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Sample records for balearic islands spain

  1. Rhabditid species (Nematoda, Rhabditida recorded in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands

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    Abolafia, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.

    Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.

  2. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

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    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  3. The Linkages between Real Estate Tourism and Urban Sprawl in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain

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    Angela Hof

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial capitalism has driven profound changes in urban land use patterns in Majorca, at the Balearic Islands (Spain. This archipelago is a major tourist destination located in the Mediterranean basin, with 4,492 km2 of surface area, 1,113,114 inhabitants and 12,316,399 tourists (2011, of whom 29.9% came from Germany, 24% from the UK and 19% from the rest of Spain. Neoliberal state regulation has favored the elite’s financial interests in the real estate sector through transport megaproject investment and lifting regional planning restrictions which prevented urban growth. Urban sprawl is becoming increasingly significant for inland Majorca, where intensive tourist resorts had not previously been developed. Urban growth distribution patterns are studied, firstly of suburban development both for tourists and for residential purposes, and secondly of exurban sprawl distribution for isolated dwellings. Recent regional planning relaxation guided by the free market economy and roll-with-it politics aims to promote this urban sprawl as a neoliberal answer to the current crisis of capitalism. In this way, a new model of capital investment in urban spatio-temporal fix, such as countryside villas with swimming pools, is shifting the urban model of this island. The paper identifies the site-specific spatial, temporal and planning pathways through which the actions and decisions of residential tourists and developers buying property in Majorca have driven urban sprawl and vice versa.

  4. Thermal ecology of Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque-Schmalz, 1810) in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

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    Zaida Ortega; Abraham Mencía; Valentín Pérez-Mellado

    2016-01-01

    We studied the thermal ecology of an introduced population of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). We measured field body temperatures of adult lizards, as well as air and substrate temperatures at their capture places, during spring and summer. We assessed the relations between body and air temperatures, and between body and substrate temperatures, for both seasons. We studied the preferred temperature range of P. siculus in a laboratory thermal gr...

  5. Thermal ecology of Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque-Schmalz, 1810 in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain

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    Zaida Ortega

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal ecology of an introduced population of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain. We measured field body temperatures of adult lizards, as well as air and substrate temperatures at their capture places, during spring and summer. We assessed the relations between body and air temperatures, and between body and substrate temperatures, for both seasons. We studied the preferred temperature range of P. siculus in a laboratory thermal gradient. In addition, we recorded the operative temperatures of the habitat of the Italian wall lizard during summer. Then, we calculated the three indexes of behavioural thermoregulation for summer: thermal quality of the habitat, accuracy of thermoregulation, and effectiveness of thermoregulation. As expected, our results show that Italian wall lizards achieved significantly higher body temperatures during summer than during spring. Body temperatures were not significantly related to air temperatures in spring, but the correlation was significant in summer. In addition, body temperatures were not significantly related to substrate temperatures for any season. The preferred temperature range of the species was similar for males and females: 28.40-31.57 °C. Introduced Italian wall lizards of Menorca are effective thermoregulators, with an effectiveness of 0.82 during summer.

  6. Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain

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    Bakhat, Mohcine, E-mail: mohcine_bakhat@yahoo.com; Rossello, Jaume

    2011-05-15

    Tourism has started to be acknowledged as a significant contributor to the increase in environmental externalities, especially to climate change. Various studies have started to estimate and compute the role of the different tourism sectors' contributions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These estimations have been made from a sectoral perspective, assessing the contribution of air transport, the accommodation sector, or other tourism-related economic sectors. However, in order to evaluate the impact of this sector on energy use the approaches used in the literature consider tourism in its disaggregated way. This paper assesses the electricity demand pattern and investigates the aggregated contribution of tourism to electricity consumption using the case study of the Balearic Islands (Spain). Using a conventional daily electricity demand model, including data for daily stocks of tourists the impact of the different population growth rate scenarios on electricity loads is also investigated. The results show that, in terms of electricity consumption, tourism cannot be considered a very energy-intensive sector.

  7. Geophysical prospection of the Roman city of Pollentia, Alcúdia (Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain)

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    Ranieri, G.; Godio, A.; Loddo, F.; Stocco, S.; Casas, A.; Capizzi, P.; Messina, P.; Orfila, M.; Cau, M. A.; Chávez, Mª. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the geophysical investigation carried out in the Roman city of Pollentia, in the island of Mallorca. The ancient city was identified in the 19th century. Old and new archaeological excavations have helped to uncover a residential area, a theatre, the forum, several necropolises and other remains of the city, but a large unexplored area has still to be investigated. For instance, the limits of the ancient town and the presence of harbour structures are still unknown. The geophysical survey has covered an area of more than 20.000 m2 by integrating magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. Many unseen archaeological features were clearly revealed by the interpretation of the resistivity maps and GPR time slices. A new method for the visualisation of the geophysical evidence based on VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) 3D data representation provides promising results to drive future excavations. The VRML shows a great potentiality for the digital visualization of the site aimed at its exploitation and usability even without the archaeological excavation.

  8. Characterization of a Miocene carbonate reservoir analog in Southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

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    Vandeginste, V.; Camoin, G.; Eisenhauer, A.; Pézard, P.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-04-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain more than half the world's oil reserves, including highly productive reservoirs in Cretaceous and Cenozoic carbonates from the Middle East and Southeastern Asia. They are usually characterized by the complexity both of their internal architecture and of the distribution of their diagenetic fabrics which hampers crosshole correlations at various scales, and predictions regarding flow paths and volumes of fluids. Reservoir analogs can have the advantage of easier accessibility and sampling and less severe diagenetic alteration. Their study often provides information complementary to the knowledge of hydrocarbon reservoirs and it leads to a better understanding of carbonate systems, important to make better predictions on other potential reservoirs. Significant advances can be made from joint research in natural laboratories integrating outcrops and shallow boreholes, with extensive control on geophysical, geological and petrophysical parameters. The southern part of the island of Mallorca appears as a natural laboratory where a direct comparison between outcrop and shallow subsurface datasets is the objective of the current study. This region is characterized both by spectacular outcrops, especially in the Cabo Blanco area, which were previously studied [e.g. 1], and by shallow holes, 100 m deep on average, that have been drilled especially at Can Roses, Ses Pastores and Ses Sitjoles, from west to east. This geographical extension of the study area provides the opportunity to better explore and understand the Miocene carbonate complex which comprises the Llucmajor platform. This study incorporates a wide range of analytical techniques to characterize the reservoir aspects, such as conventional microscopy of thin sections, XRD analysis, isotopic carbon and oxygen analysis, isotopic strontium dating analysis, petrophysical measurements, high-resolution borehole images and CT scan data. These techniques are used to unravel the sedimentology

  9. The Balearic Islands in the Alpine Orogeny

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    Bourrouilh, R.

    2016-10-01

    The place of the Balearic Islands in the Alpine orogeny is examined using detailed sedimentology studies, stratigraphical studies from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) to modern times and a careful tectonic review of sedimentary formations from the Western Mediterranean. Despite being considered as the ultimate end of the north-eastern termination of the Betic Cordillera, the history of the Balearic archipelago seems to be closer to the tectonic opening of the Gulf of Valencia and to the Corsica-Sardinia rotation, and thus to the tectonic history of the Western Mediterranean Sea, than to the tectonics of the Betic Cordillera which appear as its symmetrical image with respect to this opening. (Author)

  10. Food consumption patterns of Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin.

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    Llull, Rosa; Bibiloni, Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the immigrant population of the Balearic Islands archipelago (Spain), in the Mediterranean, has risen to 22% of its total population. The aim of this study was to assess food consumption patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin. A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008; n = 1,231; 12-17 years old). Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Food consumption differences between the adolescents' point of origin and time of arrival were been studied, as well as average daily meals and snacks. The adolescents' origin and number of years living in the Balearic Islands were also assessed. Native adolescents and immigrants from other Mediterranean countries showed healthier food consumption patterns than their peers from non-Mediterranean countries. Immigrant adolescents adapted their eating patterns to native dietary patterns increasingly, the longer they lived in the Balearic Islands.

  11. Forecasting tourist arrivals to balearic islands using genetic programming

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    Rosselló-Nadal, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, univariate time-series models have largely dominated forecasting for international tourism demand. In this paper, the ability of a Genetic Program (GP to predict monthly tourist arrivals from UK and Germany to Balearic Islands (Spain is explored. GP has already been employed satisfactorily in different scientific areas, including economics. The technique shows different advantages regarding to other forecasting methods. Firstly, it does not assume a priori a rigid functional form of the model. Secondly, it is more robust and easy-to-use than other non-parametric methods. Finally, it provides explicitly a mathematical equation which allows a simple ad hoc interpretation of the results. Comparing the performance of the proposed technique against other method commonly used in tourism forecasting (no-change model, Moving Average and ARIMA, the empirical results reveal that GP can be a valuable tool in this field.

  12. Perception of Pine Trees among Citizens of the Balearic Islands: Analysis and Description of Some Mistaken Ideas

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    Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Catalan-Fernandez, Albert; Comas-Forgas, Ruben; Fagan, Geoffrey; Llabres-Bernat, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze evidence regarding the dissemination of mistaken ideas concerning the presence and function of pine trees ("Pinus halepensis") in a Mediterranean archipelago: the Balearic Islands (Spain). The main errors concerning the natural vegetation that are disseminated among citizens by the forest management sector are…

  13. Entorno de práctica de los profesionales de enfermería y competencia para la incorporación de la evidencia a las decisiones: situación en las Islas Baleares Nursing practice settings and competence to incorporate evidence into decisions: analysis of the situation in the Balearic Islands (Spain

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    Joan de Pedro-Gómez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Establecer el diagnóstico de los factores que los profesionales de enfermería perciben como facilitadores para una práctica clínica basada en la evidencia (PCBE en el Servicio de Salud de las Islas Baleares, identificando posibles diferencias en función de las características de los profesionales y de los entornos en que ejercen. Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal multicéntrico, tomando como población de estudio los 3129 profesionales de enfermería en plantilla del Servicio de Salud de las Islas Baleares en 2009, a quienes se encuestó con los instrumentos Evidence Based Practice Questionnarie: (EBPQ y Nursing Work Index: (PES-NWI. La estrategia de análisis comprendió análisis exploratorio, análisis bivariado con pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas en función de la naturaleza de las distribuciones (correlación, ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, ji cuadrado y multivariado, entre las principales variables del estudio y los factores de los cuestionarios PES-NWI y EBPQ. Los análisis se realizaron con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Se recibieron 1753 encuestas (participación del 56,02%. Los resultados de los dos cuestionarios muestran diferencias significativas al analizar el entorno hospitalario y de atención primaria (pObjectives: To determine the factors that nursing professionals perceive as facilitating evidence-based clinical practice (EBCP in the Balearic Islands Health Service (Spain by identifying possible differences according to nurses' characteristics and their occupational settings. Methods: We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study of 3,129 staff nurses in the Balearic Islands Health Service in 2009, who were surveyed using the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ and the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI. The strategy for the analysis encompassed an exploratory analysis, bivariate analysis with parametric and non-parametric tests according to the nature of the

  14. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern among Balearic Islands adolescents.

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    Martínez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) in Balearic Islands adolescents, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors that might determine adherence to the MDP. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands between 2007 and 2008. A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 years old) was interviewed. Dietary questionnaires and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-economic status, parental education level and lifestyle factors were used. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h recalls and a quantitative FFQ. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high MUFA:SFA ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Then, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health status variables that could determine a higher or ower adherence were assessed. The mean adherence was 57.9 (sd 8.9) % and the median adherence was 57.3 %. Half of the Balearic Islands adolescents (50.5 %) showed an adherence to the MDP comprised between 52.7 and 62.8 %. By multivariate analyses, a high maternal level of education, increased physical activity, reduced alcohol intake and abstinence from smoking were independent associations of better adherence to the MDP. The promotion of not only the MDP but also the Mediterranean lifestyle, including greater physical activity, should be reinforced among the Balearic younger generations.

  15. First record of Mengenillidae (Insecta, Strepsiptera from the Balearic Islands

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    del Río, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the strepsipteran species Eoxenos laboulbenei De Peyerimhoff, 1919 and Mengenilla sp. Hofeneder, 1910 on the Balearic Islands. Several males of E. laboulbenei were found in samples obtained using a UV light suction trap on a cattle farm in Majorca in October 2012. A number of empty male and female puparia of Mengenilla sp. were found in Ibiza in April 2003.Se cita por primera vez la especie Eoxenos laboulbenei De Peyerimhoff, 1919 en las Islas Baleares. Varios machos de esta especie se encontraron en capturas obtenidas con una trampa de luz ultravioleta situada en una finca ganadera de Mallorca durante el mes de octubre de 2012. Varios puparios de machos y hembras de Mengenilla sp. se encontraron también en Ibiza en abril de 2013.

  16. Snakes on the Balearic islands: an invasion tale with implications for native biodiversity conservation.

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    Silva-Rocha, Iolanda; Salvi, Daniele; Sillero, Neftalí; Mateo, Jose A; Carretero, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major conservation threat for biodiversity worldwide. Islands are particularly vulnerable to invasive species, especially Mediterranean islands which have suffered human pressure since ancient times. In the Balearic archipelago, reptiles represent an outstanding case with more alien than native species. Moreover, in the last decade a new wave of alien snakes landed in the main islands of the archipelago, some of which were originally snake-free. The identification of the origin and colonization pathways of alien species, as well as the prediction of their expansion, is crucial to develop effective conservation strategies. In this study, we used molecular markers to assess the allochthonous status and the putative origin of the four introduced snake species (Hemorrhois hippocrepis, Malpolon monspessulanus, Macroprotodon mauritanicus and Rhinechis scalaris) as well as ecological niche models to infer their patterns of invasion and expansion based on current and future habitat suitability. For most species, DNA sequence data suggested the Iberian Peninsula as the potential origin of the allochthonous populations, although the shallow phylogeographic structure of these species prevented the identification of a restricted source-area. For all of them, the ecological niche models showed a current low habitat suitability in the Balearic, which is however predicted to increase significantly in the next few decades under climate change scenarios. Evidence from direct observations and spatial distribution of the first-occurrence records of alien snakes (but also lizards and worm lizards) suggest the nursery trade, and in particular olive tree importation from Iberian Peninsula, as the main pathway of introduction of alien reptiles in the Balearic islands. This trend has been reported also for recent invasions in NE Spain, thus showing that olive trees transplantation may be an effective vector for bioinvasion across the Mediterranean. The

  17. Snakes on the Balearic Islands: An Invasion Tale with Implications for Native Biodiversity Conservation

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    Sillero, Neftalí; Mateo, Jose A.; Carretero, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major conservation threat for biodiversity worldwide. Islands are particularly vulnerable to invasive species, especially Mediterranean islands which have suffered human pressure since ancient times. In the Balearic archipelago, reptiles represent an outstanding case with more alien than native species. Moreover, in the last decade a new wave of alien snakes landed in the main islands of the archipelago, some of which were originally snake-free. The identification of the origin and colonization pathways of alien species, as well as the prediction of their expansion, is crucial to develop effective conservation strategies. In this study, we used molecular markers to assess the allochthonous status and the putative origin of the four introduced snake species (Hemorrhois hippocrepis, Malpolon monspessulanus, Macroprotodon mauritanicus and Rhinechis scalaris) as well as ecological niche models to infer their patterns of invasion and expansion based on current and future habitat suitability. For most species, DNA sequence data suggested the Iberian Peninsula as the potential origin of the allochthonous populations, although the shallow phylogeographic structure of these species prevented the identification of a restricted source-area. For all of them, the ecological niche models showed a current low habitat suitability in the Balearic, which is however predicted to increase significantly in the next few decades under climate change scenarios. Evidence from direct observations and spatial distribution of the first-occurrence records of alien snakes (but also lizards and worm lizards) suggest the nursery trade, and in particular olive tree importation from Iberian Peninsula, as the main pathway of introduction of alien reptiles in the Balearic islands. This trend has been reported also for recent invasions in NE Spain, thus showing that olive trees transplantation may be an effective vector for bioinvasion across the Mediterranean. The

  18. Association of HLA-DRB3*0202 and serum IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae with essential hypertension in a highly homogeneous population from Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain).

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    Zabay, J M; Marco, J; Soler, J; Contu, L; Cappai, L; Carcassi, C; Gómez, G; Mulet, J M; Munar, M A; Viader, C

    2005-08-01

    Separate studies investigating the relationship of essential hypertension (EH) with the HLA system and with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection have given conflicting results. Our aim was to clarify these relationships and determine whether the HLA system and C. pneumoniae infection interact with respect to the risk for EH. An association study (110 essential hypertensives and 107 controls) was conducted in a highly homogeneous population in the Balearic Island of Majorca (Spain). Molecular typing of HLA-B and HLA-DRB and quantification of serum levels of IgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae (sIgGa-Cp) were determined. Student's t-test, chi(2)-statistics, logistic regression analysis, and general linear model ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that EH was related with HLA-DRB3*0202 in the whole study population, and with levels of sIgGa-Cp>63.5 BU/ml in the group of individuals with sIgGa-Cp>30 BU/ml (OR (95% CI) adjusted for obesity, familial history of EH and diabetes=2.06 (1.07-3.97), P=0.03, and =4.60 (1.06-19.90), P=0.04, respectively). The association between EH and sIgGa-Cp was observed in the DRB3*0202(+) individuals, but not in the DRB3*0202(-) subgroup (OR (95% CI)=11.14 (1.92-64.54), P=0.004, and =0.98 (0.22-4.43), P=0.64, respectively (P of the Mantel-Haenszel test for homogeneity of OR=0.06)). In our population, EH was positively associated with HLA-DRB3*0202 and with high levels of sIgGa-Cp. Moreover, a significant interaction of DRB3*0202 on the effect of sIgGa-Cp was observed, as the association of EH with these antibodies depended on the presence of DRB*0202.

  19. To the knowledge of cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) of the Balearic Archipelago, Spain.

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    Strumia, Franco; Gayubo, Severiano Fernández

    2013-01-01

    The Chrysididae of the Balearic Archipelago were studied by operating four Malaise traps in the Mallorca and Menorca Islands. Traps captured 98 individuals belonging to 19 species. Including all available data from literature, the number of species in this archipelago rise to 34. Hedychridium balearicum Strumia, sp. nov (Mallorca) is described and key to the Hedychridium monochroum species-group is given. Extrapolation from available data suggests the presence of about 58 to 107 Chrysididae species in the Balearic Archipelago.

  20. Interannual variability of Dissolved Oxygen values around the Balearic Islands

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    Balbín, R.; Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Flexas, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Periodic movements of the trawl fishing fleet at Mallorca Island suggest a seasonal variability of the demersal resources, associated with hydrodynamic variability. The area where these commercial fisheries operate extends from the north to the southeast of Mallorca channel, between Mallorca and Ibiza Islands. It is thus affected by the different hydrodynamic conditions of the two sub-basins of the western Mediterranean (the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins), with different geomorphologic and hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize this hydrodynamic variability, hydrographic data collected around the Balearic Islands since 2001 with CTDs were analized [1]. Hydrographic parameters were processed according to the standard protocols. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was calibrated onboard using the winkler method. Temperature and salinity were used to characterize the different water masses. At the Western Mediterranean, the maximum values of DO in the water column are observed in the sur- face waters during winter (> 6.0 ml /l), when these water in contact with the atmosphere absorb large amount of oxygen, favored by low winter temperatures and notable turbulence. Later in the spring, the gradual increase of temperature, and the beginning of stratification and biological activity, lead to a decrease of oxygen concentration mainly in surface waters. During summer, these values continue to reduce in the surface mixed layer. Below it, and due to the biological activity, an increase is observed, giving rise to the absolute maximum of this parameter (> 6.5 ml /l). During autumn, the atmospheric forcing breaks the stratification producing a homogenization of surface water. At this moment, DO shows intermediate values. Below the surface waters, about 200 m, a relative maximum corresponding to the seasonal Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) can be observed. Intermediate waters, between 400 and 600 m, reveal an oxygen minimum (4.0 ml /l) associated to the Levantine Intermediate

  1. Agricultural and food processing byproducts from the Balearic Islands: key and traditional production processes

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    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The amounts of residues and byproducts, obtained from agricultural processes, in the Balearic Islands has undergone a marked increase during the last years. for economics as well as environmental reasons, there is a continuous pressure to exploit such residues and to identify products with attractive properties and with potential markets. (Author)

  2. Diversity and distribution of tardigrades (Bilateria, Tardigrada from the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and Chafarinas Islands

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    Guil, Noemí

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographical information on the Tardigrada from Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and Chafarinas Islands is compiled herein. 118 species are listed from the studied area. The first records of six Tardigrada species, Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus, Dactylobiotus selenicus, Murrayon dianeae, Diphascon (Diphascon nodulosum (first time in Europe, Diphascon (Diphascon pingue and Isohypsibius marcellinoi that had not previously been found in the area are included. Bibliography data are analysed. After the analysis, it is concluded that more intensive, extensive and within more diverse habitats sampling effort should significantly increase the knowledge of tardigrade diversity in the studied area.

    En este artículo hemos recopilado la información existente en la bibliografía acerca del phylum Tardigrada en la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares e Islas Chafarinas. La lista de especies del phylum Tardigrada incluye 118 especies en el área de estudio. Además, incluimos seis especies encontradas por primera vez en el área de estudio: Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus, Dactylobiotus selenicus, Murrayon dianeae, Diphascon (Diphascon nodulosum (por primera vez encontrado en Europa, Diphascon (Diphascon pingue e Isohypsibius marcellinoi. En base al análisis realizado con los datos recopilados de la bibliografía, podemos concluir que un pequeño aumento en el esfuerzo de muestreo (intensivo, extensivo y aumentando la diversidad de hábitats recolectados se traduce en un aumento significativo de la diversidad del phylum en el área estudiada.

  3. Tourism capitalism and island urbanization: tourist accommodation diffusion in the Balearics, 1936-2010.

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    Antonis Pons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Balearic Islands are one of the main tourism regions in Europe, and tourism has been the structural capitalist activity of urban growth there since the 1950s. Mapping tourist accommodation in the Balearics might help spatially explain the important socio-spatial transformation of a small archipelago in the Western Mediterranean. This paper analyses the diffusion of tourist accommodations as the main vehicle for urbanization since the 1950s. The tourism production of space has gone in parallel to economic cycles with particular urban expressions related to the different regimes of accumulation. Over time, as access to sea, air, and road transport, availability of investment capital, and institutional support has changed, so too have the directions of urban tourism development in the islands.

  4. Arthropod gut symbionts from the Balearic Islands: Majorca and Cabrera. Diversity and biogeography

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    Guàrdia Valle, Laia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study includes a catalogue with all the current data concerning the presence of trichomycetes (sensu lato in Majorca and Cabrera, as well as information on the biology, ecology and biogeographic implications of the insularity for each taxon of these arthropod-gut symbionts. Of the 13 species here reported, 10 are new for the Balearic Islands, including 4 Mesomycetozoan, of which 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum and 6 kixckellomycotina Harpellales (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora and St. nana; the additional 3 were previously reported elsewhere: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus and Stipella vigilans (Harpellales, but are here included as indissoluble part of the present Balearic catalogue. All taxa are commented, illustrated and their biogeographic implications are discussed.

    El presente estudio incluye una recopilación de todos los datos concernientes al conocimiento de los tricomicetos (sensu lato en las islas Baleares de Mallorca y Cabrera, incluyendo un catálogo de especies y notas sobre la biología, ecología e implicaciones biogeográficas de su insularidad. De las 13 especies citadas, 10 son nuevas para las Baleares, incluyendo 4 Mesomycetozoos, de los cuales 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum y 6 Harpellales (kixckellomycotina (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora y St. nana; aunque las 3 especies restantes: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus y Stipella vigilans (Harpellales fueron citadas anteriormente, se incluyen aquí brevemente como parte del catálogo.

  5. Association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiloni Maria del Mar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1961; 12–17 years old was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A. Sedentary behaviour was defined as Results The prevalence of sedentary behaviour was 37.1% (22.0% boys, 50.8% girls. Active boys consumed frequently breakfast cereals and fresh fruit; active girls yogurt, cheese, breakfast cereals, and fresh fruit; and sedentary girls high fat foods and soft drinks. Sedentary behaviour of girls was directly associated to age, and time spent on media screen and homework, and inversely related to adherence to Mediterranean diet, and body composition. Sedentary behaviour of boys was inversely related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the desire to remain the same weight. Conclusions The prevalence of sedentary behaviour among Balearic Islands adolescents is high, mainly among girls. Age, sex, parental educational and profession levels, body size dissatisfaction, and poor quality diet are important factors of physical activity practice among adolescents.

  6. Waste water integrated reclamation system in the University of the Balearic Islands; Sistema integral de depuracion de aguas residuales en la Universitat de les Illes Balears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amengual Morro, C.; Moya Niell, G.; Forss Sanchez, A.

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, the University of the Balearic Island carried out a project on the reclamation and reuse of wastewater in an extensive system. the system is composed of three phases: waste stabilization ponds, wetland and planted tree filters. the first phase is now complete. We show the preliminary data which characterised the ponds including those where floating macrophyte Eichhornia carssipes) were used, paying specific attention to the operation and maintenance. finally this study is centred on the thermal stratification and temperature inversion in relation with the generation of odours. (Author) 22 refs.

  7. The L.I.D.I.A. Model : its application to the Balearic Island coastline contamination study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Fuertes, A.; Martorell, V. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Massuti, E. [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografia, Centre Oceanografic de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The LIDIA (Limite de Intensidad de Impactos Ambientales) model was developed to determine intensity ranking of environmental impacts of oil spills. This paper describes the application of LIDIA in assessing the ecological impact of an oil spill on the coastline of Balearic Island in Spain. The LIDIA predictive tool contains several data banks with local data on the coast, geomorphology, marine currents, wind force and direction, abundance and diversity of living marine resources. It was necessary to synthesize information in order to apply the model to the geomorphological characteristics of each coastal area and bathymetry. Data on biomass and distribution of living marine resources that can be affected by the oil spill in different areas, is also collected. The following valuation scales are proposed: vulnerability index, resilience index, and induced recovery index by mechanical, chemical and biological processes. The model was used in two surveys which examined biological diversity, species sensitivity index, percentage of biomass affected by oil, and an ecological fragility index. It was concluded that the type of coastline determines the degree to which an oil spill will impact the coastal region. 8 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Podarcis lilfordi from the Balearic islands as a potential disperser of the rare Mediterranean plant Withania frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Aurora M.

    1999-04-01

    This study examines whether the lizard Podarcis lilfordi is a legitimate disperser of the rare Mediterranean plant Withania frutescens by using the biochemical test of triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride for testing seed viability. This lizard eats the fresh fruits of the plants and defecates intact seeds which have been retained 1 to 3 d in their gut. Viability of seeds recovered from faeces was very high and comparable to the viability of fresh seeds. Seed dispersal by this lizard in the Balearic islands may facilitate population expansion of this rare plant in the Balearics.

  9. Distribution, autecology and biogeography of Dryopidae and Elmidae (Coleoptera, Dryopoidea in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico, E.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the Dryopidae and Elmidae in the Balearic Islands was studied. Three species of Dryopidae —Dryops algiricus (Lucas, 1949, D. gracilis (Karsch, 1881 and D. sulcipennis (Costa, 1883— and one of Elmidae —Oulimnius echinatus Berthélemy, 1979— were found. Bibliographical data of other three species of Dryopidae exist, but their presence is either refuted —Dryops lutulentus (Erichson, 1847— or requires confirmation —Dryops luridus (Erichson, 1847 and D. rufipes (Krynicki, 1832—. Dryops gracilis and D. sulcipennis are recorded for first time in the archipelago. The first autecological data of the different species in the archipelago and a biogeographical analysis are provided.

    Se realiza un estudio sobre la distribución de los Dryopidae y Elmidae en las islas Baleares. Tres especies de Dryopidae —Dryops algiricus (Lucas, 1949, D. gracilis (Karsch, 1881 y D. sulcipennis (Costa, 1883— y una de Elmidae —Oulimnius echinatus Berthélemy, 1979— han sido halladas. Existen datos bibliográficos de otras tres especies de Dryopidae, pero su presencia es excluida —Dryops lutulentus (Erichson, 1847— o se considera que debe ser confirmada —Dryops luridus (Erichson, 1847 y D. rufipes (Krynicki, 1832—. Dryops gracilis y D. sulcipennis se citan por primera vez en el archipiélago. Se aportan los primeros datos sobre la autoecología de las diferentes especies en las islas y se realiza un análisis biogeográfico.

  10. Extending the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system to the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Analysis of its performance and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Llasat, María del Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Within the FP7 eartH2Observe project we are studying the ability of different LSMs to simulate the processes of drought on the Iberian Peninsula. In order to perform our simulations we need a good atmospheric forcing dataset that covers the whole area of study at the right resolution (5 km in hour case). Currently, in Spain, there are some high resolution datasets, but none of them have all the variables necessary to run a LSM. Thus, we decided to extend the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system to the whole Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. SAFRAN uses optimal interpolation to analyze the variables of interest using all available observed data (from AEMET's network) and a first guess (ERA-Interim). SAFRAN, which was developed by Météo France to force its LSMs (CROCUS for snow, ISBA and SURFEX for hydrological studies), was recently extended to the Ebro basin in a pilot study that covered only three years. In eartH2Observe we are extending it to cover the 1995-2007 period. This period is not long enough to study climate variability, but it already useful to a range of studies that need a decade long dataset. In the future, we plan to extend SAFRAN to a period that covers several decades. We present the SAFRAN analysis system, its main features and its performance in the study area. In addition, we also present a first comparison with alternative databases in the context of the eartH2Observe Spanish Case Study. In the future, we expect SAFRAN to be useful, not only to large scale hydrology projects, but also to a large range of projects simulating land surface processes for other purposes. SAFRAN will also be useful as reference dataset for downscaling climate simulations. Thus, we also discuss these applications.

  11. Ecology of an endemic insular species: Cyclamen balearicum Willk. In the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjanny, Michel

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cyclamen balearicum Willk. in the Balearic Islands with the following two objectives: 1 to describe and discuss its ecology, 2 to discuss the type of rarity it represents. The species grows on Ibiza, Cabrera, Menorca and Mallorca; it is much more frequent on the latter two islands, and is abundant in the moutainous northern part of Mallorca. It is absent from Formentera. The species was found along the entire elevation gradient, thus experiencing a large range of rainfall and temperature conditions. It was encountered not only on limestone but also, occasionally on sandstone and schist in Menorca. Its local habitat is sheltered and shady, with a northern exposure, under a high cover of evergreen woody plants, with a stony soil. Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, trees and Pistacia lentiscus L. shrubs are the more commonly observed dominant species where C. balearicum occuis. The usual entena applied in defining plant raríty are inadequate in this case, particularly where habitat specificity is concemed.Cyclamen balearicum Willk. ha sido estudiado en las Islas Baleares con dos objetivos principales: 1 describir y discutir su ecología, 2 discutir el tipo de especie rara que representa. La especie se encuentra en Ibiza. Cabrera, Menorca y Mallorca, aunque es mucho más frecuente en las dos últimas islas y abundante en la región montañosa del norte de Mallorca. No se ha encontrado en Formentera. La especie es capaz de crecer bajo una amplia gama de condiciones de precipitación y temperatura, puesto que se encuentra a lo largo de todo el gradiente altitudinal. Crece sobre rocas calcáreas y también, en Menorca, más raramente, sobre areniscas y esquistos. Se desarrolla principalmente en ambientes protegidos y sombreados orientados al norte, bajo la cubierta de árboles perennifohos, sobre suelos pedregosos. Quercus ilex L. y Pinus halepensis Mill, son las especies arbóreas, y Pistacia lentiscus L. la especie arbustiva, que

  12. A new species of Tambja (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea: description of the first species of the genus from the Balearic Islands and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M.; Pola, M.; Ramón, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new species of polycerid nudibranchs of the genus Tambja is described from Mallorca Island (Spain) and Malta. So far, only two species of Tambja had been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea with a distribution limited to southern Spain. With Tambja mediterranea sp. nov., the distribution of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is extended, and the new species represents the first occurrence of Tambja at the Balearic Islands and Malta. Externally, the new species is mainly characterized by having ground orange-red colour, dorsum covered with rounded whitish tubercles, rhinophores red with whitish tips and three gill branches with orange-reddish rachis and whitish branches. In the present paper, external and internal features of T. mediterranea are described and compared with other species of the genus, especially with its most similar species, T. limaciformis. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) based on mitochondrial sequences (COI) show that T. mediterranea sp. nov. is sister to T. divae and that both species cluster together with T. limaciformis and T. amakusana with the maximum support.

  13. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  14. Creating new populations of Apium bermejoi (Apiaceae, a critically endangered endemic plant on Menorca (Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apium bermejoi is a stoloniferous plant endemic to the island of Menorca (Balearic Islands. It is found only at one locality, and it is listed as Critically Endangered (according to the IUCN criteria. We describe the main results of population restoration actions undertaken under the Recovery Plan for this species, including the following: 1 introduction at two new localities (2008, 2 reinforcement of the original wild and the introduced populations, and 3 a programme for monitoring population dynamics (including both wild and introduced populations spanning four years (2006-2010. The plant material for the introduction and reinforcement projects was generated from seeds gathered in the wild. We carried out a monthly census of all of the individuals/patches and emerged seedlings, from which we assessed their survival at 3-4months. The survival rates of the planted individuals in the two new localities after three months were found to be 59.0% and 56.3%, and more than 80% of the surviving plants produced fruits. A seasonal pattern was observed based on the minimum cover values recorded in the censuses taken at the end of summer, with an increase detected during autumn, and maximal cover values recorded during May/June. The A. bermejoi populations showed large inter-annual fluctuations in both the number of patches and area of occupancy. The number of seedlings varied across the study years, and their survival was linked to specific meteorological events, such as severe storms and dry and hot spells during autumn. The initial phase of introduction for this species has been overall successful, but a final evaluation can only be made on a longterm basis.Apium bermejoi, planta estolonífera endémica de Menorca (Islas Baleares, de la que se conoce una sola localidad en el medio natural, está considerada en Peligro Crítico de extinción (según criterios UICN. Se presentan los principales resultados de las acciones de restauración de las

  15. Extensional vs contractional Cenozoic deformation in Ibiza (Balearic Promontory, Spain): Integration in the West Mediterranean back-arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Martos, Raquel; Roca, Eduard; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Based on field work and seismic reflection data, we investigate the Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution offshore and onshore Ibiza allowing the proposal of a new tectonic agenda for the region and its integration in the geodynamic history of the West Mediterranean. The late Oligocene-early Miocene rifting event, which characterizes the Valencia Trough and the Algerian Basin, located north and south of the study area respectively, is also present in Ibiza and particularly well-expressed in the northern part of the island. Among these two rifted basins initiated in the frame of the European Cenozoic Rift System, the Valencia Trough failed rapidly while the Algerian Basin evolved after as a back-arc basin related to the subduction of the Alpine-Maghrebian Tethys. The subsequent middle Miocene compressional deformation was localized by the previous extensional faults, which were either inverted or passively translated depending on their initial orientation. Despite the lateral continuity between the External Betics and the Balearic Promontory, it appears from restored maps that this tectonic event cannot be directly related to the Betic orogen, but results from compressive stresses transmitted through the Algerian Basin. A still active back-arc asthenospheric rise likely explains the stiff behavior of this basin, which has remained poorly deformed up to recent time. During the late Miocene a new extensional episode reworked the southern part of the Balearic Promontory. It is suggested that this extensional deformation developed in a trans-tensional context related to the westward translation of the Alboran Domain and the coeval right-lateral strike-slip movement along the Emile Baudot Escarpment bounding the Algerian Basin to the north.

  16. A bi-weekly actual evapotranspiration dataset derived from NOAA-AVHRR images across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands, 1981-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Martin-Hernandez, Natalia; Tomas-Burguera, Miquel

    Using the complete set of diurnal NOAA-AVHRR images from 1981 to 2015, in this study we developed a bi-weekly high-spatial resolution (1.1-km) actual evapotranspiration (ETa) dataset covering the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands. Daily ETa was estimated by applying the algorithm develop...

  17. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  18. Shelves of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (I): Morphology and sediment types; Plataformas de la Peninsula Iberica y las Islas Baleares (I): Morfologia y tipos de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Salas, L. M.; Duran, R.; Mendes, I.; Galparsoro, I.; Lobo, F. J.; Barcenas, P.; Rosa, F.; Ribo, M.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Ferrin, A.; Carrara, G.; Roque, C.; Canals, M.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present a synthesis of bed forms and sediment types on the shelves surrounding the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, after the integration several pieces of bathymetric, morphological and sedimentological datasets. The Iberian and Balearic shelves are divided into segments according to the large scale margin configuration, fluvial sediment supply and hydrodynamic regime. Their geological settings and large-scale sedimentation patterns place the investigated shelves into two broad categories: abrupt, steep and narrow sediment-starved shelves, illustrated by the Cantabrian shelf, and gentle, smooth and wide sediment-fed shelves, such as the shelves off some major flivial systems. An in-depth classification was subsequently attempted, based on morpho-sedimentary types. Under this approach, the Iberian and Balearic shelves can be classified as: (1) storm-dominated shelves, with erosional rocky floors, frequent abrasion sur- faces and coarse-grained sediments; (2) current-dominated shelves, showing a good equilibrium between sediment fluxes and coastal and shallow ocean circulation, with laterally extensive muddy belts; (3) sediment supply-dominated shelves, where extensive sub aqueous deltas develop off river mouths; and (4) wave-dominated shelves that occur off coastal stretches with minor and/or multiple fluvial sediment sources and enhanced littoral current. (Author)

  19. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  20. Late Miocene breccia of Menorca (Balearic Islands) a basis for the interpretation of a Neogene ramp deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, A.; Pomar, L.; Taberner, C.

    1992-08-01

    Neogene (Tortonian) ramp facies associations crop out in the southern sector of Menorca (Balearic island). These are made mainly by sigmoidal and oblique clinoform units comprising rhodoliths, bryozoans, molluscs and foraminifera. These units are interpreted as outer-ramp deposits. A breccia deposit infilling an erosional surface is found at the top of the carbonate ramp sequence. The breccia components (mainly rhodoliths and oolite clasts) may represent erosion of the underlying ramp deposits and inner-ramp counterparts, which do not crop out on the island. The study of components in the breccia deposits confirms the indigenous character of the outer-ramp facies associations, which suggests that the ramp was steepened distally. The breccia deposits correspond laterally to a discontinuity surface locally showing karstic features. Transgressive sediments (including a phosphatic crust) are found above the discontinuity surface. All together these features, and the dolomitisation of the uppermost ramp sediments and breccia deposits, suggest that the breccia originated from erosion of the ramp after a major relative sea-level fall. The breccia and discontinuity surface separate the ramp sequence from an overlying prograding sequence. A correlation of this sequence boundary to other areas in the western Mediterranean is proposed.

  1. Prevalence and Related Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among the Adult Population in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Coll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW and obesity (OB by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010. A random sample (n = 1,081 of young (18-35 years and middle-aged adults (36-55 years were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. Results: The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 26.9-32.3%, 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2% and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%, respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5% and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5% than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%. Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1% in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5% in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Conclusions: Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role.

  2. El hábito tabáquico en el colectivo de colegiados en enfermería de la Comunidad de las Islas Baleares The smoking habits of registered nurses in the community of the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Pericás

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se pretende evidenciar las conductas, creencias y actitudes relacionadas con el hábito tabáquico, del colectivo de colegiados de enfermería de las Islas Baleares. Sujetos y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, mediante entrevista telefónica personal a 430 profesionales aleatorizados a partir de una población total de 4.800 colegiados de las Islas Baleares. La entrevista constaba de una parte dirigida a todos los colegiados independientemente de su hábito tabáquico, en la que se valoraban variables demográficas y actitudes ante la problemática del tabaquismo, tanto a nivel de creencias como de conductas y actitudes ante los pacientes, y otra parte específicamente dirigida a fumadores y exfumadores con la intención de caracterizar su hábito tabáquico. Resultados: De los 430 encuestados el 80% son mujeres. La media de edad es de 38 años. El 26,7% de la población es fumador. Los fumadores preguntan menos por el hábito tabáquico, se consideran peor formados en su manejo y aconsejan menos que abandonen el tabaco a sus pacientes que los no fumadores. Fuman menos en Atención Primaria que en Atención Especializada. Conclusión: Debería incrementarse la formación académica y laboral en tabaquismo ya que la mitad de los profesionales no se sienten preparados para su manejo.Introduction: This study aims to show the conducts, beliefs and attitudes towards smoking issues held by registered nurses in the Balearic Islands. Subjects and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted through personal phone interviews with 430 nursing professionals selected randomly from the 4,800 registered nurses in Balearic Islands. The first part of the interview was directed to all nurses, whether addicted to tobacco or not, and rated demographic variables and attitudes towards smoking issues in terms of beliefs, as well as conducts and attitudes towards patients. The second part was specifically addressed to smokers and

  3. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  4. Between punishment and redemption. Women in prison in the Balearic Islands (1936-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GINARD I FÉRON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyze the specific characteristics and living conditions in the women prison in Mallorca —1936-1943— in the context of the repression carried out by the Francoist regime against women who supported and sympathized with the Republican government. The first part deals with the period of the Civil War during which, due to the unprecedented avalanche of women’s detentions produced by the rebels, it was necessary to improvise a center for females who remanded in custody. Later on, the changes brought about in 1940 by the transformation of the modest prison located in Palma into one of the central prisons for women in Spain are analyzed. The third section revolves around the singular presence in this prison of the «Sisters of Charity» Catholic religious order and its influence on the daily life. Likewise, the strategies of resistance developed by the prisoners to improve their living conditions, protect themselves from the disciplinary measures adopted by the penal authorities and help spread their political ideas are explained. Finally, the essay also mentions the causes and consequences of the closure of this Majorcan prison and the process of recuperation of the memory of the former prisoners that has taken place over the last decade.

  5. Taxonomy of the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae in the Iberian PeninsuIa and the Balearic Islands

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    Benedí, Carles

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study is undertaken of the ten taxa (nine of them specific belonging to the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae which are present in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands and a dichotomic key is provided. The taxonomic characteristics or each taxon are discussed and the correct name, synonyms, description, chorology and ecology are given. The presence of Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh. in the Iberian Peninsula is confirmed and Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small is recorded for the first time from Europe.

    Es realitza un estudi taxonòmic dels 10 tàxons (nou específics del gènere Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae presents a la Península Ibèrica i les Illes Balears. Per a cada tàxon es valoren els caràcters d'interès taxonòmic i s'indica el nom correcte. la sinonímia, descripció, corologia i ecologia. Es confirma la presència de Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh, a la Península Ibèrica i se cita Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small coma novetat per a Europa.

  6. Analytical characterisation of ancient mortars from the archaeological Roman city of Pollentia (Balearic Islands, Spain)

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    Genestar, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail: nina.genestar@uib.es; Pons, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Mas, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Analytical characterisation of historic mortars from the Roman city of Pollentia (Mallorca) has been carried out by means of thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG)), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The aim of this research is to provide useful information about the construction mode of the mortars which served for lining purposes in duct drains, cisterns, swimming pools, flooring mortars and wall renderings. The reported results converge to reveal the hydraulic nature of the majority of the mortars used for several hundred years to cover the diverse needs of the inhabitants of Pollentia. A fair correlation between the chemical characteristics of the studied mortars and the results of ancient Roman mortars from other archaeological sites has been established.

  7. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

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    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  8. High prevalence of helminth parasites in feral cats in Majorca Island (Spain).

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    Millán, Javier; Casanova, Joan Carles

    2009-12-01

    Feral cats are widespread in the countryside of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Since they are not subject of sanitary control, they can act as reservoir of parasites of veterinary and zoonotic interest. The main organs of 58 wild-trapped cats in 16 different areas from Majorca were analyzed by helminths. All the cats were parasitized, and eight species of helminths were retrieved (mean = 3.4 species per cat, with 74% of the cats harboring three or more species). Seven of them presented a prevalence >20%: Joyeuxiella pasqualei (76%), Diplopylidium acanthotetra (60%), Dipylidium carracidoi (33%), Taenia taeniaeformis (22%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (91%), and Toxocara cati (35%) in the gastrointestinal tract, and Oslerus rostratus (24%) in lungs. The A. tubaeforme prevalence and intensity (mean = 30, up to 396) is the highest recorded for a population of cats. Prevalence and abundance of J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra were strongly associated, secondary to the use of the same intermediary host (geckos). Other positive associations found are probably related to host susceptibility. Abundance of D. acanthotetra, T. cati, and A. tubaeforme and the number of species per host were negatively correlated with cat body condition (assessed by the kidney fat index). Females were more frequently parasitized by A. tubaeforme than males, and adult females were more heavily infested by J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra than cats from other groups. These and other findings are discussed in relation with host ecology. Feral cats serve as reservoirs of helminths in the countryside of Majorca and their populations should be controlled.

  9. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  10. Potential respiration estimated by electron transport system activity in deep-sea suprabenthic crustaceans off Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)

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    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Reglero, P.; Blanco, E.; Barberá-Cebrián, C.

    2014-10-01

    ETS is an acronym for the activity of the respiratory electron transport system; the ETS assay is a biochemical method for estimating the “potential” respiration (Φ). We apply this technique to suprabenthic species captured at three depths (250 m, 650 m and 850 m) in two different locations: Cabrera (Algerian subbasin) and Sóller (Balearic subbasin) during the IDEADOS survey during summer 2010. The aim of this study was to compare specific Φ between areas and between three depths to identify differences in the suprabenthos physiological state related to nutritional conditions. Specific Φ, expressed in unit of μl O2 h- 1 mg prot- 1 was not significantly different between species. Mean values were for the decapods: Plesionika heterocarpus, 8.4 ± 7.9; Gennadas elegans, 8.3 ± 2.9; and Sergestes arcticus 7.3 ± 4.6. Within the euphausiids specific Φ averaged 6.5 ± 4.2 for Thysanopoda aequalis and 9.8 ± 5.1 for Meganyctiphanes norvegica; while for the mysids it ranged from 7.7 ± 4.4 for Boreomysis arctica and 2.1 ± 0.6 for Eucopia unguiculata. The comparison of specific potential respiration (Φ), with the pooling of the data of all the species, showed differences between the two locations, being higher in Cabrera. However, no significant differences between the different depths of each locality were found. The slope of the log Φ-log biomass plot was 0.93 ± 0.09 for Cabrera and 0.64 ± 0.11 in Sóller. We interpret these differences as indicating that the suprabenthos in the Cabrera area, as compared to the Sóller area, has been well-nourished.

  11. Avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in Majorca Island, Spain.

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    Millán, Javier; Negre, Nieves; Castellanos, Elena; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Parpal, Lluis; Aranaz, Alicia

    2010-02-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. From 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) were necropsied. The birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (Otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (Tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (Asio otus) (n=58), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n=27), and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) (n=13). Gross lesions compatible with mycobacteriosis were observed in 14 birds (2.4%) found in several locations in Majorca. They were 12 kestrels (prevalence in this species, 4.0%), one long-eared owl (1.7%) and one scops owl (0.9%), all the birds presenting white-yellowish nodules from pinpoint size to 1 cm in diameter in diverse organs, mainly in the liver, spleen and intestine. Affected organs were subjected to bacteriology and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction and, in all cases, infection with M. avium subspecies avium was confirmed. The observed prevalences are similar to those previously observed in Holland, although the actual prevalence detected in this study is likely to be higher than reported because only birds with gross lesions were subjected to culture. Further molecular characterization with a set of six mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat loci was used to sub-type the isolates in order to show the existence of possible epidemiological links. Six different genotypes were found, which points to infection from multiple foci. No temporal or geographical aggregation of the cases was observed to be associated with the presence of positive birds or with the different variable number tandem repeat allelic profiles. The most feasible origin might be water or food sources, although the reservoir of mycobacteria remains unknown.

  12. Insular identity and urban contexts: representations of the local in the construction of an image of Palma (Mallorca, Balearic Islands

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    Mercè Picornell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between island and city in the configuration of an insular identity. The hypothesis addresses the special visibility that, in the case of small islands, results from the confrontation between two relevant singularities – the city and the island – in the symbolic conceptualization of territory. The opposition between island contexts and urban spaces is thus considered in terms of the local/global and rural/urban binaries. These are analysed in contemporary cultural representations of the relationship between the island of Mallorca and its historical and administrative capital, Palma. Since the 1960s, Mallorca has become a mass tourism destination with a considerable demographic impact, especially in the capital, which is the island’s gateway for both tourism and immigration. This paper considers geographical, literary and media discourses along with particular mass-consumption cultural products to argue that Palma is represented as a predatory ‘monster’ devouring the island’s ‘local’ identity. It is argued that different types of neo-ruralism have emerged and reinforced the opposition between the island and the city. This opposition underlies a process of counter-acculturation that delineates and strengthens Mallorcan self-representation in a context defined by an increasingly diverse population as a result of tourism and migratory flows.

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of primary health care physicians and nurses with regard to population screening for colorectal cancer in Balearic Islands and Barcelona

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    Puente Diana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care (PHC professionals play a key role in population screening of colorectal cancer. The purposes of the study are: to assess knowledge and attitudes among PHC professionals with regard to colorectal cancer screening, as well as the factors that determine their support for such screening. Methods Questionnaire-based survey of PHC physicians and nurses in the Balearic Islands and in a part of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Results We collected 1,219 questionnaires. About 84% of all professionals believe that screening for colorectal cancer by fecal occult blood test (FOBT is effective. Around 68% would recommend to their clients a colorectal cancer screening program based on FOBT and colonoscopy. About 31% are reluctant or do not know. Professionals perceive the fear of undergoing a colonoscopy as the main obstacle in getting patients to participate, and the invasive nature of this test is the main reason behind their resistance to this program. The main barriers to support the screening program among PHC professionals are lack of knowledge (nurses and lack of time (physicians. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with reluctance to recommend colorectal cancer screening were: believing that FOBT has poor sensitivity and is complicated; that colonoscopy is an invasive procedure; that a lack of perceived benefit could discourage client participation; that only a minority of clients would participate; thinking that clients are fed up with screening tests and being unaware if they should be offered something to ensure their participation in the programme. Conclusions Two in every three PHC professionals would support a population screening program for colorectal cancer screening. Factors associated with reluctance to recommend it were related with screening tests characteristics as sensitivity and complexity of FOBT, and also invasive feature of colonoscopy. Other factors were related with patients

  14. La lexicografia catalana moderna a les Illes Balears

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    Jaume Corbera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The works on lexicography published in the Balearic Islands after the completion of the Diccionari Català-Valencià-Balear (1962 are described and analysed in this paper. These works are already fully inserted in the movement for the linguistic recovery undertaken the last twenty years. Especially, but not exclusively, the paper analyses the reflection on those works of the particularity of the Balearic dialect with regard to the Standard language; that is to say, the degree of vindication of the specific forms and words of the insular Catalan tacitly or explicitly accepted in the Standard frame.

  15. New records of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae from Mallorca, Spain

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    Viktor Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of non-biting midges belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae were found in samples from predominantly madicolous habitats in Mallorca, Spain. One species, Bryophaenocladius nidorum (Edwards, 1929, has not previously been recorded from Spain, while Smittia pratorum (Goetghebuer, 1927, Bryophaenocladius inconstans (Brundin, 1947, Orthocladius (O. maius Goetghebuer, 1942, Paracladius conversus (Walker, 1856 and Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker, 1856 are recorded for the first time from the Balearic Islands.

  16. Population dynamics of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Short spatio-temporal differences and influence of environmental factors

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    Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Díaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus is one of the target species of the bottom trawl fishery of the Balearic Islands. The objective of the present paper is to study the short spatial and temporal differences of this important economic resource between two different locations off Mallorca (Cabrera: CA; Sóller: SO), where a fleet mobility pattern has been detected, and to study the influence of environmental conditions on this species. Six simultaneous bottom-trawl and oceanographic surveys were carried out at these two locations in order to collect data from the demersal species, hydrography (temperature and salinity), trophic resources and sediment characteristics. The commercial fleet from both locations was monitored by monthly on-board sampling, log-books and daily landings obtained from sales slips. Additional data was obtained from other fishing surveys. Short spatial and temporal differences have been detected between both locations. The population at CA was more demographically homogeneous, while that at SO showed important variations, like high abundance of juveniles recruiting to fishing grounds in autumn-winter and high abundance of large females during summer. Several differences have also been found in the biology of the species between locations, such as males were more abundant in SO than in CA. Also, the reproductive period started sooner in SO than in CA, and the condition of pre-spawning females was better in SO. The percentage of total lipids in the hepatopancreas was minimal during the spawning period, showing their importance as a reserve of energy for the ovary ripening. Water masses could play an important role in these differences, the characteristics of water masses being more stable in CA than in SO. Red shrimp adult females seemed to be more correlated with the warmer and more saline Levantine Intermediate Waters, while juveniles (males and females) and adult males were more correlated with the colder Western Mediterranean Deep Waters

  17. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

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    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  18. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

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    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  19. First Report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in the Island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

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    María Reyes-Batlle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are group of protozoa distributed worldwide in many habitats mainly water and soil related sources. Some members of FLA are able to act as opportunistic pathogens and are environmental carriers of other pathogenic agents such as bacteria and viruses. Vermamoeba vermiformis is a highly abundant FLA species in water bodies and has recently gained environmental importance as it acts as a vehicle of many pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila.Cases Report: In this study, water samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain during 2015. El Hierro island was designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve and it is currently the less populated of the Canary Islands. The water samples were culture on 2 % Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37 ºC. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation in the island of El Hierro and the second report of this species in the Canary Islands.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

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    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally-resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) captured in baited tra...

  1. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus

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    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with

  2. Consecuencias de la ruptura de mutualismos planta-animal para la distribución de especies vegetales en las Islas Baleares Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands

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    ANN TRAVESET

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Una modificación del hábitat como puede ser la introducción de especies animales exóticas que desplazan a las nativas, reduciendo sus poblaciones o conduciéndolas a la extinción, puede resultar en la ruptura de interacciones entre especies, las cuales pueden haber evolucionado durante millones de años. Los sistemas insulares son especialmente vulnerables a dichas perturbaciones, al ser normalmente menos complejos y poseer un menor número de especies que los continentales. En el presente trabajo se documentan las consecuencias que ha tenido la desaparición de la interacción planta-dispersor, después de la introducción de mamíferos carnívoros en las Islas Baleares, para las poblaciones de dos arbustos: Cneorum tricoccon L., con una distribución microareal en el Mediterráneo Occidental, y Daphne rodriguezii Texidor, endémico de la isla de Menorca. Mientras que para el primero, los carnívoros han "reemplazado" a los dispersores (lagartijas nativos, modificando notablemente la distribución de esta especie -especialmente en Mallorca-, la ruptura del mutualismo planta-lagartija parece haber sido dramática para el segundo, reduciendo drásticamente sus poblaciones excepto en un islote donde las lagartijas aún persistenThe alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex and have a lower number of species than the continental ones. In the present work I document the consequences of the disruption of plant-disperser interactions, caused by the introduction of carnivorous mammals in the Balearic Islands, for the populations of two shrub species: Cneorum tricoccon L., with a distribution restricted to the

  3. The role of geography in the success of the balearic tourism industry

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    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2013-01-01

    A really large tourist destination, such as the Balearic Islands cannot be defined as a single geographic space without regional differentiation; it spans several islands within each of which are a multiplicity of coastal areas with very varied geographical morphology and differing degrees of exploitation for tourism. We aim to conduct a statistical analysis of the standard features of such coastal areas to determine the geographic base common to the entire Balearic archipelago as a mass tour...

  4. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  5. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  6. Vigilancia de la tuberculosis en las Islas Baleares y caracterización de los casos infradeclarados entre los años 2005 y 2007 Tuberculosis surveillance in the Balearic Islands and characteristics of unreported cases from 2005 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Giménez Duran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo de los casos de tuberculosis detectados por el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica en Baleares, en el trienio de 2005 a 2007. El objetivo fue caracterizar los casos infradeclarados en términos sociodemográficos y de su contacto con la atención primaria de salud. Globalmente, la infradeclaración de la tuberculosis se sitúa en torno al 20%. Las características que resultan significativas en el análisis multivariado son la marginalidad social (alcoholismo, usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral o indigencia (odds ratio ajustada [ORa] : 2,6 [1,2-5,3], el contacto con la atención primaria (ORa : 3,2 [1,4-7,1] y la tuberculosis extrapulmonar (ORa : 5,5 [3,2-9,6]. Se recomienda reforzar la notificación de los especialistas hospitalarios mediante la adecuación informática de la historia clínica hospitalaria, y se observa que la información obtenida desde la informatización de la historia en atención primaria resulta de utilidad para mejorar la vigilancia epidemiológica de la tuberculosis.We performed a descriptive study of tuberculosis cases detected by the Epidemiological Surveillance System in the Balearic Islands in the triennium 2005-2007. Our goal was to characterize underreported cases in sociodemographic terms and their contact with primary care. Overall, underreporting of tuberculosis was approximately 20%. Significant factors in multivariate analysis were social marginality (consisting of alcoholism, intravenous drug use or indigence (aOR: 2.6 [1.2 to 5.3], contact with primary care (aOR: 3.2 [1.4 to 7.1], and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (aOR: 5.5[3.2-9.6]. We recommend strengthening notification by hospital specialists through the use of hospital electronic records. Our findings show that the information obtained from the primary care computerized history is helpful in improving the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis.

  7. Finding of Parastrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) in Rattus rattus in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; López-González, Mercedes; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Segovia, Matías; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Casanova, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Basilio; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Feliu, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Parastrongylus cantonensis is a parasite of murid rodents that can infect humans and cause health problems as eosinophilic meningitis. Although it is endemic in south Asia, the Pacific islands, Australia, USA, and a few Caribbean islands, it has been extended to new geographical regions. In the Canary Islands (Spain) a survey of helminths of Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus domesticus was carried out. Furthermore, five species of molluscs were examined for nematode larvae to determine whether they are potential intermediate hosts of P. cantonensis. Nematodes were found in the lungs of 15% of 67 R. rattus examined in Tenerife, one of the four studied islands, with a prevalence of 20% in the highest focus of infection. Based on morphological and molecular analysis, with the complete internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) nucleotide sequences, nematodes were identified as P. cantonensis. Larval nematodes found from snails and slugs were identified as third-stage (L(3)) Metastrongyloidea, but the molecular study showed that they did not belong to P. cantonensis. This is the first finding of angiostrongyliasis in rats in the Canary Islands (Spain). New molecular data for this species and Parastrongylus dujardini are reported. The presence of P. cantonensis in Tenerife could be of importance from the public health point of view. Further studies are required in order to look for other potential foci of infections in the Canary Islands.

  8. A proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass in the island of Majorca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of residual biomass for energy purposes is of great interest in isolated areas like Majorca for waste reduction, energy sufficiency and renewable energies development. In addition, densification processes lead to easy-to-automate solid biofuels which additionally have higher energy density. The present study aims at (i the estimation of the potential of residual biomass from woody crops as well as from agri-food and wood industries in Majorca, and (ii the analysis of the optimal location of potential pellet plants by means of a GIS approach (location-allocation analysis and a cost evaluation of the pellets production chain. The residual biomass potential from woody crops in Majorca Island was estimated at 35,874 metric tons dry matter (t DM per year, while the wood and agri-food industries produced annually 21,494 t DM and 2717 t DM, respectively. Thus, there would be enough resource available for the installation of 10 pellet plants of 6400 t·year−1 capacity. These plants were optimally located throughout the island of Mallorca with a maximum threshold distance of 28 km for biomass transport from the production points. Values found for the biomass cost at the pellet plant ranged between 57.1 €·t−1 and 63.4 €·t−1 for biomass transport distance of 10 and 28 km. The cost of pelleting amounted to 56.7 €·t−1; adding the concepts of business fee, pellet transport and profit margin (15%, the total cost of pelleting was estimated at 116.6 €·t−1. The present study provides a proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass that would supply up to 2.8% of the primary energy consumed by the domestic and services sector in the Balearic Islands.

  9. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island.

  10. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the Te

  11. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  12. "Metals in fresh honeys from Tenerife Island, Spain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Inmaculada; Rubio, Carmen; González-Iglesias, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Angel José; González-Weller, Dailos; Hardisson, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Ashes and contents of Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd and Pb in 140 fresh honey samples from three different areas of Tenerife Island were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A mean ash content of 0.35% has been determined. The mean Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations observed have been 3.37 mg kg(-1), 1.28 mg kg(-1), 2.83 mg kg(-1), 37.33 microg kg(-1), 4.38 microg kg(-1), respectively. A direct statistical correlation has been found between the Fe-Zn and Fe-Pb content, and between the Cd-Zn and Cd-Pb levels.

  13. Nitrate intake from drinking water on Tenerife island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Mesa, J M; Rubio Armendáriz, C; Hardisson de la Torre, A

    2003-01-20

    Although meat and vegetable products contain higher concentrations of nitrate, drinking water is the fastest and most direct form of nitrate consumption by the population. It becomes contaminated with nitrates when sea water infiltrates fresh water aquifers and when rain and irrigation water wash through soils that have been excessively treated with nitrated fertilizers. Nitrates are of great toxicological interest as they are involved in the origin of nitrites and nitrosamines and the development of metahaemoglobinaemia in infants. The objective of this study was to determine the quantities of NO(3)(-) in the water supply of each of the Island's municipalities and in the leading brands of bottled waters consumed by the population of Tenerife. This parameter is necessary for the determination of Acceptable Daily Intake (A.D.I.) of nitrates from drinking water. With one unremarkable exception, the nitrate levels found in the water analyzed were optimum for human consumption and amply complied with current European Legislation.

  14. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  15. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in a rural hotel in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Pérz-Roth, Eduardo; González-Linares, Sandra; Méndez-Alvarez, Sebastián

    2005-06-01

    Shigella sonnei is a significant cause of gastroenteritis in both developing and industrialized countries. Knowledge of the diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterium may be helpful in the management of both individual cases and outbreaks. This study was undertaken to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of diarrhea due to S. sonnei. The outbreak involved 14 of 28 (50%) tourists in a small rural hotel in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain. All of the S. sonnei isolates recovered had the same antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, suggesting that the outbreak was produced by a single strain.

  16. Fluvial dissection, isostatic uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Inmaculada; Silva, Pablo G.; Martín-Betancor, Moises; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco José; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, S.

    2008-11-01

    Digital analysis of torrential gullies ('barrancos') deeply incised into the volcanic Island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) allows us to extract the longitudinal profiles and pre-incision surfaces for individual basins, from which morphometric parameters (length, elevation, area, slope) have been calculated. Other derived parameters, such as ridgeline profiles, maximum incision values, volume removed by fluvial erosion, geophysical relief and isostatic uplift, have also been computed. Based on K/Ar ages for the island, well-constrained incision-uplift rates have been calculated by means of the combination of different methodological approaches commonly used in orogens and large mountain ranges. The geomorphological and morphometric analyses reveal that the island is clearly divided into four environmental quadrants determined by the combination of a couple of key-factors: the age of the volcanic surfaces and the climatic conditions. These factors determine a young sector covered with Plio-Quaternary platform-forming lavas (finished at 1.9-1.5 Ma) evolving under contrasting wet (NE) to dry (SE) climates, and an older sector, conserving the residual surfaces of the Miocene shield building (14.5-8.7 Ma) at the ridgelines, also subjected to wet (NW) and dry (SW) climates. Incision is related to the age zonation of the island. Maximum incisions (< 1200 m) are logically recorded in the older SW sector of the island, but incision rates are directly related to the climatic zonation, with maximum mean values in the wet Northern quadrants (0.18-0.12 mm/yr). The evaluation of the material removed by fluvial erosion for individual basins allows us to assess the consequent theoretical isostatic response in the different sectors of the island. The obtained uplift rates indicate that water availability (by drainage area and elevation) is a relevant controlling factor: the records from the wet Northern sectors show uplift values of between 0.09 and 0.03 mm/yr, whereas in the

  17. Effect of wildfires on the genetic microbial diversity in forest soils from Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires produce several ecological and environmental impacts on the physical and chemical soil characteristics, as well as on the properties and dynamics of soil microbial populations. Microorganisms are good indicators of ecosystem function and sustainability and therefore the studies about the impact of fire on microbial communities is relevant to understand the role of fire in ecosystem functioning. Although several authors have provided data about total microbial biomass and activity in soils affected by fires, there is little information about the composition and evolution of soil microbial populations after the passage of fire. In this work the effect of wildfires on the genetic diversity of microbial populations in soils from the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain is studied. The final objective was to get information about the recovery of soil functionality after wildfires.

  18. Catálogo y atlas de las arañas de la familia Philodromidae Thorell, 1870 de la Península Iberica e islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urones, C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of 38 species of Philodromidae found in Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands is given. The list, in alphabetic order, contains the provinces and bibliographic references where the species are cited. The material of Philodromidae from the “Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid” has been studied, also several exemplars are examined. The provisional atlas of distribution of the species the Philodromidae in Spain, Portugal and Andorra is given, together with a distribution map for each species. We also give some data concerning its habitat and life cycle.

    En este artículo se da el listado de las 38 especies de Philodromidae (Araneae conocidas en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. La lista ordenada alfabéticamente, se presenta indicando las localidades por provincias y referencias bibliográficas donde se ha citado cada especie. Se incluye el material existente en la colección del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid, así como ejemplares de Philodromidae de otras procedencias. Se da el atlas provisional de distribución de las especies de Philodromidae para España peninsular e islas Baleares, y para Portugal y Andorra. La distribución de cada especie se indica sobre mapas de cuadrícula U.T.M. de 50 km de lado. Y se aportan además datos sobre su hábitat y ciclos de vida.

  19. Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2009-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba strains from soil samples in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Todd, Cheridah D; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Cabello-Vilchez, Alfonso Martín; González, Ana C; Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Lindo, John F; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in soil samples collected between 2012 and 2013 in Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Identification of Acanthamoeba strains was based on the morphology of the cyst and trophozoite forms. Subsequently, positive samples were cloned for their molecular characterization at the genotype level by sequencing the DF3 region located in the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba as previously described. Sequencing results revealed the presence of T2, T5 and T4 genotypes within the studied samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of Acanthamoeba in Gran Canaria Island and the first study at the genotype level in the Canary Islands.

  1. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Betancort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dina L. López; Melián, Gladys V.; Eleazar Padrón; Germán D. Padilla

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical...

  3. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Ronaldo [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: adarwich@ull.es; Soler, Vicente [Volcanological Station of the Canary Islands, IPNA-CSIC, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Luis, Maria C. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Quesada, Maria L. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon ({sup 222}Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out.

  4. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  5. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  6. Palaeoclimatic considerations of talus flatirons and aeolian deposits in Northern Fuerteventura volcanic island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Elorza, Mateo; Lucha, Pedro; Gracia, F.-Javier; Desir, Gloria; Marín, Cinta; Petit-Maire, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Fuerteventura volcanic island has been subject to considerable aeolian activity since the Late Pleistocene. The aeolian record includes inactive aeolian deposits with interbedded entisols, whose age by OSL dating ranges between 46 and 26 ky BP. The Corralejo active dune field, where sand sheets, nebkhas, coppice dunes, blowouts, barchans and transverse dunes have been described, constitutes a more recent Aeolian deposit. Here the age is about 14 ky BP. On Fuerteventura Island aeolian dust has been deposited on valleys and slopes. This last type of accumulation has been affected by gully incision, producing talus flatirons. Samples taken on the apex of these palaeo-slopes indicate an OSL age of 30 and 50 ky BP. A palaeoclimatic succession has been interpreted during which a prevailing arid period took place in OIS 4, with the accumulation of aeolian dust. A humid period occurred in OIS 2, during which slopes were dissected and formed talus flatirons. An arid period about 14 ky BP gave rise to the Corralejo dune field, which has continued until present with slight climatic oscillations.

  7. Herbarium of vascular plants collection of the university of extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Marta; López, Josefa

    2013-01-01

    The herbarium of University of Extremadura (UNEX Herbarium) is formed by 36451 specimens of vascular plants whose main origin is the autonomous region of Extremadura (Spain) and Portugal, although it also contains a smaller number of specimens from different places, including the rest of peninsular Spain, the Baleares Islands, the Macaronesian region (Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores), northwest of Africa (Morocco) and Brazil. 98% of the total records are georeferenced. It is an active collection in continuous growth. Its data can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/255 and http://www.eweb.unex.es/eweb/botanica/herbario/. This paper describes the specimen associated data set of the UNEX Herbarium, with an objective to disseminate the data contained in a data set with potential users, and promote the multiple uses of the data.

  8. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba isolates from environmental sources in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Monteverde-Miranda, Carlos A; Jiménez, Concepción; Tejedor, María Luisa; Valladares, Basilio; Ortega-Rivas, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Tests for potentially pathogenic amoebae were carried out in order to determine the presence of free-living amoebae of genus Acanthamoeba in soil and beach sand sources related to human environments in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Acanthamoeba identification was based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms and PCR amplification with a genus specific primer pair. The pathogenical potential of Acanthamoeba isolates was characterized by temperature and osmotolerance assays and PCR reactions with two primer pairs related to Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. The results demonstrate the presence of potential pathogenic strain in both sources. Thus, some of the amoebae found in these habitats could act as opportunistic pathogens and may present a risk to human health.

  9. Isolation and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain from water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Ortega-Rivas, Antonio; Foronda, Pilar; Martínez, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio

    2005-03-01

    A comprehensive survey to document the presence of free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba was conducted in tap water and sea water sources related to human environments in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Acanthamoeba identification was based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms and PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair. The pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba isolates was characterized by temperature and osmotolerance assays and PCR reactions with two primer pairs related to Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. The results demonstrate the presence of potentially pathogenic strains in both sources. Thus, some of the amoebae in these aquatic habitats can act as opportunistic pathogens, could play a role in the diseases of aquatic organisms, and may present a risk to human health.

  10. Pollution Pathways of Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment on the Island of Mallorca, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren Alex

    2013-01-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples......, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source...... of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another...

  11. The necessity of reconceptualizing the migration of unaccompanied minors to the Canary Islands of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.

  12. Water dynamics in a laurel montane cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain

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    G. García-Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements from February 2003 to January 2004 in a humid (but dry in summer crest heath wood-land (degraded laurel forest in the National Park of Garajonay, Canary Islands (Spain, were combined to calculate water balance components. The water balance domain is at the surface of the catchment and is controlled by atmospheric processes and vegetation. This study found that annual water income (rainfall plus fog water was 1440 mm year-1, half of which was occult (or fog precipitation, while stand transpiration estimated from measurements of sap flow amounted, annually, to 40% of potential evapotranspiration calculated from measurements of meteorological variables. The positive role of crest laurel forests, which transpire less water than is incoming from rain and fog is emphasised. Keywords: laurel forest, fog interception, stand transpiration, sap flow, hydrological cycle

  13. Reproductive pattern of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) at Canary Islands (Spain, Atlantic Ocean)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mascha Stroobant; Milena Polifrone

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To record the reproductive pattern of a natural population of Pterocladiella capillacea from Gáldar (Canary Islands, Spain) from February to August in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod environmental conditions.Methods:Field observation of reproductive thalli was used at different seasons in the year. Results: Tetrasporophytes and vegetative thalli were observed during all the period of study, while female gametophytes bearing cystocarps have been found from May to August in correspondence with the highest water temperature and irradiance values.Conclusions:Our data suggest that the temperature may be the determining factor which regulates the presence of tetrasporophytes in the field. The constant presence of tetrasporophytes could depend on the low excursion range of water temperature (4-5 °C) throughout the period of study, with the highest abundance in February at 20 °C.

  14. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  15. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: the Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 gm(-2)year(-1) of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may exist.

  16. Assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Valerón, Pilar F; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-07-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (Praptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species.

  17. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

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    Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.

  18. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Estrella, Sarah Delacour; Arrondo, Ignacio Ruiz; Collantes, Francisco; Iniesta, Juan Antonio Delgado; Morales-Bueno, José; Sánchez-López, Pedro Francisco; Amela, Carmen; Sierra-Moros, María José; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia. PMID:25317706

  19. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998, 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain, the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west. Eivissa (Balearic Islands and El Hierro (Canary Islands also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale.

  20. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  1. Respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity in high school students in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos Alonso, E; Fernández-Caldas, E; Seleznick, M J; Lockey, R F

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of skin test reactivity to 22 aeroallergens and of allergic respiratory diseases was determined in 501 high school students on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Two hundred seventy-seven students (55.2%) had at least one positive prick skin test (wheal > or = 2 mm). Two hundred sixteen students (43.1%) had symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract allergies [24 (4.7%) had asthma with or without rhinitis and 192 (38.3%) seasonal or perennial rhinitis alone]. Two hundred eighty-five students (56.8%) were asymptomatic. One hundred per cent of the students with asthma, 87.5% of the students with rhinitis and 27.7% of the asymptomatic students had at least one positive skin test. The prevalence of positive skin tests was significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic students (p = 0.0001). One hundred seventy students (33.9%) had a family history of respiratory allergic diseases. The prevalence of positive skin tests among these students was significantly higher than in students without such history (p = 0.0001). Thus, there is a high prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases and skin test reactivity to aeroallergens among high school students in Tenerife. Significant correlations were found between family history, positive skin tests and respiratory allergic symptoms.

  2. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana

    2011-07-12

    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  3. Content of toxic and essential metals in canned mussels commonly consumed in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Angel; Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Rubio, Carmen; González, Tomás

    2004-07-01

    Concentrations of three toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) and six essential heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni) were determined in mussel conserves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Bivalvia, Mollusca) consumed habitually by individuals in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). A total of 600 samples were analyzed, corresponding to six different commercial brands and four different processing types: pickled sauce (mixture of olive oil, vinegar, red pepper, laurel, and salt), coquille St. Jacques sauce (coquille St. Jacques broth), nature (water and salt), and bionature (water, salt, and soluble vegetal fiber). Samples were collected weekly from markets in Santa Cruz de Tenerife during a 12-month period. All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as proscribed in European Community Directive 2001/22/CE (1,000 microg/kg wet weight for Pb and Cd) and European Community Decision 93/351/EEC (500 microg/kg wet weight for Hg). For the six essential heavy metals, mussels are a very good source, contributing high percentages of the recommended daily allowance.

  4. Molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Wagner, Carolina; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes two cases of Acanthamoeba infections (keratitis and ascites/peritonitis) in small breed domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. In both cases, amoebic trophozoites were observed under the inverted microscope and isolated from the infected tissues and/or fluids, without detecting the presence of other viral, fungal or bacterial pathogens. Amoebae were isolated using 2 % non-nutrient agar plates and axenified for further biochemical and molecular analyses. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that both isolates were able to grow up to 37 °C and 1 M of mannitol and were thus considered as potentially pathogenic. Moreover, the strains were classified as highly cytotoxic as they cause more than 75 % of toxicity when incubated with two eukaryotic cell lines. In order to classify the strains at the molecular level, the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was amplified and sequenced, revealing that both isolates belonged to genotype T4. In both cases, owners of the animals did not allow any further studies or follow-up and therefore the current status of these animals is unknown. Furthermore, the isolation of these pathogenic amoebae should raise awareness with the veterinary community locally and worldwide.

  5. The impact of tourism on municipal solid waste generation: the case of Menorca Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu-Sbert, Josep; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Cabeza-Irigoyen, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Tourism can sustain high levels of employment and income, but the sector is a source of environmental and health impacts. One of the most important is the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, there is a lack of studies which quantify how much the tourist population engages in total MSW and separately collected recyclables. The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of the tourist population on MSW, both total and separately collected, for the period 1998-2010, for the Mediterranean island of Menorca (Spain). We use dynamic regressions models, including data for monthly stocks of tourists. The results show that, on average, a 1% increase in the tourist population in Menorca causes an overall MSW increase of 0.282% and one more tourist in Menorca generates 1.31 kg day(-1) (while one more resident generates 1.48 kg day(-1)). This result could be useful to better estimate the seasonal population of different regions, since intrannual fluctuation of MSW is used as a proxy measure of actual population (the sum of residents and tourists). Moreover, an increase of 1% in the tourist population causes an increase of 0.232% in separately collected recyclables and an additional tourist generates 0.160 kg day(-1). One resident selectively collects on average 47.3% more than one tourist. These results can help in the planning of waste infrastructure and waste collection services in tourist areas.

  6. Feeding habits of feral cats Felis silvestris catus in the countryside of Majorca Island, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Milan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of feral cats ( Felis silvestris catus in the Mediterranean island of Majorca (Spain was studied from July 2008 to June 2009 by the analysis of the scats of 75 feral cats captured in baited traps in 14 different areas. A total of 138 preys were identified in the analyzed scats. Mammals were the main group preyed on and constituted 93% both in frequency and biomass. Among them, mice were the most frequent prey consumed (55% Mus sp., 18% Apodemus sylvaticus but represented only 20% of biomass. Rat was present in 29% of scats and was the main component in terms of biomass (57%. Rabbit was found at a frequency of 6.6%, and constituted 18% of biomass. Other prey (birds, geckos and insects were found in lower frequency, and all pooled constituted only 7% of biomass. Reproductive females preyed less upon mice (20% than the other cats (77%. This may indicate that these females tended to predate upon higher preys, which may be secondary to increased energetic requirements due to pregnancy or lactation. No seasonal variations were found in any of the different parameters studied. Results indicate that rodents constitute all year round the main prey item in feral cat diet in the countryside of Majorca.

  7. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  8. Lead and cadmium in meat and meat products consumed by the population in Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, D; Karlsson, L; Caballero, A; Hernández, F; Gutiérrez, A; González-Iglesias, T; Marino, M; Hardisson, A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead and cadmium in chicken, pork, beef, lamb and turkey samples (both meat and meat products), collected in the island of Tenerife (Spain). Lead and cadmium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 6.94 and 1.68 microg kg(-1) in chicken meat, 5.00 and 5.49 microg kg(-1) in pork meat, 1.91 and 1.90 microg kg(-1) in beef meat and 1.35 and 1.22 microg kg(-1) in lamb meat samples, respectively. Lead was below the detection limit in turkey samples and mean cadmium concentration was 5.49 microg kg(-1). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium in chicken meat product samples were 3.16 and 4.15 microg kg(-1), 4.89 and 6.50 microg kg(-1) in pork meat product, 6.72 and 4.76 microg kg(-1) in beef meat product and 9.12 and 5.98 microg kg(-1) in turkey meat product samples, respectively. The percentage contribution of the two considered metals to provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was calculated for meat and meat products. Statistically significant differences were found for lead content in meats between the chicken and pork groups and the turkey and beef groups, whereas for cadmium concentrations in meats, significant differences were observed between the turkey and chicken, beef and lamb groups. In meat products, no clear differences were observed for lead and cadmium between the various groups.

  9. Lagrangian transport in a microtidal coastal area: the Bay of Palma, island of Mallorca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-Carrasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal transport in the Bay of Palma, a small region in the island of Mallorca, Spain, is characterized in terms of Lagrangian descriptors. The data sets used for this study are the output for two months (one in autumn and one in summer of a high resolution numerical model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System, forced atmospherically and with a spatial resolution of 300 m. The two months were selected because of their different wind regime, which is the main driver of the sea dynamics in this area. Finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs were used to locate semi-persistent Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS and to understand the different flow regimes in the bay. The different wind directions and regularity in the two months have a clear impact on the surface bay dynamics, whereas only topographic features appear clearly in the bottom structures. The fluid interchange between the bay and the open ocean was studied by computing particle trajectories and residence time (RT maps. The escape rate of particles out of the bay is qualitatively different, with a 32% greater escape rate of particles to the ocean in October than in July, owing to the different geometric characteristics of the flow. We show that LCSs separate regions with different transport properties by displaying spatial distributions of residence times on synoptic Lagrangian maps together with the location of the LCSs. Correlations between the time-dependent behavior of FSLE and RT are also investigated, showing a negative dependence when the stirring characterized by FSLE values moves particles in the direction of escape.

  10. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  11. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcover Josep Antoni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs, plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree.

  12. Healthy and unhealthy migrant effect on the mortality of immigrants from wealthy countries residing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma; Martínez, David; Calle, M Elisa; de la Fuente, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This study attempts to identify the possible existence of a healthy migrant effect and an unhealthy migrant effect on the mortality of immigrants from wealthy countries who move to Spain. Immigrants aged 35-64 years from France, Germany, Great Britain and 16 other wealthy OECD countries who resided in Spain were compared with respect to: (1) mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other diseases and (2) employment status, duration of residence, and educational level, in two geographic areas: the "preferred destination area"-the Mediterranean coast, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands-and the rest of Spain. In general, cancer mortality was lower and mortality from cardiovascular disease was higher in immigrants who resided in the preferred destination area than in their countries of origin and than in immigrants who resided in the rest of Spain. Immigrants in the preferred destination area had a higher percentage of retired persons, longer time of residence and a lower percentage of persons with university education. The largest differences between the two areas in cardiovascular and all-disease mortality and in the frequency of the aforementioned sociodemographic characteristics were observed in British immigrants and those from the 16 OECD countries. Possible explanations for these findings are suggested which are compatible with the presence of an unhealthy and/or healthy immigrant bias in the two areas.

  13. Comparación de la flora exótica vascular en sistemas de islas continentales: Cerdeña (Italia y Baleares (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podda, Lina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison of the vascular exotic flora of Sardinia and that of the Balearic Islands, both territories belonging to the Western Mediterranean biogeographic subregion. The study has recorded 531 exotic taxa in Sardinia (18.8% of the total flora while 360 (19% in the Balearic Islands; 10 are new to Sardinia (3 of which for Italy and 29 to the Balearic Islands. The alien flora of Sardinia is included in 99 families; Fabaceae is the richest (49 taxa, followed by Poaceae (33 and Asteraceae (31 while in the Balearic Islands in 90 families, with a predominance of Fabaceae (32, Asteraceae (31 and Poaceae (27. The comparison of the biological spectra reveals that in Sardinia phanerophytes are the most represented in Sardinia and therophytes in the Balearic Islands. A detailed analysis shows that most of the exotic taxa (246 are shared by both territories with a clear dominance of neophytes rather than archaeophytes. A study of the geographical origin shows supremacy of the American element over the Mediterranean. The majority of introduced exotic taxa are a result of intentional human introductions (76% SA, 77% BL, mainly for ornamental use (43% SA, 45% BL. The most occupied habitats are the semi-natural, agricultural and synanthropic for both territories, but attending to invasive plants, coastal habitats in Sardinia and wetlands in the Balearic Islands are the most sensitive. A part of the work deals with the causes of fragility and low resilience of the different habitats.

    Se presenta un estudio comparativo de la flora vascular exótica de Cerdeña y de las Baleares, dos sistemas insulares pertenecientes a la subregión biogeográfica Mediterránea Occidental. En Cerdeña se han contabilizado 531 táxones exóticos (18,8% del total de su flora, mientras que en las Baleares 360 (19%, siendo 10 citas nuevas para Cerdeña (3 de las cuales para Italia y 29 para Baleares. La flora exótica de Cerdeña está incluida en 99

  14. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides.

  15. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  16. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia;

    2016-01-01

    based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  17. Paediatric drug prescribing. A comparison of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, E J; Bergman, U; Dahlström, M

    1989-01-01

    The prescribing of medicines for ambulant children below 14 years of age has been compared between Tenerife (Spain) and Sweden. Data obtained from a random sample of 1327 children in a prospective study in Tenerife were compared with data from 3901 children in a Swedish survey linking diagnosis and therapy. Upper respiratory tract infection was the main diagnosis in both countries and antibiotics was the most frequently prescribed drug group (28.2% in Tenerife and 28.8% in Sweden). Half of the children in Sweden did not receive any medication, but only 10% of those in Tenerife did not receive a prescription. Children who received a prescription on average got 1.4 drugs in Sweden and 2.3 in Spain. Amongst the ten most commonly prescribed products in Sweden there were 11 active pharmacological principles as compared to 25 in Spain. These most frequently used preparations accounted for two thirds of all the prescriptions for children in Sweden and one third in Tenerife. In conclusion, drugs were significantly more often used to treat paediatric outpatients in Tenerife than in Sweden. The prescribing physician in Spain also chose a wider variety of drugs and more commonly used fixed combination products.

  18. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using next-gener

  19. Epidemiological survey of canine heartworm disease on the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands - Spain) between 2000 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Juste, M C; Mellado, I; Morchón, R; Simón, F

    2010-10-11

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is endemic on the island of Gran Canaria. Epidemiological surveys have shown differences in the prevalence of heartworm disease in the canine population of the island between 1989 and 1998. The aim of the present study was to follow-up the prevalence of D. immitis in both the canine population as a whole and the Canarian Warren Hound population on Gran Canaria between 2000 and 2008. Prevalences observed were always significantly higher in the Canarian Warren Hound population than in the entire canine population. A significant decrease in the prevalence (from 30.19% to 19.36%) in the whole population was observed. In the Canarian Warren Hound the prevalence decreased slightly between 2000 and 2007 (40.42-34.65%), rising in 2008 to values higher than those observed at the beginning of follow-up study (41.6%). These changes are mainly attributed to lack of preventive chemotherapy and the prolonged exposure of the Canarian Warren Hound to mosquito bites. As this breed can act as a natural reservoir in Gran Canaria, regular surveillance is needed to detect changes in the epidemiological picture on this island.

  20. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  1. Energetic statistics of Baleares Islands in 1993. Estatistiques energetiques de les Illes Balears 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the energetic and demand. It is focussed to analyze the energetic fuel (natural gas). The environment, and energetic supplies. Statistical data of energetic production, distribution and consumption in 1992 and 1993 are introduced.

  2. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce

  3. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Santana-Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive, acetaminophen (analgesic, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics, carbamazepine (antiepileptic and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory. Solid phase extraction (SPE was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically.

  4. Soil degradation under reclaimed wastewater in arenados (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.; Jimenez, C.; Hernandez-Moreno, J. M.; Diaz, F.

    2009-07-01

    In the Island of Lanzarote, one of the most arid zones of the EU, a traditional farming system based on the soil mulching with basaltic tephra, locally known as arenados, was developed since the 18th century. This dry-framing system accounts currently for more than 21% of the island surface. However, in the last decades, this system has been transformed with the incorporation of irrigation, due to the availability of new non-conventional water resources (desalinised and reclaimed municipal wastewater). (Author)

  5. competidores, Islas Canarias e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano Jiménez Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio exploratorio cualitativo y cuantitativo, desde el punto de vista del marketing experiencial, de la visita a los stands de dos destinos similares en cuanto a su oferta turística principal (las Islas Canarias y las Islas Baleares en la Feria de Turismo Internacional (FITUR. Los resultados confirman que el marketing experiencial no es un área de gestión específica en la promoción de los destinos analizados, aunque las evidencias empíricas demuestran que existe una relación positiva y moderada entre la experiencia vivida en el stand (actividades emocionales e intelectuales desarrolladas dentro del stand y la intención de visitar el destino.

  6. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain: the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores. The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  7. Impact of environmental factors on the spectral characteristics of lava surfaces:field spectrometry of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Long Li; Carmen Solana; Frank Canters; Jonathan C.-W. Chan; Matthieu Kervyn

    2015-01-01

    We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen coverage were documented at each measured site. Spectral properties vary with age and morphology of lava. Pre-historical lavas with no biological coverage show a prominent increase in spect...

  8. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  9. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polifrone, Milena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer.

  11. Comments on Uncertainty in Groundwater Governance in the Volcanic Canary Islands, Spain

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    Emilio Custodio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and accuracy and addressing the related economic and social aspects involved. Reducing uncertainty has a cost that may not be justified by the improvement that is obtainable, but that has to be known to make the right decisions. With this idea, this paper contributes general comments on the evaluation of groundwater resources in the semiarid Canary Islands and on some of the main sources of uncertainty, but a full treatment is not attempted, nor how to reduce it. Although the point of view is local, these comments may help to address similar situations on other islands where similar problems appear. A consequence of physical and hydrological uncertainty is that different hydrogeological and water resource studies and evaluations may yield different results. Understanding and coarsely evaluating uncertainty helps in reducing administrative instability, poor decisions that may harm groundwater property rights, the rise of complaints and the sub-optimal use of the scarce water resources available in semiarid areas. Transparency and honesty are needed, but especially a clear understanding of what numbers mean and the uncertainty around them, to act soundly and avoid conflicting and damaging rigid attitudes. However, the different situations could condition that what may be good in a place, may not always be the case in other places.

  12. Unusual Vermamoeba Vermiformis Strain Isolated from Snow in Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

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    Maria Reyes-Batlle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. Thermophilic amoebae are among the most common FLA in water bodies, being Vermamoeba vermiformis one of the most common species reported worldwide from these sources. Interestingly, V. vermiformis has often been reported to survive at high temperatures and osmotic pressure worldwide.Materials and Methods: In this study, snow samples were collected from Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands during the winter season of 2014. The samples were culture on non nutrient agar plates and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37ºC.Results: Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirmed that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation from such an inusual habitat (low temperatures and high altitude and the first report of these species in the Canary islands.

  13. A multisystemic Acanthamoeba infection in a dog in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-10-15

    A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain.

  14. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory

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    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose

  15. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain using extreme value theory

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    R. Sobradelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the

  16. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Ibero-Balearic Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

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    Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Perea, Silvia; Doadrio, Ignacio; Amaro, Rafaela; San Miguel, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic isolation and drift may imperil peripheral populations of wide-ranging species more than central ones. Therefore, information about species genetic variability and population structure is invaluable for conservation managers. The Iberian populations of three-spined stickleback lie at the southwestern periphery of the European distribution of Gasterosteus aculeatus. This teleost is a protected species in Portugal and Spain and local extinctions have been reported in both countries during the last decades. Our objectives were (i) to determine whether the Iberian populations of G. aculeatus are unique or composed of any of the major evolutionary lineages previously identified and (ii) to assess the evolutionary potential of these peripheral populations. We genotyped 478 individuals from 17 sites at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic variability and differentiation of the Ibero-Balearic populations. We also sequenced 1,165 bp of the mitochondrial genome in 331 of those individuals in order to complement the estimates of genetic diversity in the Ibero-Balearic region. We predicted the evolutionary potential of the different sites analysed based on the contribution of each of them to total allelic/mitochondrial diversity. An intraspecific phylogeny at European level was reconstructed using our data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (755 bp) and published sequences. The so-called Transatlantic, European and Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages were found to be present in the Ibero-Balearic region. Their phylogeography suggests a history of multiple colonisations. The nuclear results show, however, a strong correlation between population structure and drainage system. The following basins should be prioritised by conservation policies in order to preserve those populations with the highest evolutionary potential: the Portuguese Vouga and Tagus as well as the Spanish Majorca and Limia. Maintenance of their connectivity, control of

  17. Check list of the Iberian and Balearic orchids. 2. Ophrys L. - Spiranthes Rich.

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    Gamarra, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Ophrys to Spiranthes, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Lectotypes for Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot. and O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot are designated hereSe presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Ophrys a Spiranthes, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ambito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinonimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico. Se designan los lectotipos de Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot, y O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot.

  18. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  19. Experiences on Altimeter Calibration at Ibiza Island and Cape of Begur (Spain)

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    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Martinez Harcia, M.; Ortiz Castello, M. A.; Talaya, J.; Baron, A.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Martín Davila, J.; Garate, J.; Bonnefond, P.; Garcia, C.

    2006-07-01

    Three preliminary camp aigns for TOPEX /POSEIDON (T/P) wer e made in March 1999 and July 2000 and for JASON-1 in August 2002, in the NW Mediterran ean Sea at th e Begur Cape area. Dir ect abso lute altimeter calibration , and mapping of the sea surface, w ere made in these camp aigns from dir ect overflights using GPS buoys with a toroidal design performed at the I CC based in the orig inal design of the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder and a estimation of the TOPEX A lt- B bias w as made. A Spanish JASON-1 geoid gradien t campaign with Fench support has been made in June 2003 at the Ibiza island in the NW Mediterr anean Sea. Th e main objectiv e has b een to map w ith a new d esign ed, builded and calibrated GPS catamar an, the lo cal geoid gradien t in three ar eas around Ibiza island under the ascending (187) and descending (248) Jason-1ground tracks. The catamaran equ ipped with two GPS antennas to perform continuous sea lev el measur ements was towed by the Patro l Dev a from th e Span ish N avy. Five GPS reference stations were dep loyed on Ibiza island: one in Portinatx, two in San Anton io and two in Ibiza. The marin e geo id has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from Ibiza and San An tonio h arbours to off- shore altimetric data. In th e framework of the campaign, the levelling of the Ibiza and San Anton io tide gauges to the r espective GPS mark ers w as p erformed. We present synth esis of the resu lts obtained from Topex/Poseidon and th e first r esults on Jason-1 altimeter calibration using the direct measurements from GPS buoys and the derived marin e geoid. Th e Ibiza results agree relativ ely w ell with resu lts ob tained at Corsica, Harvest and Bass Strait calibration permanen t sites. Moreov er, the geod etic activities (e.g., GPS, levelling) has p ermitted to build a very accurate (few mm) local n etwork link ed to th e European one, w ith a reference frame compatible with th e satellite altimetry missions (ITRF2000). The GPS

  20. New structural, hydrogeological and hydrothermal insights on Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Finizola, A.; Torres, P.; Víctor Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; Aragó, S.; Berthod, C.; Ibarra, P.; Geyer Traver, A.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the link between shallow structure and volcanism is a topic of interest in Volcanology. We carried out a geophysical study devoted to the characterization of the major structural limits influencing volcanic hydrothermal activity and underground meteoric circulations in La Palma (Canary Islands). Since 1 Ma volcanic activity concentrates at the southern half of the island, on the Cumbre Vieja volcanic rift-zone. During the 1949 eruption a N-S fault system, facing west, developed in the summit area of Cumbre Vieja. This was interpreted as the surface expression of an incipient deformation zone on the western flank. The distribution of the recent activity and faulting indicate that a discontinuity may be present beneath the western flank of Cumbre Vieja, along which a future collapse may occur. Our study, which combines the application of self-potential and soil temperature measurements, provides new information to characterize and locate the limits guiding upward or downward fluid circulation and possibly associated to future failures and potential landslides on the Cumbre Vieja rift-zone. We found a clear asymmetry of the self-potential signal between the eastern and the western flanks of Cumbre Vieja. Strong infiltration of meteoric water seems to affect most of the summit axis while we observe poor variation in the self-potential values on the western flank. This could be explained by a constant thickness of the vadose zone on this flank, i.e., the presence of an impermeable layer at constant depth. This layer could correspond to the landslide interface associated to the previous Cumbre Nueva edifice destruction, on which Cumbre Vieja is currently growing. This constant self-potential pattern is interrupted by at least one other main infiltration zone, near Tajuya volcano, at 1200 m a.s.l. on the western flank, where field observation allowed identifying a small horst-graben system. However it is not clear if this fault system results from local

  1. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  2. Genetic diversity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Belinda; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Méndez-Álvarez, Sebastián

    2012-04-01

    With the recent detection of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections in patients lacking health care-related risk factors, the term community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) has been become widely recognised. Many cases of CA-MRSA spreading to the community have been described worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the features of CA-MRSA isolates from Tenerife Island. Toward this end, one hundred MRSA isolates were collected from eight different health regions, and their molecular features were investigated. This study revealed a wide variety of MRSA clones, including an emergent ST: ST1434 (CC8) and two new spa types, t7575 (ST125) and t7678 (ST22). The PVL genes were found in only five isolates belonging to unrelated lineages, ST8, ST30 and ST22, which could indicate at least three independent introductions of PVL(+) strains to Tenerife. Moreover, we detected that hospital MRSA clones, like EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, had spread to the community and are now circulating in both environments. Therefore, in our study, the CDC's rules were not specific enough to distinguish CA-MRSA from HA-MRSA. Thus, we think that the current epidemiological information is not enough to discriminate between both MRSAs, and it is necessary for prevention guidelines to include the routine determination of at least the genetic background, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and the PVL genes of each MRSA isolate.

  3. A transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Noé F; Joseph, Sunitha; González-Barrio, David; Cabezón, Oscar; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian; Boadella, Mariana

    2013-12-27

    The Canary Islands contain the most important dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the European Union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental Europe and Latin America. We investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 Canarian camel sera. Selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against Bluetongue virus (BTV; 0%), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV; 0%), Camelpox virus (CPV; 8% by serum neutralization, 16% by ELISA), Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV, 0%), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV; 0%) and West Nile Fever virus (WNV; 3%), the bacterial pathogens Anaplasma sp. (3%), Brucella sp. (1%), Coxiella burnetii (19%), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP; 22%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC; 10%) and Rickettsia sp. (83%), and the parasites Toxoplasma gondii (36%) and Neospora caninum (86%). The most remarkable findings were the detection of antibodies against CPV and the high antibody prevalence against C. burnetii, Rickettsia sp., T. gondii and N. caninum. By PCR, we found no C. burnetii, N. caninum and Anaplasma sp. DNA in the tested samples. However, Rickettsia sp. DNA was detected in six antibody positive tested samples. These results should be taken into consideration in order to implement adequate control measures and avoid a potential dissemination of infections to other territories.

  4. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  5. Church and convent of San Lorenzo (Valencia, former site of the franciscan province of St. Joseph to Valencia, Aragón and Balearics

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    Albert Ferrer Orts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the ancient temple of San Lorenzo in the city of Valencia, its art-historical over eight centuries and also the convent annex vicissitudes in the last century welcomed the Franciscans and served as headquarters Valencia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands. As recently it has been closed and it is expected to return to practice church as a parish.

  6. Economic Assessment of Opportunities for Managed Aquifer Recharge Techniques in Spain Using an Advanced Geographic Information System (GIS

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    Enrique Fernández Escalante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic aspects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR techniques considered in the DINA-MAR (Depth Investigation of New Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in Spain project. This project firstly identified the areas with potential for MAR for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands of Spain using characteristics derived from 23 GIS layers of physiographic features, spanning geology, topography, land use, water sources and including existing MAR sites. The work involved evaluations for 24 different types (techniques of MAR projects, over this whole area accounting for the physiographic features that favor each technique. The scores for each feature for each type of technique were set based on practical considerations and scores were accumulated for each location. A weighting was assigned to each feature by “training” the integrated score for each technique across all the features with the existing MAR sites overlay, so that opportunities for each technique could be more reliably predicted. It was found that there were opportunities for MAR for 16% of the area evaluated and that the additional storage capacity of aquifers in these areas was more than 2.5 times the total storage capacity of all existing surface water dams in Spain. The second part of this work, which is considered internationally unique, was to use this GIS methodology to evaluate the economics of the various MAR techniques across the region. This involved determining an economic index related to key physiographic features and applying this as an additional GIS overlay. Again this was trained by use of economic information for each of the existing MAR sites for which economic data and supply or storage volume were available. Two simpler methods were also used for comparison. Finally, the mean costs of MAR facilities and construction projects were determined based on the origin of the water. Maps of potential sites for Managed Aquifer

  7. Vertical motion and chlorophyll patterns from a high-resolution glider experiment in the Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Simon; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a multi-platform experiment carried out in May 2009 along the northwest coast of Mallorca Island. The strategy allowed to investigate the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes associated with the Balearic Current, the main oceanographic feature of the area. A mission using 2 Slocum gliders was performed simultaneously in combination with other type of measurements (drifters, CTDs from ship and remote sensing data). In this experiment the coastal glider operated between surface and 200 m while the deep (1000 m maximum depth), was set-up to reach only 600 m. The autonomous platforms covered an area of 50x40 km2 collecting 811 hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and bio-geochemical (turbidity, oxygen and chlorophyll) profiles. The horizontal resolution in the along track direction was around 0.3 km for the coastal glider and around 1.1 km for the deep glider and about 4 km between gliders tracks. The preliminary analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data reveals the presence of an anomalous anticyclonic eddy near the northwest coast of Mallorca island of about 60 km diameter. This structure blocked the usual path of the Balearic Current along the coast, deflecting the main north-eastward flow to the north. The relative fresh waters from Atlantic origin (37.4 PSU) found in previous studies near the coast were not detected in this experiment. Instead, the signature of the Mediterranean Water (salinity of 38 PSU and higher), typical from open ocean water, was dominant in the study area. The influence of this anomalous anticyclonic eddy on the chlorophyll distribution is investigated diagnosing the quasi-geostrophic vertical motion.

  8. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  9. Municipal distribution of breast cancer mortality among women in Spain

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    García-Pérez Javier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain has one of the lowest rates of breast cancer in Europe, though estimated incidence has risen substantially in recent decades. Some years ago, the Spanish Cancer Mortality Atlas showed Spain as having a heterogeneous distribution of breast cancer mortality at a provincial level. This paper describes the municipal distribution of breast cancer mortality in Spain and its relationship with socio-economic indicators. Methods Breast cancer mortality was modelled using the Besag-York-Molliè autoregressive spatial model, including socio-economic level, rurality and percentage of population over 64 years of age as surrogates of reproductive and lifestyle risk factors. Municipal relative risks (RRs were independently estimated for women aged under 50 years and for those aged 50 years and over. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed RR estimates and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1. Results In women aged 50 years and over, mortality increased with socio-economic level, and was lower in rural areas and municipalities with higher proportion of old persons. Among women aged under 50 years, rurality was the only statistically significant explanatory variable. For women older than 49 years, the highest relative risks were mainly registered for municipalities located in the Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia and Valencia, plus others around the Ebro River. In premenopausal women, the pattern was similar but tended to be more homogeneous. In mainland Spain, a group of municipalities with high RRs were located in Andalusia, near the left bank of the Guadalquivir River. Conclusion As previously observed in other contexts, mortality rates are positively related with socio-economic status and negatively associated with rurality and the presence of a higher proportion of people over age 64 years. Taken together, these variables represent the influence of lifestyle factors which have

  10. Diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release 2015 surveys from the summit cone of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Halliwell, Simon; Sharp, Emerson; Butters, Damaris; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Cook, Jenny; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The summit cone of Teide volcano (Spain) is characterized by the presence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground, and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around this area. The temperature of the fumaroles (83° C) corresponds to the boiling point of water at discharge conditions. Water is the major component of these fumarolic emissions, followed by CO2, N2, H2, H2S, HCl, Ar, CH4, He and CO, a composition typical of hydrothermal fluids. Previous diffuse CO2 surveys have shown to be an important tool to detect early warnings of possible impending volcanic unrests at Tenerife Island (Melián et al., 2012; Pérez et al., 2013). In July 2015, a soil and fumarole gas survey was undertaken in order to estimate the diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release from the summit cone of Teide volcano. A diffuse CO2 emission survey was performed selecting 170 observation sites according to the accumulation chamber method. Soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2d-1) up to 10,672 g m-2d-1, with an average value of 601 g m-2d-1. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. Measurement of soil CO2 efflux allowed an estimation of 162 ± 14 t d-1 of deep seated derived CO2. To calculate the steam discharge associated with this volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 output, we used the average H2O/CO2 mass ratio equal to 1.19 (range, 0.44-3.42) as a representative value of the H2O/CO2 mass ratios for Teide fumaroles. The resulting estimate of the steam flow associated with the gas flux is equal to 193 t d-1. The condensation of this steam results in a thermal energy release of 5.0×1011J d-1 for Teide volcano or a total heat flow of 6 MWt. The diffuse gas emissions and thermal energy released from the summit of Teide volcano are comparable to those observed at other volcanoes. Sustained surveillance using these methods will be valuable for monitoring the activity of Teide volcano.

  11. Xenophobic discourse and agenda-setting. A case study in the press of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Rodrigo F. Rodríguez Borges, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its formulation by McCombs and Shaw in the 70s, the concept of agenda-setting has proved to be of relevant heuristic value to explore the relationship between the media agenda and the public agenda and the processes of transference between them both. Taking this idea as a reference and basing on the tools of the analysis discourse by Van Dijk, this article shows the strategy of informative dosage developed by the newspaper El Día from Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain to turn the irregular immigration into the main issue in the civil agenda. The case study is focused on the support given by the newspaper to the call for a demonstration supporting a law of residence as the solution to the arrival of immigrants to the islands. We identified the writing units addressed to the demonstration call, the deliberate chronological sequence used to inform the readers and the editorial declarations supporting the initiative. The analysis lets us appreciate a paradigmatic example of the power of the media to set the political agenda and take in the political parties and the main institutions.Resumen: Desde su formulación en la década de los 70 por McCombs y Shaw, el concepto de 'fijación de agenda' ha demostrado un relevante valor heurístico para explorar las relaciones entre la agenda de los medios y la agenda pública y los procesos de transferencia entre ambas esferas. Tomando como referencia esta noción y apoyándose en las herramientas del análisis del discurso desarrolladas por Van Dijk, este artículo muestra la estrategia de dosificación informativa seguida por el periódico El Día, de Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España para convertir la inmigración irregular en una cuestión central en la agenda ciudadana. El estudio de caso se centra en el apoyo prestado por el diario a la convocatoria de una manifestación ciudadana en favor de una ley de residencia como solución a la llegada de inmigrantes a Canarias. En el estudio se procedió a

  12. Changes and perspectives in agricultural land-use and their geoecological consequences for the mountain of Mallorca island

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    Salva Tomás, Pere A.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in land-use, caused by the impact of mass tourism which has occurred in the Balearics since the 50s, are analyzed in the Serra de Tramuntana of the Mallorca island (Balearic Islands, Spain. The result has been a disarticulation of the traditional territorial organization based on agro-silvo-pastoral activities. New activities are now appearing, related to leisure and recreation, whilst the territorial aptitude of the Serra de Tramuntana, with regard to its geoecological characteristics is basically transformed into a large natural park.

    [es] Se analizan los cambios de uso del suelo en la Serra de Tramuntana de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España ocasionados por el impacto del turismo de masas que se desarrolla en las Baleares a partir de los años 50. El resultado ha sido una desarticulación del modelo de organización territorial tradicional así como de la producción agraria que se basaba sobre las actividades agro-silvo-pastorales. En la actualidad aparecen nuevas actividades relacionadas con el ocio y la recreación, mientras que la apritud territorial de la Serra de Tramuntana en función de sus características se encamina básicamente hacia su transformación en un amplio parque natural.
    [fr] On analyse les changements de l'utilisation du sol dans la Serra de Tramuntana de l'Ile de Majorque (Iles Baléares, Espagne provoqués par l'impact du tourisme de masse qui s'est développé aux Baléares à partir des années 1950. Le résultat est une désarticulation du modèle traditionnel d'organisation territoriale, ainsi que de la production agricole basée sur les activités agro-sylvo-pastorales. Actuellement, de nouvelles activités apparaissent liées aux loisirs et aux besoins récréatifs, tandis que l'aptitude territoriales de la Serra de Tramuntana d'après ses caractéristiques géo-écologiques s'oriente fondamentalement vers sa transformation en un vaste parc naturel.

  13. Los hemeróbidos de la Península Ibérica y Baleares (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae

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    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution revises the brown-lacewing species included in the fauna of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands which, to date, is represented by 40 species belonging to 7 genera. After a diagnosis of the family and its paleontological history and distribution, some general data on its morphology and biology, juvenile stages and behavior are examined, and a brief introduction on knowledge of the history of the family, particularly in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, is considered. A list of relevant species, an identification key to the genera, subgenera and species recorded in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, and a general key to their larval stages, are included. For each species present in the study area, all existing bibliographic references, both with the currently accepted name, their synonyms and/or any other nomenclatorial combinations under which they have been recorded, are reviewed and anotated. Also considered for each species are the present general distribution, and both the known and new recorded data of external and genital morphology, as well as their variability, juvenile stages, biology, phenology and altitudinal and geographic distribution in the Peninsula and Balearic Archipelago, on the basis of 5.338 studied specimens, including new unrecorded material for 10 species (with 341 newly studied specimens.Se revisan las especies de hemeróbidos presentes en la fauna de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares donde, hasta la fecha, está representada por 40 especies pertenecientes a 7 géneros. Tras una diagnosis de la familia y algunos elementos sobre su historial paleontológico y su distribución, se aportan unos datos generales sobre su morfología y su biología, sus estadios juveniles y comportamiento, y se comenta una breve introducción sobre la historia en el conocimiento de la familia, y en particular en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Se incluye una lista de las especies

  14. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  16. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  17. Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group.

  18. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  19. Seafloor Mapping of the Southeast Iberian Continental Slope and Western Algero-Balearic Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastras, G.; Canals, M.; León, C.; Elvira, E.; Pascual, L.; Muñoz, A.; de Cárdenas, E.; Acosta, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present the multibeam bathymetry and derived maps of the southeast Iberian margin from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata, 37º35'N to 35º45'N and 2º10'W to 0º20'E, from the coastline down to the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain at depths exceeding 2,600 m. Data were obtained during different surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2007 on board R/V Vizconde de Eza with a Simrad EM300 multibeam echo-sounder, as part of the CAPESME Project, a collaboration between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and General Secretariat of Fisheries (SGP), aiming at creating maps of the fishing grounds of the Mediterranean continental margins of Spain. The edition of the maps has been carried out within the Complementary Action VALORPLAT (Scientific valorisation of multibeam bathymetry data from the Spanish continental shelf and slope), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity. Multibeam bathymetry data from the continental shelf obtained within the ESPACE project, also in a cooperative frame between IEO and SGP, completes the whole picture from the coastline to the deep abyssal plain. The map series is constituted by a general map at 1:400,000 scale and 14 detailed maps at 1:75,000 scale, which include inset maps on slope gradients and seafloor nature (rock or sediment type), the later obtained with rock dredges and Shipeck sediment dredges. Both the detailed maps and the general map are available in paper print, and the whole collection is also distributed in an edited USB. The geological features displayed in the different maps include the continental shelf, with abundant geomorphic features indicative of past sea-level changes, the continental slope carved by a large number of submarine canyons and gullies, including Palos, Tiñoso, Cartagena Este, Cartagena Oeste, Águilas, Almanzora, Alias, Garrucha and Gata submarine canyons, the Mazarrón, Palomares and Al-Mansour escarpments of probable tectonic origin, the Abubácer, Maimonides and Yusuf ridges, the

  20. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  1. Updated check-list of iberian-balearic Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    García Prieto, Francisca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The check-list of species in the Tribe Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Aphidinae recorded to date from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Isles is presented, 139 species are listed. A list of the countries (Andorra, Spain and Portugal and provinces (Spanish or districts (Portuguese where each species and subspecies is known is also included. Five species are mentioned for the first time in Iberian-Balearic territory: Aphis callunae Theobald, A. comosa (Börner, A. lantanae Koch (with the subspecies A. lantanae coriaria Börner, A. erigerontis Holman and Schizaphis longicaudata Hille Ris Lambers. Nine species have been removed from the check-list: Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach, A. genistae Scopoli, A. pilosellae (Börner, A. salsolae (Börner, A. striata Hille Ris Lambers, Brachyunguis zygophylli (Nevsky, B. suaedus (Paik, Protaphis centaurea (Gómez-Menor and Schizaphis pilipes (Ossiannilsson. Aphis ruborum Börner & Schilder, 1931 is recognized as the valid name for Aphis ruborum Börner, 1932 syn. nov. and Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (Schrank for Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker. Two new combinations are established: Xerobion blascoi comb. nov. for Aphis blascoi García Prieto & Sanchís Segovia and Xerobion brutii comb. nov. for Absinthaphis brutii Barbagallo. Five binomens have been re-established: A. althaeae (Nevsky, A. ballotae Passerini, A. longirostris (Börner, A. ononidis (Schouteden and A. picridis (Börner to replace A. davletshinae Hille Ris Lambers, A. balloticola Szelegiewicz, A. longirostrata Hille Ris Lambers, A. kaltenbachi Hille Ris Lambers and A. stroyani Szelegiewicz, respectively. The life cycle of Aphis stachydis Mordvilko is given and its males and oviparous females are described. Taxonomic

  2. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Martínez-de la Puente Josué

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both

  3. The striking geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Spain: environmental hypotheses revisited

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    Ramis Rebeca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is decreasing in most countries. While socioeconomic development is the main factor to which this decline has been attributed, enormous differences among countries and within regions are still observed, with the main contributing factors remaining elusive. This study describes the geographic distribution of gastric cancer mortality at a municipal level in Spain, from 1994-2003. Methods Smoothed relative risks of stomach cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag-York-Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Maps depicting relative risk (RR estimates and posterior probabilities of RR being greater than 1 were plotted. Results From 1994-2003, 62184 gastric cancer deaths were registered in Spain (7 percent of all deaths due to malignant tumors. The geographic pattern was similar for both sexes. RRs displayed a south-north and coast-inland gradient, with lower risks being observed in Andalusia, the Mediterranean coastline, the Balearic and Canary Islands and the Cantabrian seaboard. The highest risk was concentrated along the west coast of Galicia, broad areas of the Castile & Leon Autonomous community, the province of Cáceres in Extremadura, Lleida and other areas of Catalonia. Conclusion In Spain, risk of gastric cancer mortality displays a striking geographic distribution. With some differences, this persistent and unique pattern is similar across the sexes, suggesting the implication of environmental exposures from sources, such as diet or ground water, which could affect both sexes and delimited geographic areas. Also, the higher sex-ratios found in some areas with high risk of smoking-related cancer mortality in males support the role of tobacco in gastric cancer etiology.

  4. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory, and the recent volcanic eruption of El Hierro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 years, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterise the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. Shortly after the publication of this method an eruption in the island of El Hierro took place for the first time in historical times, supporting our method and contributing towards the validation of

  5. El viento y la covada. Mitos y ritos de las Baleares

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    Roque, Maria-Ángels

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on her fieldwork in the Balearle islands, the author argues that the couvade has existed in them until recently, mainly as a jural rite by which a man is socially recognized as the father of a newborn. The social function of the custom reinforces the mythical and ritual aspects that bestow upon certain natural elements the capacity of constituting the personality of a human-being.A través del trabajo de campo en las Baleares y Pitiusas, se expone en el presente artículo que la covada ha existido en estas islas hasta fecha relativamente reciente, y que supone, primordialmente, un ritual de carácter jurídico en el cual el padre es socialmente reconocido como progenitor del recién nacido. Esta característica sociológica refuerza, por otro lado, los aspectos míticos y rituales que confieren a determinados elementos naturales las características anímicas constitutivas de la persona.

  6. The Balearic herpetofauna: a species update and a review on the evidence

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    Samuel Pinya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we update the current list of amphibian and reptile fauna present in the Balearic Islands, probably the most outstanding case in the Mediterranean and of the most in the world where massive species introduction is in conflict with the survivorship of highly restricted endemic taxa. Resulting of a long term evolution in insularity, endemic herpetofauna was already decimated during the Pleistocene but, after the human colonisation of the archipelago, the introduction of alien species, passive or deliberate, has been provoking new extinctions and range retractions in the native herpetofauna. Such process is not interrupted but has even intensified during the last years. The current species list is composed by five amphibians (one native and 21 reptiles (2 native. A critical review of the evidence on extinctions and introductions is provided together with the conservation implications. Compared to the last review (Mayol, 1985 six new reptile species are now naturalised or are in process of naturalization, colubrid snakes constituting the most conflicting element due to their predator role.

  7. The Balearic herpetofauna: A species update and a review on the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pinya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Here, we update the current list of amphibian and reptile fauna present in the Balearic Islands, probably the most outstanding case in the Mediterranean and of the most in the world where massive species introduction is in conflict with the survivorship of highly endemic taxa. Resulting of a long term evolution in insularity, endemic herpetofauna was already decimated during the Pleistocene but, after the human colonisation of the archipelago, the introduction of alien species, passive or deliberate, has been provoking new extinctions and range retractions in the native herpetofauna. Such process is not interrupted but has even intensified during the last years. The current species list is composed by five amphibians (one native and 21 reptiles (2 native. A critical review of the evidence on extinctions and introductions is provided together with the conservation implications. Compared to the last review (Mayol, 1985 six new reptile species are now naturalised or are in process of naturalization, colubrid snakes constituting the most dangerous element due to its predator role.

  8. Subsidence and current strain patterns on Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) derived from continuous GNSS time series (2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alzola, A.; Martí, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Gil, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present the current crustal deformation model of Tenerife Island derived from daily CGPS time series processing (2008-2015). Our results include the position time series, a global velocity estimation and the current crustal deformation on the island in terms of strain tensors. We detect a measurable subsidence of 1.5-2 mm/yr. in the proximities of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo (CTPV) complex. These values are higher in the central part of the complex and could be explained by a lateral spreading of the elastic lithosphere combined with the effect of the drastic descent of the water table in the island experienced during recent decades. The results show that the Anaga massif is stable in both its horizontal and vertical components. The strain tensor analysis shows a 70 nstrain/yr. E-W compression in the central complex, perpendicular to the 2004 sismo-volcanic area, and 50 nstrain/yr. SW-NE extension towards the Northeast ridge. The residual velocity and strain patterns coincide with a decline in volcanic activity since the 2004 unrest.

  9. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance.

  10. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes.

  11. GIS methods applied to the degradation of monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of the Holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Aulinas, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Gimeno, D.; Guillou, H.; Paris, R.

    2011-11-01

    Modeling of volcanic morphometry provides reliable measurements of parameters that assist in the determination of volcanic landform degradation. Variations of the original morphology enable the understanding of patterns affecting erosion and their development, facilitating the assessment of associated hazards. A total of 24 volcanic Holocene eruptions were identified in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). 87% of these eruptions occurred in a wet environment while the rest happened in a dry environment. 45% of Holocene eruptions are located along short barrancos (S-type, less than 10 km in length), 20% along large barrancos (L-type, 10-17 km in length) and 35% along extra-large barrancos (XL-type, more than 17 km in length). The erosional history of Holocene volcanic edifices is in the first stage of degradation, with a geomorphic signature characterized by a fresh, young cone with a sharp profile and a pristine lava flow. After intensive field work, a careful palaeo-geomorphological reconstruction of the 24 Holocene eruptions of Gran Canaria was conducted in order to obtain the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) of the pre- and post-eruption terrains. From the difference between these DTMs, the degradation volume and the incision rate were obtained. The denudation of volcanic cones and lava flows is relatively independent both their geographical location and the climatic environment. However, local factors, such as pre-eruption topography and ravine type, have the greatest influence on the erosion of Holocene volcanic materials in Gran Canaria. Although age is a key factor to help understand the morphological evolution of monogenetic volcanic fields, the Gran Canaria Holocene volcanism presented in this paper demonstrates that local and regional factors may determine the lack of correlation between morphometric parameters and age. Consequently, the degree of transformation of the volcanic edifices evolves, in many cases, independently of their age.

  12. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  13. Changes in Al and Fe associated with amorphous soil minerals over one year after a wildfire at Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Notario

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous-linked Al, Fe and Si were determined both in burned and unburnt soil samples after a wildfire close to Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain that affected 7.1 ha of high mountain Teide broom scrub along four successive samplings held in September 2003 (three months after the wildfire, February 2004, June 2004 and October 2004. Soils in the area are Lithic Xerorthents, with a scarcely developed AC-type profile. The chemical elements under study were extracted using selective dissolutions (0.2M acid ammonium oxalate and 0.1N sodium pyrophosphate, and determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The average contents of total amorphous Al (oxalate-extractable and organo-metallic complexes-bound Al (pyrophosphate extractable were significantly higher in burned samples along the study. Also, the oxalate-extractable Al varied significantly along the different samplings, and so consequently did the Alp:Alox ratio. A progressive decrease in the Al:Si ratio in allophanes was also found throughout the study period. No differences were found for oxalate-extractable Fe, either between sample groups or samplings, which was also applicable to the (Alox+0.5Feox percentage.

  14. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Feliu, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae.

  15. A biological quality index for volcanic Andisols and Aridisols (Canary Islands, Spain): variations related to the ecosystem degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cecilia María; Santana, Bayanor; Mora, Juan Luis; Notario, Jesús Santiago; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-05-25

    The aim of this work is to identify indicators of biological activity in soils from the Canary Islands, by studying the variation of selected biological parameters related to the processes of deforestation and accelerated soil degradation affecting the Canarian natural ecosystems. Ten plots with different degrees of maturity/degradation have been selected in three typical habitats in the Canary Islands: laurel forest, pine forest and xerophytic scrub with Andisols and Aridisols as the most common soils. The studied characteristics in each case include total organic carbon, field soil respiration, mineralized carbon after laboratory incubation, microbial biomass carbon, hot water-extractable carbon and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. A Biological Quality Index (BQI) has been designed on the basis of a regression model using these variables, assuming that the total soil organic carbon content is quite stable in nearly mature ecosystems. Total carbon in mature ecosystems has been related to significant biological variables (hot water-extractable carbon, soil respiration and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), accounting for nearly 100% of the total variance by a multiple regression analysis. The index has been calculated as the ratio of the value calculated from the regression model and the actual measured value. The obtained results show that soils in nearly mature ecosystems have BQI values close to unit, whereas those in degraded ecosystems range between 0.24 and 0.97, depending on the degradation degree.

  16. Genetic study of the population of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): protein markers and review of classical polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, P; Esteban, E; Vives, S; Valveny, N; Toja, D I; Gonzalez-Reimers, E

    1997-03-01

    Data on six protein polymorphisms (19 alleles) from the human population of Tenerife are presented and discussed along with other classical markers in relation to the origin of the Canarians. Genetic influences from three population groups were considered: the Iberians, and the Berbers and non-Berbers (Arabs) from north Africa. The systems examined show the Tenerife population lies within the limits of variation described for various Iberian groups, with a slight tendency towards the characteristics of north African populations. When blood groups, red cell enzymes and serum protein data were considered, the similarity of the Canary population to Iberians seems strengthened (70% estimated contribution of Iberian peninsula genes to the present-day Canarian pool), while some relation with north African groups is shown. Genetic distances between Canarians and Arabs and Canarians and Berbers are lower than those between the two north African groups, indicating a relative and comparable contribution of each to the present-day gene pool of the Canarian population. The Arab contribution could be attributable to the slaves who were introduced to these islands after the conquest in the 15th century, while the Berber contribution could be the remnants of the extinct aboriginal peoples of the islands (Guanches) or a more recent immigration due to slavery. Genetic data do not allow us to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  17. Contribution of collagen stable isotope biogeochemistry to the paleobiology of extinct endemic vertebrates from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, H; Michaux, J; Billiou, D; Castanet, J; Garcìa-Talavera, F

    2003-09-01

    The paleodiet and paleoenvironmental context of two extinct species from Tenerife island, one giant rat Canariomys bravoi and one giant lizard Gallotia goliath, have been investigated using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fossil bone collagen. Preliminary to this study, a calibration of the isotopic variations of bone collagen from modern Rat Rattus rattus, Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and Lizard Gallotia galotti relative to environmental conditions on Tenerife Islands has been attempted. No clear relationship could be found between collagen delta13C and delta15N values and aridity; the only relevant factors seem to be seashore proximity for rat, and the relative amount of C3 and CAM plants. It seems that anthropic activities have interfered with the expected relationships between collagen isotopic compositions and environmental conditions. Most fossil specimens yielded well preserved collagen. The isotopic composition of giant rat and giant lizard collagen suggest a purely C3 environment, possibly more humid than today on Tenerife. Large ranges of nitrogen isotopic compositions, especially within giant rats, may be due to local environmental conditions. Further work is needed in order to provide more valuable paleobiological information in order to better understand the role of environmental factors in the evolution and extinction of insular endemic species on Tenerife.

  18. SWRO feed water quality improvement using subsurface intakes in Oman, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-10-01

    Water quality sampling and analysis conducted at four global locations, along the shorelines of the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Caribbean Sea, demonstrated that subsurface intakes (wells) provide a robust degree of feed water treatment close to that provided by energy-intensive, conventional pretreatment systems. SDI values were reduced in virtually all cases to below 3. In vertical wells, from 70 to 100% of the TEP and 50% of the TOC and DOC found in natural seawater were removed in the aquifer. Reduction in the concentration of the organic fractions was selective based on molecular weight with the biopolymers nearly fully removed. Humic substances, building blocks, and light organic substances were removed at lesser percentages. Site geology was not the predominant factor affecting the removal efficiency, but the length of the flow path from the sea to the wells and the hydraulic retention time appear to be most significant. A comparison between vertical wells, a tunnel intake system, and a horizontal drain system at Alicante, Spain, demonstrated that the vertical wells performed best followed by the tunnel system, and the horizontal drain system which showed a breakthrough of algae and a very high organic carbon concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-06-15

    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own.

  20. Enhancement of sub-daily positioning solutions for surface deformation surveillance at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, G.; García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.

    2013-06-01

    El Hierro Island in the Canary Archipelago recently experienced a submerged eruption a few kilometers off its southern shore, detected 2011 October 10 on the island's south-rift alignment. The seismic activity suddenly increased around mid 2011 July, and ground deformation was then detected on the only geodetic benchmark that is continuously observed by global navigation satellite systems techniques and provides public data access. Based on that information, several other global navigation satellite system signal receivers were deployed on the island to provide continuous observation. For data collected by these receivers, a processing strategy was applied to achieve millimeter-level half-hourly positioning solutions. Position updates every 24 h are satisfactory to determine tectonic-plates' velocities. Updates near 1 s or less are required to characterize seismic waves. In between, minute-level updates are well suited for monitoring active volcano's inflation or deflation, providing an optimal time resolution of the local ground deformation. In half-hourly positioning solutions, the heterogeneous satellites' distribution in their orbital planes gives different constraints during satellite-constellation revolution, which can bias the solutions. Also, several geophysical influences can bias the solutions, including those related to gravitational movements. These influences have mostly semi-diurnal periodicities and may be considered Gaussian colored noise on the position's time series. Daily solutions that average out these influences can be applied in active volcanoes, but they can impose some limitations because they average the daily deformation, and the update waiting time is not suitable when near real-time surveillance is mandatory. These semi-diurnal biases do need to be removed or minimized to achieve millimeter-level sub-daily positioning solutions, however, and to do so, a discrete Kalman filter was applied to enhance the half-hourly positioning solutions

  1. The relationship between landscape patterns and human-caused fire occurrence in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castafreda-Aumedes, S.; Garcia-Martin, A.; Vega-Garcia, C.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: Human settlements and activities have completely modified landscape structure in the Mediterranean region. Vegetation patterns show the interactions between human activities and natural processes on the territory, and allow understanding historical ecological processes and socioeconomic factors. The arrangement of land uses in the rural landscape can be perceived as a proxy for human activities that often lead to the use, and escape, of fire, the most important disturbance in our forest landscapes. In this context, we tried to predict human-caused fire occurrence in a 5-year period by quantifying landscape patterns. Area of study: This study analyses the Spanish territory included in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands (497,166 km{sup 2}). Material and Methods: We evaluated spatial pattern applying a set of commonly used landscape ecology metrics to landscape windows of 10x10 sq km (4751 units in the UTM grid) overlaid on the Forest Map of Spain, MFE200. Main results: The best logistic regression model obtained included Shannon's Diversity Index, Mean Patch Edge and Mean Shape Index as explicative variables and the global percentage of correct predictions was 66.3 %. Research highlights: Our results suggested that the highest probability of fire occurrence at that time was associated with areas with a greater diversity of land uses and with more compact patches with fewer edges. (Author) 58 refs.

  2. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  3. [Initial evaluation, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and follow-up of patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Consensus statement of the Network of Catalan and Balearic Melanoma Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, C; Paradelo, C; Puig, S; Gallardo, F; Marcoval, J; Azon, A; Bartralot, R; Bel, S; Bigatà, X; Curcó, N; Dalmau, J; del Pozo, L J; Ferrándiz, C; Formigón, M; González, A; Just, M; Llambrich, A; Llistosella, E; Malvehy, J; Martí, R M; Nogués, M E; Pedragosa, R; Rocamora, V; Sàbat, M; Salleras, M

    2010-03-01

    The consensus statement on the management of primary cutaneous melanoma that we present here was based on selection, discussion, review, and comparison of recent literature (including national and international guidelines). The protocols for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up used in the hospital centers throughout Catalonia and the Balearic Isles belonging to the Network of Catalan and Balearic Melanoma Centers were also considered. The main objective of this statement was to present the overall management of melanoma patients typically used in our region at the present time. As such, the statement was not designed to be an obligatory protocol for health professionals caring for this group of patients, and neither can it nor should it be used for this purpose. Professionals reading the statement should not therefore consider it binding on their practice, and in no case can this text be used to guarantee or seek responsibility for a given medical opinion. The group of dermatologists who have signed this statement was created 3 years ago with the aim of making our authorities aware of the importance of this complex tumor, which, in comparison with other types of cancer, we believe does not receive sufficient attention in Spain. In addition, the regular meetings of the group have produced interesting proposals for collaboration in various epidemiological, clinical, and basic applied research projects on the subject of malignant melanoma in our society.

  4. Monitoring the NW volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: sixteen years of diffuse CO_{2} degassing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Halliwell, Simon; Butters, Damaris; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria, is the only one that has developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. At present, one of the most active volcanic structures in Tenerife is the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ), which has hosted two historical eruptions: Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909. Since the year 2000, 47 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been undertaken at the NWRZ of Tenerife Island to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. We report herein the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the NWRZ carried out in July 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. During 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 103 g m-2 d-1. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 403 ± 17 t d-1, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 143 t d-1. For all campaigns, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m-2 d-1, with the highest values measured in May 2005. Total CO2 output from the studied area ranged between 52 and 867 t d-1. Temporal variations in the total CO2 output showed a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the area during April 22-29, 2004. Spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux values also showed changes in magnitude and amplitude, with higher CO2 efflux values located along a trending WNW-ESE area. Subsurface magma movement is proposed as a cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission, as well as for the spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux

  5. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q 8000 Ω.m) that can be

  6. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  7. Assessment of correlation between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters of volcanic deposits at Bandama Caldera (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Albert; Himi, Mahjoub; Estévez, Esmeralda; Lovera, Raúl; Sendrós, Alexandre; Palacios-Díaz, M. Pino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Cabrera, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    The characterization of the preferential areas of water infiltration through the vadose zone is of paramount importance to assess the pollution vulnerability of the underlying aquifers. Nevertheless, geometry and the hydraulic conductivity of each geological unit which constitute the unsaturated zone are difficult to study from traditional techniques (samples from trenches) and normally do not go beyond a meter depth from of the surface. On the other hand, boreholes are expensive and provide only local information not always representative of the whole unsaturated zone. For this reason, geophysical techniques and among them the electrical resistivity tomography method can be applicable in volcanic areas, where basaltic rocks, pyroclastic and volcanic ash-fall deposits have a wide range of values. In order to characterize the subsurface geology below the golf course of Bandama (Gran Canaria Island), irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, a detailed electrical resistivity tomography survey has been carried out. This technique has allowed to define the geometry of the existing geological formations by their high electrical resistivity contrast. Subsequently, in representative outcrops the value of resistivity of each of these lithologies has been measured and simultaneously undisturbed samples have been taken measuring the hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. Finally a statistical correlation between both variables has been established for evaluating the vulnerability to groundwater pollution at different zones of the golf course.

  8. A GIS-based methodology for the estimation of potential volcanic damage and its application to Tenerife Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, C.; Felpeto, A.; Martí, J.; Carniel, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology to estimate damages produced by volcanic eruptions. The methodology is constituted by four parts: definition and simulation of eruptive scenarios, exposure analysis, vulnerability assessment and estimation of expected damages. Multi-hazard eruptive scenarios are defined for the Teide-Pico Viejo active volcanic complex, and simulated through the VORIS tool. The exposure analysis identifies the elements exposed to the hazard at stake and focuses on the relevant assets for the study area. The vulnerability analysis is based on previous studies on the built environment and complemented with the analysis of transportation and urban infrastructures. Damage assessment is performed associating a qualitative damage rating to each combination of hazard and vulnerability. This operation consists in a GIS-based overlap, performed for each hazardous phenomenon considered and for each element. The methodology is then automated into a GIS-based tool using an ArcGIS® program. Given the eruptive scenarios and the characteristics of the exposed elements, the tool produces expected damage maps. The tool is applied to the Icod Valley (North of Tenerife Island) which is likely to be affected by volcanic phenomena in case of eruption from both the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex and North-West basaltic rift. Results are thematic maps of vulnerability and damage that can be displayed at different levels of detail, depending on the user preferences. The aim of the tool is to facilitate territorial planning and risk management in active volcanic areas.

  9. Behaviour of a small sedimentary volcanic aquifer receiving irrigation return flows: La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Fuentes, T.; Heredia, J.; Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    2014-06-01

    In many arid and semi-arid areas, intensive cultivation is practiced despite water commonly being a limiting factor. Often, irrigation water is from local aquifers or imported from out-of-area aquifers and surface reservoirs. Irrigation return flows become a significant local recharge source, but they may deteriorate aquifer water quality. La Aldea valley, located in the western sector of Gran Canaria Island (Atlantic Ocean), is a coastal, half-closed depression in altered, low-permeability volcanics with alluvium in the gullies and scree deposits over a large part of the area. This area is intensively cultivated. Irrigation water comes from reservoirs upstream and is supplemented (average 30 %) by local groundwater; supplementation goes up to 70 % in dry years, in which groundwater reserves are used up to exhaustion if the dry period persists. Thus, La Aldea aquifer is key to the water-supply system, whose recharge is mostly from return irrigation flows and the scarce local rainfall recharge on the scree formations, conveyed to the gully deposits. To quantify the hydrogeological conceptual model and check data coherence, a simplified numerical model has been constructed, which can be used as a tool to help in water management.

  10. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Spectral Characteristics of Lava Surfaces: Field Spectrometry of Basaltic Lava Flows on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen coverage were documented at each measured site. Spectral properties vary with age and morphology of lava. Pre-historical lavas with no biological coverage show a prominent increase in spectral reflectance in the 400–760 nm range and a decrease in the 2140–2210 nm range. Pāhoehoe surfaces have higher reflectance values than ʻaʻā ones and attain a maximum reflectance at wavelengths < 760 nm. Lichen-covered lavas are characterized by multiple lichen-related absorption and reflection features. We demonstrate that oxidation and lichen growth are two major factors controlling spectra of Tenerife lava surfaces and, therefore, propose an oxidation index and a lichen index to quantify surface alterations of lava flows: (1 the oxidation index is based on the increase of the slope of the spectral profile from blue to red as the field-observed oxidation level strengthens; and (2 the lichen index is based on the spectral reflectance in the 1660–1725 nm range, which proves to be highly correlated with lichen coverage documented in the field. The two spectral indices are applied to Landsat ETM+ and Hyperion imagery of the study area for mapping oxidation and lichen coverage on lava surfaces, respectively. Hyperion is shown to be capable of discriminating different volcanic surfaces, i.e., tephra vs. lava and oxidized lava vs. lichen-covered lava. Our study highlights the value of field spectroscopic measurements to aid interpretation of lava flow characterization using satellite images and of the effects of environmental factors on lava surface evolution over time, and, therefore, has the potential to contribute to the mapping as well as dating

  11. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedí i González, Carles

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  12. Dorvilleidos (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae recolectados durante el proyecto “Fauna Ibérica” y catálogo de las especies íbero-baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of Dorvilleids (Eunicida, Dorvilleidae species collected during the oceanographic cruises “Fauna Ibérica II, III and IV” is presented. A total of 6 genera and 9 species were identified, including the first record from the littoral of Iberian Peninsula of Iphitime paguri Fage & Legendre, a species commensal of crustaceans. An updated catalogue of recorded dorvilleids from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic islands is presented. This catalogue comprises 7 genera and 22 species. An appendix with data (locality, coordinates and seabed substrate of each sampling station is provided.Se elabora un listado de las especies de dorvilleidos (Eunicida, Dorvilleidae a partir de muestras recogidas durante las campañas oceanográficas “Fauna Ibérica II, III y IV” que agrupa un total de 6 géneros y 9 especies. A partir del material estudiado, se cita por primera vez para el litoral de la península Ibérica la especie comensal de crustáceos: Iphitime paguri Fage & Legendre, 1934. También se incluye un catálogo actualizado de los dorvilleidos conocidos para el ámbito íbero-balear, compuesto por 7 géneros y 22 especies. Por último, se presenta un apéndice con datos abióticos para cada estación: localidad, coordenadas, profundidad y tipo de sustrato.

  13. Catálogo de las orquídeas ibéricas y baleares. 1. Aceras R. Br. - Nigritella Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Aceras to Nigritella, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems.Se presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Aceras a Nigritella, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos los híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ámbito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinónimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico

  14. The 10-12 November 2001 Balearic Superstorm: An Assessment of Baroclinic and Diabatic Contributions Through Pv Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R.; Homar, V.; Ramis, C.; Alonso, S.

    From 10 to 12 November 2001 the western Mediterranean zone was affected by a hazardous cyclone. In the Balearic Islands the storm was particularly strong: wind gusts exceeded 140 km/h, heavy precipitation up to 400 mm in two days was recorded and sea waves up to 12 m reached the shoreline. Four casualties occurred, more than 100.000 trees were uprooted, many boats and coastal infrastructures were severely damaged and some crop fields were flooded. Surface and upper level weather maps suggest that the cyclone was consequence of an initial baroclinic development over north Africa and a further deepening over the western Mediterranean. Quasi- geostrophic diagnosis has been performed to study the baroclinic contribution to the cyclogenesis. A Potential Vorticity (PV) inversion technique has been applied to de- termine the role of three prominent PV positive anomalies over the region (associated with an upper level trough, a low level warm air intrusion over the Mediterranean from Africa and the latent heat release) to the cyclone intensity.

  15. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 1. A new species of Pygocrangonyx, an amphipod genus with African affinities, from Fuerteventura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Rondé-Broekhuizen, Brigitte L.M.

    1986-01-01

    A group of exclusively subterranean Amphipoda, the Metacrangonyx group, is distributed mainly in northwestern Africa, with peripheral isolates on the Balearic Islands and in the Sinai desert. The discovery of a new species of this group, belonging to Pygocrangonyx, a genus known from N.W. Morocco on

  16. Los mirmeleónidos (hormigas-león de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the ants-lion (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae species known from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. With very different degrees of presence, frequence and abundance, 26 ant-lion species belonging to 15 genera of this family are known in the area studied. Of these, an identification key of imagoes is provided, all the existing bibliographical information from the area is compiled, and a review of current knowledge about their biology and larval stages as well as their phaenological and altitudinal distribution in the studied region is provided. For 24 of these 26 species, new data on their distribution and biology within in the area are also provided.Se revisan las especies de mirmeleónidos u hormigas-león (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Con una muy diversa presencia, frecuencia y abundancia, 26 especies pertenecientes a 15 géneros de esta familia son conocidas en la zona estudiada. De ellas, se incluye una clave de identificación de sus imagos, se recopila toda la información bibliográfica existente referente al área geográfica estudiada, y se recopilan y se anotan los datos conocidos sobre su biología, sus estadios larvarios y su distribución fenológica y altitudinal en la zona estudiada. Para 24 de estas 26 especies, se anotan nuevos datos sobre su distribución y biología en la zona tratada.

  17. The Free Living Nematodes of the Mediterranean III. The Balearic Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven Jr., J.H.

    1942-01-01

    In June 1932 my friend Prof. Dr. G. C. Hirsch made some biological studies at the marine biological laboratory of Palma di Mallorca. He was accompanied by Dr. E. Ries, at that time Rockefeller Fellow. Both did collect for me some samples of marine sediments from which I have picked out the freelivin

  18. Building the IDECi-UIB: the scientific spatial data infrastructure node for the Balearic Islands University

    OpenAIRE

    Giner, L.G.; Pérez, M. R.; Stuiver, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Technical and methodological enhancements in Information Technologies (IT) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has permitted the growth in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) performance. In this way, their uses and applications have grown very rapidly. In the scientific and educational working fields, different institutions and organisations have bet for its use enforcing information exchange that allows researchers to improve their studies as well as give a better dissemination within...

  19. Building the IDECi-UIB: the scientific spatial data infrastructure node for the Balearic Islands University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giner, L.G.; Pérez, M.R.; Stuiver, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Technical and methodological enhancements in Information Technologies (IT) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has permitted the growth in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) performance. In this way, their uses and applications have grown very rapidly. In the scientific and educational workin

  20. La técnica del paleomagnetismo. Estudio piloto en los bordes de la Cuenca Balear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, E.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of paleomagnetic methods and techniques is applied to samples collected for a pilot study of the borders of the Balearic Basin. Subsequently a description of results is summarized showing the Permo-Carboniferous dikes are specially suitable for paleomagnetic studies. Muschelkalk limestones display a remagnetization wich can probably be dated as Paleogene. Some Jurassic series can be used for magnetostrigraphic purposes. The results encouraged us to iniciate specific studies on possible block movements in the Catalan Coastal Ranges, structure of the linking zone between the Catalan Coastal Ranges and the Iberic Range, and the tectonic evolution of the Balearic promontory.

    En una primera parte se repasan los fundamentos del paleomagnetismo con especial énfasis en los métodos y técnicas aplicados a las muestras coleccionadas en el estudio piloto de los bordes de la Cuenca Balear. En una segunda parte se describen los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de distintas litologías . Los diques del Carbonífero-Pérmico presentan una magnetización muy bien definida que los hace particularmente uu1izables para estudios paleomagnéticos. Las calizas del Muschelkalk presentan una remagnetización que posiblemente puede datarse como paleógena.. Algunas de las series jurásicas muestreadas pueden usarse con fines magnetoestratigráficos. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido iniciar estudios específicos de posibles movimientos de bloques en la Cadena Costera Catalana, la estructura de enlace entre la Cadena Costera Catalana y la Cordillera Ibérica y evolución tectónica del conjunto balear.

  1. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón Botella, Herminia; Afonso Vargas, José A; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Leles, Daniela; González Reimers, Emilio; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4) were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344) were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  2. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Gijón Botella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4 were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344 were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  3. A new mechanism for chenier development and a facies model of the Saltés Island chenier plain (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan A.; Borrego, José; Davis, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature describes two types of cheniers. These two types differ in the origin of the coarse sediments that constitute the ridge and the relative significance of the transversal and longitudinal wave transport. In both cases storm waves are described as the main factor responsible of the origin and development, and both final facies are characterized by ridges of coarse sediments above the finer sediments of a tidal flat. The Odiel-Tinto estuary is one of the most significant estuarine systems of the mesotidal Huelva Coast, on the northwestern portion of the Gulf of Cadiz, and Saltés Island is a part of the closure history of the estuarine system. Previous works on Saltés Island described the surficial disposition of sandy landforms as a classic ridge chain or a barrier-island succession; nevertheless an architectural scheme based on a vibracore study shows a disposition that accord to the typical chenier plain facies model. This disagreement was the basis for a controversy about the origin of the ridges. In this study historical nautical charts and aerial photographs document the evolution of the last of these cheniers during the past 200 years. In contrast to the accepted models of chenier evolution, the cheniers of Saltés Island migrated on the tidal flat but did not evolve only during storms, indeed their development occurred mainly during high spring tides. The data presented in this paper are used as the basis for a new conceptual model of chenier generation and evolution. The model consists of a migration of sand bars in a similar way to the classic beach ridges, with the difference that in our case, the bars migrate over a tidal flat. From a local point of view this paper removes the controversy about the origin of the island's geomorphology, but from a global point of view this mechanism can explain certain chenier plains in estuarine mouths located in other coasts of the world.

  4. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  5. Spain country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Ines [Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Construccion Sau, Avenida Burgos, 8, Edificio Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    of an adequate number of capable engineers is the basis for the renaissance of nuclear energy; Spanish Factories and Engineering Companies are making projects for other countries (China, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Mexico, Finland, France); Some Spanish Electricity Utilities are interested in constructing and operating nuclear power plants out of Spain. - WIN - Spain Main achievements: Actions: Several conferences in different High Schools (Madrid, Valencia, Oviedo, Tenerife, Canary Island), Participation in courses. New initiatives: Contact with different institutions, Contact with journalists. Best practices: WIN Participation to the Annual Meeting of The Spanish Nuclear Society.

  6. Uranium-series ages of corals, sea level history, and palaeozoogeography, Canary Islands, Spain: an exploratory study for two Quaternary interglacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Meco, Joaquín; Simmons, Kathleen R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first U-series ages of corals from emergent marine deposits on the Canary Islands. Deposits at + 20 m are 481 ± 39 ka, possibly correlative to marine isotope stage (or MIS) 11, while those at + 12 and + 8 m are 120.5 ± 0.8 ka and 130.2 ± 0.8 ka, respectively, correlative to MIS 5.5. The age, elevations, and uplift rates derived from MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands allow calculations of hypothetical palaeo-sea levels during the MIS 11 high sea stand. Estimates indicate that the MIS 11 high sea stand likely was at least + 9 m (relative to present sea level) and could have been as high as + 24 m. The most conservative estimates of palaeo-sea level during MIS 11 would require an ice mass loss equivalent to all of the modern Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets; the more extreme estimates would require additional ice mass loss from the East Antarctic ice sheet. Extralimital southern species of mollusks, found in both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands, imply warmer-than-modern sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 11 and much warmer sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 5.5. Both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 marine deposits on the Canary Islands contain extralimital northern species of mollusks as well, indicating cooler-than-present waters at times during these interglacial periods. We hypothesize that the co-occurrence of extralimital southern and northern species of marine invertebrates in the fossil record of the Canary Islands reflects its geographic location with respect to major synoptic-scale controls on climate and ocean currents. Previous interglacials may have been characterized by early, insolation-forced warming, along with northward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), accompanied by weakened trade winds and diminished upwelling. This allowed the arrival of extralimital southern taxa from the tropical Senegalese faunal province. During later parts of the MIS 11 and 5

  7. Characterization of six microsatellite loci in Myrica faya (Myricaceae and cross amplification in the endangered endemic M. rivas-martinezii in Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. González-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from enriched libraries in Myrica faya Ait., recently renamed Morella faya , (fayatree, firetree, or firebush in order to examine the genetic diversity in natural populations. Also, test cross-specific amplification and genetic diversity in Myrica rivas-martinezii, which is endemic on the Canary islands. Microsatellite loci were screened in 225 individuals of both species from different islands of the Canarian archipelago. All markers were successfully amplified from both Myrica species, with an average number of 6.5 and 9.3 alleles per locus in M. rivas-martinezii and M. faya , respectively. There was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci, and the probability of null alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.17.

  8. Catálogo y atlas de las arañas de la familia Anyphaenidae en la Península Ibérica e islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urones, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue including the four know especies of Anyphaenidae from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands is provided. For each species, a list of all the localities, arranged according to provinces, obtained from literature references is presented. New localities are also given, both coming from “the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid” and the authoress collections. A provisional distribution atlas of Anyphaenidae species for the studied area is also provided, together with distribution maps for each species. Some data concerning habitat and life cycle are given.

    El catálogo incluye las cuatro especies de Anyphaenidae (Araneae conocidas en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Para cada especie se recogen, ordenadas por provincias, todas las citas bibliográficas y se incluyen nuevas localidades correspondientes al material de la colección del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid, así como ejemplares procedentes de la colección de la autora, que amplían considerablemente el área de distribución conocida para cada una de ellas. Se da el atlas provisional de distribución de las especies de Anyphaenidae para el territorio de estudio sobre mapas de cuadrícula U.T.M. de 50 km de lado. Y se aportan, además, datos sobre su hábitat y ciclos de vida.

  9. Diffuse CO2 emission from the NE volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): a 15 years geochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Shoemaker, Trevor; Loisel, Ariane; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The North East Rift (NER) volcanic zone of Tenerife Island is one of the three volcanic rift-zones of the island (210 km2). The most recent eruptive activity along the NER volcanic zone took place in the 1704-1705 period with the volcanic eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. The aim of this study was to report the results of a soil CO2 efflux survey undertaken in June 2015, with approximately 580 measuring sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of NER volcanic zone were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from NER volcanic zone, soil CO2 efflux contour maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CO2 emission rate was estimated in 1209 t d-1, with CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 123 g m-2 d-1, with an average value of 5.9 g m-2 d-1. If we compare these results with those obtained in previous surveys developed in a yearly basis, they reveal slightly variations from 2006 to 2015, with to pulses in the CO2 emission observed in 2007 and 2014. The main temporal variation in the total CO2 output does not seem to be masked by external variations. First peak precedes the anomalous seismicity registered in and around Tenerife Island between 2009 and 2011, suggesting stress-strain changes at depth as a possible cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission. Second peak could be related with futures changes in the seismicity. This study demonstrates the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool.

  10. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  11. Revisión de los mantíspidos de la Península Ibérica y Baleares (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera, Mantispidae

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    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review all existing information on the four species of mantispids lacewings (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Mantispidae present in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands is reported. Based on the known general data on this family and on these species, an identification key to the Iberian species is included. On the basis of this Iberian information and of the new material now studied, new data on their morphology, biology and geographical, phenological and altitudinal distribution in the study area are noted. It is suggested that there are at least two annual cycles in most of the Iberian species. New and interesting data on the biology and reproductive behavior of imagoes and on the pre-imaginal stages of some species are recorded, and some previously known data are discussed. A new species, Mantispa incorrupta n. sp., is described, which seems to represent the vicariant species in the western Mediterranean of Mantispa scabricollis McLachlan, 1875, a Pontomediterranean species recorded from Europe in the Greek islands of Lesbos, Chios and Rhodes. A new synonymy: Mantispa Illiger en Kugelann, 1798 = Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 n. syn. is propossed.En esta revisión se recopila toda la información existente sobre las cuatro especies de mantíspidos (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Mantispidae presentes en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Partiendo de los datos generales conocidos sobre esta familia y estas especies, se incluye una clave de identificación para las especies ibéricas y, en base a esta información ibérica y al nuevo material ahora estudiado, se anotan nuevos datos sobre su morfología, su biología y su distribución geográfica, fenológica y altitudinal en la zona estudiada. Se sugieren al menos dos ciclos anuales en la mayoría de las especies ibéricas. Se anotan nuevos e interesantes datos sobre la biología y el comportamiento reproductor de los imagos y sobre los estadios pre-imaginales de alguna

  12. ANÁLISIS DE LA RENTABILIDAD DEL SECTOR TURÍSTICO EN LAS ISLAS BALEARES. POLÍTICAS DE REFLOTAMIENTO

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    Martorell Cunill, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Islas Baleares son uno de los destinos turísticos más importantes de la cuenca mediterránea. El sector turístico domina la actividad económica de las islas. Este estudio analiza la rentabilidad del sector turístico balear con el propósito de determinar las mejoras que se tendrían que introducir en el mismo para aumentar su competitividad. Los resultados indican que la actual pérdida de rentabilidad que padece el sector turístico balear se puede paliar a través de la introducción de nuevas fórmulas que aprovechan las nuevas tendencias de la demanda así como la utilización de instrumentos innovadores en procesos.

  13. Estimated exposure to EU regulated mycotoxins and risk characterization of aflatoxin-induced hepatic toxicity through the consumption of the toasted cereal flour called "gofio", a traditional food of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Bernal-Suárez, María Del Mar; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Rial-Berriel, Cristian; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Díaz-Díaz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    "Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0.42 μg/kg; FBs=178.3 μg/kg; OTA=0.3 μg/kg; DON=92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA=9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus.

  14. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

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    Maite Louzao

    Full Text Available The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species.

  15. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species.

  16. Una geohistoria de la turistización de las islas Baleares

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    Macià Blázquez Salom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las islas Baleares (España son un destino clásico del turismo de sol y playa en Europa. Se analiza su historia reciente de inserción en la modernidad a través del turismo y los rasgos sustanciales de su transformación territorial, especialmente el desarrollo de infraestructuras y la ocupación urbana. Se resumen algunos indicadores socioecologicos y de saneamiento democrático. Por último, se identifican las políticas de contención del crecimiento urbanístico que se han aplicado.

  17. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m-2 d-1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  19. Levels and profiles of POPs (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs) in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Natalia; Martín, Vidal; Fernández, Antonio; Almunia, Javier; Xuriach, Aina; Arbelo, Manuel; Tejedor, Marisa; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-09-15

    The effect of anthropogenic pollution in marine mammals worldwide has become an important issue due to the high concentrations found in many areas. The present study represents the first report of pollutants in free-ranging cetaceans from the Canary Islands, where there are 12 marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), because of the presence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We selected this resident population of dolphins as a bioindicator to gain knowledge concerning the toxicological status of the cetaceans of this protected area. In 64 biopsy samples of live free-ranging animals sampled from 2003 to 2011, we determined the concentrations of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found high levels of many of these pollutants, and some of them were detectable in 100% of the samples. The median value for ∑OCPs was 57,104 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), and the dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) accounted for 70% of this amount. Among PCBs, congeners 180, 153 and 138 were predominant (82% of ∑PCBs; median = 30,783 ng g(-1) lw). Concerning the analyzed PAHs, the total median burden was 13,598 ng g(-1) lw, and phenanthrene was the compound measured at the highest concentration followed by pyrene and by naphthalene. Surprisingly, we have found that organohalogen pollutants exhibit an upward trend in recent years of sampling. Thus, according to the guidelines outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive, further monitoring studies in Canary Islands are required to contribute to the conservation of the resident populations of marine mammals in this region.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  1. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika

    2013-04-01

    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  2. Numerical study of Balearic meteotsunami generation and propagation under synthetic gravity wave forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ličer, Matjaž; Mourre, Baptiste; Troupin, Charles; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Jansá, Agusti; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2017-03-01

    We use a high resolution nested ocean modelling system forced by synthetic atmospheric gravity waves to investigate Balearic meteotsunami generation, amplification and propagation properties. We determine how meteotsunami amplitude outside and inside of the Balearic port of Ciutadella depends on forcing gravity wave direction, speed and trajectory. We quantify the contributions of Mallorca shelves and Menorca Channel for different gravity wave forcing angles and speeds. The Channel is demonstrated to be the key build-up region determining meteotsunami amplitude in Ciutadella while northern and southern Mallorca shelves serve mostly as barotropic wave guides but do not significantly contribute to seiche amplitude in Ciutadella. This fact seriously reduces early-warning alert times in cases of locally generated pressure perturbations. We track meteotsunami propagation paths in the Menorca Channel for several forcing velocities and show that the Channel bathymetry serves as a focusing lens for meteotsunami waves whose paths are constrained by the forcing direction. We show that faster meteotsunamis propagate over deeper ocean regions, as required by Proudman resonance. We estimate meteotsunami speed under sub- and supercritical forcing and derive a first order estimate of its magnitude. We show that meteotsunamis, generated by supercritical gravity waves, propagate with a velocity which is equal to an arithmetic mean of the forcing velocity and local barotropic ocean wave speed.

  3. Limonium carvalhoi (Plumbaginaceae, una especie nueva endémica de las Islas Baleares

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    Rosselló, Josep A.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Limonium carvalhoi Rosselló & L. Sáez is described from a single salt marsh locality in southwest Majorca. Morphologically, L. carvalhoi is close to L. inexpectans, L. migjornense and L. magallufianum, all Balearic endemics. The new species has an apomictic breeding system and shows a single pollen/stigma combination (B/papillate type. Chromosome number ranges from 2n = 24 to 2n = 26. Based on the occurrence of a long metacentric chromosome in all cells examined, it is suggested that the original chromosome complement is 2n = 26, the other chromosome numbers being derived by descending aneuploidy.Se describe Limonium carvalhoi Rosselló & L. Sáez de un marjal en una única localidad del sudoeste de Mallorca. Morfológicamente, la nueva especie es afín a otras tres también endémicas de las Baleares: L. inexpectans, L. migjornense y L. magallufianum. Limonium carvalhoi es apomíctica y presenta una combinación polen/estigma del tipo B/p. Los números cromosomáticos encontrados van de 1n = 24 a 2n = 26. Sobre la base de la presencia de un cromosoma metacéntrico largo en todas las células examinadas, se sugiere que el complemento cromosomático original es 2n = 26 y que los otros dos números se han derivado por aneuploidía descendente.

  4. Evaluation of changes in soil in the short and medium term due to a forest fire in the pine forest of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    A. Hernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires lead to important changes in soil properties, which sometimes are non-reversible. In the Canary Islands, fires burn mainly Canarian pine (Pinus canariensis forests. This work evaluates the impact and evolution of some relevant physico-chemical and biological properties in burned soils affected in an area under Canarian pine forest in the NW of Tenerife. Four sites with different understory composition were selected, together with similar, unaffected neighboring areas as controls. In these areas, soil samples were gathered periodically (four times in each plot, along a period ranging between three months and three years after the fire. Samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical and biological parameters. The results showed increases in burned areas for pH, EC1: 5 and NH4+-N three months after the fire, without differences in further samplings. Increases were also found for the oxidizable carbon (Cox, total nitrogen (Ntot available cations, and water repellency. Furthermore, a considerable increase in soil respiration in the area affected by the fire was observed in the first sampling. However, this zone is also characterized by an initial decrease in the microbial biomass-linked organic C, and some enzymatic activities, particularly the phosphomonoesterase. In time, the enzymatic activities studied recovered progressively, without reaching the values measured at unburned areas.

  5. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

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    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  6. Photosynthetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulías, J; Flexas, J; Abadía, A; Madrano, H

    2002-07-01

    We sought to explain the declining distribution in the Balearic Islands of the endemic shrub Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris R. Chodat, by comparing its photosynthetic response to drought with that of several widely distributed, competing Mediterranean species (R. alaternus L., Quercus ilex L., Pistacia lentiscus L., Q. humilis Mill. and P. terebinthus L.). All of the study species, except for the two Rhamnus species, avoided desiccation by rapidly adjusting their stomatal conductance at the onset of drought, and maintaining constant leaf relative water content. The two Rhamnus species showed desiccation-tolerant behavior; i.e., as drought progressed, their predawn leaf relative water content decreased simultaneously with stomatal closure. All four desiccation-avoiding species showed a significant positive correlation between leaf thermal dissipation (estimated by the fluorescence parameter NPQ (non-photochemical quenching)) and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS). The two Rhamnus species exhibited maximum DPS regardless of treatment, but only R. alaternus increased NPQ in response to drought. Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris had a high ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis and a low intrinsic water-use efficiency; traits that are likely to be unfavorable for plant productivity under arid conditions. It also had the lowest DPS and thermal dissipation among the six species. We conclude that the photosynthetic traits of R. ludovici-salvatoris account for its limited ability to compete with other species in the Mediterranean region.

  7. Temporal consistency of lidar observables during aerosol transport events in the framework of the ChArMEx/ADRIMED campaign at Menorca Island in June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chazette

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed synergetic daytime and night-time active and passive remote sensing observations at Menorca (Balearic Island, Spain, over more than 3 weeks during the Chemistry–Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect in the Mediterranean (ChArMEx/ADRIMED special observation period (SOP 1a, June–July 2013. We characterized the aerosol optical properties and type in the low and middle troposphere using an automated procedure combining Rayleigh–Mie–Raman lidar (355, 387 and 407 nm with depolarization (355 nm and AERONET Cimel® sun-photometer data. Results show a high variability due to varying dynamical forcing. The mean column-averaged lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER was close to 0.024 sr-1 (lidar ratio of ∼ 41.7 sr, with a large dispersion of ±33 % over the whole observation period due to changing atmospheric transport regimes and aerosol sources. The ground-based remote sensing measurements, coupled with satellite observations, allowed to document (i dust particles up to 5 km a.s.l. in altitude originating from Morocco and Algeria from 15 to 18 June with a peak in aerosol optical thickness (AOT of 0.25 ± 0.05 at 355 nm, (ii a long-range transport of biomass burning aerosol (AOT = 0.18 ± 0.16 related to North American forest fires detected from 26 to 28 June 2013 by the lidar between 2 and 7 km and (iii mixture of local sources including marine aerosol particles and pollution from Spain. During the biomass burning event, the high value of the particle depolarization ratio (8–14 % may imply the presence of dust-like particles mixed with the biomass burning aerosols in the mid troposphere. We show also linearity with SEVIRI retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness within 35 % relative bias, which is discussed as a function of aerosol type.

  8. Temporal consistency of lidar observables during aerosol transport events in the framework of the ChArMEx/ADRIMED campaign at Menorca Island in June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, P.; Totems, J.; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Sicard, M.

    2015-11-01

    We performed synergetic daytime and night-time active and passive remote sensing observations at Menorca (Balearic Island, Spain), over more than 3 weeks during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect in the Mediterranean (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) special observation period (SOP 1a, June-July 2013). We characterized the aerosol optical properties and type in the low and middle troposphere using an automated procedure combining Rayleigh-Mie-Raman lidar (355, 387 and 407 nm) with depolarization (355 nm) and AERONET Cimel® sun-photometer data. Results show a high variability due to varying dynamical forcing. The mean column-averaged lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) was close to 0.024 sr-1 (lidar ratio of ∼ 41.7 sr), with a large dispersion of ±33 % over the whole observation period due to changing atmospheric transport regimes and aerosol sources. The ground-based remote sensing measurements, coupled with satellite observations, allowed to document (i) dust particles up to 5 km a.s.l. in altitude originating from Morocco and Algeria from 15 to 18 June with a peak in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of 0.25 ± 0.05 at 355 nm, (ii) a long-range transport of biomass burning aerosol (AOT = 0.18 ± 0.16) related to North American forest fires detected from 26 to 28 June 2013 by the lidar between 2 and 7 km and (iii) mixture of local sources including marine aerosol particles and pollution from Spain. During the biomass burning event, the high value of the particle depolarization ratio (8-14 %) may imply the presence of dust-like particles mixed with the biomass burning aerosols in the mid troposphere. We show also linearity with SEVIRI retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness within 35 % relative bias, which is discussed as a function of aerosol type.

  9. The parasite community of Phycis blennoides (Brünnich, 1768) from the Balearic Sea in relation to diet, biochemical markers, histopathology and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallarés, Sara; Moyà-Alcover, Catalina M.; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montserrat; Castañeda, Carlota; Carrassón, Maite

    2016-12-01

    The greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides is a benthopelagic fish distributed in the Mediterranean and NE Atlantic. The main goal of this study is to describe the complete parasite community of this species, which is at present unknown. A total of 188 specimens of P. blennoides were captured in the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 550-1250 m depth during the four seasons of 2007, in summer of 2010 and in summer and autumn of 2011 at five distinct localities off the mainland slope off Catalonia coasts and off the insular slope off the Balearic Islands. Environmental and fish biological, parasitological, dietary, enzymatic and histological data were obtained and the relationships among them tested. A total of 20 different parasites were recovered, of which 11 constitute new host records. The most important parasites were the monogenean Diclidophora phycidis, the digeneans Bathycreadium brayi and Lepidapedon spp., the nematodes Capillaria gracilis, Collarinema collaris, Cucullanus sp. and Hysterothylacium aduncum, and the copepod Clavella alata. Overall, the parasite community of P. blennoides was characterized by high abundance, richness and diversity. Significant differences in the structure of the parasite community were detected between samples from 1000 m depth and between samples from off the mainland and insular slopes. Significant seasonal and/or geographical differences were found for some specific parasites. Abundance of the nematode C. collaris was associated to high levels of turbidity and O2 concentrations near the bottom. Abundances of H. aduncum, D. phycidis, B. brayi and Lepidapedon spp. were linked to high near-bottom temperature and salinity. Dietary analyses evidenced the role as potential intermediate hosts in parasite transmission by some prey (e.g. the teleost Gaidropsarus biscayensis for the cestode Grillotia cf. erinaceus and the nematodes Anisakis spp. or the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica for the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus sp

  10. A comparison of Thellier-type and multispecimen paleointensity determinations on Pleistocene and historical lava flows from Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Morales-Contreras, Juan; Carrancho, Ángel; Goguitchaichvili, Avto

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen Miocene, Pleistocene, and historic lava flows have been sampled in Lanzarote (Canary Islands) for paleointensity analysis with both the Coe and multispecimen methods. Besides obtaining new data, the main goal of the study was the comparison of paleointensity results determined with two different techniques. Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) directions were obtained in 15 flows, and 12 were chosen for paleointensity determination. In Thellier-type experiments, a selection of reliable paleointensity determinations (43 of 78 studied samples) was performed using sets of criteria of different stringency, trying to relate the quality of results to the strictness of the chosen criteria. Uncorrected and fraction and domain-state corrected multispecimen paleointensity results were obtained in all flows. Results with the Coe method on historical flows either agree with the expected values or show moderately lower ones, but multispecimen determinations display a large deviation from the expected result in one case. No relation can be detected between correct or anomalous results and paleointensity determination quality or rock-magnetic properties. However, results on historical flows suggest that agreement between both methods could be a good indicator of correct determinations. Comparison of results obtained with both methods on seven Pleistocene flows yields an excellent agreement in four and disagreements in three cases. Pleistocene determinations were only accepted if either results from both methods agreed or a result was based on a sufficiently large number (n > 4) of individual Thellier-type determinations. In most Pleistocene flows, a VADM around 5 × 1022 Am2 was observed, although two flows displayed higher values around 9 × 1022 Am2.

  11. Biochemical responses of Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of acute environmental pollution caused by the Don Pedro oil spill (Eivissa Island, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Box, Antonio; Tejada, Silvia; Blanco, Andreu; Caixach, Josep; Deudero, Salud

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, the potential use of several antioxidant and detoxification biomarkers in the digestive gland of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for biomonitoring the marine pollution induced by the Don Pedro oil spill has been investigated. Two locations from the East to South-East of Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera islands were selected, one extensively affected by the oil spill and the other one not affected and considered as the control area. Mussels were sampled one, two and six months after the Don Pedro accident. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were significantly increased in the soft tissues of mussels in the affected area one month after the disaster, returning to normal values after six months. Markers of oxidative damage in lipids--malondialdehyde, and in proteins--carbonyl derivates, and antioxidant enzyme--catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, activities significantly increased as result of the spill oil after one month, returning to basal values at two month sampling time. Glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG), as a marker of the redox status, was reduced after one and two months indicating a more oxidized situation. Markers of detoxification--glutathione-S-transferase and cytochrome P4501A activities and metallothionein gene expression--were significantly increased by the oil spill one month after the accident, returning to the basal values at two month sampling time. In conclusion, the Don Pedro accident induced a transient situation of PAHs pollution resulting in enhanced antioxidant and detoxification defense systems in the wild mussel M. galloprovincialis returning to normal levels six months from the spill. The selected biomarkers are a useful tool for biomonitoring the response to acute exposure to pollutants in marine mussels.

  12. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  13. Insights into the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) from statistical analyses of earthquake activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; Díaz-Moreno, A.; Hernández, P.; Alguacil, G.; Posadas, A.; Pérez, N.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to gain insights into the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) by mapping the evolution of the seismic b-value. The El Hierro seismic sequence offers a rather unique opportunity to investigate the process of reawakening of an oceanic intraplate volcano after a long period of repose. The 2011-2012 eruption is a submarine volcanic event that took place about 2 km off of the southern coast of El Hierro. The eruption was accompanied by an intense seismic swarm and surface manifestations of activity. The earthquake catalogue during the period of unrest includes over 12 000 events, the largest with magnitude 4.6. The seismic sequence can be grouped into three distinct phases, which correspond to well-separated spatial clusters and distinct earthquake regimes. The estimated b-value is of 1.18 ± 0.03, and a magnitude of completeness of 1.3, for the entire catalogue. B is very close to 1.0, which indicates completeness of the earthquake catalogue with only minor departures from the linearity of Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution. The most straightforward interpretation of this result is that the seismic swarm reached its final stages, and no additional large magnitude events should be anticipated, similarly to what one would expect for non-volcanic earthquake sequences. The results, dividing the activity in different phases, illustrate remarkable differences in the estimate of b-value during the early and late stages of the eruption. The early pre-eruptive activity was characterized by a b-value of 2.25. In contrast, the b-value was 1.25 during the eruptive phase. Based on our analyses, and the results of other studies, we propose a scenario that may account for the observations reported in this work. We infer that the earthquakes that occurred in the first phase reflect magma migration from the upper mantle to crustal depths. The area where magma initially intruded into the crust, because of its transitional nature

  14. La política a la web 2.0 i el cas de Balears

    OpenAIRE

    Mairata Munar, Maria Coloma

    2014-01-01

    L'objecte principal del treball és oferir una perspectiva estructural de la situació política a la web 2.0 a les Balears a través dels principals candidats de diferents partits polítics, per mostrar una visió davant l'escassa literatura que, des de diferents àmbits de la comunicació, s'acosta al fenomen. En segon lloc, mostrar que la web 2.0 constitueix una de les formes principals de l'actual comunicació política, d'interacció amb els ciutadans, o altrament dit, que avui dia la comunicació p...

  15. PREVALENCIA Y MORTALIDAD DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE HUNTINGTON A PARTIR DEL REGISTRO POBLACIONAL DE ENFERMEDADES RARAS DE LAS ISLAS BALEARES DURANTE EL PERÍODO 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Cáffaro Rovira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Huntington (EH es una enfermedad hereditaria de baja prevalencia, por lo que se incluye en los registros de enfermedades raras. El registro poblacional de enfermedades raras de las Islas Baleares se inició en el año 2010. Previamente no existían datos de prevalencia y mortalidad de la EH en las Islas Baleares. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y la mortalidad de la enfermedad de Huntington en las Islas Baleares durante el periodo 2010-2013. Métodos: Se utilizaron como fuentes de información el registro poblacional de enfermedades raras de las Islas Baleares, del que se obtuvieron los casos diagnosticados, el Registro de mortalidad de las Islas Baleares, del que se obtuvieron los casos fallecidos, el registro del Servicio de Salud de las Islas Baleares del que se obtuvieron el número de tarjetas sanitarias y del Instituto Nacional de Estadística se obtuvieron los datos de población. Se calcularon las tasas de prevalencia y de mortalidad. Resultados: El registro poblacional de enfermedades raras de las Islas Baleares durante el periodo 2010-2013 registró 27 casos de EH. El 63% fueron mujeres. La tasa de prevalencia fue de 2,6 por 105 y la tasa de mortalidad de 1,1 por 105. La isla de Menorca fue la más afectada con una prevalencia de 5,9 por 105 y una mortalidad de 2,1 por 105. Conclusiones: La prevalencia y mortalidad de la EH en las Islas Baleares son bajas en comparación con zonas del entorno.

  16. Notas taxonómicas y nomenclaturales sobre el género Ononis L. (Leguminosae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López González, Ginés

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononis reuteri Boiss, is considered to be a good species, clearly different from O. aragonensis Asso, and hs presence in North África is confirmed. O. Hispanica L. f. is regarded as a nomen ambiguum, which should not be used. The classification of the O. natrix L. group is discussed and a new species of this group, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López, is described. O. crispa L., to the Balearic Islands endemic, is excluded from the Iberian Península flora. O. tridentate L. is typified. O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. is considered to be merely a subspecies of O. pusilla L. The new combinations O. tridentata susbp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López and O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López, are proposed.Se destaca la autonomía de Ononis reuteri Boiss, frente a O. aragonensis Asso y se confirma su presencia en el norte de África. Se considera que O. hispanica L. f. es un nombre ambiguo que debe ser rechazado. Se discute la clasificación del grupo de O. natrix L. y se publica una nueva especie, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López. Se excluye O. crispa L. -un endemismo balear- de la Península Ibérica. Se tipifica O. tridentata L. y se publica la combinación O. tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López. Se acepta que O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. es una simple subespecie de O. pusilla L. Se propone la combinación O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López.

  17. Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orós, Jorge; Montesdeoca, Natalia; Camacho, María; Arencibia, Alberto; Calabuig, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality. Methods Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated. Results The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma). Conclusions This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine

  18. Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orós

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality.Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er, unassisted mortality (Mr, and release (Rr rates. Time to death (Td for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr turtles were evaluated.The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%, unknown/undetermined (20.37%, and ingestion of hooks (11.88%. The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67% compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%. The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87% and entanglement (92.38% categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown to 70 days (trauma.This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29% emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine rehabilitation centers around the world.

  19. Variabilidad geográfica de la violencia contra las mujeres en España Geographical variability in violence against women in Spain

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    Isabel Ruiz-Pérez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la prevalencia global y por comunidades autónomas (CC.AA. de la violencia por un compañero íntimo, sus características y la violencia fuera de la pareja, así como estudiar la relación entre la prevalencia de violencia por un compañero íntimo y la frecuencia de denuncias y muertes por este motivo. Métodos: Encuesta transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado en 11.475 mujeres que acuden a consultas de atención primaria durante los años 2006-2007. Diseño muestral estratificado y polietápico, con una muestra representativa por CA. Además de la violencia por un compañero íntimo y la violencia fuera de la pareja, se recogieron denuncias y muertes por la primera. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo. Las correlaciones de la violencia por un compañero íntimo con las denuncias y muertes por ésta se determinaron mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: El 24,8% (23,4& -26,3% de las mujeres refirieron haber sido maltratadas por su pareja alguna vez en la vida. Las prevalencias más altas de violencia por un compañero íntimo se recogieron en Ceuta y Melilla (40,2% y las Islas Baleares (32,5%, y la más baja en Cantabria (18%. El 15,2% refiere haber sufrido violencia fuera de la pareja, siendo la recibida de un familiar la más prevalente. De nuevo, en Ceuta y Melilla e Islas Baleares se recogieron las prevalencias de violencia fuera de la pareja más elevadas, y la más baja en Cantabria. Hay una correlación lineal significativa entre la violencia por un compañero íntimo en el último año y la tasa de denuncias en las CC.AA. (r=0,398; p=0,005. Conclusiones: La violencia por un compañero íntimo muestra variabilidad entre las CC.AA., y en un futuro deberían abordarse las causas de ello con mayor profundidad.Objectives: To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence and non-partner violence against women in Spain overall and by autonomous regions, as well as the

  20. Vivencias, contenidos y circunstancias del proceso de regularización de los integrantes en España. Un estudio en las Islas Baleares

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, José Florián

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio de investigación cualitativa se estructura por un lado en conocer el proceso según la normativa española para regularizar la situación “ilegal” de la persona emigrada a las Islas Baleares y por el otro nutrirse de vivencias personales sobre el proceso de regularización (permiso de residencia) de personas inmigrantes en las Islas Baleares como paso fundamental de cara a abrir puertas hacia una plena integración social, cultural, laboral y económica a través de entrevistas a...

  1. Non-seagrass meadow sedimentary facies of the Pontinian Islands, Tyrrhenian Sea: A modern example of mixed carbonate siliciclastic sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandano, Marco; Civitelli, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    The soft bottom of the Mediterranean continental shelf is characterized by a heterozoan skeletal assemblage ( sensu [James, N.P., 1997. The cool-water carbonate depositional realm. In: James, N.P., Clarke, J. (Eds), Cool-water Carbonates. Spec. Publ. Soc. Sediment. Geol., vol. 56, pp.1-20.]). Although the contemporary presence of terrigenous and skeletal carbonate sediments has been well established [Tortora, P., 1996. Depositional and erosional coastal processes during the last postglacial sea-level rise: an example from the Central Tyrrhenian continental shelf (Italy). J. Sed. Res. 66, 391-405.; Fornós, J.J., Ahr, W.M., 1997. Temperate carbonates on a modern, low-energy, isolated ramp: the Balearic Platform, Spain. Journal of Sedimentary Research , 67, 364-373.; Fornós, J.J., Ahr, W.M., 2006. Present-day temperate carbonate sedimentation on the Balearic Platform, western Mediterranean: compositional and textural variation along a low-energy isolated ramp. In: Pedley, H.M., Carannante, G. (Eds.) 2006, Cool-water Carbonates: Depositional Systems and Palaeoenvironmental Controls. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 255, pp. 121-135], the interactions between carbonate and terrigenous-siliciclastic sedimentation has not been documented well enough. A total of 33 surface sediment samples from the Pontinian shelf (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Mediterranean) have been analysed. Sampling stations range from 15 to 250 mwd (meter water depth) and are located along five transects (PonzaW, PonzaNW, Ponza NE, Ponza E, Zannone), plus four samples collected around Palmarola Island. Sectors colonized by seagrass meadows have not been sampled. A total of 6 sedimentary facies (F) and 10 microfacies (mf) have been recognized by using component analyses, grain size percentage, sorting, carbonate content and authigenic mineralization rate. These facies and microfacies represent the Pontian Islands shelf sedimentation, in the interval between the upper infralittoral and the

  2. Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, (Mallorca, Spain: history of exploration and cave description

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    Antoni Merino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera lies in the Llucmajor municipality, in southern Mallorca, and is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands. Currently its surveyed length is over 74,000 metres, including more than 17,000 of underwater extensions. The cave was discovered accidentally in 1968, but it was in 2004 when a major breakthrough shed light on its real extension and importance. The cave roughly shows two tiers of passages, apart from the underwater extensions, the first one is between 7 and 11 m above the mean sea level, the second one is about at the water table level. The importance of the cave is not only related to its extension, but also to the presence of a wide variety of speleothems and outstanding solutional morphologies that evidence a complex evolution. The cave is under the protection of Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Govern de les Illes Balears (the Regional Environmental Authority and was declared Site of Community Importance, within the Natura 2000 Network

  3. Descripción de nuevas especies animales de la Península Ibérica e islas Baleares (1978-1994: tendencias taxonómicas y listado sistemático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban, M.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1978-1994 about 2.000 new animal species have been described in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. A complete list of these new species for 1978-1993, taxonomically arranged, and their bibliographic references is given in an appendix. Global trends in this process of biodiversity inventory demostrate a moderate but continuous increment in the number of taxa descriptions, as well as a higher contribution of Spanish authors. The number of articles published in journals listed by the Science Citation Index, and the use of the English language, are clearly growing. Most of the different phyla, classes or orders show an extreme variation in the number of described species per year, probably due to the small absolute number of publications. Insects clearly are the most studied group, but a certain decrease in its relative importance can be observed, related to the increase of studies on poorly known groups, such as nematodes.

    Durante el periodo 1978-1994 se han descrito cerca de 2.000 especies animales nuevas para la ciencia en territorio ibérico-balear. Se presenta como apéndice un listado completo de las especies (1978-1993, ordenadas taxonómicamente, así como de sus referencias bibliográficas. Como tendencias generales en este proceso de inventario de la biodiversidad se aprecia un incremento moderado y sostenido en el número de taxones descritos, junto a una cada vez mayor contribución de los autores españoles. Es cada vez mayor el número de especies publicadas en revistas que aparecen en el Science Citation Index, así como el uso del idioma inglés. La mayoría de los phyla, clases u órdenes muestran gran variación en la cantidad de especies descritas cada año, dado el pequeño número absoluto de publicaciones. Los insectos son claramente el colectivo más estudiado, pero se aprecia una disminución en su importancia relativa, asociada al incremento de estudios en grupos poco conocidos como los

  4. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  5. La protección de la flora vascular en España peninsular y Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Devesa Alcaraz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recogen en este artículo las principales medidas legales para la protección de la flora en la España peninsular y en las Baleares, tanto a nivel estatal como autonómico. Estas medidas se deben basar en el conocimiento previo, que en el caso de la flora vascular española es muy alto, aunque la publicación de cada volumen de Flora Iberica constituye más de una sorpresa. En España, la principal herramienta legal para la protección de los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad es la Ley de Conservación de los Espacios Naturales y de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre de 1989. A nivel autonómico, la legislación es muy desigual.

  6. Estrategias de especialización y diferenciación de la planta hotelera en las Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Bosch Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien la investigación en el área de la economía del turismo ha presentado importantes avances en los últimos años, una revisión de la literatura existente pone de manifiesto una clara preferencia en centrar el análisis del mercado turístico más desde el lado de la demanda que no de la oferta. El presente trabajo pretende, así, presentar una visión alternativa centrando en el análisis en la oferta e identificando las estrategias de especialización y diferenciación de la planta hotelera balear, utilizando para ello las técnicas de análisis multivariante.

  7. The CANALES experiment (1996-1998). Interannual, seasonal, and mesoscale variability of the circulation in the Balearic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, J.-M.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Riera, M.

    2002-12-01

    Repeated hydrographic casts, mooring time series and satellite sea surface temperature collected during the CANALES experiment (1996-98) are used to describe the thermohaline circulation in the Balearic Channels (western Mediterranean) and to analyze its variability. Mass transports are estimated by inverse calculations. The role played by each channel in the meridional water exchange is clarified: the Ibiza Channel funnels southward cool, saline, northern waters whereas the Mallorca Channel appears as the preferred route for the northward progression of warm, fresh, southern waters. A neat interannual trend is revealed by the continuous decrease of the amount of Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) brought by the Northern Current, reflecting the increase in temperature of the winter mixed layer in the northern Mediterranean that occurred each year between 1996 and 1998. A clear seasonal signal was also seen in the transport of the Northern Current which decreased from 1 to 1.4 Sv in winter to < 0.5 Sv in summer. The current intensified again in fall. A number of mesoscale eddies, from 20 to 70 km in size, most of them anticyclonic vortex eddies were brought by the unstable Northern Current, these eddies strongly perturbed the water exchange in the Ibiza Channel forcing retroflections of northern waters back to the north-east into the Balearic Current. These eddies either stayed stalled for several months in the Gulf of Valencia to the north of the channel, or were slowly funnelled southward through the channel narrows. A decreasing trend was observed in the mesoscale activity of the Northern Current between 1996 and 1998. Conversely, large, anticyclonic eddies, 150-km diameter, progressively invaded the Algerian Basin to the south of the channels in 1997-98 and forcing northward inflows (up to 0.75 Sv) of fresh and warm waters of Atlantic origin (AW) into the Mallorca Channel. The marked interannual differences observed in both northern and southern

  8. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  9. The Messinian Salinity Crisis: what can we expect from drilling the perched basins from the Balearic Promontory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanna, Lofi; Angelo, Camerlenghi; Agnès, Maillard; Diana, Ochoa

    2015-04-01

    In spite of 40 years of multi-disciplinary research conducted on the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) event, modalities, timing, causes, chronology and consequence at local and planetary scale of this event are still not yet fully understood, and the MSC event remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. A key factor for the controversy is certainly the lack of a complete record of the MSC deposits preserved in the deepest Mediterranean basins. Anywhere else, on the continental shelves and slopes, the MSC mostly generated a sedimentary/time lag corresponding to a widespread erosional surface. Correlations with the depositional units locally preserved onshore are thus complex, preventing the construction of a coherent scenario linking the outcropping MSC evaporites, the erosion on the margins, and the deposition of clastics and evaporites in the abyssal plains. Recent works based on seismic profile interpretations and conducted on the Balearic promontory allowed to evidence a series of small perched basins presently lying in different water depths stepped from the coast line down to the deep basin. These topographic lows trapped sedimentary series up to 500m thick, interpreted as MSC in age (Maillard et al., 2014; Mocnik et al., 2014; Driussi et al., in press). In the most proximal basins, these deposits have been drilled and logged for industriel purposes and consist of gypsum beds interbedded with marls. Ochoa et al. (submitted) demonstrated that these MSC deposits correlate with the Primary Lower Gypsum sequence deposited in marginal settings before the drawdown phase (Lugli et al., 2010) and that are now observed onshore in tectonically active areas. The basins located in more distal locations also contain MSC deposits (including <200m thick salt layers) but these have not been drilled. The relative age and chronology of the MSC deposits from one basin to another thus still need to be defined. The Balearic Promontory is probably the only

  10. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  12. Cambio tecnológico en la metalurgia de las Baleares (Calcolítico y Edad del Bronce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvà Simonet, Bartomeu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn el presente trabajo se dan a conocer las características más importantes de las primeras etapas de la metalurgia prehistórica balear (Calcolítico y Edad del Bronce. Se distinguen dos tecnologías que responden no sólo a formas de trabajar el metal, sino también de entenderlo y usarlo. Este estudio se apoya en datos procedentes de 400 análisis de composición y 14 metalografías. [fr] Dans le travail suivant en va faire connaitre les traits les plus importants des pprémierès ages de la métallurgie prehistorique baléar (Calcolitiques et Âge de Bronze. O établit une division entre deux moments tecnologiquement différents qui ne répondent pas seulement à façons du travailler le métal, mais aussi de le comprendre et l’utiliser. Tot ça (accompagne avec donnés provénantes de plus de 400 analyses de composition et diferentes métallographies.

  13. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  14. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  15. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  16. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  17. Career Development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  18. Los costes socioeconómicos de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y del cáncer en las Islas Canarias en 1998 Socioeconomic costs of cardiovascular disease and cancer in the Canary Islands [Spain] in 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López-Bastida

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto económico, en términos de costes directos e indirectos, de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y del cáncer, en Canarias, durante el año 1998. Métodos: El enfoque que se ha utilizado es el método del coste de la enfermedad. Los costes directos e indirectos se han estimado utilizando los costes de la prevalencia, es decir, los costes que se produjeron durante el año 1998. Los costes directos se han desglosado en costes de las hospitalizaciones, consultas externas, atención primaria y fármacos. Los indirectos se han obtenido a partir de unidades físicas mediante su transformación en unidades monetarias utilizando el enfoque de la teoría del capital humano y el método del período de fricción. Resultados: Los costes totales de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y del cáncer ascendieron a 246,11 y 193,72 millones de euros, respectivamente, utilizando el método del capital humano. Los costes directos atribuibles a las mismas fueron de 134,44 y 58,04 millones de euros, respectivamente, representando el 55 y 30% de los costes totales y el 16% del gasto total sanitario en esta región. Los costes indirectos de estas dos enfermedades ascendieron a 111,68 y 135,68 millones de euros, respectivamente, representando el 45 y 70% del total. Utilizando el método del período de fricción, los costes indirectos se redujeron en un 88% para enfermedades cardiovasculares y en un 77% en el cáncer. Conclusiones: A pesar de haberse adoptado un enfoque conservador, dado que en este estudio no se incluyen los costes asociados con el dolor y el sufrimiento, la invalidez permanente y la atención en el hogar por parte de los familiares, el elevado coste socioeconómico anual de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y del cáncer en Canarias alcanzó los 440 millones de euros.Objective: To evaluate the economic impact in terms of direct and indirect costs of the cardiovascular disease and cancer in the Canary Islands in 1998. Methods

  19. Distribución e intensidad de los estudios faunísticos sobre mariposas diurnas en la Península Ibérica e islas Baleares (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romo Benito, H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the sampling effort of current faunistic data on the butterflies in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands has been analysed, using 10 and 50 km UTM grids. The number of records in the database ATLAMAR1 was selected as the sampling effort unit. Three approaches were attempted to evaluate the geographic coverage of the data: First, based on criteria of minimal conditions. Second, based on indirect estimators derived from 25 10 x 10 km UTM squares whose butterfly fauna is believed to be well sampled. Finally, accumulation curves were used to evaluate the completeness of faunistic knowledge in the 50 km UTM squares.

    The different approaches were broadly coincident in indicating an adequate degree of knowledge for 6.8% of the 10 x 10 squares, and 62.3% of the 50 x 50 UTM squares. Approximately one third of the territory is characterised by a remarkable scarcity of butterfly records. This is especially true for some regions, namely Galicia, Castilla-La Mancha and inland Andalusia.

    The results provide a reliable and objective basis for subsequent work on butterfly diversity, biogeography and conservation within the Iberian area.

    Se ha analizado la distribución actual de la intensidad de muestreo de las mariposas diurnas en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, usando el sistema de proyección UTM, con una red de malla de cuadrículas de 10 y 50 km de lado. Se realizaron tres tipos de aproximaciones para valorar la cobertura geográfica de los datos, seleccionando el número de registros de la base de datos ATLAMAR1 como unidad de esfuerzo de muestreo: Una basada en criterios mínimos, otra en estimadores indirectos derivados de 25 cuadrículas UTM de 10 km de lado bien muestreadas, y una última mediante la utilización de curvas de acumulación que se aplicó a las cuadrículas de 50 km de lado.

    Los resultados de todos los análisis coinciden en señalar un 6,8% de las cuadr

  20. World Support Base: Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Bonifacio Echevarria) Management Mr. D. Bonifacio Guiasoia Echeverria, President; Mr. Inak1 De Subinas Guisasola, Director General; Mr. Jose Ignacio ...one major production faci I Ity in Marquina (Vizcaya), Spain with a sales office in Panama. EC IA only produces metal parts. All load, assemble...Gabilondo y Cia., S.A.) Management Mr. Jose Ignacio Lecue, Director General and Mr. Carlos Zarceno. Genera I Llama is a privately owned small

  1. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    elements fled the coun- try generally through France, often staying in that country permanently. Indeed, France and Mexico were the largest recipients...discussion of the aspect of Spain’s future which concerns us--its secur- ity options--by a brief look at its past. " Historia no facit saltum", quotes...guerra espanoles (1971-1976). Madrid: Editorial San Martin, 1977. Alonso, Josd Ramon. Historia politica del ejdrcito espainol. Madrid: Editora Nacional

  2. Geochemical mapping of polluted soils and environmental risk assessment associated to mining activities: a comparison case study in El Campillo (Huelva, Spain) and the Zambales (Luzon Island,The Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Albanese, Stefano; de Vivo, Benedetto; Nieto, Jose Miguel; David, Carlos Primo C.; Norini, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    The soil is one of the environmental systems which could be most affected by the dispersion of pollutant, also because of the close relationship with the atmosphere and meteoric waters. The distribution and type of contamination depends closely on the climate, precipitations, drainage, vegetation, lithology and human activities. As a matter of fact, soil contamination due to heavy metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, represents the source of a severe potential hazard for the ecosystem equilibrium and the health of living beings. This study is carried out in two abandoned mining zones near to populated areas, which underwent similar mining history, but in very different climatic and environmental conditions. The aim of the research is to analyze the influence of precipitation amounts, soil thickness, drainage density and vegetation cover on pollutant distribution. The first zone is in El Campillo, a town at the Rio Tinto mining district and belongs to the Iberic Pyritic Belt of the southwest Iberian peninsula. This mining site is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with low precipitation (700 mm/year), low vegetation cover and poor soil development. The second case study is the Zambales Mountain Range, a mining district in the Luzon Island of the Philippines dominated by a tropical weather, forests, intense rainfalls (2350 mm/year) and good soil development. The wide spectrum of climatic variables in the case studies requires to develop a single flexible methodology for the mapping and monitoring of the environmental degradation in both semi-arid and tropical environments, allowing comparative studies. The methodological approach comprises remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), spatial statistical analysis, field sampling, ICP analysis and isotopic geochemical analysis. The presentation illustrates the first stage of the project. The processing of multispectral (Aster) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) images, in comparison

  3. The ibero-balearic region: one of the areas of highest Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Rissooidea diversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arconada, Beatriz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosobranch mollusc family Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 has a cosmopolitan distribution and is made up of small to minute species that inhabit permanent aquatic ecosystems. It is one of the largest families within the superfamily Rissooidea. The evolutionary relationships between members of this family are still unclear due to: 1 insufficient available information regarding the morphological characters of many of the described taxa, 2 uncertainty concerning which morphological characters are of greatest taxonomic and phylogenetic interest, and 3 the rare use of molecular characters to study evolutionary relationships. In this work, we examine the reasons for the confusing systematics of hydrobiids. We include a diagnosis of the 13 genera and a list of the 43 species described and accepted to date for the Ibero-balearic region, along with data regarding their geographic distribution and a compilation of the most relevant bibliographical references. The Iberian Peninsula is one of the areas of greatest hydrobiid diversity in Europe, and has a large number of endemic genera and species in addition to those that have a typically circummediterranean distribution. Numerous hydrobiid species and populations are threatened, and in some cases, in danger of extinction due to the fragile nature of many of the ecosystems they inhabit.

    La familia Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 de moluscos prosobranquios, tiene distribución cosmopolita y está constituida por especies de tamaño pequeño (o incluso diminuto que habitan ecosistemas acuáticos permanentes. Se trata de una de las familias con mayor número de especies de la superfamilia Rissooidea. Las relaciones evolutivas entre los miembros de esta familia son aún confusas debido a: (1 la insuficiente información disponible sobre los caracteres morfológicos de muchos de los táxones descritos, (2 la indefinición de los caracteres morfológicos de interés taxonómico y filogenético, y (3 la escasa

  4. El horizonte de crecimiento posible según los planes urbanísticos y territoriales de las islas Baleares (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Rullan, Onofre

    2007-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta trata de analizar el grado de influencia que, sobre las tendencias de crecimiento residencial y turístico de fondo, hayan podido tener los planes urbanísticos y territoriales en el caso de las islas Baleares. Para ello se analiza la llamada capacidad de carga urbanística del territorio (CCUT) de los planes urbanísticos municipales llegándose a la conclusión que los límites que estos establecen están muy por encima de la demanda efectiva de crecimiento a corto y medi...

  5. Informe sobre el proceso de reforma de la atención a la salud mental en las Illes Balears y recomendaciones para su continuidad.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    En este informe se analiza el Proceso de Reforma de la atención a la salud mental en las Illes Balears desde Enero del 2000 hasta el 31 de Marzo del 2003. Se revisa dicho proceso desde la Perspectiva histórica, Marco Jurídico, Modelo organizativo y de Gestión, Modificaciones para la participación ciudadana y cambios en Formación Continuada, Docencia e Investigación. Así mismo, se realiza una exposición actual de los dispositivos de atención a la salud mental y profesionales, el análisis compa...

  6. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  7. Seroprevalence of canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) on Tenerife Island: an epidemiological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J A; Morales, M; Juste, M C; Bañares, A; Simon, F; Genchi, C

    2006-12-01

    Blood samples from 823 dogs were tested for circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen during a 1-year period (May 2002 to May 2003) on Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was 21%. Heartworm infection was similar in males and females and was more common in dogs aged >6 years. Distribution of infection in varying climatic zones was not statistically different.

  8. Enhancing Learning with the Social Media: Student Teachers' Perceptions on Twitter in a Debate Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Gemma; Marín, Victoria I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research focused on the educational experience of students using the microblogging platform Twitter for debate activities in three groups in different teacher education programmes at the University of the Balearic Islands, Spain. The implementation of this technology-based task in a face-to-face class was introduced as an…

  9. Valoración nutricional de los menús escolares de los colegios públicos de la isla de Tenerife Assessment of the nutritional value of the menus served in school canteens on the island of Tenerife, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campos Díaz

    2008-02-01

    contenido medio y desviación estándar del colesterol es de 77,53 ± 64,30 mg, por lo que el aporte medio de colesterol por 1.000 kcal es de 109 mg/1.000 kcal. Los ácidos grasos saturados contribuyen en un 8,6% a la ingesta calórica, los ácidos grasos monoinsaturados con un 11,7% y los poliinsaturados con un 9,7%. La ingesta de fibra por 1.000 kcal se sitúa en 11 g. Conclusiones: El aporte de energía del menú escolar es adecuado, el contenido porcentual de proteínas es algo elevado y de lípidos y carbohidratos están dentro de los límites. El contenido porcentual de ácidos grasos es adecuado, así como el colesterol y fibra. El aporte de vitaminas y minerales es apropiado, con excepción del yodo, zinc y hierro, vitaminas D, E y riboflavina que son deficitarios, sobre todo para los niños de mayor edad.Objective: To study the nutritional characteristics of the menus provided in the state primary schools of Tenerife and to assess whether they are adequate for the different age groups of school children. Scope and methods: The study is conducted in 52 school canteens, with a population of 8,411 diners aged between 4 and 12 years old. 27 of the 52 school dinner services were managed directly and 25 were contracted out to catering companies. They were selected through a random sampling that was stratified by the different geographic areas of the island. A full menu was taken from each of them: first course, second course and dessert (in some cases, a dairy product, normally a piece of fruit. The food was recorded by weight. For assessing the nutritional input in the directly managed dining rooms, we took information on the menu, how it was prepared, the ingredients used and the proportion of each of these in each dish, the amount of oil and salt added, etc. Hence we calculate the proportion of each ingredient. We then weigh the different rations offered to the school children. In the case of the menus offered by catering companies, the quantity of the ration is

  10. Lagged effects of the Mistral wind on heavy precipitation through ocean-atmosphere coupling in the region of Valencia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthou, Ségolène; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe; Arsouze, Thomas; Bastin, Sophie; Béranger, Karine; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy

    2016-05-01

    The region of Valencia in Spain has historically been affected by heavy precipitation events (HPEs). These HPEs are known to be modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Balearic Sea. Using an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model, we show that more than 70 % of the HPEs in the region of Valencia present a SST cooling larger than the monthly trend in the Northwestern Mediterranean before the HPEs. This is linked to the breaking of a Rossby wave preceding the HPEs: a ridge-trough pattern at mid-levels centered over western France associated with a low-level depression in the Gulf of Genoa precedes the generation of a cut-off low over southern Spain with a surface depression over the Alboran Sea in the lee of the Atlas. This latter situation is favourable to the advection of warm and moist air towards the Mediterranean Spanish coast, possibly leading to HPEs. The depression in the Gulf of Genoa generates intense northerly (Mistral) to northwesterly (Tramontane/Cierzo) winds. In most cases, these intense winds trigger entrainment at the bottom of the oceanic mixed layer which is a mechanism explaining part of the SST cooling in most cases. Our study suggests that the SST cooling due to this strong wind regime then persists until the HPEs and reduces the precipitation intensity.

  11. Comparación de las lesiones no mortales por accidente de trabajo por Comunidades Autónomas en España (1994-2004 Comparison of non-fatal occupational injuries by autonomous communities in Spain (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Dadas las diferencias observadas en estudios previos de la incidencia de lesiones por accidente de trabajo (LAT por Comunidades Autónomas (CC.AA., en este estudio hemos evaluado la hipótesis de homogeneidad de la incidencia de las LAT para tipos específicos de accidentes y en determinadas actividades, entre 1994 y 2004. Métodos: Las LAT analizadas fueron no mortales con baja, de tipo mecánico y sobreesfuerzo, ocurridas en jornada en centro para empresas manufactureras y de la construcción. Se calculó el riesgo relativo ajustado por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato en cada una de las CC.AA. mediante la razón de LAT estandarizada, tomando como referencia las tasas de España, y estratificando según duración de la baja (menos de 16 días y más de 15 días. Resultados: El riesgo relativo ajustado de LAT según los diferentes tipos de accidentes analizados presenta una distribución heterogénea entre CC.AA. Murcia, Navarra, Baleares y País Vasco se encuentran generalmente entre las comunidades con riesgos más elevados, mientras que Castilla-León y Extremadura son las que tienen principalmente menores riesgos de sufrir una LAT. Conclusiones: La heterogeneidad en la incidencia de LAT entre CC.AA. persiste después de seleccionar una serie de formas de accidente específicas y ajustar por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato. Por ello sugerimos que, además de seguir analizando las condiciones de trabajo como explicación de esta heterogeneidad, se tengan en cuenta otras variables socioeconómicas al comparar las incidencias de LAT entre CC.AA.Objectives: Given the differences observed in previous studies with respect to occupational injury rates in Spain's autonomous communities, this study tested the homogeneity hypothesis of occupational injury for specific accident types and economic activity between 1994 and 2004. Methods: We analyzed non-fatal injuries of a mechanical nature or those due to overexertion taking place in

  12. Los efectos territoriales de las dinámicas globales en unas islas turísticas mediterráneas: las Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Rullan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo repasa la evolución económica y territorial de la islas Baleares a partir de su inserción en la órbita económica de Europa occidental que se da después del final de la II Guerra Mundial. Se analizan los principales procesos de transformación observados en la región en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Entre los procesos analizados se hace especial referencia a las transformaciones territoriales y urbanísticas así como al cambio de signo de los procesos demográficos y a los efectos inducidos sobre el sector inmobiliario. Se concluye que, como consecuencia de todo el proceso, las Islas Baleares han pasado de ser un muy periférico enclave turístico de uso vacacional por parte de la población europea a una extensión residencial de uso mucho más frecuente mucho más frecuente, incrementando así la conexión con la gran megalópolis europea vez más conectada a la gran megalópolis europea.

  13. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  15. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…

  17. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  18. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-22

    the fact that they are now members of the same western organizations such as NATO 13 facttha the ar no memersof te sme esten oganiatins uch s NT’ and...and possibly from Libya; but it is confronted by a major Moroccan military presence. The conflict in the Western Sahara will probably endure because...but now is worse because of the Moroccan King’s speech claiming sovereignty over the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melila. The Canaries feel that in the

  19. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... of Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description...

  20. Estimación de la cobertura de las vacunaciones sistemáticas en la población infantil de las Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galmés Truyols Antònia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para un buen desarrollo de los programas de vacunación es primordial conocer la cobertura de vacunación. En las Islas Baleares la cobertura notificada era muy inferior a la del resto de España. El objetivo de este trabajo es la estimación de la cobertura de las vacunas incluidas en el calendario recomendado hasta los 18 meses de edad (4 dosis de polio oral, tétanos y difteria; 3 de tosferina; 1 de sarampión, rubeola y parotiditis. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, de base poblacional. Se calcularon los estimadores puntuales de distribución de frecuencias y los intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95% correspondientes, sobre una muestra de la población residente en Baleares de dos años de edad (nacida en 1995, seleccionada por muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados en una sola etapa a partir de las secciones censales. Se consultan los registros de vacunas de Sanidad y de los centros de salud del Insalud, se pide telefónicamente a las familias los datos del documento de vacunación y a los pediatras privados los de la historia clínica. Resultados: La muestra incluía 606 niños. Pudo obtenerse la información completa de 532. Se consiguió la información completa de 377 casos (62% a partir de los registros del sector público. La cobertura más baja fue la de la vacuna antidiftérica, 518 niños complentamente vacunados, el 96,8% (IC95% = 94,8 - 98,1 y la más alta la de la vacuna antipertussis, 537 niños, el 98,9% (IC95% = 97,5 - 99,5. Conclusiones: En las Islas Baleares existe una buena cobertura de la vacunación, similar a lo que se viene estimando en España en su totalidad. Se cumple el objetivo incluido en el Plan de Erradicación de la Polio. La información recogida desde el sector público es escasa.

  1. Ecofisiología de las plantas endémicas de las Islas Baleares en el contexto Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Galmes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas de las especies endémicas del mediterráneo occidental habitan preferentemente ambientes rocosos, abiertos, con elevado grado de estrés y baja competencia interespecífica. En el caso de las Islas Baleares, a esta dimensión geológico-edáfica característica del endemismo mediterráneo, se le suma la dimensión de aislamiento geográfico. Para cualquiera de estas dos dimensiones, geológico-edáfica y geográfica, resulta sorprendente la escasez de estudios que apunten a factores fisiológicos como causantes generales de la limitada distribución de las especies endémicas. Esta escasez de evidencias sugiere que la distribución de endemismos de Baleares en su dimensión geográfica viene limitada principalmente por filtros históricos, mientras que su dimensión geológico-edáfica se adecuaría a la hipótesis de ¿refugio¿. Según esta hipótesis, las especies endémicas habitan únicamente ambientes en los que su elevado grado de estrés excluye la presencia de especies generalistas. La baja competencia interespecífica en estos ambientes permite la supervivencia de algunas especies endémicas con rasgos específicos, que resultarían desfavorables fuera del ambiente en el que habitan. Finalmente, se demuestra mediante el análisis de tres casos concretos de endemicidad (Crepis triasii, Lysimachia minoricensis y Digitalis minor, que la hipotética baja plasticidad fenotípica de las especies endémicas no es generalizable, y que algunos endemismos de Baleares presentan una elevada capacidad de adaptación a las condiciones cambiantes del medio, en especial en relación a la disponibilidad hídrica. Un mejor conocimiento de las bases fisiológicas de la falta de éxito ecológico de las especies endémicas es esencial para una correcta gestión de la biodiversidad.

  2. 巴塞罗那——来自地中海的城市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Best places to Visit in Barcelona capture themost popular tourist attractions in theCatalonian capital. Barcelona is located near theSpain's border with France and is a good jumping offplace for a vacation in the Balearic Islands or CostaBrava. However,we think you will find Barcelonarefreshing and attractive on its own. It is a place unlikeany other in Spain or Europe.

  3. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  4. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  5. AW-Isobioclimas: aplicación web para consultar los Isobioclimas de la España Peninsular y Balear

    OpenAIRE

    Marco García, Ricardo; Sariñena Usach, Miguel Antonio; López Fernández, María Soledad; López Fernández, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Para este trabajo se ha preparado una página web, y también un archivo en formato KML, compartido en la misma página web, con la información de los Isobioclimas de la España Peninsular y Balear, publicada en 2015. Para su realización se ha utilizado HTML5, estándar de la W3C para la geolocalización, y Open Layers para generación de mapas web de código abierto. Este formato permite ser leído por múltiples aplicaciones en diferentes sistemas operativos y tanto en dispositivos fijos (ordenadores...

  6. Revisión del género Cephalanthera (Orchidaceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, María Luisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Cephalanthera in the Iberian Peninsula and NW of Africa has been done. Three species have been accepted. These species, C. rubra, C. longifolia and C. damasonium, have been listed with their synonyms in the study zone, a detailed description of each, and distribution maps. The indumentum pollen and seeds have been studied by SEM. C. damasonium has been typified.Se revisa el género Cephalanthera en la Península Ibérica, Baleares y NW de África. Se aceptan tres especies: C. rubra, C. longifolia y C. damasonium, para las que se dan los sinónimos usados en la zona de estudio, descripción detallada y mapas de distribución. Se estudia el indumento, polen y semillas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se neotipifica C. damasonium.

  7. Quaternary biogeography of the Mustelidae family on the Mediterranean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Five taxa of the Mustelidae family now occur on the Mediterranean islands: the pine marten, Martes martes L., 1758, distributed on some of the Balearic and Tyrrhenian islands, the stone marten, M. foina Erxleben, 1777, which occurs on many islands of the basin, the badger, Meles meles Brisson, 1762, that has been only reported from some Greek islands, the weasel, Musteln nivalis L., 1766, common to many of the islands, and the otter, Lutra lutra L., 1758, recorded from the Greek islands. During Late Pleistocene times, only few carnivores seem to have occurred, however, on these islands and none is referable to the species that are present today. Paleontological evidence attests only to the occurrence of endemic elements, most of which were related to the Lutrinae subfamily. Apart from L. lutra, the absence during Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the continental species present today suggests that these carnivores are allochthonous. They were imported by man, for various purposes, probably since prehistorical and/or early historical times. Riassunto Biogeografia quaternaria della famiglia Mustelidae nelle isole del Mediterraneo - La distribuzione attuale dei rappresentanti della famiglia Mustelidae nelle isole mediterranee interessa esclusivamente cinque specie: la martora, Martes martes L., 1758, presente su alcune isole baleariche e tirreniche, la faina, M. foina Erxleben, 1777, diffusa in varie isole del Mediterraneo, il tasso, Meles meles Brisson, 1762, che viene solo segnalato per alcune isole greche, la donnola, Mustela nivalis L., 1766, che interessa molte isole del bacino e la lontra, Lutra lutra L., 1758, nota solamente per alcune isole greche. Nel corso del Pleistocene altre forme di mustelidi hanno comunque interessato queste isole e nessuna di esse può essere riferita

  8. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  9. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barroso Diana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor.

  10. Influence of Giulio Grablovitz in Spain: instruments and scientific correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    It is known that Giulio Grablovitz founded and operated a «geodynamic» station on Ischia Island from 1885 up to his death. But it is almost unknown that one of the instruments he designed, the horizontal pendulum, was installed at Ebre Observatory in Spain. Records from this instrument and correspondence between Grablovitz and the Ebre observatory are still preserved. These documents show how the research work done by Grablovitz was introduced and diffused in Spain. Also, they give us some new information on the construction of the seismic instruments designed by Grablovitz. The present paper deals with the analysis of the preserved materials, assesses the introduction of Grablovitz research in Spain and shows the importance of the use of manuscript sources


  11. Historical and methodological approach to music education courses at the Universitat de les Illes Balears (1977-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç GELABERT GUAL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The education in general and the music in particular were not outside to the changes developed in Spain in the seventies of last century. The initiative, in the form of summer courses, promoted by a group of teachers and musicians, will mean the beginning of a true outcrop in music education, and will get in crescendo. This new concept is based on active methodologies successfully applied in other European countries and their linkage with the learning environment of the Catalan musician Ireneu Segarra, in the line of great figures of the musical avantgarde. This article is intended to approach the legacy of these courses from two perspectives. First, from a historical point of view, and then reaching any specific methodological applications then initiated. Finally, this article intends to approach his legacy highlighting the potential and utility also could acquire a similar format nowadays, in the new adaptation framework to EHEA.

  12. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  13. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  14. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  15. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  16. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE. The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas (SIGPAC enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data. The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100

  17. Contrasting selective pressures on seed traits of two congeneric species by their main native guilds of dispersers on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nogales

    Full Text Available Many fleshy-fruited plants from the Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands are dispersed through endozoochory. In mainland Mediterranean areas, reciprocal adaptations have been found between plants and animals, although evidence is scarce. On small isolated oceanic islands, such reciprocal adaptations might well be more prevalent due to intrinsic island traits. Here we evaluate the existence of selective pressures exerted by two different disperser guilds (lizards and birds on two seed traits (seed coat thickness and seed germination pattern of two congeneric species present on Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands. In the continental Balearic Islands, Rubia peregrina has evolved mostly with birds, although frugivorous lizards are present in some of these islands and are known to eventually consume its fruits. By contrast, R. fruticosa, endemic to the Macaronesian archipelago, has evolved mostly interacting with lizards and only recently with birds. We hypothesized that R. fruticosa would be especially adapted to saurochory, with thicker seed coats and higher germination proportion, whereas R. peregrina would be more adapted to ornithocory, with thinner seed coats and showing a lower germination percentage after being ingested by lizards. Captivity experiments of seed ingestions by natural and non-natural dispersers (i.e., frugivores that have not evolved with those plants were conducted. Results suggest that dispersers did not exert any strong enough selective pressure to induce changes in germination patterns. We attribute this to the fact that the Rubiaceae is an ancestral family in the Mediterranean (both on continent and islands and thus probably interacted with lizards in the past. Lastly, although we hold that the seed coat structure of R. fruticosa is probably associated with its evolutionary success after a long interaction with insular lizards, our findings support the idea that the relationship between endozoochorous plants and the

  18. Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Bangert, Mathieu; de Ory, Fernando; Potente, Arantxa; Hernandez, Lourdes; Lasala, Fatima; Herrero, Laura; Molero, Francisca; Negredo, Anabel; Vázquez, Ana; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; de la Fuente, Jesus; Puente, Sabino; Ramírez de Arellano, Eva; Lago, Mar; Martinez, Miguel; Gascón, Joaquim; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Sulleiro, Elena; Pou, Diana; Serre, Nuria; Roblas, Ricardo Fernández; Tenorio, Antonio; Franco, Leticia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first documented autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin in 2013, the infection has been reported within the Caribbean region as well as North, Central and South America. The risk of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus becoming established in Spain may be elevated due to the large numbers of travellers returning to Spain from countries affected by the 2013 epidemic in the Caribbean and South America, as well as the existence of the Aedes albopictus vector in certain parts of Spain. We retrospectively analysed the laboratory diagnostic database of the National Centre for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III (CNM-ISCIII) from 2008 to 2014. During the study period, 264 confirmed cases, of 1,371 suspected cases, were diagnosed at the CNM-ISCIII. In 2014 alone, there were 234 confirmed cases. The highest number of confirmed cases were reported from the Dominican Republic (n = 136), Venezuela (n = 30) and Haiti (n = 11). Six cases were viraemic in areas of Spain where the vector is present. This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:27631156

  19. Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Bangert, Mathieu; de Ory, Fernando; Potente, Arantxa; Hernandez, Lourdes; Lasala, Fatima; Herrero, Laura; Molero, Francisca; Negredo, Anabel; Vázquez, Ana; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; de la Fuente, Jesus; Puente, Sabino; Ramírez de Arellano, Eva; Lago, Mar; Martinez, Miguel; Gascón, Joaquim; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Sulleiro, Elena; Pou, Diana; Serre, Nuria; Roblas, Ricardo Fernández; Tenorio, Antonio; Franco, Leticia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz

    2016-09-08

    Since the first documented autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin in 2013, the infection has been reported within the Caribbean region as well as North, Central and South America. The risk of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus becoming established in Spain may be elevated due to the large numbers of travellers returning to Spain from countries affected by the 2013 epidemic in the Caribbean and South America, as well as the existence of the Aedes albopictus vector in certain parts of Spain. We retrospectively analysed the laboratory diagnostic database of the National Centre for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III (CNM-ISCIII) from 2008 to 2014. During the study period, 264 confirmed cases, of 1,371 suspected cases, were diagnosed at the CNM-ISCIII. In 2014 alone, there were 234 confirmed cases. The highest number of confirmed cases were reported from the Dominican Republic (n = 136), Venezuela (n = 30) and Haiti (n = 11). Six cases were viraemic in areas of Spain where the vector is present. This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers.

  20. Escape by the Balearic Lizard (Podarcis lilfordi is affected by elevation of an approaching predator, but not by some other potential predation risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cooper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many predation risk factors to affect escape behavior by lizards, but effects of some potential risk factors are unknown or are variable among species. We studied effects of several risk factors on escape responses by the Balearic lizard (Podarcis lilfordi, Lacertidae on escape responses. Escape was elicited by an approaching experimenter who recorded flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins and distance fled. When an experimenter approached from above (upslope, flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer than when the experimenter approached from below. This novel effect suggests that lizards exposed to aerial predation might have been naturally selected to respond rapidly to predators approaching from above or that effects of path inclination of escape ability may differ between predators and prey in a manner requiring a larger margin of safety during approaches from above than below. Although sex differences in aspects of escape occur in some lizards, including lacertids, no sex difference was observed in P. lilfordi. Because vigilance and some other aspects of antipredatory behavior exhibit cortical lateralization, we tested effects of approach from the left and right sides of lizards. As predicted by optimal escape theory, side of approach did not affect flight initiation distance. Because many lizards have color vision and respond to pigmentation of conspecifics in social settings, researchers have often worn only drably colored clothing when simulating predators. This precaution may be unnecessary because flight initiation distance did not differ among investigator shirt colors (red, orange, olive.

  1. Un modelo de materiales didácticos multimedia para la enseñanza superior en la Universitat de les Illes Balears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torrandell Serra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En el curso académico 2005-06, la Universitat de les Illes Balears incorpora los estudios de Derecho a su programa de formación semipresencial Campus Extens, que incluye, por una parte, clases a través de videoconferencia para alumnos que residen en las islas de Menoría e Ibiza y Formentera, y por otra, un dispositivo a través de la red que incluye herramientas de comunicación y unos nuevos materiales multimedia navegables. Esta comunicación pretende dar a conocer descriptivamente estos nuevos materiales didácticos, diseñados desde la Unidad de Apoyo Técnico-pedagógico de Campus Extens, para ser trabajados en un entorno de enseñanza flexible y semipresencial. Básicamente, cada asignatura se compone de dos tipos de materiales sólo accesibles a través de la red, en formato electrónico: un programa de la asignatura y varios módulos donde el profesor debe plantear una serie de casos o problemas a resolver por parte de los alumnos. Esta comunicación pretende dar a conocer estos materiales y sus principales fundamentos y características.

  2. Informe sobre el proceso de reforma de la atención a la salud mental en las Illes Balears y recomendaciones para su continuidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Salvador Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este informe se analiza el Proceso de Reforma de la atención a la salud mental en las Illes Balears desde Enero del 2000 hasta el 31 de Marzo del 2003. Se revisa dicho proceso desde la Perspectiva histórica, Marco Jurídico, Modelo organizativo y de Gestión, Modificaciones para la participación ciudadana y cambios en Formación Continuada, Docencia e Investigación. Así mismo, se realiza una exposición actual de los dispositivos de atención a la salud mental y profesionales, el análisis comparativo de la evolución de los recursos y profesionales según las recomendaciones del Comité Técnico de Salud Mental. Se realiza una valoración cualitativa y cuantitativa de los datos obtenidos, y por último unas recomendaciones generales y específicas para la continuidad del proceso de reforma.

  3. La importancia de tener buena salud en la autovaloración de la calidad de vida. El ejemplo de los alumnos mayores de las Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberto Macías González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de un estudio más amplio sobre la calidad de vida de personas mayores que están participando en un programa universitario para mayores. La parte que presentamos pertenece a una primera fase, centrada en la valoración de la calidad de vida de personas que se han matriculado en el primer curso del Diploma Sènior(que consta de tres cursos en total de la Universitat Oberta per a Majors (UOM, programa educativo ofertado por la Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB a personas mayores de 50 años. En este trabajo se reflejan los resultados de la percepción subjetiva de la calidad de vida de las personas mayores matriculadas en el primer curso, en tres años académicos distintos y correlativos (2009-10, 2010-11 y 2011-12 del mencionado programa universitario para mayores, con el objetivo de conocer y valorar cual es el componente, relacionado con la calidad de vida, al que le dan más importancia o consideran prioritario para su calidad de vida. Los resultados muestran que una amplia mayoría, el 93%, considera que el componente más importante en su calidad de vida es “tener buena salud”, así como sólo un 0,8% del total de la muestra participante percibe su calidad de vida como baja

  4. Análisis de la prueba de inglés de selectividad de la Universitat de les Illes Balears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Amengual Pizarro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone investigar la validez y la Habilidad de la prueba de Inglés (PI que se incluye en las Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad (PAAU. 16 correctores participaron en las dos fases de este trabajo. En la primera fase, se analizaron las puntuaciones de 10 correctores que evaluaron 50 PI en las PAAU de la Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB, junio de 2002. En la segunda fase, se examinaron las puntuaciones de 6 correctores que participaron en la corrección de las 50 PI de las PAAU en septiembre de 2002. Los resultados demuestran que la PI discrimina a los candidatos de acuerdo con su nivel de dominio lingüístico de la lengua. Los resultados también indican que la discriminación de los candidatos se establece principalmente a partir de las preguntas de carácter subjetivo que se incluyen en la Prueba. No obstante, la fiabilidad de dichas preguntas es cuestionable. Este último dato nos obliga a estudiar distintas medidas destinadas a garantizar la fiabilidad que esta prueba de dominio de le lengua inglesa debería tener.

  5. Pas de Vallgornera Cave, Majorca (Spain): one the largest littoral caves in Europe; La cueva des Pas de Vallgornera, Mallorca (Espana): unas de las cuevas litorales mas grandes de Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, B.; Mulet, T.; Rodriguez-Homar, M.; Merino, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Pas de Vallgornera cave is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands and one of the largest in Europe (more than 73 km long). It is found on the Miocene reef of Llucmajor Platform and its genesis is related to the development of normal faults and associated fracture systems with N 180° S and N 60° E orientation that took place during the Neogene. It is noteworthy for the abundance, variety and beauty of the speleothems, paleontological richness and to present evidence of hypogene basal recharge. Due to its singularity, it has served as the basis of several scientific studies on groundwater level fluctuations during the quaternary period and others related to the existence of one of most important paleontological sites in Mallorca as far as vertebrates are concerned. (Author)

  6. [European expansion and aboriginal demographics. The example of the Canary Islands, 1400-1505].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Hernandez, A M

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the indigenous population of the Canary Islands from the thirteenth century to 1505. He uses the limited available data to describe the effect of contact with and eventual colonization by Spain on such aspects as spatial distribution, mortality, and forced labor migration to the Continent. Comparisons are made with the indigenous experience in the Americas.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its...

  8. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  9. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Patiño, Mª Gracia

    2013-01-01

    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  10. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  11. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  12. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  13. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  15. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  16. El género Dasya (Rhodophyta, Dasyaceae) en la península Ibérica y las islas Baleares: revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural

    OpenAIRE

    Pena Martín, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural de las especies del género Dasya presentes en la península Ibérica y las islas Baleares. Dasya es un género complejo, en el que existe una gran confusión nomenclatural y taxonómica. Nuestro estudio ha permitido resolver estas cuestiones para las especies de la zona geográfica considerada. En primer lugar, se ha comprobado la validez de los nombres y precisado las sinonimias y tipificaciones para cada uno de los táxones citados...

  17. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  18. Latin radio in Spain. Media for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Santos Diez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spain has become one of the top destinations for immigration from Latin America. This phenomenon involves the creation of new media to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. In this paper we analyze creation and the programming grips of the FM radio stations forLatinos arising in Spain.

  19. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  20. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  1. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  2. Needle exchange programs in prisons in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, C; Zulaica, D; Parras, F

    2000-01-01

    On 11 July 2000, at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, yet another country--Spain--presented evidence that needle exchange programs in prisons work. We reproduce here the text of the presentation entitled "Needle Exchange Program at the Bilbao Prison, Spain: Two Years of Experience (1997-1999)."

  3. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

  4. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  5. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  6. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  7. Ozone in Spain's national parks and protected forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, María J; Sanz, Francisco; Calatayud, Vicent; Sanchez-Peña, Gerardo

    2007-03-21

    In general, it is difficult to measure air pollutant concentrations in remote areas, as they are mostly national parks and protected areas. Passive samplers provide an accurate and inexpensive method for measuring cumulative exposures of different air pollutants. They have been used to collect ozone data in both laboratory and field at different geographical scales. The objective of the present study is to fill the knowledge gap regarding air quality in remote areas of Spain, such as national parks and protected areas. Because there were no systematic data sets on the main air pollutants that could affect these areas, an air quality measurement network was established between 2001 and 2004 on 19 locations inside Spanish national parks and protected areas. The data collected suggest that ozone levels in mountainous areas are high enough to affect sensitive vegetation. Most of the locations registered moderate-to-high ozone levels, with important interannual variability. Altitudinal ozone gradients were observed in most of the parks with complex topography due to the establishment of local circulations that incorporate polluted air masses from polluted airsheds or even long-range transport (i.e., Canary Islands). Different latitude-dependent, yearly cycles were also observed, showing two, one, or no clear peaks depending on the region. These findings extend to the most southerly locations, except in the Canary Islands, where pollution transported from other regions in the upper transport layers probably led to the high concentrations observed.

  8. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  9. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  10. Intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed.

  11. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  12. Evaluation of the surface urban heat island effect in the city of Madrid by thermal remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobrino, J.; Oltra-Carrio, R; Jimenez-Munoz, J.C.; Franch, B.; Hidalgo, V.; Mattar, C.; Julien, Y.; Cuenca, J.; Romaguera, M.; Gomez, J.A.; Miguel, de E.; Bianchi, R.; Paganini, M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect is defined as the increased surface temperatures in urban areas in contrast to cooler surrounding rural areas. In this article, the evaluation of the SUHI effect in the city of Madrid (Spain) from thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing data is presented. Th

  13. Chasing the European Dream: Unaccompanied African Youths' Educational Experience in a Canary Islands' Reception Centre and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger-Voyer, Valérie; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Perez, Lidia Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, Spain's Canary Islands have received thousands of undocumented migrants arriving by boat from the coasts of North and West Africa. The sharp increase of unaccompanied minors has presented a particular challenge, as these minors fall under the State's protection system and are entitled to an education and other rights, once…

  14. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  15. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  16. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  17. Groundwater control on the suspended sediment load in the Na Borges River, Mallorca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, Joan; Garcia, Celso; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2009-05-01

    Groundwater dominance has important effects on the hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of river systems. Low suspended sediment concentrations and high water clarity are expected because significant inputs of sediment-free spring water dilute the suspended sediment generated by storms. However, in many Mediterranean rivers, groundwater dominance is characterised by seasonal alternations of influent and effluent discharge involving significant variability on the sediment transport regimes. Such areas are often subject to soil and water conservation practices over the centuries that have reduced the sediment contribution from agricultural fields and favour subsurface flow to rivers. Moreover, urbanisation during the twentieth century has changed the catchment hydrology and altered basic river processes due to its 'flashy' regime. In this context, we monitored suspended sediment fluxes during a two-year period in the Na Borges River, a lowland agricultural catchment (319 km 2) on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands). The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was lower when the base flow index (i.e., relative proportion of baseflow compared to stormflow, BFI) was higher. Therefore, strong seasonal contrasts explain the high SSC coefficient of variation, which is clearly related to dilution effects associated with different groundwater and surface water seasonal interactions. A lack of correlation in the Q-SSC rating curves shows that factors other than discharge control sediment transport. As a result, at the event scale, multiple regressions illustrate that groundwater and surface water interactions are involved in the sedimentary response of flood events. In the winter, the stability of baseflow driven by groundwater contributions and agricultural and urban spills causes hydraulic variables (i.e., maximum discharge) to exert the most important control on events, whereas in the summer, it is necessary to accumulate important volumes of rainfall

  18. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  19. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  20. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  1. LA ELECCIÓN DEL MODO DE ENTRADA EN UN MERCADO INTERNACIONAL. EL CASO DE LAS CADENAS HOTELERAS DE BALEARES EN LA REGIÓN DEL CARIBE Y EL GOLFO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martorell Cunill, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación trata de determinar los factores clave que influyen en el proceso de decisión llevado a cabo por las cadenas hoteleras de baleares a la hora de elegir su estrategia de crecimiento para llevar a cabo su expansión en la región del Caribe y el golfo de México con la finalidad de verificar si los conceptos derivados del coste de transacción, teoría de la agencia y la teoría estratégica de la organización de habilidades y conocimiento de las empresas pueden explicar la modalidad de expansión elegida por estas cadenas en dicha región. Este trabajo permite la comparación de los resultados obtenidos con los obtenidos por otros trabajos similares sobre la industria hotelera internacional.

  2. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  3. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  4. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Viana, M.M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra del CSIC, C/Luis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artinano, B.; Salvador, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, CEAM. Parque tecnologico, C-4, sector oeste, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Santos, S. Garcia do; Patier, R. Fernandez [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km n. 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); De La Rosa, J.; De la Campa, A. Sanchez [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario de la Rabida, La Rabida, 21819 Huelva (Spain); Menendez, M.; Gil, J.J. [Departamento Mineralogia y Petrologia. Universidad del Pais Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, <10 {mu}m) in six regions of Spain in the period 1996-2000. In addition to the local pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present.

  5. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  6. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  7. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  8. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  9. Surrounding the Void: Samuel Beckett and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Francisco Fernández Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relationship between Samuel Beckett and Spain poses some striking questions which are relevant in understanding the cultural inclinations of one of the most important dramatists of the 20th century. Beckett consciously abstained from having direct contact with Spanish culture and never visited Spain, despite showing an interest in the politics of the country at different periods of his life. As a result of this state of affairs a no-go area emerges which calls for a reconceptualization of Beckett’s ideas on travel, politics and even his own country. This article tries to approach the matter of Beckett and Spain from different angles, in an attempt to achieve a full panoramic view. The opinions of one of Beckett’s Spanish friends, Manolo Fandos, are recorded here for the first time.

  10. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  11. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  12. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be...

  13. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  14. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  15. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  16. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  17. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  18. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  19. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  20. En la población Canaria, la función de Framingham estima mejor el riesgo de mortalidad cardiovascular que la función SCORE Framingham function estimates the risk of cardio vascular mortality more effectively than SCORE function in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cabrera de León

    2009-06-01

    /height razón, abdomen/pelvis ratio, and excessive alcohol consumption. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 5,289 individuals aged 30 to 69 years old, recruited by random sampling of the general population of the Canary Islands. We calibrated the Framingham and SCORE functions and estimated their concordance. The cardiovascular mortality rate for the population in this age range was compared with the risk predicted by the two functions. Results: Among males, the mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was 67.4, while the Framingham, SCORE-low and SCORE-high estimations were 80, 140, and 270, respectively. Among females, the mortality rate was 19.3 while the estimations were 30, 50, and 70, respectively. Both functions detected the increased risk contributed by the factors studied, except for sedentariness among females with SCORE, and excessive alcohol consumption with both functions. Among males, taking cut points of > 12%, > 15%, and > 20% for Framingham, the concordance with SCORE-low yielded Kappa values of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5, respectively. Conclusions: The Framingham function yielded the best estimate of cardiovascular mortality rates. Only Framingham detected the cardiovascular risk contributed by sedentariness in both genders. We recommend the use of the calibrated Framingham function for this population.

  1. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  2. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  3. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  4. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  5. Small hydro policy and potential in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spain has 662 small hydro installations, as registered in the “Speciaf Regimen” of 31 December 1999, with 1,271,573 kW of instaffed power producing the equivalent of the electricity consumed by 1.1 million families, avoiding emissions of 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 per year and substituting 250,000 toe.

  6. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  7. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  8. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  9. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  10. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  11. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  12. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  13. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  14. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  15. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  16. Análisis de costes y ahorros potenciales relacionados con la utilización de pruebas preoperatorias en los hospitales de Canarias Cost analysis and potential savings related to the use of preoperative tests in the hospitals of the Canary Islands [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López-Bastida

    2003-04-01

    mejor selección y utilización de las pruebas preoperatorias.Objective: To estimate the potential cost savings that might take place in the Canary Islands Health Service (CHS through the appropriate scientific use of preoperative tests, using information obtained from five public university hospitals. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 55 anesthesiologists, representing 60% of the total in the CHS. The questionnaire paid special attention to the most frequently used preoperative tests: chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and spirometry. The mean unit costs for the various preoperative tests were obtained from the two hospitals participating in the study. To calculate the potential cost savings derived from the appropriate use of preoperative tests, several scenarios were considered. These were characterized by different hypotheses or degrees of fulfillment of a protocol based on scientific knowledge and considered as the gold standard. Results: In the ideal scenario in which the recommended scientific protocol was fulfilled in 100% of the 16 179 patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade of I-II, the economic impact would be notable, since it would free sensitive resources that could be used for other health programs. These figures could amount to approximately 1.02 million euros, without considering the cost of preoperative hospital stay. This figure could increase by up to approximately 2.13 million euros if one day of preoperative hospital stay were included and by up to 3.24 million euros if two days of preoperative hospital stay were included. Conclusions: The recent literature review and the results of the questionnaire applied in the CHS indicate that preoperative tests are of greatest benefit to patients and to society if their use is guided by scientific knowledge. In addition, resources can be freed by better selection and utilization of preoperative tests.

  17. Oesophageal cancer mortality in Spain: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pérez Javier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its incidence and mortality rates show a wide geographical variation at a world and regional level. Geographic mapping of age-standardized, cause-specific death rates at a municipal level could be a helpful and powerful tool for providing clues leading to a better understanding of its aetiology. Methods This study sought to describe the geographic distribution of oesophageal cancer mortality for Spain's 8077 towns, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Maps were plotted, depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the spatial pattern of the posterior probability of RR being greater than 1. Results Important differences associated with area of residence were observed in risk of dying from oesophageal cancer in Spain during the study period (1989–1998. Among men, excess risk appeared across the north of the country, along a band spanning the length of the Cantabrian coastline, Navarre, the north of Castile & León and the north-west of La Rioja. Excess risk was likewise observed in the provinces of Cadiz and part of Seville in Andalusia, the islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and some towns in the Barcelona and Gerona areas. Among women, there was a noteworthy absence of risk along the mid-section of the Cantabrian seaboard, and increases in mortality, not observed for men, in the west of Extremadura and south-east of Andalusia. Conclusion These major gender- and area-related geographical differences in risk would seem to reflect differences in the prevalence of some well-established and modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and diet. In addition, excess risks were in evidence for both sexes in some areas, possibly suggesting the implication of certain local environmental or socio-cultural factors. From a public health standpoint, small

  18. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  19. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Steven

    1971-01-01

    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  20. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  1. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  2. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  3. Global Solar radiation in Spain from Satellite Images; Radiacion Solar Global en la Espana Peninsular a partir de images de satelite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.; Navarro Fernandez, A. A.; Varela conde, M.; Cruz Echeandia, M. de la

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been revaluate to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar,impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyranometric measures in a concrete localise, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which, it not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs.

  4. Portuguese migration to the Canary Islands: an analysis based on surnames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Busto, J; Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a wider analysis of population and genetic exchange between Spain and Portugal, the long-term pattern of Portuguese immigration to the Canary Islands was studied by means of the frequency of Portuguese surnames. A database of 1,995,833 individuals was obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute (2006). Among the 826 most frequent surnames to appear, 79 surnames of Portuguese origin were selected. The distribution of these surnames by municipalities and islands, the Fisher index of diversity, and the Lasker inter-population relationship coefficients R(ij) were considered. These coefficients were inter-correlated and correlated with other variables that could have influenced the distribution of surnames. From the observed distribution of the frequency of surnames, a non-random migration pattern conditioned by economic factors was found. The greatest diversity of surnames existed in cane cultivating areas after the first arrival of Portuguese immigrants. A later dispersion of surnames among islands was correlated with the inter-island geographic distances. In some islands the arrival of new immigrants continued due to their strategic location within the Canary archipelago. The Canary Islands reveal a high frequency and diversity of Portuguese surnames. The results also prove a heterogeneous distribution of these surnames throughout the archipelago. In contrast to the Portuguese archipelagos, some Canary localities have received immigrants continuously because of their economic importance in sugar cane cultivation and strategic geographic location on the maritime routes to Africa and America.

  5. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  6. Event recognition by detrended fluctuation analysis: An application to Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Tenerife, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pin, Enrico [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine, Via Cotonificio, 114, 33100 Udine (Italy); Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine, Via Cotonificio, 114, 33100 Udine (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.carniel@uniud.it; Tarraga, Marta [Departamento de Volcanologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/JoseGutierrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    In this work we investigate the application of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to seismic data recorded in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during the month of July 2004, in a phase of possible unrest of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Tectonic events recorded in the area are recognized and located by the Spanish national agency Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and their catalogue is the only currently available dataset, whose completeness unfortunately suffers from the strong presence of anthropogenic noise. In this paper we propose the use of DFA to help to automatically identify events. The evaluation of this case study proves DFA to be a promising tool to be used for rapidly screening large seismic datasets and highlighting time windows with the potential presence of discrete events.

  7. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  8. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  9. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  10. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  11. Interregional Migration in Spain: A Semiparametric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maza Fernández, Adolfo Jesús; Villaverde Castro, José

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain between 1995 and 2002. After a brief descriptive study, we present an analytical model of internal migration flows. Subsequently, we estimate this model by applying semiparametric techniques. The general conclusion that we come to is that net migration rates are influenced mainly by income and climatic condition differentials between the regions of origin and destination; in addition, unemployment and housin...

  12. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    the 1985 sale of the auto assembly company, Sociedad Espafiola de Autom6viles de Turismo (SEAT), which had lost 37 billion pesetas that year. The INI...i; SEAT. See Sociedad Espafiola de Auto- constitutional provisions for, - i, m6viles de Turismo (SEAT) 112, 210-12 Securities and Market...vii, 106-10 401 Spain: A Country Study Sociedad, Espaiiola de Autom6viles de Spanish Workers’ Party-Communist Unity Turismo (SEAT), 174, 175, 177

  13. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN PROTECTED BUILDINGS IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The world population growth and the consequent increase in energy demand in recent years are making sustainability to become a key element in order to ensure the future of the society. In Spain, buildings account for 24% of total energy consumption, and within the buildings stock there is a group called "protected buildings" with low efficiency and therefore a large room for improvement, although constrained by different limitations and special requirements due to their condition. Through a s...

  14. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Cambios en la medida de las horas de insolación: Análisis de su impacto en dos observatorios de las Islas Baleares (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Guijarro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se han comparado las medidas de horas de sol realizadas en paralelo con el heliógrafo Campbell-Stokes, utilizado tradicionalmente en los observatorios españoles, con las medidas de los nuevos instrumentos de Kipp&Zonen, basados en el umbral de irradiación directa de 120 Wm-2. La comparación se ha realizado con los datos de dos observatorios de Baleares, ubicados en los aeropuertos de Menorca e Ibiza, en los que las nuevas medidas son generalmente inferiores a las antiguas, con diferencias medias diarias de -0,97 y -0,58 horas respectivamente. En términos relativos, la disminución respecto al promedio anual del periodo 1971-2000 es de un 13,2% en Menorca y un 7,8% en Ibiza. Se han realizado ajustes por regresión lineal simple y múltiple que explican un 94% de la varianza de la insolación diaria. Las ecuaciones obtenidas pueden servir para homogeneizar las series de datos diarios de horas de sol, con errores típicos de 0,98 horas en el aeropuerto de Menorca y 0,86 en el de Ibiza, pero no son aplicables a otros observatorios.

  16. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  17. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  18. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  19. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  20. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  1. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  2. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  3. Pleistocene herbivores of Mediterranean islands: adaptations / Gli erbivori pleistocenici delle isole del Mediterraneo: adattamenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Caloi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The large Pleistocene herbivores of Mediterranean islands belong to four families: Elephantidae, Hippopotamidae, Cervidae and Bovidae. They originated in environments characterized by peculiar features, different from the typical habitats of their ancestors. This paper examines some aspects of the functional morphology of these endemic forms in relation with their environment. Lightening of limbs in elephants are essentially related with size reduction, which allows to move on uneven and steep grounds. Adaptations in hippos to a more arid environment and uneven grounds are also shown by specimens with scantily reduced size. Morpho-functional variations in cervids are connected with the life habits rather than body size; the various forms are characterized by a wide spectrum of adaptations. Modifications in endemic bovids are less known with exception of the dwarf balearic bovids, in which the evolutionary process produced a loss of agility and speed. Changes in size and in functional morphology are always quicker and dependent on the interaction of several factors. In the evolution of the endemic herbivores various phenomena have to be considered: neoteny, achondroplastic dwarfism, hypermorphosis. The presence/absence of large carnivores has a stronger influence on the dimensional and morpho-biometric variability than on the body size reduction. Riassunto I grandi erbivori pleistocenici delle isole del Mediterraneo sono in genere caratterizzati da variazioni di taglia e di morfologia in parte dipendenti dalle diverse dimensioni corporee acquisite, in parte legate a nuovi modi di vita. Tali elementi hanno diversa incidenza nei processi evolutivi dei singoli taxa, in funzione dell'interagire di vari parametri, ma in genere sussiste in ambiente insulare una stretta relazione tra condizioni fisiografiche e morfologia funzionale.

  4. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  5. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  7. Groundwater and Human Controls on the Suspended Sediment Load of Na Borges River, Mallorca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, J.; Garcia, C.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater dominance has important effects on the hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of river systems. Low suspended sediment concentrations and high water clarity are expected because significant inputs of sediment-free spring water dilute the suspended sediment generated by storms. However, in many Mediterranean temporary rivers, groundwater dominance is characterised by seasonal alternations of influent and effluent discharge involving significant variability on the sediment transport regimes. Such areas are often subject to soil and water conservation practices over the centuries that have reduced the sediment contribution from agricultural fields and favour subsurface flow to rivers. Moreover, urbanisation during the twentieth century has changed the catchment hydrology and altered basic river processes due to its ‘flashy' regime. In this context, we monitored suspended sediment fluxes by means of three nested sub-catchments during a two-year period in the Na Borges River, a lowland agricultural catchment (319 km2) on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) managed and therefore modified since Roman Age by agricultural soil and water conservation practices and recently by urbanisation. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was lower when the base flow index (i.e., relative proportion of baseflow compared to stormflow, BFI) was higher. Considering the high variability of the Mediterranean climate, a significant scatter of daily average SSC between sites and seasonally was observed, ranging between 22 to 54 mg l-1 for the total study period. The maximum instantaneous peak surpassed 6,000 mg l-1, recorded at downstream site based on the sediment supplied when there was no baseflow and the rainfall intensity was remarkable. At the other sites, peak concentrations did not exceed 2,000 mg l-1 because groundwater plays a more significant role. Furthermore, strong seasonal contrasts explain the high SSC coefficient of variation, which is

  8. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  9. Provincial-level spatial statistical modelling of the change in per capita disposable Family Income in Spain, 1975-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Griffith

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational simplifications for a space-time autoregressive response model specification are explored for the change in Spain's per capita disposable family income between 1975 and 1983. The geographic resolution for this analysis is the provincial partitioning of part of the Iberian peninsula into Spain's 47 coterminous provinces coupled with its 3 island clusters provinces. In keeping with the Paelinckian tradition of spatial econometrics, exploration focuses on both new spatial econometric estimators and model specifications that emphasize the capturing of spatial dependency effects in the mean response term. One goal of this analysis is to differentiate between spatial, temporal, and space-time interaction information contained in the per capita disposable family income data. A second objective of the application is to illustrate the utility of extending computational simplifications from the spatial to the space-time domain. And a third purpose is to gain some substantive insights into the economic development of one country in a changing Europe. A serendipitous outcome of this investigation is a detailed analysis of locational information latent in Spain's regionally disaggregated per capita disposable family income.

  10. State of knowledge of the Acotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from the Mediterranean coasts of Spain: new records and new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Daniel; Osca, David; Rodríguez, Jorge; Fernández-Despiau, Estrella; Noreña, Carolina

    2014-03-20

    Along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, great species diversity is thought to exist, but our knowledge of Iberian polyclads is, in fact, very limited. This study contributes to the Polycladida (Platyhelminthes) of the Iberian Peninsula, in particular those of the Mediterranean coast. Nine species, mainly new species or new records, are described. Imogine stellae sp. nov. from Mar Menor (Murcia, Spain) is described, while I. mediterranea Galleni, 1976 is recorded for the first time in Spain. The genus Planocera Blainville, 1828 within the Mediterranean basin is reviewed: Planocera graffi Lang, 1879 is redescribed, and its synonymisation with Planocera pellucida (Mertens, 1833) considered. Also, the genus Notoplanella Bock, 1931 is represented by two species in Spain, N. inarmata Bock, 1931 type species, from Formentera Island and N. estelae sp. nov., from Mar Menor. Trigonoporus cephalophtalmus Lang, 1884 is rediscovered after the description of Lang (1884). Stylochus neapolitanus (Delle Chiaje, 1841-1844) Lang, 1884 is recorded and S. pilidium (Goette, 1881) is also redescribed, and Leptoplana mediterranea (Bock, 1913) is newly recorded for the Iberian Peninsula.

  11. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  12. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, G.; Martin-Luis, M. C.; Piatibratova, O.

    2015-05-01

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation.

  13. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.

  14. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  15. Morphometric analysis of cinder cones on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): results and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doniz Paez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper applied morphometric to the cinder cones of Tenerife. The technical morphometric allows to establish simple models of morphology, and size to the most frequent volcanoes of Tenerife's mafic volcanism. The obtained classification allow to distinguish four morphological types of scoria cones and three size groups, which is also extended to other volcanic regions. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Deposition of rheomorphic ignimbrite D (Mogán Formation), Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobberger, Gustav; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    Rheomorphic ignimbrite D (13.4Ma, Upper Mogán Formation on Gran Canaria), a multiple flow-single cooling unit, is divided into four major structural zones that differ in fabric and finite strain of deformed pyroclasts. Their structural characteristics indicate contrasting deformation mechanisms during rheomorphic flow. The zones are: (a) a basal zone (vitrophyre) with pure uniaxial flattening perpendicular to the foliation; (b) an overlying shear zone characterized by asymmetric fabrics and a significantly higher finite strain, with an ellipsoid geometry similar to stretched oblate bodies; (c) a central zone with a finite strain geometry similar to that of the underlying shear zone but without evidence of a rotational strain component; and (d) a slightly deformed to non-deformed top zone where the almost random orientation of subspherical pyroclasts suggests preservation of original, syn-depositional clast shapes. Rheomorphic flow in D is the result of syn- to post-depositional remobilization of a hot pyroclastic flow as shown by kinematic modeling based on: (a) the overall vertical structural zonation suggested by finite strain and fabric analysis; (b) the relation of shear sense to topography; (c) the interrelationship of the calculated vertical cooling progression at the base of the flow (formation of vitrophyre) and the related vertical changes in strain geometry; (d) the complex lithification history; and (e) the consequent mechanisms of deformational flow. Rheomorphic flow was caused by load pressure due to an increase in the vertical accumulation of pyroclastic material on a slope of generally 6-8°. We suggest that every level of newly deposited pyroclastic flow material of D first passed through a welding process that was dominated by compaction (pure flattening) before rheomorphic deformation started.

  17. Volcanic geomorphological classification of the cinder cones of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóniz-Páez, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to establish a morphological classification of Tenerife's cinder cones on the basis of a dual analysis of qualitative (existence, geometry and disposition of craters) and quantitative morphometric parameters (major and minor diameters and cone elongation, major and minor diameters and crater elongation). The result obtained is a morphological classification of the cinder cones of Tenerife, which can be sub-divided into four types: ring-shaped-cones, horseshoe-shaped-volcanoes, multiple volcanoes and volcanoes without crater. In Tenerife there is a clear dominance of horseshoe-shaped volcanoes (69.0%) over ring-shaped cones (13.1%), volcanoes without craters (11.4%) and multiple volcanoes (6.4%). The classification presented in this paper is characterized by its simplicity which makes it possible to include all morphological types of volcanoes found in Tenerife. This fact also renders our classification a useful tool to apply in other, both insular and continental volcanic areas to eventually analyze and systematize the study of eruptive edifices with similar traits.

  18. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  19. Social Inclusion and Multicultural Perspectives in Spain: Three Case Studies in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is the challenge that faces European countries in the immediate future. Spain, a former exporter of migrants, has recently become a host country, which must be taken into account if we wish to promote a multicultural, integrative school system. The aim in this article is to reach some conclusions about the integration of immigrants,…

  20. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  1. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  2. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  3. Shoreline dynamics of the Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    Lakshadweep group of islands are mainly coral atolls. Fringing reefs protect these small islands from the attack of waves. This paper describes the waves and currents acting on Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Minicoy, Agatti, Kadamat and Androth islands...

  4. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  6. The submental island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  7. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  9. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  10. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  11. A personal view of nutrition in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zamora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain, following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1 The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2 The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the synthesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3 The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4 In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  12. Rain on small tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  13. Multi-levelling and externalizing migration and asylum: lessons from the southern European islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Triandafyllidou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Southern European countries have come to constitute the most vulnerable external border of the European Union (EU over the last decade. Irregular migration pressures have been acutely felt on the EU’s southern sea borders, and particularly on four sets of islands: Canary Islands (Spain, Lampedusa and Linosa (Italy, Malta, and Aegean Islands (Greece. This quartet is, to a large extent, used as stepping stones by irregular migrants and asylum seekers to reach the European continent. This paper studies the role of these islands as ‘outposts’ of a framework of externalization. It starts by discussing the notion of externalization and its different facets. It considers how externalization is linked to both fencing and gate-keeping strategies of migration and asylum control. The second part of the paper focuses on the special role of the island quartet with respect to the externalization web cast by national and EU-wide migration policies. It concludes with a critical reflection on the multi-level character of externalization policies and practices that occur both within the EU and between the EU and third countries.

  14. Wave resource in El Hierro - an island towards energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Hydraulic Eng., EPS, Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The island of El Hierro (Spain), a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Atlantic Ocean, aims to become the first 100% renewable energy island in the world. With a EUR54 million wind project already under way, the present research looks at the island's wave resource using a 44-year hindcast dataset obtained through numerical modelling. The geographical distribution of wave energy is examined on the basis of eight study sites around the island. A substantial resource is found west and north of El Hierro, with average wave power in the order of 25 kW m{sup -1} and total annual energy in excess 200 MW h m{sup -1}; the resource is less abundant east and south of the island. In addition to these geographical variations, wave energy in El Hierro presents seasonal variations, with energetic winters and mild summers. After analysing the total resource and its spatial and seasonal variations, its composition in terms of sea states (significant wave heights and energy periods) is examined, and how this composition affects the selection of the Wave Energy Converters to be installed is discussed. (author)

  15. Modelling the extreme precipitation event over Madeira Island on 20 February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Luna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the morning of the 20 February of 2010 an extreme precipitation event occurred over Madeira Island. This event triggered several flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island, resulting in 42 confirmed deaths, 100 injured, and at least 8 people still missing. These extreme weather conditions were associated to a weather frontal system moving northeastwards embedded in a low pressure area centered in the Azores archipelago. This storm was one in a series of such storms that affected Portugal, Spain, Morocco and the Canary islands causing flooding and strong winds. These storms were bolstered by an unusually strong sea surface temperature gradient across the Atlantic Ocean.

    In this study, the WRF model is used to evaluate the intensity and predictability of this precipitation extreme event over the island. The synoptic/orographic nature of the precipitation is also evaluated, as well as the sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution and cumulus parameterization. Orography was found to be the main factor explaining the occurrence, amplitude and phase of precipitation over the Island.

  16. Sixth Meeting of China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The sixth meeting of the China- Spain Forum (CSF) was held in the World Trade Center in Barcelona from July 5 to 6, 2011. Uyunqimg, Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairperson of the CSF Chinese Committee, headed the Chinese delegation; Trinidad Jimenez, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Miguel Sebastian Gascon, Spanish Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism; and Pedro Solbes, Chairman of the CSF Spanish Committee, were among the 350 participants.

  17. Interregional migration and thresholds: evidence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Jesús; Larramona, Gemma; Olmos, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of labor market conditions in the origin and the destination on interregional migration in Spain, over the period 1988-2010. A basic theoretical framework is developed and the implications of the model suggest that the effect of labor market conditions on migration can vary, depending on a certain threshold. In a second step, the implications of the model are tested with Spanish data, using a new approach based on the presence of thresholds. We...

  18. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  19. Alcohol consumption among University students in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Producción Científica Alcohol consumption in 1984 among 2921 students of nine Faculties in the University of Valladolid (Spain) is reported. Alcoholic drinks were frequently consumed, especially by males and during weekends. Per capita consumption was 9.85 l of absolute alcohol/year for males and 4.971 for females. Beer, wine and gin were the favourite drinks. Alcohol consumption was similar in the different faculties and age groups but was to some extent related to age and place of reside...

  20. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  1. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Spain. The introduction is followed by such a topic paragraphs as: the general information about the country, the historical development of its pension system, the present situation and challenges, and foreseen changes. There, the authors goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Spanishs pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Spanish approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Spanish reality the special old age pension system for domestic servants.

  2. Oestrid myiasis in European mouflon from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A

    1999-01-01

    From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.

  3. Databases on disability and employment in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rodríguez Álvarez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the different databases that allow us to obtain information about disability and employment in Spain. In general, each of them uses different variables to measure disability, giving rise to different rates of prevalence. From their different definitions, the strengths and weaknesses of each of them are shown to study the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market. Furthermore, it is also suggested to use the Working Lives Longitudinal Sample as a source of information, since it allows examining various aspects of the employment of people with disabilities, especially those related to working conditions and career paths.

  4. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pérez-Cembranos

    Full Text Available Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  5. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  6. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  7. China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar Held in Barcelona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 24,the China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar was jointly held in Barcelona,Spain.As the first event of the Chinese Products Promotion Week (Europe),the seminar aims to help the Chinese export enterprises and local governments learn about relevant laws and regulations and product quality standards of the EU.

  8. Muridae (Rodentia) from the lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fauna of Muridae (Rodentia) from the Lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, SE Spain) contains species attributed to the genera Huerzelerimys, Parapodemus, and Occitanomys. The material described allows a detailed biostratigraphy of Upper Miocene deposits of SE Spain. En este trabajo se estudi

  9. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  10. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  11. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  12. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  13. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  14. Análisis de los medios, recursos didácticos e innovaciones empleados para la enseñanza de Biología en el curso de tercero de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria en la provincia de Baleares.

    OpenAIRE

    Pomares-Arbona, Elena

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es realizar una investigación bibliográfica y de campo sobre los recursos y los medios didácticos utilizados en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de la asignatura de biología en el curso de 3ºde secundaria. En este trabajo se aborda la importancia de los recursos y medios didácticos, el uso real en las aulas y las innovaciones que realizan los docentes para impartir esta asignatura en los centros educativos de Baleares. Asimismo se determina el grado de conoci...

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  16. History of Pedagogy of death in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy of death is defined as a field of research, training and educational innovation emerging. It is based on their possible educational inclusion and its importance to formation. In just over ten years, the work of a small group of authors has pointed Spain as one of the few countries where development of the field has been intense, consistent and with a growing demand. The works invite to envision a more open Pedagogy, deeper and guided by a teleology that takes into account the essential characteristics of human beings and their own evolution. In this article, a theoretical review of work made by leading Spanish authors is done, discussing some of their contributions and implications. The article is divided into three parts: introduction, studies and proposals for Pedagogy of death in Spain, and conclusions. The proposals are discussed in terms of whether they are focused on the educational value of death for evolution as a perennial field in human beings, normalization of death in education, palliative intervention or analysis of learning experiences and teacher training. The conclusions reflect on some challenges that can contribute to future developments in Pedagogy of death. Among them, the international exchange of experiences and development of joint scientific research that support the curricular inclusion of death as a formative element.

  17. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  18. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  19. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP), draft wilderness stewardship plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our alternatives, including our preferred......

  20. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  1. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  2. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  3. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  4. First larval record of Mesocestoides in carnivora of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Pérez Rivero, Alfredo; Santana Morales, María A; Kabdur, Alicia; González, Ana C; Quispe Ricalde, M Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-02-01

    Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. were recovered in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 2004 from the peritoneal cavities of 2 domestic dogs and a domestic cat. Morphological and molecular identification were carried out. Mesocestoides litteratus from Vulpes vulpes was sequenced for the first time using the ITS-2 region (18S rDNA), and was included in the phylogenetic analysis to compare the sequence variability among these and other Mesocestoides spp. belonging to different carnivores. Phylogenetic studies were carried out based on maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis. The results showed the relationships between these and other previously published Mesocestoides species. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Mesocestoides sp. from Tenerife comprises a previously unreported sequence. This is the first larval record of Mesocestoides sp. in domestic animals from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

  5. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  6. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  7. Spain's on fire!: Economic Crisis, Public opinion and Public policies towards immigration in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Charry, Paula Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish economy has been dramatically hit by the financial crisis which led the country into one of the biggest economic recessions in its history. To what extent has this event influenced the public opinion and perception towards immigration in Spain? In addition, what are the main shifts implemented in the public policies on immigration by the Spanish government?In this study, I intend to analyze the evolution of the public opinion towards immigration from 2000 to 2010 and the effects o...

  8. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  9. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...... resolution of 3 km ×3 km. The probabilistic models were based on the logistic regression, aiming to explain the probability of having at least a lightning-fire during the three year period. Results showed that the number of thunderstorms during the three-year period was the most significantvariable...

  10. The social rights of immigrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aparicio-Wilhelmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available That Spain insufficiently protects the social rights of immigrants to its territory is clearly set out in this review of Spanish legal sources (the Spanish Constitution, international law, European community law, and internal immigration law. Judicial incapacity manifests itself in the face of the consolidation of a social model of development that has configured the foreign worker essentially as a piece of the productive machinery in the frame of a highly “competitive economy”. The legal systems of receiving countries, in general, clearly choose a “labouralization” approach to migratory politics: only in exceptional cases are non-employed foreigners admitted to residence. In these countries the migratory option is subordinated to the needs of the labour market.

  11. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  12. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  13. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    a lot of energy into shopping and cooking, both of which are highly planned. These food consumers go after high quality natural product keep a watchful eye on prices. 9. The enthusiastic food consumers, followed by the rational food consumers, care most about ecology, animal welfare and genetic......Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...... food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only...

  14. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  15. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  16. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island...Benedet, L., and Waters, J.P. (2004). “Coupling geological concepts with historical data sets in a MIS framework to prospect for beach-compatible sands on...are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island from storms. If there are funding

  17. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  18. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  19. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  20. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  1. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  2. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  3. Carbon dioxide and helium dissolved gases in groundwater at central Tenerife Island, Canary Islands: chemical and isotopic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Diaz, Rayco; López, Dina; Perez, Nemesio M.; Custodio, Emilio; Sumino, Hirochika; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernandez, Pedro A.; Calvo, David; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Sortino, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Seismic-volcanic unrest was detected between 2004 and 2005 in the central and northwest zones of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). With the aim of strengthening the program of geochemical and seismic-volcanic surveillance, a study of the origin, characteristics, and spatial distribution of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) and helium (He) gases in the volcanic aquifer of central Tenerife Island and around Teide volcano was carried out. This work also improves the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conceptual model of groundwater flow. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in sampled groundwater are several orders of magnitude higher than that of air-saturated water (ASW) suggesting a significant contribution of non-atmospheric CO2, mainly magmatic, confirmed through measurement of isotopic compositions (δ13CTDIC) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) concentrations. A vertical stratification of dissolved CO2 and δ13CTDIC values was observed in the volcanic aquifer at the eastern region of Las Cañadas Caldera. Stratification seems to be controlled by both degree of magmatic CO2-water interaction and CO2 degassing and the original δ13Cco2(g) isotopic composition. The highest dissolved helium (4He) concentrations in groundwater seem to be related to radiogenic contributions resulting from water-rock interactions, and increase with residence time, instead of with endogenous magmatic inputs. Isotopic systematics show that the dissolved gases in groundwater of central Tenerife are variable mixtures of CO2-3He-rich fluids of volcanic-hydrothermal origin with both organic and atmospheric components. The results suggest that the eastern area of Las Cañadas Caldera, the South Volcanic Ridge, and the Teide summit cone are the areas most affected by degassing of the volcanic-hydrothermal system, and they are therefore the most suitable zones for future geochemical monitoring.

  4. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  5. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  6. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  7. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  8. Madrid Symposium Promotes China-Spain Local Government Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>With the concerted efforts of the CPAFFC and the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (SFMP), the China-Spain Local Government Cooperation Symposium was held in Madrid on March 24, 2010.

  9. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  10. Trifurcula pallidella (Duponchel), new for Spain (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Trifurcula (Trifurcula) pallidella (Duponchel, 1843) is recorded for the first time from Spain, Andalusia. Previous records were misidentifications. Male genitalia are illustrated and a revised distribution map is provided. A few records of Trifurcula (Levarchama) species from the Annotated catalogu

  11. Fifth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Fifth Meeting of China-Spain Forum (CSF) was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province from April 28 to 29. Leading delegates of the Chinese side including Yang Rudai, former vice chairman of the National Committee of the

  12. Geothermal Resources in Spain; Recurssos geothermicos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de la Noceda Marquez, C.

    2009-07-01

    A general view on the geothermal resources is presented and the basic concepts of geothermal fields and their classification, the different possibilities of geothermal energy utilization as well as a general panoramic of geothermal energy in Spain. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  14. Fourth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chairman Hu Qili and Executive Chairman Chen Haosu of the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum(CSF) led a Chinese delegation to attend the Fourth Meeting of the CSF in Madrid from November 27 to 28,2007.The meeting with the theme of "Harmony,Development and Gaining Win-Win Results" was jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the CSF Chinese Committee,the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Spain China Council Foundation.

  15. The XIV International Geological Congress of 1926 in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FranciscoJ.Ayala-Carcedo; AntonioPerejón; LuisJordá

    2005-01-01

    The XIV IGC was held in Spain in 1926, marking a recovery trend in the Congress after the First Worm War in terms of the number of participants and the number of represented countries. It was Spain that benefited most from the XIV IGC and probably never again there has geology received so much public and official attention.This paper is one of a series of articles on the history of the International Congress.

  16. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  17. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  18. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  19. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    smaller in size, has been operating in conjunction with this effort until recently in M?ron, Spain. With the M?ron site closing, a significant gap in longitude exists between the New Mexico and Diego Garcia sites. This longitudinal gap is well covered by placing a telescope on Ascension Island (7deg 58' 20" S, 14deg 24' 4"W), in the Atlantic Ocean. Ascension Island offers the benefits of both location and weather. The near equatorial location affords the opportunity to access under-sampled low-inclination orbits and new GEO longitudes, while simultaneously filling in the GEODSS longitudinal gap. Ascension Island is a volcanic, desert island, receiving only 7" of rain per year on average. With consistent trade winds blowing from the SSE direction off Africa, the combination of an island location with consistent winds will create the smooth laminar flow sought after by all astronomical sites, which creates stable atmospheric (‘seeing') conditions. Finally, this low population island has minimal lighting, resulting in very dark skies, ideal for an observatory.

  20. SPANISH COLONIAL SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: LEGAL ORIGINS AND JUSTIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen J. Lynch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal origins of the embryonic Philippine Republic can be traced back over 500 years to a series of papal issuances known as the “Declaration of Alexander,” which provided the Spanish Crown with legal authority to acquire territory overseas. By the time Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived in 1565, Spain had already garnered much experience in the management and exploitation of its colonial possessions. King Philip II wanted to prevent a repeat of the brutal conquests in the Americas that belied Spanish attempts to legitimate its colonial enterprise in the name of Christianity. The Manila Synod of 1582 formulated a novel theory upon which Spain staked its legal claim to sovereignty over the Philippine Islands. Through baptism, natives were deemed to have become subjects of the Pope’s spiritual sovereignty while remaining subjects of their own local leaders. The Pope delegated his sovereign powers to the Crown, and the Crown and its subordinates felt legally empowered to promulgate laws deemed necessary, an arrangement some native leaders purportedly agreed to. But many indios resisted. As such Spain never technically acquired full sovereignty over the entire archipelago.