mestiças Angus recriadas e acasaladas dos 13 aos 15 meses de idade. O experimento teve início no diagnóstico de gestação pela técnica de ultra-sonografia, realizado 28 dias após o término do período reprodutivo. O peso vivo (PV inicial médio foi de 288 kg e a condição corporal (CC inicial média de 3,2 pontos. Nesta ocasião, as novilhas foram distribuídas uniformemente por grupo genético, peso e ordem de concepção em dois sistemas de pastejo. Os sistemas de pastejo foram: PMI - novilhas prenhes mantidas na fase inicial de gestação em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum, L.; PNA - novilhas prenhes mantidas na fase inicial de gestação em pastagem natural. O pastejo em milheto foi mantido por 67 dias. Ao fim dos tratamentos, as novilhas foram manejadas em grupo único: no pré-parto em pastagem natural, no pós-parto em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, Lam e no segundo período reprodutivo em pastagem natural. Na fase inicial da gestação, o ganho médio diário (GMD, de 0,899 kg, e o ganho de condição corporal (GCC, de 0,34 pontos das PMI, foram superiores ao GMD de 0,377 kg e à perda de -0,15 de CC das PNA. As novilhas PMI tiveram peso vivo pós-parto (PVP e condição corporal pós-parto (CCP de 301 kg e de 2,9 pontos, valores superiores aos das PNA, de 267 kg e 2,7 pontos, respectivamente. As taxas de parição, distocia, natalidade e desmame não diferiram entre os tratamentos alimentares. As novilhas PMI chegaram ao início do segundo período reprodutivo com peso (31 kg a mais e condição corporal (0,30 ponto a mais superiores. A taxa de prenhez e as estimativas de eficiência produtiva ao parto (EPVP e ao desmame dos bezerros aos 100 dias de idade (EPVD não foram alteradas pelo tratamento alimentar. A TP média foi de 77%, a EPVP média de 30,3 e a EPVD de 28,1 kg de bezerro desmamado/100 kg

  19. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de

  20. Comparação entre dois correctivos orgânicos quanto à disponibilidade do fósforo para o azevém Comparison between two organic amendments on phosphorus availability for ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação ao solo de compostos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU e de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU, com fós foro (P em formas orgânicas e inorgânicas, pode influenciar a dinâmica do elemento no solo, com reflexos na nutrição das culturas. Neste trabalho, avaliam-se os efeitos da aplicação de um composto de RSU e de uma LRU com tratamento secundário na absorção de P de uma planta indicadora e no teor de P “assimilável” do solo, determinado pelo método de Egnér-Riehm (P Riehm. O estudo incidiu sobre amostras provenientes de um ensaio em vasos com múltiplos objectivos. O ensaio teve duas séries, uma das quais foi cultivada com azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum durante cerca de sete meses, e a outra foi mantida sem planta durante o mesmo período. Compararam-se as modalidades de cada série, em triplicado, referentes às combinações de dois solos com 4 níveis (equivalentes a 0, 15, 30 e 60 t/ha de aplicação do composto de RSU e de LRU. Utilizaram-se amostras superficiais de um Podzol Háplico (PZha e de um Vertissolo Cálcico (VRcc, com teores baixos de P Riehm. Na série com planta, efectuou-se uma adubação basal que incluiu P, no início do ensaio. Após a última colheita da parte aérea do azevém, determinaram-se os valores de absorção total de P, avaliada em seis cortes, e os teores de P Riehm. Para comparar os solos quanto à capacidade inicial de retenção de P, efectuou-se a determinação do índice de “ponto único” de Bache & Williams (1971. Foi no solo VRcc e com 60 t/ha de LRU que ocorreu a mais elevada absorção total de P (378 mg/vaso pela parte aérea do azevém (P ?0,001. Neste solo, a absorção total de P aumentou com a aplicação de ambos os resíduos, exceptuando-se a de 15 t/ha de composto de RSU. Contudo, o teor de P Riehm só teve acréscimos com a aplicação de 60 t/ha de LRU, na série sem planta, e com 60 t/ha de RSU, na série com azevém. De forma diversa, no solo PZha

  1. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade do arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado em solos de várzea está alicerçada na utilização da rotação e sucessão de culturas, fundamentais para o controle do arroz-vermelho e preto. Os reflexos sobre os atributos dos solos de várzea merecem estudos em especial sobre a compactação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar camadas compactadas em Planossolo submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivo e preparo, avaliando-se a densidade do solo (Ds pela Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama (TC. A análise foi realizada em um experimento de longa duração, conduzido de 1985 a 2004, na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, num delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições (T1 - um ano de arroz com preparo convencional do solo seguido de dois anos de pousio; T2 - cultivo contínuo de arroz com preparo convencional do solo; T4 - rotação de arroz e soja (Glycine max L. com preparo convencional do solo; T5 - rotação de arroz, soja e milho (Zea maiz L. em preparo convencional do solo; T6 - plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. no inverno; T7 - rotação de arroz sob plantio direto e soja sob preparo convencional do solo; T8 - testemunha: solo sem cultivo. A Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama permitiu detectar que o plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém no inverno não resultou na formação de camadas compactadas; a utilização de dois anos de pousio, no sistema de produção de arroz irrigado, não foi suficiente para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial compactada; e a rotação de arroz, soja e milho com preparo convencional do solo apresentou duas camadas compactadas (0,0 a 1,5 cm e 11 a 14 cm, indicando que essas podem limitar a produção agrícola nesse sistema de produção em Planossolos.The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. in

  2. Uso do bagaço de mandioca em substituição ao milho no concentrado para bovinos em crescimento. 2. Digestibilidade aparente, consumo de nutrientes digestíveis, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar Replacing corn by cassava bagasse in concentrate mix fed to growing cattle. 2. Apparent digestibility, digestible nutrients intake, live weight gain and feed:gain ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ramos

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo bagaço de mandioca no concentrado sobre a digestibilidade aparente, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis, o ganho de peso diário médio (GPDM e a conversão alimentar (CA em bovinos em crescimento. Dezesseis novilhos mestiços machos inteiros foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados completos em dois períodos. Quatro tipos de concentrados foram testados, em associação com o fornecimento a vontade de feno de aveia/azevém (Avena strigosa, L.; Lolium multiflorum, L. e suplementação média de concentrado de 0,83% PV. Os concentrados fornecidos aos animais diferenciaram-se pelo nível de substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca: T1, 0; T2, 33; T3, 66 e T4, 99. Não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição do milho pelo bagaço de mandioca sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das frações nutritivas estudadas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido digestível (FDAD aumentou linearmente com a substituição do milho por bagaço de mandioca. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de matéria seca digestível (MSD, matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, fibra em detergente neutro digestível (FDND, energia digestível (ED e energia metabolizável (EM, que foram, respectivamente, para T1, T2, T3 e T4, 53,51; 54,50; 53,63; e 53,69 (g MSD/ kg0,75·dia, 51,77; 52,37; 51,27; e 51,23 (g MOD/ kg0,75·dia e 30,13; 30,93; 30,46; e 30,88 (g FDND/ kg0,75·dia, 224,13; 228,51; 224,77; e 225,33 (kcal ED/ kg0,75·dia, 183,75; 187,56; 184,38; e 184,43 (kcal EM/ kg0,75·dia. Os resultados obtidos para GPDM foram 1,10; 0,95; 1,12; e 0,75 kg/animal·dia, e para CA 4,61; 6,17; 4,58; e 7,98, respectivamente, para T1, T2, T3 e T4. Os valores de GPDM e CA, para o nível de substituição de 99% do milho por bagaço de mandioca no concentrado, foram inferiores aos obtidos para os níveis de 0 e 66%, porém semelhantes aos do n

  3. Potencial de quatro espécies herbáceas forrageiras para fitorremediação de solo contaminado por arsênio Potential of four herbaceous forage species for phytoremediation of a soil contaminated with arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire de Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fitorremediação de solos e substratos contaminados por elementos tóxicos tem despertado crescente interesse entre pesquisadores e técnicos. Particularmente em relação ao As, o obstáculo ao emprego desta técnica é o pequeno número de espécies identificadas capazes de acumular este elemento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de plantas de estilosante (Stylosanthes humilis HBK, amendoim (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory, aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. como espécies fitorremediadoras de áreas contaminadas por As. Amostras de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo foram incubadas por 15 dias com diferentes doses de As: 0; 50; 100; e 200 mg dm-3. Em seguida, realizaram-se a semeadura das quatro espécies e as respectivas adubações. Aos 65 dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto à altura, à matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes. Determinaram-se os teores de As nas folhas jovens, intermediárias e basais, no caule e nas raízes, bem como o conteúdo e o índice de translocação (IT de As. Por meio de análises de regressão, foram estimados os teores críticos (TC de As disponíveis no solo, que proporcionaram redução de 50 % da matéria seca. As espécies estudadas apresentaram comportamento diferenciado quanto à tolerância ao As, com destaque para azevém, amendoim e estilosante, que não apresentaram lesões foliares decorrentes de fitotoxidez por esse elemento. Os TC para as plantas de aveia e azevém foram significativamente superiores aos observados para as demais espécies, caracterizando-as como espécies tolerantes ao As. As plantas de amendoim e estilosante apresentaram maior capacidade de absorção e maior IT de As para a parte aérea. As plantas de amendoim apresentaram maiores teores nas folhas basais e raízes, mostrando potencial para serem utilizadas em programas de fitorremediação. As plantas de azevém, amendoim e estilosante podem ser utilizadas na

  4. Atributos físicos do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob plantio direto Soil physical attributes in integrated cattle raising-crop production system under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A compactação do solo é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pela queda da produtividade das culturas agrícolas. Por isso, o impacto causado pelo pisoteio bovino sobre o solo e os conseqüentes reflexos nos atributos físicos densidade do solo, porosidade do solo, resistência mecânica à penetração e infiltração de água no solo, em área manejada sob sistema integração lavoura-pecuária, foram investigados em experimento de campo, no município de Jari, na região do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram avaliados três sistemas de manejo da pastagem de inverno (aveia-preta, Avena strigosa Schreber + azevém, Lolium multiflorum Lam., caracterizados pela freqüência de pastejo: (1 Sem Pastejo (SP, (2 Pastejo a cada 28 dias (P28 e (3 Pastejo a cada 14 dias (P14. Além disso, foi avaliada a influência da cultura de verão, soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.] ou milho (Zea mays L., em rotação com as pastagens de inverno, em amenizar ou agravar a ação compactadora do pisoteio bovino. A compactação do solo, avaliada pela sua densidade, concentrou-se na camada de 0-0,05 m de profundidade, porém houve redução de sua macroporosidade até a camada de 0,10-0,15 m, no sistema com a maior freqüência de pastejo (P14. A resistência mecânica do solo à penetração atingiu valores de 2,61 e 2,49 MPa nos tratamentos P14 e P28, respectivamente, nas profundidades de 0,05 e 0,08 m, enquanto as áreas que não foram pastejadas mantiveram valores inferiores a 1,66 MPa. A taxa de infiltração de água no solo foi alterada significativamente pelo pisoteio bovino e pela cultura de verão antecedente. Com a cultura de milho, o solo mostrou-se menos sensível ao pisoteio bovino, ao passo que com a cultura de soja na maior freqüência de pastejo (P14 a taxa de infiltração de água no solo foi reduzida. A cultura de soja proporcionou os maiores valores de macroporosidade nas camadas avaliadas e, quando conjugada à menor freq

  5. Densidade e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas em solos de mineração de bauxita, em reabilitação Density and phenotypic diversity of endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria in soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melloni

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas contribuem para o desenvolvimento das plantas por meio da fixação biológica do nitrogênio, produção e liberação de substâncias reguladoras do crescimento vegetal, podendo, assim, facilitar a revegetação de solos degradados por atividades antrópicas. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre as populações destas bactérias em solos ou plantas de áreas de mineração. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de vegetação e tempo de reabilitação de áreas degradadas por mineração de bauxita na densidade e diversidade de algumas espécies de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas, realizaram-se, em duas épocas, amostragens de solo, de dois ambientes distintos, submetidos a diferentes processos de reabilitação. A densidade, avaliada pelo número mais provável, utilizando os meios de cultura: NFb, JNFb e Fam, para Azospirillum brasilense e A. lipoferum, Herbaspirillum spp. e A. amazonense, respectivamente, variou de 0 a 2,0 x 10(4 bactérias por grama de solo e mostrou que o tipo de vegetação influiu nas populações destas bactérias. Foram encontradas densidades maiores em solos revegetados com gramíneas: braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-azevém (Lolium multiflorum e capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora. Contudo, estas densidades podem ser consideradas baixas, se comparadas às de solos agrícolas, e não apresentaram relação com o tempo de reabilitação da área. Foram encontrados 36 fenótipos culturais em meio batata, entre os 72 isolados obtidos dos três meios de cultura utilizados. A partir destes, foram formados sete grandes grupos com similaridade superior ou igual a 63 %, dos quais cinco, representando 62,5 % do total de isolados obtidos, continham as estirpes-tipo de Burkholderia brasilensis, Herbaspirillum seropedicae e Azospirillum spp. (A. brasilense, A. amazonense, A. lipoferum, A. irakense. Apesar da baixa densidade, este grupo de bactérias apresentou alta

  6. Baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo para estimativa da produção fecal em bovinos Low level of chromium oxide to estimate faecal output in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o uso de baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo (Cr2O3 incorporado em um alimento concentrado para estimativa da produção fecal (PF em bovinos. Para tanto, foram conduzidos quatro ensaios de digestibilidade in vivo utilizando quatro novilhos com peso vivo médio de 214±31kg, recebendo ad libitum no cocho azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cortado verde. Aproximadamente 200g de ração contendo 5g kg-1 do indicador foi fornecida diariamente durante 12 dias, sendo feito a coleta de dados e amostras nos últimos cinco dias de cada período. A PF foi medida com o uso de sacolas de coleção total ou estimada com base na concentração do indicador em amostras fecais coletadas duas vezes ao dia (8 e 16h ou a intervalos de duas horas entre 8 e 22h. A concentração média de cromo nas amostras coletadas às 8 e 16h (445mg kg-1 foi semelhante à média geral de todos os horários (447mg kg-1. O grau de recuperação fecal (GR do indicador aumentou linearmente, de aproximadamente 40% para em torno de 80%, com o aumento da concentração fecal de cromo até esta última atingir um valor em torno de 250mg kg-1 de MO. Quando a concentração de cromo nas fezes foi superior a este valor o GR se manteve relativamente constante, em média 76%. A produção fecal foi superestimada pelo indicador em até 35% quando não corrigido para o GR. Quando corrigido para a recuperação fecal, as estimativas de produção fecal de MO estimadas foram similares às observadas. A excreção fecal de bovinos alimentados com azevém pode ser acuradamente estimada com o uso de baixa dosagem de óxido de cromo incorporado em uma ração peletizada concomitante à coleta de duas amostragens diárias de fezes.The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of a low level of chromium oxide (Cr2O3 incorporated into the concentrate ration to estimate faecal output (FO in cattle. Four in vivo digestibility essays were conducted using four steers with live weights of

  7. 防除多花黑麦草等4种禾本科杂草的药剂活性测定%Biological activities of eight herbicides against four grass weeds of wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴祥; 李美; 房锋; 张悦丽; 齐军山

    2014-01-01

    为了系统研究多花黑麦草、早熟禾、碱茅和棒头草等4种小麦田禾本科杂草的防除药剂活性,在温室内采用盆栽法研究了8种除草剂对小麦田多花黑麦草等4种禾本科杂草的生物活性。结果表明,乙酰乳酸合成酶(ALS)抑制剂啶磺草胺对早熟禾有很好的防除效果,田间推荐剂量下防效达到93.06%(防效均为田间推荐剂量下,下同),对碱茅、多花黑麦草和棒头草的效果也较好,防效在82.82%~86.89%之间,另2种 ALS 抑制剂氟唑磺隆和甲基二磺隆对早熟禾的防效较好,在61.27%~86.71%之间,但对其他3种杂草碱茅、棒头草和多花黑麦草的防效很差,防效仅在10.47%~29.43%之间。乙酰辅酶 A 羧化酶(ACCase)抑制剂唑啉草酯、肟草酮和炔草酯对碱茅、棒头草和多花黑麦草的防效均较好,在85.41%~100.00%之间,但对早熟禾的防效均较差,在19.08%~60.69%之间;另一种 ACC 抑制剂精噁唑禾草灵对棒头草防效为99.60%,对碱茅和多花黑麦草防效分别为72.00%和55.00%,对早熟禾仅为16.18%;植物光合系统Ⅱ抑制剂异丙隆对早熟禾、棒头草和碱茅的防效均较好,田间推荐剂量下防效在88.15%~96.53%之间,对多花黑麦草的效果略差,为67.43%。%Pyroxsulam,flucarbazone-Na,pinoxaden,tralkoxydim and clodinafop-propargyl are newly registered herbicides in China.A glasshouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these herbicides,com-pared with several commonly used herbicides,on four grass weed species in wheat fields.Key results were:1) The acetolactate synthase (ALS)inhibiting herbicide pyroxsulam achieved 93.06% control on Poa annua and 82.82%-86.89% control on Puccinellia distans ,Lolium multiflorum ,Polypogon fugax (all herbicides ap-plied at recommended field dose rates).2)Other ALS inhibiting herbicides

  8. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonum multiflorum [TAX:76025] Same as: E00071 Therapeutic category: 5100 Polygonaceae (buckwheat...:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) D06697 Polygonum root PubChem: 47208348 ...

  9. Study on hepatotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Polygonum multiflorum in rats after 28-day oral administration: cholestasis-related mechanism%何首乌水提物大鼠连续灌胃给药28 d肝毒性研究——胆汁淤积相关机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 王佳颖; 周植星; 江振洲; 李妍妍; 张良; 张陆勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察何首乌水提物(AEPM)对大鼠肝脏中胆汁酸合成、代谢、转运相关分子影响,探讨何首乌肝毒性相关机制.方法:SD大鼠分别灌胃AEPM60,30 g·kg-1,每天1次,连续28 d.28 d后解剖取肝脏,分别采用荧光定量PCR和Westernblot检测肝脏MRP3,MRP2,BSEP,FXR,CYP7A1等分子的mRNA和蛋白表达水平.结果:与正常组相比,AEPM高剂量组雄性大鼠肝脏中MRP3和BSEP的mRNA表达均显著升高(P<0.05),而AEPM高、低剂量组肝脏FXR的mRNA表达均显著降低(P<0.05);AEPM高、低剂量组雌性大鼠肝脏MRP3,MRP2,BSEP,CYP7A1的mRNA表达均显著升高(P<0.05).Westernblot检测结果显示,AEPM高、低剂量给药组雄性和雌性大鼠肝脏中MRP3,MRP2,BSEP,FXR,CYP7A1蛋白表达水平与mRNA变化基本一致,但均未达统计学显著差异.结论:AEPM大鼠灌胃给药28 d对肝脏胆汁酸合成、转运、排泄相关蛋白的表达具有一定的影响,在mRNA表达水平既具有胆汁淤积分子特征,同时也可见促进胆汁酸排泄的分子特征.

  10. Building A NGS Genomic Resource: Towards Molecular Breeding In L. Perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruttink, Tom; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Asp, Torben;

    To advance the application of molecular breeding in Lolium perenne, we have generated a sequence resource to facilitate gene discovery and SNP marker development. Illumina GAII transcriptome sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched samples of 14 Lolium genotypes. De novo assemblies for indiv...

  11. Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascular responses to ergopeptine alkaloids in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are produced by non-spore producing fungal endophytes that infect certain species of grasses, most notably tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the spore producing Claviceps spp. that infect seed heads of certain grasses...

  12. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their d

  13. Atmospheric N deposition and feedbacks on net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    Large areas of Northern Germany have been converted from natural peat bogs to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. This is the case at our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - which although located in a natural park, is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and highly emitting animal husbandry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of two independent methods to quantify atmospheric N deposition. We further investigate possible feedbacks of seasonal variation in N deposition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Fluxes of ammonia (NH3) and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system. Additionally, total N input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we allocate atmospheric N after its uptake by the ecosystem into its different fractions and investigate both plant-species effects (Lolium multiflorum, Eriophorum vaginatum) and influences of the plant biomass production induced by different amounts of fertilizer addition. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements are carried out to measure NEE. Maximum NH3 depositions of 0.41 ± 0.04 kg ha-1 week-1 were found in spring 2012. The proportion of fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total dry N measured by KAPS denuders. In total, dry N deposition was 11.2 ± 0.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 over the first year of experiments. Complemented with wet N measurements using bulk samplers, total N depositions of about 25.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 were found. The mean atmospheric N uptake determined with the ITNI system was 3.99 ± 0.82 mg N g-1 dry weight from July to October 2011. About two third of total deposited airborne N was allocated in above-ground plant biomass and roots. Upscaling of data based on pot

  14. Atributos químicos do solo e produtividade de videiras alterados pelo manejo de coberturas verdes na Serra Gaúcha Soil chemical properties and grapevine yield affected by cover crop management in Serra Gaucha, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2009-02-01

    , using White and Rose Niagara grape in a horizontal overhead trelling system. The treatments established in 2002 were three cover crops: spontaneous native species, black oat (Avena strigosa, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens + red clover (Trifolium pratense + annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; and two management systems: desiccation by herbicide spraying and mechanical mowing, performed each autumn prior to cover crop resowing. The experiment had a completely randomized block design, with three replications. Soil acidity and nutrient contents were little influenced by the plant cover. In comparison with the mowed management, herbicide application increased exchangeable Ca and Mg, extracted P, and organic C levels in the soil. The grape yield in the seasons 2004 and 2006 was low in view to the cultivar potential, probably affect by climatic limitations, but was higher when black oat was used as plant cover instead of the mixture of plant covers.

  15. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  16. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of 13C labelled plant residues in soil aggregates and Lumbricus terrestris surface casts: A combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Remusat, Laurent; Watteau, Françoise; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition, soil structuration and carbon cycling. They ingest both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed with mucus and dejected in form of casts at the soil surface and along burrows. Bulk isotopic or biochemical technics have often been used to study the incorporation of litter in soil and casts, but they could not reflect the complex interaction between soil, plant and microorganisms at the microscale. However, the heterogeneous distribution of organic carbon in soil structures induces contrasted microbial activity areas. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), which is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials, has recently been applied in soil science (Herrmann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014). The combination of Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proven its potential to investigate labelled residues incorporation in earthworm casts (Vidal et al., 2016). In line of this work, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of plant residues in soil aggregates and earthworm surface casts. This study aimed to (1) identify the decomposition states of labelled plant residues incorporated at different time steps, in casts and soil, (2) identify the microorganisms implied in this decomposition (3) relate the organic matter states of decomposition with their 13C signature. A one year mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) litter in a soil in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil and surface cast samples were collected after 8 and 54 weeks, embedded in epoxy resin and cut into ultra-thin sections. Soil was fractionated and all and analyzed with TEM and NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 13C14N and 28Si. The δ13C maps were obtained using the 13C14

  18. Demanda de tração em haste sulcadora na integração lavoura-pecuária com diferentes pressões de pastejo e sua relação com o estado de compactação do solo Draft requirement in direct drilling in crop and cattle rotation systems using different grazing pressures and its relation to soil compactness status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Conte

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com integração lavoura-pecuária em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico para avaliar o esforço de tração em hastes sulcadoras de adubo utilizadas em semeadura direta, atuando em diferentes profundidades e intensidades de pastejo, bem como o efeito desse último fator sobre o estado de compactação do solo. Os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas alturas da pastagem de inverno (aveia + azevém: 0,10; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40 m e sem pastejo, obtidas variando-se a carga animal, e os tratamentos secundários foram duas profundidades de atuação da haste sulcadora de adubo: 0,12 e 0,15 m. A massa seca de raízes da pastagem, na camada de 0 a 0,12 m, aumentou com o incremento na intensidade de pastejo. Analisando os valores de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração, o efeito do pastejo foi detectado até 0,12 m, sendo crescentes com a intensidade de pastejo. A força de tração demandada pelas hastes aumentou de 1.900 para 4.300 N (120%, quando a profundidade de trabalho passou de 0,12 para 0,15 m. O esforço de tração nas hastes sulcadoras também foi maior quanto maior a carga de animais sobre a pastagem, embora as diferenças tenham sido significativas apenas entre os tratamentos sem pastejo e os mantidos a alturas de 0,10 e 0,20 m. Os valores de resistência do solo à penetração e de esforço de tração demandado pelas hastes sulcadoras apresentaram correlação significativa.An experiment was carried out with crop and cattle rotation in an Oxisoil, in Tupanciretã - RS, which aimed to evaluate the draft effort in fertilizer direct drillings used in direct seeding, working at different depths and intensities of fields under different grazing pressures. Grazing pressure effects on soil compactness were also assessed. The main treatments were grazing maintaining 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 m pasture (Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa without grazing, height (adjusting the number of cows on the plots

  19. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez meses de idade, machos castrados sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 210 kg. O aumento no ganho médio diário (GMD foi condicionado pelo incremento na qualidade e/ou na quantidade de forragem disponível, visto que as ofertas de forragem para os tratamentos de 10, 20, 30 e 40 cm de altura foram de 6, 10, 23 e 51 kg de MS/100 kg de PV/dia, respectivamente. Portanto, o modelo de resposta do GMD em relação às alturas de pastejo resultou em valores de 0,73 e 1,14 kg/animal/dia nos tratamentos de menor e maior GMD, respectivamente, que foram de 10 e 30 cm de altura. Como a variação no GMD foi baixa, o maior ganho por área observado no tratamento 10 cm pode ser atribuído à maior carga animal, ambas com respostas lineares decrescendo com o aumento da altura de pastejo. O peso vivo dos animais antes do abate e o peso de carcaça quente elevaram com o aumento da altura da pastagem, reduzindo apenas no tratamento 40 cm com a redução da qualidade da pastagem. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o rendimento de carcaça, pois todos os valores mantiveram-se em torno de 51%. O escore de condição corporal e o grau de acabamento apresentaram tendência muito similar à evolução do ganho médio diário dos animais.The objective of this trial was to evaluate production and carcass characteristics of young steers grazing a mixture of black oat and Italian ryegrass pasture. Treatments were four different pasture heights (10, 20

  20. Produtividade de forrageiras utilizadas em rampas de tratamento de águas residuárias da lavagem e despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro Forage yield in treatment ramps of wastewater from processing of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gramíneas forrageiras foram cultivadas com o objetivo de se selecionar espécies para serem utilizadas como cobertura vegetal em rampas de tratamento de águas residuárias, por escoamento superficial. Essas forrageiras, azevém comum, aveia preta comum e milheto, foram submetidas à aplicação de águas residuárias da lavagem e despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC sob uma taxa de 250 kg ha-1 d-1 de DBO5. As mesmas espécies vegetais foram cultivadas como testemunhas, recebendo adubação convencional e água proveniente da rede de abastecimento local, no mesmo volume em que as demais receberam ARC. Os rendimentos acumulados de matéria seca foram de 11,71, 10,04 e 5,04 t ha-1 e os de proteína bruta, de 1.934, 1.583 e 875 kg ha-1 para o azevém comum, o milheto e a aveia preta, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que, dentre as forrageiras estudadas, o azevém se mostrou mais adequado para ser utilizado em rampas de tratamento de ARC por disposição sobre o solo, visto ter apresentado maior rendimento acumulado de matéria seca e proteína bruta, além de maior número de cortes e, conseqüentemente, maior período de utilização, além de rápida recuperação após o corte, boa cobertura do solo e ocorrência de poucas invasoras.Forage grasses were grown in order to select a number of species to be used as vegetative cover on ramps for wastewater treatment. The common rye grass (Lolium multiflorum, common black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum were used and subjected to application of wastewater from the washing and pulping of coffee cherries (ARC at a rate of 250 kg ha-1 d-1 BOD5 . The same vegetative species were grown as control, and provided with conventional fertilization as well as water from the local supplying system at the same volume as the others. The accumulated productivities of the dry matter were 11.71, 10.04, and 5.04 t ha-1, while those of the raw protein were 1934, 1583

  1. Coberturas do solo e crescimento da macieira na implantação de um pomar em sistema orgânico de produção Soil coverage and apple tree growth on the establishment of an orchard under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2009-09-01

    , pinus sawdust, pinus needle mulch, Andropogon sp mulch, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, black oat (Avena strigosa, black oat + common vetch (Vicia sativa, black oat + fodder radish (Raphanus sativus, annual ryegrass + white clover (Trifolium repens + spontaneous plant cover, weed mowing. The soil covered by weeds was monthly measured, during the spring/summer season, over the second and third years of the orchard establishment, and this was related to the apple trees growth. The treatments with manual weeding, black plastic film, pinus needle and Andropogon mulch maintained the soil cover by weeds below 20 %. The apple tree height and diameter decreased with the increase of soil cover by weeds, reflecting weeds competition with apple trees.

  2. Atributos do solo e biomassa radicular após quatro anos de semeadura direta de forrageiras de estação fria em campo natural dessecado com herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pérez Gomar

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os campos naturais, desenvolvidos sobre solos arenosos da região norte do Uruguai, são compostos por espécies forrageiras, sobretudo de gramíneas de produção estacional, com baixa produtividade no inverno. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dessecação do campo natural no estabelecimento de espécies de estação fria em atributos do solo e biomassa radicular. O estudo, iniciado em 1994, utilizou delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, com três repetições. Nas parcelas principais, em 1994, foram aplicados os tratamentos com herbicidas (paraquat 0,60gha-1i.a., glifosate 0,36gha-1i.a. e glifosate 1,44gha-1i.a. e testemunha sem herbicida em campo natural para a semeadura de pastagens de inverno. Nessas parcelas, a pastagem de inverno foi aveia preta (avena strigosa L., triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack e azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.. As subparcelas foram formadas pela reaplicação ou não dos herbicidas em 1995 e as subsubparcelas foram formadas pela reaplicação ou não dos herbicidas em 1996. As amostras de solo para determinar a biomassa radicular, a densidade do solo, o carbono (C orgânico do solo, bases trocáveis, Al trocável e o pH do solo foram extraídas separadamente, em três subamostras, usando cilindro metálico de 7,65cm de diâmetro e 40cm de comprimento. Os monolitos extraídos foram estratificados até 30cm de profundidade nas camadas de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 e 20-30cm. A biomassa radicular foi maior na testemunha do que a média dos tratamentos com herbicidas somente na camada de 0-5cm, e, entre os tratamentos com herbicidas, a biomassa radicular foi maior com paraquat do que com o glifosate. A reaplicação de herbicidas, em 1995 e 1996, também ocasionou redução da biomassa radicular. Houve alta correlação positiva de C orgânico com a biomassa radicular. A redução de C orgânico para o tratamento mais agressivo de controle químico (glifosate 1,44gi

  3. Radiological impact of applying phosphogypsum to tilled land cropped to annual ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of phosphoric acid by acidulation of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid produces phosphogypsum (PG) as a byproduct. Phosphogypsum is primarily CaSO4.2H2O and is a potential source of S and Ca for crops. Because of the presence of small amounts of 226Ra, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has imposed severe restrictions on the use of PG. The objective of the study was to evaluate the radiological impact of applying phosphogypsum to tilled land. The experimental land spanned over two soils (Myakka-sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods and Pomona-sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods) tilled and cropped to annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for 3 crop-years. The PG with 792 226Ra, 836 210Pb, and 744 210Po Bq kg-1 was applied all at once at the start of the study at 2 and 4 Mg ha-1, with no PG as control, and harrowed into the top 15-cm layer of the soil. This layer initially contained 15.9, 28.1, and 14.1 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po, respectively. The 4 Mg PG ha-1 would have increased the initial soil 226Ra and 210Po by 9% each and 210Pb by 5%, assuming a soil bulk density of 1500 kg m-3. The results, averaged over crop-year and over the 3-crop-year period, showed no measurable increases in 226Ra, 210Pb, or 210Po in soil down to 90 cm sampled in layers of 15 cm, in groundwater sampled at 90 to 120 cm depth, in regrowth and mature forages, and in gamma radiation and airborne 222Rn both measured 1 m above the plots. However, 222Rn flux measured at the soil surface increased by 0.74 x 10-4 Bq m-2 s-1 per Mg PG ha-1. Thus, yearly application of 0.675 Mg ha-1 (upper level of annual application rates for gypsum as S or Ca source for crops) over a 100-year period of PG used in the study could increase 222Rn flux from the experimental land from 8.14 X 10-4 to 58.09 x 10-4 Bq m-2 s-1 at the end of said period, assuming no loss of 226Ra, the source of 222Rn in soil and PG. This 100-year-end value, however, would still

  4. Densidade do solo, atributos químicos e sistema radicular do milho afetados pelo pastejo e manejo do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A integração lavoura-pecuária é uma alternativa de renda dos produtores no sul do Brasil. Entretanto, o pisoteio animal e, ou, o preparo de solo podem compactá-lo, prejudicando o crescimento radicular e a produtividade das plantas. Estudaram-se os efeitos do pisoteio animal em regime de pastejo contínuo durante o inverno/primavera e do impacto do plantio direto e do preparo convencional de solo no estado de compactação, atributos químicos e distribuição radicular. Em Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo de textura superficial franca, foi implantada uma pastagem de estação fria composta por aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.. A carga animal variou conforme o crescimento da pastagem. Em dezembro de 1996, foi implantada a cultura do milho (Zea mays L. para a produção de silagem, usando os seguintes tratamentos: plantio direto na área não pastejada, plantio direto após o pastejo, preparo convencional de solo na área não pastejada e preparo convencional de solo após pastejo. As avaliações apresentadas neste estudo são referentes ao terceiro ano de cultivo, no qual houve um período de pastejo de 107 dias. Aos 45 dias da emergência do milho, foram abertas trincheiras (100 x 40 cm para visualizar a distribuição do sistema radicular e coletar amostras de solo, a cada 5 cm, para caracterização química e determinação da densidade do solo e de raízes. Ao longo do perfil (0-40 cm, o desenho da distribuição de raízes indicou maior quantidade de raízes no preparo convencional de solo, concordando com os resultados de densidade de raízes. O pisoteio animal não teve efeito sobre as características físicas, possivelmente pelo fato de o resíduo da pastagem permanecer próximo a 1,0 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. A densidade do solo no plantio direto, na camada de 5-10 cm, foi de 1,41 Mg m-3, tanto na área pastejada como na não pastejada. No preparo convencional de solo, esses valores foram de 1,15 Mg m-3

  5. Produção animal em gramíneas de estação fria com fertilização nitrogenada ou associadas com leguminosa, com ou sem fertilização nitrogenada Animal production on cool season grasses with nitrogen fertilization or associated with legume with or without nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Flores Lesama

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Santiago, RS, Brasil. Foram avaliados no período de 24/04/96 a 05/11/96, distintos sistemas de produção animal, nos quais os tratamentos constavam de uma pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, Schreb. + azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum, Lam. + trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum, Savi (AV + AZ +Tv; aveia preta + azevém anual + trevo vesiculoso + 150kg de nitrogênio (AV + AZ + Tv + N e aveia preta + azevém anual + 300kg de nitrogênio (AV + AZ + N num delineamento completamente casualizado, com três repetições. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo, com lotação variável para manter a oferta de matéria seca (pressão de pastejo em 10%. Foram utilizados terneiros desmamados. Os parâmetros avaliados foram carga animal (CA, ganho médio diário (GMD e ganho de peso vivo por hectare. As CA foram maiores nos tratamentos com N. As cargas foram de 1140; 1490 e 1652kg PV/ha para os tratamentos AV + AZ + Tv; AV + AZ + Tv + N e AV + AZ + N respectivamente. Os GMD foram de 0,928; 1,091 e 0,839kg/an/dia, determinando ganhos de peso vivo por hectare de 515; 720 e 650kg/ha para os tratamentos AV + AZ +Tv; AV + AZ + Tv + N e AV + AZ + N, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a utilização da fertilização nitrogenada em pastagens de aveia preta + azevém anual + trevo vesiculoso, criando uma nova alternativa para aumentar a eficiência de produção e colher altos ganhos de peso vivo por área.The experiment was conducted in Santiago, RS, Brazil, during the period from April 24, 1996 to May 11, 1996. Animal production systems in pastures were evaluated in which the treatments were comparisons between oats + annual ryegrass + arrowleaf clover (O + R + A; oats + annual ryegrass + arrowleaf clover + 150kg/ha of nitrogen (O + R + A + N and oats + annual ryegrass + 300kg/ha of nitrogen (O + R + N, in a complete randomized design, with three replications. The grazing method was the continuous, with stock

  6. Effects of applying sewage sludge on soil physico-chemical characters and content of heavy metal elements in Lolium perenne lawn%施用污泥对黑麦草草坪绿地土壤理化性质和重金属元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅华; 王玉梅; 周志宇; 张洪荣; 左秀娟

    2003-01-01

    将兰州市七里河污水处理厂生活污泥施用于黑麦草草坪绿地,探讨其对土壤环境的影响.结果表明,施用0.5~8.0kg/m2污泥,改善了土壤理化性质,随着污泥施用量的增加土壤中全氮、速效氮、全磷、速效磷和有机质含量增加,土壤容重下降.施用4.0~8.0 kg/m2污泥增加了0~20 cm土层中Fe、Cu、Zn的含量,Ni、Pb、Cr、As和Hg与对照无显著差异,各重金属元素未向土壤下层迁移,没有对土壤造成污染.

  7. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  8. Interaktionen zwischen Rohprotein und wasserlöslichen Kohlenhydraten bei Weidelgräsern aus dem Mischanbau mit Leguminosen und Reinsaaten

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    In Freilandversuchen sollte untersucht werden, ob der genetisch bedingte höhere Gehalt an wasserlöslichen Kohlenhydraten in der Hochzuckergrassorte Aberavon der Art Lolium perenne auch in einem Mischanbau mit Leguminosen weiterhin vorhanden ist. Als Referenzsorte der Grasart Lolium perenne wurde die Sorte Gladio gewählt und die Leguminosen waren Trifolium pratense mit der Sorte Lucrum, Medicago sativa mit der Sorte Planet und Lotus corniculatus mit der Sorte Oberhaunstädter. Angelegt wurde d...

  9. Effects of tetrahydroxystilbene - glucoside on Animal Models of Dementia or Brain Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinLi; JinChu; LiLiu; LingZhao; LanZhang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside(TSG) from a Chinese Medicinal Herb polygonum multiflorum on dementia or brain aging. Methods. The brain aging model of mice was developed by s. c. injection of D-galactose (50mg/kg/day) for 60 days. The Alzheimer disease (AD) model of mice

  10. Community Structure of Methanogens from Double-rice Rhizosphere Soil as Affected by Green Manure Incorporation%绿肥还田对双季稻根际土壤产甲烷古菌群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓萌; 刘婧娜; 易丽霞; 朱波; 代红翠; 胡跃高; 曾昭海

    2015-01-01

    利用PCR-DGGE技术及克隆文库构建方法研究,尿素、紫云英鲜草翻压还田、黑麦草鲜草翻压还田和不施氮肥4种处理对双季稻不同生育时期(早稻季:分蘖期,拔节期,成熟期;晚稻季:分蘖期,扬花期,成熟期)稻田根际土壤中产甲烷群落结构的影响。结果表明,双季稻不同取样时期和各处理中产甲烷古菌群落结构稳定且相似,早稻季和晚稻季的优势群落均为甲烷微菌目(Methanomicrobiales)、Rice Cluster I (RC-I)、甲烷鬃菌科(Methanosaetaceae)、甲烷杆菌属(Methanobacterium),但早稻季产甲烷古菌群落的 Shannon-Weiner 指数(H)和丰富度指数(R)整体低于晚稻季。紫云英和黑麦草鲜草翻压还田处理较尿素处理更为明显地提高了双季稻(一年)稻田根际土壤中产甲烷古菌群落的Shannon-Weiner指数和丰富度指数,但均暂未对产甲烷群落结构产生决定性影响。%With the potential to prevent nitrogen loss through nitrate leaching and resulted non-point source pollution, green ma-nure incorporation is widely regarded as an important soil management practice. However, massive input of organic matters from green manure supplies sufficient substrate for methanogens and may change the methanogenic archaeal community structure. To investigate the variation of methanogenic archaeal community structure as influenced by green manure incorporation, we designed four treatments of urea application, Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) incorporation, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) incorporation and control (without nitrogen fertilizer). Rhizosphere soil at different double-rice growing periods (tillering stage, jointing stage and mature stage for early rice;tillering stage, flowering stage and mature stage for late rice) was collected. Poly-merase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and clone library method were employed to analyze methanogenic

  11. Simulação do caminhamento da água da chuva e herbicidas em palhadas utilizadas em sistemas de plantio direto Simulation of rain wetting dynamics and herbicide movement in different straws used under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2005-09-01

    &C-1 on mulches of barley (Hordeum vulgare, perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, wheat (Triticum aestivum, harvested oat (Avena strigosa, rolled oat (A. strigosa, corn (Zea mays, millet (Penisetum americanum and Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens, in the following amounts: 3000, 6000 and 9000 kg ha-1, before and after rain simulation. The replications were eight sets of PVC + Funnel + Becker with straw, with water retention and transposition being estimated and the extracted tracer quantified through the rain leached in the straws and the PVC support weight by using spectrophotometric procedures. The different crop residues were found to be similar regarding rainwater retention, with uniformity occurring between the first 7.5 and 15 mm of rain. The formation of "dry points" associated to "preferential running off channels'' induced the smaller capacity of absorption and retention of the rain water by the straws. The maximum mean capacities of rain retention by the straws were 1.22; 1.99 and 2.59 mm for 3,000, 6,000 and 9,000 kg of dry matter ha-1, respectively. The initial precipitations between 10 and 20 mm were crucial for the uniform wetting of the straws and wash off of the tracer to the soil, regardless of type and amount of straw. This behavior indicates the viability of using similar programs of weed control for different types and amounts of straw under no-tillage systems.

  12. Susceptibilidade de animais de laboratório à intoxicação por Ateleia glazioviana (Leg. Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Lenir G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coelhos, cobaias, ratos e camundongos foram utilizados com a finalidade de reproduzir a forma cardíaca da intoxicação por Ateleia glazioviana. Quatro animais de cada espécie receberam por 4 meses a planta, secada à sombra, na concentração de 10% na ração, fornecida na forma de pelets. Os pelets foram preparados misturando 700 g de ração comercial, 200 g de amido de milho, 1000 ml de água destilada e 100 g de planta seca e, posteriormente, secados em estufa a 100ºC, durante 16 a 20 horas. Quatro animais de cada espécie serviram como testemunhas, recebendo a ração preparada da mesma forma, porém com a utilização de azevém (Lolium multiflorum em lugar de A. glazioviana. Era fornecida água à vontade e, para os coelhos e cobaias, também aveia (Avena sativa verde diariamente. Esses animais não apresentaram nenhuma alteração clínica, e foram pesados semanalmente nas últimas 5 semanas do período experimental, não apresentando diferença significativa no ganho de peso. À necropsia não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas e pelo exame histológico também não foram detectadas lesões significativas no coração e em outros órgãos. Para testar a atividade abortiva de A. glazioviana, ração contendo 10% de planta seca, preparada da mesma forma que no experimento anterior, foi administrada a 11 outros ratos, fêmeas, prenhes, nos dois últimos ter��os da gestação. Um grupo controle de 11 fêmeas recebeu a ração com azevém a 10%, durante o mesmo período. Esses animais tiveram filhotes normais e no prazo correto. Para determinar a possível perda de toxidez da planta durante a preparação dos pelets, A. glazioviana foi aquecida por 16 a 20 horas a 100ºC e, posteriormente, administrada a um ovino em 26 doses diárias de 2,65 g/kg de planta seca. Durante o período experimental, a ovelha apresentou batimentos cardíacos mais fortes, taquicardia e arritmia cardíacas, depois bradicardia e, no período final

  13. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  14. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type fest......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...

  15. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Ling; Jin-Wen Xu

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and num...

  16. Oecologie en verspreiding van Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.H.P.; Dederen, L.H.T.; Weeda, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Vaccinium X intermedium Ruthe is a natural hybrid of V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea. The hybrid shows conspicuous intermediacy between both parent species. In Great Britain the hybrid could only be resynthesized when V. myrtillus was the female parent. The plant shows partial sterility and a greater capacity to reproduce vegetatively than both parent species. The existence of two forms of V. X intermedium is discussed. Most probably nm. multiflorum is the backcross of nm. intermedium and V. ...

  17. A Gene Encoding a DUF247 Domain Protein Cosegregates with the S Self-Incompatibility Locus in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Barth, Susanne; Thorogood, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    genes cosegregating with the S-locus, a highly polymorphic gene encoding for a protein containing a DUF247 was fully predictive of known S-locus genotypes at the amino acid level in the seven mapping populations. Strikingly, this gene showed a frameshift mutation in self-compatible darnel (Lolium...

  18. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue–fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    •Climate change (altered CO2, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant–microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum–Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. •To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing c...

  19. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  20. Gene expression in grass ovaries infected with seed born fungal endophyte Neotyphodium occultans analyzed by a next-generation sequencing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium form symbiotic associations with many grass species of the subfamily Pooideae, including some important forage and turf species such as Lolium grasses. The endophytes are maintained in host plant communities by seed transmission from maternal plants to off...

  1. Prolonged elevated atmospheric CO(2)does not affect decomposition of plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Six, J.; Blum, H.; Kessel, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged elevated atmospheric CO2 might alter decomposition. In a 90-day incubation study, we determined the long-term (9 years) impact of elevated CO2 on N mineralization of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens plant material grown at ambient and elevated CO2 and low- and high-N-15 fertilizer addit

  2. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  3. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  4. Intake characteristics of grass species from semi-natural pastures in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four grass species (Lolium perenne L., Holcus lanatus L. cv Glen, Agrostis stolonifera L. cv Kromi, and Poa trivialis L.) commonly found in mesotropic lowland semi-natural grassland communities in the UK were sown in boxes (85 x 44 x 14 cm) to create micro-swards. Once established, the micro-sward...

  5. Advanced analysis of dry-weight-rank data to discriminate direct and indirect interactions between white clover and grasses in a multi-species pasture under a range of management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.; Neuteboom, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Infestations of pastures by species, such as creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), may compromise the white clover (Trifolium repens) content in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) mixtures. However, the interactions between white clover and species other than perennial ryegrass are not well un

  6. Photoperiodic regulation of flowering in perennial ryegrass involving a CONSTANS-like homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Storgaard, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2004-01-01

    Photoperiod and vernalization are the two key environmental factors of the. oral induction of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth will only occur after an extended vernalization period, followed by an increase in day length and temperature. Here...

  7. SNS ønsker DMUs deltagelse i et møde samt vores foreløbige kommentarer til mulighederne for dyrkning af GM-græsser. Forespørgsel fra DLF-Trifolium vedr mulighederne for godkendelse af genmodificerede græsser til dyrkning. Modtaget 26-01-2006, deadline 02-02-2006, svar 02-02-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    "Nogle faktorer der vil indgå i den økologiske risikovurdering af genmodificerede græsser samt mulige konsekvenser for sameksistens: Specifikt eksempel: alm. rajgræs (Lolium perenne) med øget fructan-indhold Processer og effekter Analyse af miljømæssige risici og konsekvenser Konsekvenser for sam...

  8. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  9. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  10. 种植不同冬季作物对稻田甲烷、氧化亚氮排放和土壤微生物的影响%Effects of different winter covering crops cultivation on methane and nitrous oxide emission fluxes and soil microorganism in double-cropping paddy field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海明; 肖小平; 孙继民; 汤文光; 汪柯; 李微艳; 杨光立

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two important trace gases, which are considered to have 15-30 and 150-200 times more radioactively active than CO2, respectively. It is well known that agricultural soils are the major sources of atmospheric CH4 and N2O. At present, the effect of different winter crops cultivations on CH4 and N2O emission fluxes from double-cropping paddy field is unclear. So the quantitative and possible mechanisms dependence of CH4 and N2O emission fluxes from double-cropping paddy field on different winter crops cultivation is still far from being understood. In the paper, the static chamber-gas chromatography (GC) technique with manual method was used to verify the effects of different winter crop treatments including no-tillage ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (T1), no-tillage Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (T2) and fallow (CK) on CH4 and N2O emission from double-cropping paddy fields in subtropical regions of China and related microflora. The results showed that the flux and emission of CH4and N2O was varied with different winter crops cultivations in the order: T1>T2>CK, and the emission of CH4 and N2O from the two treatments during the whole growth stage was more significant than that of CK (P<0.01). T1 and T2 not only had the largest CH4emission (2.28 and 1.07 g·m-2) with increasing by 241.92% and 60.63%, but also had the largest N2O emission (0.59 and 0.48 g·m-2) with increasing 71.93% and 40.06% compared with CK. The results indicated that the abundance of methanogens, methanotrophs, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria from the two treatments during the whole growth stage was more significant than that of CK. During the winter covering crops whole growth stage, the abundance of methanogens, methanotrophs, nitrifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria was 0.33-163.37×102cfu·g-1, 11.05-245.68×103 cfu·g-1, 3.21-178.26×103cfu·g-1, 10.47-198.88×105 cfu·g-1, respectively. Moreover, the abundance of

  11. Analysis of Medication Rule in Treating Insomnia From Spleen and Stomach Based on Association Rule%基于关联规则的失眠从脾胃论治用药规律探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 黄俊山; 周常恩; 陈祺; 张娅; 张一帆

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨从脾胃论治失眠用药规律与配伍特点。方法:筛选符合条件的失眠病历,应用数据挖掘技术中的频繁项集、关联规则对其所用药物配伍进行分析。结果:在从脾胃论治失眠的用药上,使用频率最高药物前10位为夜交藤、合欢皮、郁金、黄芪、半夏、柴胡、甘松、白术、茯神、珍珠母。关联度最高的药对与药组分别为珍珠母→夜交藤,郁金、甘松→夜交藤,郁金、黄芪、合欢皮→夜交藤。结论:从脾胃论治失眠用药上以健脾养心安神为主外,还应当兼顾疏肝解郁。醒脾开郁是治疗此类失眠症的基本大法。%Objective:To analyze the medication rule and compatibility features in treating insomnia from spleen and stomach.Methods:Analysis the medication rule by using association rule from selecting medical records.Results:The most frequently used Chinese medicine is Polygonum multiflorum Thunb,Silktree Albizzia Bark,Turmeric Root-tuber, Root of Multijugate Sweetvetch,Pinellia Tuber,Root of Chnese Thorowax,Nardostachyos Root and Rhizome,Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome,Indian Bread with Pine and Nacre.The highest medicine pair correlation is Nacre→Polygonum mul-tiflorum Thunb;Turmeric Root-tuber and Nardostachyos Root and Rhizome→Polygonum multiflorum Thunb;Turmeric Root-tuber,Root of Multijugate Sweetvetch and Silktree Albizzia Bark→Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.Conclusion:With the exception of strengthening the spleen and nourishing the heart, we need give consideration to soothing the liv-er.Strengthening the spleen is the basic treatment of treating insomnia.

  12. Utilização de taninos vegetais como aditivos em silagem

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Sónia Cristina Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Sistemas de Prevenção e Controlo Alimentar, Instituto Politécnico de Santarém, Escola Superior Agrária de Santarém, 2012 O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de taninos extraídos da esteva (Cistus ladanifer) e da casca do pinheiro como aditivos em silagem de azevém (Lollium multiflorum), como inibidores da proteólise durante a ensilagem. Os extractos obtidos foram adicionados à silagem em 4 níveis de tratamento (0, 3, 6 e 9%) e ensilados dura...

  13. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm

  14. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shuang; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  15. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms.

  16. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27413420

  17. Estudios anatómicos de algunos tomillos usados en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzani, Norma; Ariza Espinar, Luis

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia la anatomía foliar de tres especies (además el tallo en una de ellas), que bajo el nombre vulgar de "tomillo" o "tomillo serrano" son utilizadas en medicina popular o como condimentos: dos pertenecen a la familia Lamiaceae: Hedeoma multiflorum Benth y Thymus vulgaris L. y la tercera a las Verbenaceae: Acantholippia seriphioides (Gray) Mold. Los elementos histológicos son descriptos e ilustrados y en un cuadro comparativo se dan las diferencias para su correcta identificación

  18. Optimisation of slow-pyrolysis process conditions to maximise char yield and heavy metal adsorption of biochar produced from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, E; Lewys-James, A; Rao Ravella, S; Thomas-Jones, S; Perkins, W; Gallagher, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to identify biomass feedstocks and optimum pyrolysis process conditions to produce a biochar capable of adsorbing metals from polluted groundwater. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the effects of slow-pyrolysis process conditions on char yield and zinc adsorption. Treatments were repeated using six candidate feedstocks (Lolium perenne, Lolium perenne fibre, Miscanthus x giganteus, Salix viminalis, Fraxinus excelsior and Picea sitchensis) and the resultant chars were tested for metal adsorption performance. Chars produced from L. perenne and its extracted fibre displayed the greatest zinc adsorption performance and removed 83.27-92.96% respectively. Optimum process conditions in terms of both char yield and zinc adsorption performance were achieved from slow-pyrolysis at 300°C for 2h using a feedstock with a particle size of less than 1mm. PMID:27179953

  19. A new member of the LIR family from perennial ryegrass is cold-responsive, and promotes vegetative growth in ¤Arabidopsis¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciannamea, S.; Jensen, Christian Sig; Agerskov, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    A cold-regulated gene Lolium perenne LIR1 (LpLIR1) was isolated from perennial ryegrass using a subtractive approach. The gene has strong homology to the Light Induced Rice1 (LIR1) gene and is regulated at the transcriptional level by cold, and by a diurnal rhythm. Expression of LpLIR1 in perenni...... a minor but significant delay of flowering in the transgenic lines compared to wildtype plants. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil–Plant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Laura J.; Harris, Eleanor; Williams, Mike; Ryan, Jim J; Kookana, Rai S.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been detected in the soil environment where there is the potential for uptake into crops. This study explored the fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, propranolol, sulfamethazine) and a personal care product (triclosan) in soil–plant systems using radish (Raphanus sativus) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Five of the six chemicals were detected in plant tissue. Carbamazepine was taken up to the greatest extent in both the radish (52 μg/...

  1. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Pinheiro; Vander Kaufmann; Danieli Schneiders; Rafael Gotardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni) and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried...

  2. First case of glyphosate resistance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo; Gauvrit, Christian; Barro, Francisco; Menendez, Julio; De Prado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    International audience AbstractGlyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial crops grown around the globe. However, weeds evolve and develop resistance to glyphosate. Until recently, no case of glyphosate resistance had been detected in France. Glyphosate resistance was indeed recently recorded in a Lolium rigidum weed population from a vineyard in the South of France. Here, we studied th...

  3. First case of glyphosate resistance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo; Gauvrit, Christian; Barro, Francisco; Menendez, Julio; De Prado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial crops grown around the globe. However, weeds evolve and develop resistance to glyphosate. Until recently, no case of glyphosate resistance had been detected in France. Glyphosate resistance was indeed recently recorded in a Lolium rigidum weed population from a vineyard in the South of France. Here, we studied the mechanisms of this resistance ca...

  4. Effect of Biofumigation on Typical Weeds of Strawberry Fields

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Enrique; López Martínez, Nuria; Aguirre Jiménez, Itziar; Avilla Hernández, Carlos; Lopez Medina, Jose

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation using fresh organic matter on typical weeds present in strawberry fields of southern Spain. Field experiments consisted of biofumigation (BF) treatment over 45 days, at two locations, with hen droppings or horse manure at a dose of 3 kg m-2, alone or in combination with solarization (BF+S) in an experimental randomized block design. Results showed good control of the main weed species, Poa annua, Portulaca oleracea and Lolium...

  5. Climate Extreme Effects on the Chemical Composition of Temperate Grassland Species under Ambient and Elevated CO2: A Comparison of Fructan and Non-Fructan Accumulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada AbdElgawad; Darin Peshev; Gaurav Zinta; Wim Van den Ende; Janssens, Ivan A; Han Asard

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina a...

  6. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  7. Forage as a Primary Source of Mycotoxins in Animal Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Skládanka; Jan Nedělník; Vojtěch Adam; Petr Doležal; Hana Moravcová; Vlastimil Dohnal

    2010-01-01

    The issue of moulds and, thus, contamination with mycotoxins is very topical, particularly in connexion with forages from grass stands used at the end of the growing season. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and aflatoxins (AFL) are among the most common mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to determine concentrations of mycotoxins in selected grasses (Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii) and their mixtures with Festuca rubra an/or Poa pratensis d...

  8. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  9. Effect on Mesosulfuron for Controlling Grass Weeds at Spring Wheat Fields%世玛3%OF防除春麦田禾本科杂草药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭青云; 辛存岳; 郭良芝

    2002-01-01

    田间试验结果表明,用世玛225ml/hm2+GenapolLRO 600ml/hm2,40d对野燕麦(Avenafatua)、多花黑麦草(Lolium muiflorum)鲜重效果分别为88.1%、94.0%.对小麦安全,与对照比增产15.3%.

  10. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher (Kit) J. A. Macleod; Humphreys, Mike W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Turner, Lesley; Binley, Andrew; Watts, Chris W.; Skøt, Leif; Joynes, Adrian; Hawkins, Sarah; King, Ian P.; O'Donovan, Sally; Haygarth, Phil M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage pr