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Sample records for balbina amazon central

  1. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  2. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

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    Vela-Pena, Gladys

    1996-07-01

    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

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    P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  4. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Letícia Barros de Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

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    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals.

  6. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

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    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  7. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest.

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    Jardine, Kolby J; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B; Fontes, Clarissa G; Zorzanelli, Raquel F; Meyers, Kimberly T; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O; Piva, Luani R de O; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O

    2015-09-15

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C₅ and C₆ GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C₆ GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

  8. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

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    Kolby J. Jardine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

  9. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Abril, G.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Dorhout, D.; Moreiro-Turcq, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl gly

  10. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

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    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  12. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

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    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  13. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

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    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  14. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events

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    A. G. Affonso

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012, channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012 and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples were applied to the variables in order to: 1 quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2 assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system’s types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system’s types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are

  15. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  16. Biogenic cloud nuclei in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, James D.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Brito, Joel; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Crawford, Ian; Stern, Rafael; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kaye, Paul H.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    The Amazon basin is a vast continental area in which atmospheric composition is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic aerosol particles. Understanding the properties of the natural biogenic aerosol particles over the Amazon rainforest is key to understanding their influence on regional and global climate. While there have been a number of studies during the wet season, and of biomass burning particles in the dry season, there has been relatively little work on the transition period - the start of the dry season in the absence of biomass burning. As part of the Brazil-UK Network for Investigation of Amazonian Atmospheric Composition and Impacts on Climate (BUNIAACIC) project, aerosol measurements, focussing on unpolluted biogenic air masses, were conducted at a remote rainforest site in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season in July 2013. This period marks the start of the dry season but before significant biomass burning occurs in the region. Median particle number concentrations were 266 cm-3, with size distributions dominated by an accumulation mode of 130-150 nm. During periods of low particle counts, a smaller Aitken mode could also be seen around 80 nm. While the concentrations were similar in magnitude to those seen during the wet season, the size distributions suggest an enhancement in the accumulation mode compared to the wet season, but not yet to the extent seen later in the dry season, when significant biomass burning takes place. Submicron nonrefractory aerosol composition, as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), was dominated by organic material (around 81 %). Aerosol hygroscopicity was probed using measurements from a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA), and a quasi-monodisperse cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc). The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, was found to be low, ranging from 0.12 for Aitken-mode particles to 0.18 for accumulation-mode particles. This was consistent

  17. Seasonal and spatial contrasts of sedimentary organic carbon in floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin.

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    Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Zell, Claudia; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Damsté, Jaap; Bernardes, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    Three-quarters of the area of flooded land in the world are temporary wetlands (Downing, 2009), which play a significant role in the global carbon cycle(Einsele et al., 2001; Cole et al., 2007; Battin et al., 2009; Abril et al., 2013). Previous studies of the Amazonian floodplain lakes (várzeas), one important compartment of wetlands, showed that the sedimentation of organic carbon (OC) in the floodplain lakes is strongly linked to the periodical floods and to the biogeography from upstream to downstream(Victoria et al., 1992; Martinelli et al., 2003). However, the main sources of sedimentary OC remain uncertain. Hence, the study of the sources of OC buried in floodplain lake sediments can enhance our understanding of the carbon balance of the Amazon ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal and spatial pattern of sedimentary organic matter in five floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin (Cabaliana, Janauaca, Canaçari, Miratuba, and Curuai) which have different morphologies, hydrodynamics and vegetation coverage. Surface sediments were collected in four hydrological seasons: low water (LW), rising water (RW), high water (HW) and falling water (FW) in 2009 and 2010. We investigated commonly used bulk geochemical tracers such as C:N ratio and stable isotopic composition of organic carbon (δ13COC). These results were compared with lignin-phenol parameters as an indicator of vascular plant detritus (Hedges and Ertel, 1982) and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) to trace the soil OC from land to the aquatic settings (Hopmans et al., 2004). Our data showed that during the RW and FW seasons, the concentration of lignin and brGDGTs were higher in comparison to other seasons. Our study also indicated that floodplain lake sediments primarily consisted of a mixture of C3 plant detritus and soil OC. However, a downstream increase in C4 plant-derived OC contribution was observed along the gradient of increasingly open waters, i

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: robertohm@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for {sup 14}C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  19. Central Amazon Forest Enhanced Vegetation Index Seasonality Driven by Strongly Seasonal Leaf Flush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Lopes, A. P.; Graca, P. M. L. D. A.; Tavares, J. V.; Prohaska, N.; Martins, G.; Saleska, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    ). Both reached minimum greenness in May (late wet season) and maximum during October to December (late dry to early wet season). We conclude that seasonal variation in EVI of Central Amazon forest is real and is driven by the seasonally changing mix of leaf age detected in crown-level leaf cohorts.

  20. Topographic separation of two sympatric palms in the central Amazon - does dispersal play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Freitas, Cintia; Capellotto Costa, Flávia Regina; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Balslev, Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Despite broadly overlapping geographic distributions in the central Amazon basin, two congeneric palm species (Attalea attaleoides and Attalea microcarpa) have topographically separated distributions on a local scale in Reserva Ducke near Manaus. Our aim here was to determine if this local scale separation can be linked to (1) seedling stage specialization to different habitat conditions of the two species, and/or (2) environmentally-controlled seed dispersal. We assessed the role of these potential drivers by mapping the local distribution of the two species over a 25-km2 grid and testing for correlation to seed removal and seed germination patterns using seed sowing experiments. 360 seeds of each species were sown in 30 uniformly distributed plots (12 seeds of each species in each plot), and seed removal and germination were subsequently monitored. Adult populations of the two species showed opposite distribution patterns linked to topography. However, there was little evidence for specialization to different habitat conditions at the seedling stage: after 11 months, 26.1% of seeds of A. microcarpa had germinated along the entire topographic gradient, albeit with a tendency toward higher germination in more inclined areas. For A. attaleoides, only 2.2% seeds had germinated, and again along the entire topographic gradient. In contrast, there was evidence for environmentally-controlled seed dispersal: for both species, seed removal was higher in flat areas. Presence of adults did not affect germination or seed removal. Our results suggest that topographically differentiated distributions of A. attaleoides and A. microcarpa may be reinforced by steep slope avoidance by their seed dispersers. A direct environmental control mechanism remains to be identified to explain the consistent topographic associations, but our results show that this mechanism does not work at the seed germination stage.

  1. Large-scale wind disturbances promote tree diversity in a Central Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Dos Santos, Joaquim; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m(2)) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583 ± 46 trees ha(-1)) (mean ± 99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7 ± 2.4 m(2) ha(-1)). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha(-1) and 14.9 m(2) ha(-1), respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m(2)) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind

  2. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  3. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  4. Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Cristhiana P; Amadio, Sidinéia; Zuanon, Jansen; Ferreira, Efrem J G; Deus, Cláudia Pereira de; Pires, Tiago H S; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-10

    Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers. After an intense drought in 2005, the assemblage assumed a different and fairly persistent taxonomic composition and functional structure. Declines in abundance after 2005 were more pronounced for species of all sizes having equilibrium life history strategy, large species with periodic life history strategy, and for all trophic levels except primary consumers. Our results suggest that the extreme drought triggered changes in the fish assemblage and subsequent anomalous hydrological conditions have hampered assemblage recovery. These findings stress the need to account for climatic-driven hydrological changes in conservation efforts addressing aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources in the central Amazon.

  5. Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Cristhiana P.; Amadio, Sidinéia; Zuanon, Jansen; Ferreira, Efrem J. G.; Deus, Cláudia Pereira de; Pires, Tiago H. S.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2017-01-01

    Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers. After an intense drought in 2005, the assemblage assumed a different and fairly persistent taxonomic composition and functional structure. Declines in abundance after 2005 were more pronounced for species of all sizes having equilibrium life history strategy, large species with periodic life history strategy, and for all trophic levels except primary consumers. Our results suggest that the extreme drought triggered changes in the fish assemblage and subsequent anomalous hydrological conditions have hampered assemblage recovery. These findings stress the need to account for climatic-driven hydrological changes in conservation efforts addressing aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources in the central Amazon. PMID:28071701

  6. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

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    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  7. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    JARDINE, KOLBY J.; CHAMBERS, JEFFREY Q.; Jennifer Holm; Angela B. Jardine; Clarissa G. Fontes; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Kimberly T. Meyers; Vinicius Fernadez de Souza; Sabrina Garcia; Gimenez,Bruno O.; Luani R. de O. Piva; Niro Higuchi; Paulo Artaxo; Scot Martin; Manzi, Antônio O.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxid...

  8. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was

  9. Central nervous system tumours profile at a referral center in the Brazilian Amazon region, 1997–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semblano, Aluízio Augusto Pereira; Moreira, Matheus Acácio; de Lemos, Manuela Nascimento; de Mello, Vanessa Jóia; Hamoy, Moisés; Nazareth Junior, Mario Hermes; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Adami, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are an important cause of mortality from cancer. Epidemiological data on neoplams affecting the CNS are scarce in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region. The study aims at describing the histopathological profile of CNS tumours cases at a high-complexity referral cancer center. This study has described a 17-year-series profile of CNS tumours, registered at a high-complexity referral cancer center in Pará state, from January 1997 until July 2014 in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Data was gathered from histopathology reports kept in the hospital’s cancer registry and 949 cases of CNS tumours were analyzed. The most common histopathology were neuroepithelial tumours (approx. 40%) and meningioma was the most frequent especific tumor histologic subtype (22.2%). Neuroepithelial tumours were more frequent in patients with ages ranging from less than a year to 19 years, whereas metastatic tumours were prevalent in patients over 40 years of age. It was not found temporal trends during the studied period. The knowledge of these tumours profile is valuable for the understanding of cancer epidemiology in the region, since its prevalence is currently underreported and more awareness on the disease is needed. PMID:28369089

  10. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Sobrinho, Rodrigo Lima; Dorhout, Denise; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), i.e., the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT), were seen in the Amazon main stem. The highest concentration of core lipid (CL) brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon (POC) was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurred due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol was mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting.

  11. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  12. An Intensive Study of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Outflow of the Manaus Urban Plume, in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Barbosa, H. M.; Carbone, S.; Holanda, B. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Tota, J.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, one year of ground-based observations of aerosol optical properties from a site impacted by urban emissions in Central Amazon of Brazil are assessed as part of results from GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. The aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering (σs) coefficients, as well as single scattering albedo (SSA) are analyzed to aid in characterizing Manaus' urban aerosol at GoAmazon T2 site. There is a distinct diurnal variation for (σa) it was mainly attributed to the severe emission of particulate pollutants and black carbon during the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The decrease of (σa) nearly at noon (12:00-14:00 LT) was a result of strong atmospheric mixing and dilution due to the elevated height of atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). After sunset (18:00 LT), the formation of stable nocturnal PBL even in atmospheric inversion led to a low atmospheric diffusion ability to aerosols and thus relatively high (σa) and (σs) throughout the night. Indeed, it was observed a strong dependence on local wind confirmed by simulated back trajectories in all two seasons. Overall, the wind dependence results provide valuable information about the locations of aerosol pollution sources and suggest that the air pollution in dry season is a regional problem but in the wet season it is mainly affected by local urban emissions. We have also seen an interesting difference in variability of (σs) and (σa) during 8:00-13:00 LT in wet season. A clear decrease was observed for (σa), while a smooth increase during 11:00-13:00 LT was presented for (σs). This is possibly a consequence of secondary aerosol production. (σa) is controlled to a large degree by primary aerosols such as black carbon that are emitted directly from pollution sources like vehicles, while (σs) is related to secondary aerosols such as sulfate and nitrate that contribute the most to light scattering. SSA was relatively low around 7:00-08:00 LT, which reflected that (σa) increased more

  13. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupa vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

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    Carolina T de Freitas

    Full Text Available Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas. The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  14. The Floating Forest: Traditional Knowledge and Use of Matupá Vegetation Islands by Riverine Peoples of the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carolina T.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Piedade, Maria T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  15. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil. I - Dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase, atmospheric aerosol, and rainwater samples collected in Amazonia at ground level and in the atmosphere during the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment in July/August 1985 were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol. In rainwater, the total formate and acetate represented about one half of the anion equivalents, in contrast to less than 10 percent of the soluble anionic equivalents contributed by these acids in the atmospheric aerosol. The observed levels of these ions in rainwater are considered to be the result of a combination of chemical reactions in hydrometeors and the scavenging of the gaseous acids by cloud droplets.

  16. The biomass burning aerosol influence on precipitation over the Central Amazon: an observational study

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    W. A. Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the aerosol influence on clouds and precipitation is an important key to reduce uncertainties in simulations of climate change scenarios with regards to deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics obtained by an S-Band radar in the Amazon with in situ measurements of biomass burning aerosols for the entire year of 2009. The most important results were obtained during the dry semester (July–December. The results indicate that the aerosol influence on precipitating systems is modulated by the atmospheric instability degree. For stable atmospheres, the higher the aerosol concentration, the lower the precipitation over the region. On the other hand, for unstable cases, higher concentrations of particulate material are associated with more precipitation, elevated presence of ice and larger rain cells, which suggests an association with long lived systems. The results presented were statistically significant. However, due to the limitation imposed by the dataset used, some important features such as wet scavenging and droplet size distribution need further clarification. Regional climate model simulations in addition with new field campaigns could aggregate information to the aerosol/precipitation relationship.

  17. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: Implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lima Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Abril Abril, Gwenaël; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the effects of hydrodynamical variations on the distributions and sources of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs and isoGDGTs, respectively) transported by the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin. Particulate suspended matter was collected in the Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes at four different seasons (rising water, high water, falling water, and low water) at 6 stations along the main stem of the Amazon River, 3 tributaries (Negro, Madeira, and Tapajós) and 5 floodplain lakes (Manacapuru, Janauacá, Mirituba, Canaçari and Curuai). The concentration and distribution of brGDGTs of both core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived fractions were investigated applying IPL-derived brGDGTs as an indicator of brGDGTs derived from recently-living cells. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of CL brGDGTs mimicked the trend of the hydrological variation with highest concentrations during the high water season. The CL brGDGT distributions were most alike those of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils during the high water season, indicating that input of soil-derived, allochthonous brGDGTs to the Amazon River was highest at that period. Accordingly, the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) varied corresponding to the hydrological changes, with the increasing influence of in situ produced brGDGTs in rivers and floodplain lakes during the low water season. The concentrations of CL crenarchaeol were highest during the low water season, due to increased autochthonous production. The concentration changes of both brGDGTs and crenarchaeol lead to a variation of the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index between 0.4 (low water) and 0.9 (high water). Hence, our study hints at the effect of hydrodynamical variations on the source of brGDGTs and isoGDGTs transported by rivers to the ocean and emphasized the importance of a detailed

  18. Mass balance of total mercury (Hg) in two small stream catchments in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Peleja,José Reinaldo Pacheco

    2007-01-01

    O efeito da podzolização do solo no ciclo biogeoquímico do mercúrio (Hg) foi investigado na Amazônia Central através de um estudo de balanço de massas de Hg total em duas microbacias naturais próximas à cidade de Manaus, no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A primeira microbacia drena o igarapé de água clara Barro Branco na Reserva Florestal Adolfo Ducke e drena Latossolos amarelos em processo leve de podzolização. A segunda microbacia drena o igarapé da Campina localizado na Reserva Florestal da C...

  19. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced.

  20. Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain

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    Bernard de Mérona

    Full Text Available Diets of most of fish species inhabiting a floodplain lake in central Amazonia were studied over a two years and half period. Based on the percentage of relative occurrence of 11 major food categories a classification of species in 11 feeding guilds is proposed. Many species were found to be specialized feeders. Fish, detritus and insects were the most important food resources supporting the fish community in both seasons, but the proportions of fruits, invertebrates and fish were reduced during the low water season. At the community level mean diet overlap between species was low, suggesting efficient resource partitioning within the community. However mean overlap between unspecialized feeders was high. Based on the 23 most abundant species belonging to the different feeding guilds, there was no difference in mean overlap between seasons. Whereas individual species exhibited diet changes between high water and low water seasons, there was no general pattern of seasonal change within feeding guilds.

  1. Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard de Mérona

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets of most of fish species inhabiting a floodplain lake in central Amazonia were studied over a two years and half period. Based on the percentage of relative occurrence of 11 major food categories a classification of species in 11 feeding guilds is proposed. Many species were found to be specialized feeders. Fish, detritus and insects were the most important food resources supporting the fish community in both seasons, but the proportions of fruits, invertebrates and fish were reduced during the low water season. At the community level mean diet overlap between species was low, suggesting efficient resource partitioning within the community. However mean overlap between unspecialized feeders was high. Based on the 23 most abundant species belonging to the different feeding guilds, there was no difference in mean overlap between seasons. Whereas individual species exhibited diet changes between high water and low water seasons, there was no general pattern of seasonal change within feeding guilds.Os regimes alimentares da maioria das espécies de peixes de um lago de várzea da Amazônia central foram estudados durante dois anos e meio. Baseada nas percentagens de ocorrência relativa de 11 maiores categorias alimentares, uma classificação das espécies em 11 guildas alimentares é proposta. Muitas espécies foram consideradas especializadas em relação aos seus comportamentos alimentares. Peixes, detritos e insetos foram os recursos alimentares mais importantes ao longo do ano, mas as proporções relativas de frutos, invertebrados e peixes foram reduzidas durante a época de águas baixas. A nível de comunidade a sobreposição média entre espécies foi baixa, sugerindo uma partição eficiente dos recursos alimentares. Entretanto, para espécies não especializadas, os valores de sobreposição foram elevados. Baseado em 23 espécies abundantes, pertencentes a diferentes guildas alimentares, não foi observada diferença na sobreposi

  2. First Medicolegal Forensic Entomology Case of Central Amazon: A Suicide by Hanging with Incomplete Suspension

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    Eduardo Souza

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Este relato descreve o primeiro caso de entomologia forense médico-legal na Amazônia Central. Um suicídio por enforcamento ocorrido em um platô de “terra firme” em floresta primária. A estimativa de intervalo pós-morte foi calculada com base na biologia da mosca varejeira Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e também pelo padrão de sucessão ecológica do besouro silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm. Este é o primeiro caso onde as informações ecológicas de um besouro foram usadas como indicador forense no Brasil. Estudos preliminares realizados em área urbana na cidade de Manaus e em hábitat semelhante em floresta primária, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, próximo do local onde o caso ocorreu, foram fundamentais para ajudar para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  3. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  4. Merging plot and Landsata data to estimate the frequency distribution of Central Amazon mortality event size for landscape-scale ecosystem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    Mitigation strategies and estimates of land use change emissions assume initial states of landscapes that respond to prescribed scenarios. The Amazon basin is a target for both mitigation (e.g. maintenance of old-growth forest) and land use change (e.g. agriculture), but the current states of its old-growth and secondary forest landscapes are uncertain with respect to carbon cycling. Contributing to this uncertainty in old-growth forest ecosystems is a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the areal fraction of any particular stage relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Old-growth mosaics are generally created through ongoing effects of tree mortality, with the Central Amazon mosaic generated primarily by wind mortality. Unfortunately, estimation of generalizable frequency distributions of mortality event size has been hindered by limited spatial and temporal scales of observations. To overcome these limitations we merge field and remotely sensed tree mortality data and fit the top two candidate distributions (power law and exponential) to these data to determine the most appropriate statistical mortality model for use in landscape-scale ecosystem simulations. Our results show that the power law model better represents the distribution of mortality event size than the exponential model. We also use an individual-tree-based forest stand model to simulate a 100 ha landscape using the best fit of each candidate distribution to demonstrate the effects of different mortality regimes on above ground biomass in the Central Amazon forest mosaic. We conclude that the correct mortality distribution model is critical for robust simulation of patch succession dynamics and above ground biomass.

  5. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; Gonçalves, José F. C.; Garcia, Sabrina; Martin, Scot T.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Piva, Luani R.; Chambers, Jeff Q.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m-2 s-1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m-2 s-1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0-32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for photosynthesis during high temperature extremes regularly experienced in

  6. Soil Carbon Stock and Particle Size Fractions in the Central Amazon Predicted from Remotely Sensed Relief, Multispectral and Radar Data

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    Marcos B. Ceddia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils from the remote areas of the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil are poorly mapped due to the presence of dense forest and lack of access routes. The use of covariates derived from multispectral and radar remote sensors allows mapping large areas and has the potential to improve the accuracy of soil attribute maps. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate the addition of relief, and vegetation covariates derived from multispectral images with distinct spatial and spectral resolutions (Landsat 8 and RapidEye and L-band radar (ALOS PALSAR for the prediction of soil organic carbon stock (CS and particle size fractions; and (b evaluate the performance of four geostatistical methods to map these soil properties. Overall, the results show that, even under forest coverage, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and ALOS PALSAR backscattering coefficient improved the accuracy of CS and subsurface clay content predictions. The NDVI derived from RapidEye sensor improved the prediction of CS using isotopic cokriging, while the NDVI derived from Landsat 8 and backscattering coefficient were selected to predict clay content at the subsurface using regression kriging (RK. The relative improvement of applying cokriging and RK over ordinary kriging were lower than 10%, indicating that further analyses are necessary to connect soil proxies (vegetation and relief types with soil attributes.

  7. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

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    Fabiana F. Aud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est

  8. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  9. Seasonal variations in the stable oxygen isotope ratio of wood cellulose reveal annual rings of trees in a Central Amazon terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinta; Durgante, Flávia M; Kagawa, Akira; Kajimoto, Takuya; Trumbore, Susan E; Xu, Xiaomei; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Higuchi, Niro

    2016-03-01

    In Amazonian non-flooded forests with a moderate dry season, many trees do not form anatomically definite annual rings. Alternative indicators of annual rings, such as the oxygen (δ(18)Owc) and carbon stable isotope ratios of wood cellulose (δ(13)Cwc), have been proposed; however, their applicability in Amazonian forests remains unclear. We examined seasonal variations in the δ(18)Owc and δ(13)Cwc of three common species (Eschweilera coriacea, Iryanthera coriacea, and Protium hebetatum) in Manaus, Brazil (Central Amazon). E. coriacea was also sampled in two other regions to determine the synchronicity of the isotopic signals among different regions. The annual cyclicity of δ(18)Owc variation was cross-checked by (14)C dating. The δ(18)Owc showed distinct seasonal variations that matched the amplitude observed in the δ(18)O of precipitation, whereas seasonal δ(13)Cwc variations were less distinct in most cases. The δ(18)Owc variation patterns were similar within and between some individual trees in Manaus. However, the δ(18)Owc patterns of E. coriacea differed by region. The ages of some samples estimated from the δ(18)Owc cycles were offset from the ages estimated by (14)C dating. In the case of E. coriacea, this phenomenon suggested that missing or wedging rings may occur frequently even in well-grown individuals. Successful cross-dating may be facilitated by establishing δ(18)Owc master chronologies at both seasonal and inter-annual scales for tree species with distinct annual rings in each region.

  10. Niños de la Amazonía. Una experiencia de trabajo conjunto por una mejor educación para los niños y las niñas asháninkas de la selva central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moromizato Izu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Children of the Amazon. A cooperative work experience to improve the quality of early childhood education in the Amazon of PerúThis article describes and analyzes the experience of three years of implementation of the Amazon Children Project, which promoted the formation and strengthening of a social platform, formed by allies who energized the actions of the project.This collective effort had as main objective to contribute in the development and learning for children from 3 to 8 years, who live in Ashaninka´s communities in the central jungle from the improvement in the quality of education, facilitatingthe process of transition between educational levels.

  11. Two Preliminary SRTM DEMs Within the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.; Ballantine, A.; Biggs, T.; Holmes, K.; Sheng, Y.; Hendricks, G.

    2002-12-01

    Digital topography provides important measures, such as hillslope lengths and flow path networks, for understanding hydrologic and geomorphic processes (e.g., runoff response to land use change and floodplain inundation volume). Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from NASA JPL in August 2002. The "PI Processor" produced these initial DEM segments and we are using them to assess the initial accuracy of the interferometrically derived heights and for hydrologic research. The preliminary SRTM derived absolute elevations across the Amazon floodplain in the Cabaliana region generally range from 5 to 15 m with reported errors of 1 to 3 m. This region also includes some preliminary elevations that are erroneously negative. However, topographic contours on 1:100,000 scale quadrangles of 1978 to 1980 vintage indicate elevations of 20 to 30 m. Because double-bounce travel paths are possible over the sparsely vegetated and very-flat 2400 sq-km water surface of the Balbina reservoir near Manaus, it serves to identify the relative accuracy of the SRTM heights. Here, cell-to-cell height changes are generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ~100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. Deforestation in Rondonia is remarkably clear in the C-band DEM where elevations are recorded from the canopy rather than bare earth. Here, elevation changes are ~30 m (with reported 1 to 2 m errors) across clear-cut areas. Field derived canopy heights are in agreement with this change. Presently, we are deriving stream networks in the Amazon floodplain for comparison with our previous network extraction from JERS-1 SAR mosaics and for hydrologic modeling.

  12. Estudos etnoictiológicos sobre o pirarucu Arapaima gigas na Amazônia Central Ethnoictiology studies on Pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups in Central Amazon

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    Liane Galvão de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou identificar saberes comuns entre o conhecimento científico e o conhecimento local sobre a ecologia e biologia do pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, contribuindo com informações úteis para a implementação e consolidação de projetos de manejo participativo pesqueiro na região. Foram realizadas 57 entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com pescadores profissionais de Manaus e pescadores de subsistência de Manacapuru durante o período de junho a dezembro do ano de 2002. Foi observado que os pescadores profissionais possuem informações igualmente precisas e abrangentes em relação aos saberes dos pescadores ribeirinhos de subsistência nos aspectos de reprodução, predação, migração, crescimento e mortalidade. Os aspectos que não são equivalentes entre os pescadores profissionais comerciais citadinos e ribeirinhos de subsistência são nos aspectos de tipo de alimentação e no tamanho de recrutamento pesqueiro. Concluímos que os pescadores da Amazônia central possuem os conhecimentos necessários que possibilitam o manejo participativo do pirarucu, como um profundo saber nos aspectos comportamentais, biológicos e ecológicos desta espécie, podendo assim contribuir de fato com a participação de gestão nos recursos pesqueiros locais.Present study it aimed at to identify to know common between scientific knowledge and local knowledge on ecology and biology of pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups, contributing with useful information for implementation and consolidation of projects of participative handling fishing boat in region. 57 half-structuralized interviews had been carried through, with fishing of Manaus and Manacapuru during period of June to December of year 2002. It was observed that professional fishermen also have accurate and comprehensive information in relation to knowledge of subsistence fishermen in coastal aspects of reproduction, predation, migration, growth and mortality. Aspects that are not equivalent

  13. Leaf traits and gas exchange in saplings of native tree species in the Central Amazon Características foliares e trocas gasosas em arvoretas de espécies nativas da Amazônia Central

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    Keila Rego Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict changes on the length of the dry season in the Amazon which may affect tree physiology. The aims of this work were to determine the effect of the rainfall regime and fraction of sky visible (FSV at the forest understory on leaf traits and gas exchange of ten rainforest tree species in the Central Amazon, Brazil. We also examined the relationship between specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, and leaf nitrogen content on photosynthetic parameters. Data were collected in January (rainy season and August (dry season of 2008. A diurnal pattern was observed for light saturated photosynthesis (Amax and stomatal conductance (g s, and irrespective of species, Amax was lower in the dry season. However, no effect of the rainfall regime was observed on g s nor on the photosynthetic capacity (Apot, measured at saturating [CO2]. Apot and leaf thickness increased with FSV, the converse was true for the FSV-SLA relationship. Also, a positive relationship was observed between Apot per unit leaf area and leaf nitrogen content, and between Apot per unit mass and SLA. Although the rainfall regime only slightly affects soil moisture, photosynthetic traits seem to be responsive to rainfall-related environmental factors, which eventually lead to an effect on Amax. Finally, we report that little variation in FSV seems to affect leaf physiology (Apot and leaf anatomy (leaf thickness.Os modelos climáticos globais prevêem mudanças na extensão da época seca na Amazônia, o que pode afetar a fisiologia das árvores. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito da sazonalidade da precipitação e fração de céu visível (FSV no sub-bosque da floresta nas características foliares e trocas gasosas de 10 espécies florestais da Amazônia Central. Também examinou-se a relação entre área foliar específica (SLA, espessura da folha (LT e nitrogênio foliar em parâmetros fotossintéticos. Os resultados foram coletados nos

  14. Determinação de idade e crescimento do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus na Amazônia Central Age and growth of mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus in the Central Amazon

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    Leocy Cutrim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa contribuir para a conservação e manejo do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus, um importante recurso pesqueiro de exportação do Amazonas para o qual é necessário conhecer informações essenciais de sua dinâmica de populações. Para contribuir à esta finalidade, o presente trabalho estabeleceu como objetivo identificar o par de otólito mais adequado para leitura de anéis etários, determinar os parâmetros de crescimento do mapará (H. marginatus, Amazônia Central, Amazonas - Brasil. O trabalho foi efetuado através da análise de otólitos coletados no período de dezembro de 1996 á agosto de 1997. Os otólitos escolhidos foram os asteriscus, sendo a leitura efetuada em lupa estereoscópica com monitor acoplado. As marcas de crescimento foram validadas por meio da análise do incremento marginal relativo, sendo encontrado dois anéis/ano. Os valores estimados para os parâmetros no período foram L¥ = 52,63 cm; k = 0,555 ano; to = -0,029 e M = 0,552. O ciclo hidrológico e comportamento reprodutivo estão relacionados com a marcação de anéis etários.The present work seeks to contribute for the conservation and management of the mapará(Hypophthalmus marginatus, an important export fishing resource of Amazonas for which is necessary to know essential information of its population dynamics. To contribute to this purpose, the present work established as objective to identify a structure for reading of age rings, to determine the parameters of growth of the mapará (H. marginatus, Central Amazon, Amazonas - Brazil. The work was made through the otoliths analysis collected in the period of December of 1996 to August of 1997. The otolith chosen for reading was the asteriscus, being the reading made in a stereomicroscope with coupled monitor. The mark structures were validated by means of the analysis of the relative marginal increment, being found two rings. The values estimated for the parameters in the

  15. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  16. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  17. La enseñanza escolar de la lengua española en Andalucía en los umbrales del XIX: introducción al «Diálogo ortográfico» de A. Balbina Lozano School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

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    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El Diálogo ortográfico del maestro gaditano de primeras letras Antonio Balbina Lozano es un manuscrito poco conocido, escrito a finales del siglo XVIII o principios del siglo XIX. Con finalidad escolar, resume las reglas de ortografía de la lengua española según la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII y las principales partes de la oración, y al final proporciona una lista alfabética con palabras de ortografía dudosa, especialmente para los alumnos andaluces de Balbina, con pronunciación dialectal. La obra se encuadra en el contexto pedagógico de la época en Andalucía y España, en la pugna entre la antigua Cartilla de Valladolid y los nuevos métodos pedagógicos de la Ilustración. Asimismo, se discuten sus fuentes: las obras de la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII, sobre todo la Ortografía de la lengua castellana, pero también los trabajos de Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares y Gayoso.The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  18. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  19. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  20. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

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    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  1. Caracterização do uso de malhadeiras pela frota pesqueira que desembarca em Manaus e Manacapuru, Amazonas Characterization of gillnet fisheries landed in Manaus and Manacapuru, Central Amazon

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    Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malhadeira é um apetrecho de pesca frequentemente utilizado na pesca regional. O presente estudo visa verificar características das malhadeiras utilizadas nos diversos subsistemas da Amazônia Central, seu uso e a aplicação de normas legais relacionadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com pescadores em Manaus entre 1994 e 2004 e em Manacapuru entre 2001 e 2004. Os resultados indicaram que o apetrecho responde em média a 14% da produção pesqueira de Manaus, com tendência a diminuição e a 24,5% de Manacapuru, com estabilidade interanual. As freqüências modais recentes do tamanho de malha estiveram entre 50-60 mm no desembarque em Manaus, mas em Manacapuru foram mais diversas, entre 20 mm e 90 mm. A moda do comprimento das redes foi de 100 m em ambos portos, mas se em Manaus correspondem a cerca de 90% das registradas, em Manacapuru não são nem 50% do total. Quanto à freqüência de ocorrência de uso da malhadeira nos subsistemas da Amazônia Central que desembarcaram em Manaus, destaca-se o rio Purus (47,8%, enquanto que para Manacapuru predominou explotação no Baixo Solimões (94,3%. A composição das capturas variou entre os anos analisados, destacando cinco principais pescados que compõem mais de 70% das capturas: tambaqui, aruanã, tucunaré, curimatá, pirapitinga. Com relação às restrições no tamanho de malha, a maioria dos apetrechos têm tamanho de malha passível de uso ilegal, similarmente aos comprimentos das mesmas. Concluiu-se que há grande diversidade de formas de uso do apetrecho, sendo necessário gerar normas legais mais efetivas e compatíveis com a realidade pesqueira, cultural e sócio-econômica da Amazônia.The gillnet is frequently used in Amazon commercial and artisanal fishing. The present study aims to verify characteristics of the gill-nets of gillnets found in various Central Amazon subsystems, their use, and compliance with related legal norms. Daily Interviews were made from

  2. Oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida contribution to decomposition dynamic of leaf litter in primary forest, second growth, and polyculture in the Central Amazon

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    E. Franklin

    Full Text Available We studied the contribution of oribatid mites in the dynamics of litter decomposition in an experiment using litterbags of three different mesh sizes (20 µm, 250 µm, and 1 cm. The experiment was carried out at a primary forest (FLO, a secondary forest (SEC, and at two polyculture systems (POA and POC. We compared the weight loss of the leaves of Vismia guianensis and the changes of the oribatid mite species community. We processed the samples after 26, 58, 111, 174, 278, and 350 days from the beginning of the experiment by using the Berlese-Tullgren to extract the animals. We hypothesized that: 1. the abundance and diversity of oribatid mites would exert an influence in the decomposition process; 2. there would be a successional changing of the species during decomposition; and 3. there would be differences in the colonization of species in relation to the mesh size of the litterbags. A total of 95 species of oribatid mites was found. The biomass data was the first registered for the Amazon region. The great dominance of oribatid mites did not exert an influence in the decomposition process. There was not a successional changing of the species during the course of the decomposition process, unlike those shown by results obtained in the temperate forest, because we found neither early colonizers nor species that prefer advanced decomposition stages. The oribatid mite community, which developed in the litterbags under tropical conditions, was atypical of the normal stages of leaf litter breakdown and decomposition. There were differences in the colonization of species in relation to the mesh size of the litterbags. These differences were very closely related to the specific habits and habitat of the dominant species.

  3. Comparações entre as propriedades químicas de solos das regiões da floresta amazônica e do cerrado do Brasil Central Comparisons of chemical properties of forest (Amazon region and savanna soils (central region of Brazil

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    J.L.I. Demattê

    1993-09-01

    e para os solos argilosos a muito argilosos, o teor de carbono orgânico é sempre mais elevado na região de cerrado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o teor de carbono orgânico dos solos com vegetação de cerrado e cerradão. Por outro lado, o teor de carbono orgânico dos latossolos da região Amazônica é mais elevado do que dos PVA.Chemical properties were studied in soil samples from two main fisiographic regions of Brazil: the Amazon region represented by the tropical rain forests and the Brazilian central region represented by the savanna (cerrado vegetation. For this study 17 profiles were selected from the Triângulo Mineiro area: 6 profiles from Goias state, and 5 profiles from the south eastern part of the Mato Grosso State. Most of the profiles are oxisols from medium to clayey texture. For the Amazon region 76 profiles were selected (38 oxisols and 38 ultisols located from Para to Acre States. The following depths were selected: 0-10 cm; 10-40 cm; 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm. The litter layer was not studied. The savanna region has soil in a more advanced weathered stage than the Amazon region. The Ki index of savanna soils varies from 6.0 to 1.5 and of Amazon soils the variation is from 1.3 to 2.5 that included Oxisols (Ki from 1.3 to 2.0 and Ultisols (Ki above 2.0. This indicates that the clay mineralogy of savanna soils is represented by an oxidic mineralogy that is more stable than in the Amazon region represented by a caulinitic mineralogy with 2:1 contribution. The Amazon soils are more acid and present exchangeable At in higher amounts than savanna soils with a direct effect on chemical management. Soils pH correction requires more lime in Amazon soils than in the savanna. The are great differences in both regions between base saturation and pH index. In Amazon soils the pH increase follows the base saturation while this does not occur in savanna soils. In sandy soils the organic carbon is higher in Amazon for all depths studied. In

  4. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  5. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  6. School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

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    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  7. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  8. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  9. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Vandick S; Lima, Liane G

    2010-06-03

    The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  10. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Lima Liane G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp. are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  11. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  12. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  13. Estrategias reproductivas de la vegetación y sus respuestas al pulso de la inundación en las zonas inundables de la Amazonía Central

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    M.T.F. Piedade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales o áreas que sufren largos períodos de inundaciones periódicas, asociadas a los grandes ríos, cubren aproximadamente el 6% de la Amazonia Brasileña. Precisamente en esta región se encuentran localizados los bosques inundados con mayor extensión y diversidad vegetal del mundo. En esos ambientes, la altura de la columna de agua puede fluctuar durante todo el año, llegando a valores promedio de hasta 10 m. La previsibilidad y duración del pulso de las inundaciones, la abrupta transición en las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del gradiente topográfico en los márgenes de los ríos principales y la intensidad de las corrientes de agua y la dinámica de los sedimentos representan una fuerte presión selectiva sobre las poblaciones de plantas y sus sistemas de reproducción. En este trabajo se examina y discute cómo el ciclo del agua influye en las estrategias de reproducción sexual y asexual que conducen a la realización del ciclo de vida de las plantas, permitiendo el mantenimiento de sus poblaciones. También se abordan las posibles restricciones sobre los procesos de germinación, el establecimiento de plántulas y la formación de bancos de semillas. Además, se indican algunas lagunas en el conocimiento existente sobre las estrategias reproductivas de la vegetación en las planicies de inundación de la Amazonía Central y se proponen líneas futuras de investigación. Se enfatiza en las especies herbáceas, debido a la gran variedad de formas de vida y estrategias reproductivas y su fuerte dinámica temporal y espacial en respuesta al ciclo hidrológico. El estudio de la vegetación de los ambientes inundados presentados aquí es relevante, especialmente, debido a los efectos previstos en las poblaciones de estas comunidades ante los escenarios de cambio climático previstos para la Amazonia.

  14. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  15. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  16. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  17. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  18. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  19. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (rainforest.

  20. Riscos na qualidade sanitária da carne de jacaré da Amazônia Centra | Sanitary risk assessment for caiman meat quality in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2015-11-01

    production chain of wild populations. In Brazil, there are no protocols for this type of meat. The slaughter and processing were performed using a simplified, traditional floating raft system and a water treatment system that used both filtration and chemicals. The animals were caught using a hook, harpoon, resting pole, and cable snare. The wild caimans of two species (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus were captured in the region of the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve in Central Amazon during three harvesting events. After each event, we progressively improved the meat-processing protocol. Microbiological testing of the meat was performed as described in norms and Brazilian legislation for fish meat. As a result, we achieved improvements in the sanitary quality of the meat of the killed animals for 57%, 76.5% and 100% of the samples obtained during the first, second, and third harvesting events, respectively. There were significant differences in the microbiological quality of the meat, with a reduction in the disapproval of the samples. The process of capturing animals, the cable snare, and the restraining pole were the factors that least affected the quality of the meat; in addition, animals between 81 and 100 cm of CRC had a lower risk of microbiological contamination. We can conclude that health surveillance activities, such as hand hygiene when handling meat, improvements in water quality, selection of animals of the most appropriate size for slaughter, and capture by less invasive methods can reduce the potential for microbiological contamination of the meat contribute to decrease the potential for microbiological contamination of meat.

  1. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  2. The Amazon basin in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  3. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  4. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  5. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    da Amazonia (Brazilian Regional Commander of Amazon), about Ŕ Exercito na Amazonia " ("The Army in the Amazon) . Manaus, AM, 1996. 3 Instituto...accessed 23 Dec 97. 6 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 205. 7 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 8 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 9...Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 10 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 98. 11 Gelio Fregapani, Amazonia 1996 - Soberania Ameacada (Amazon

  6. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Linage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05 for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month. These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also

  7. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  8. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  9. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  10. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Salinero

    Full Text Available The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international. The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%. Over half of the research study sites (52.91% were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for

  11. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  12. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  13. Amazon SimpleDB LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.

  14. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  15. Climatic variability between SST and river discharge at Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. E.; Silva, E. R. L.

    2012-04-01

    while positive values are appear over areas a bit more to east. Central and east areas over Equatorial Pacific show negative values to the discharge series analyzed. ENSO events are well correlated to precipitation anomalies over Amazon region. Positive/negative SST anomalies over central-east Equatorial Pacific are associated to few/more precipitation/river discharge over Amazon region. Madeira discharge is especially well and negatively correlated to SST at tropical North Atlantic areas, showing absolute values greater than 0.5. In this case, the increase/decrease of river discharge over Amazon region when SST anomaly at the tropical north Atlantic is negative/positive can be explained by the strengthened/weakened winds over the equatorial side of the subtropical high during these situations. Pacific and Atlantic areas that show good correlations to river discharge at Amazon region may be potential variables in a linear model to simulation and prediction of discharge.

  16. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  17. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  18. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region predicted from satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Potter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon are highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris are more rapid and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct carbon emissions from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from year to year during the period 2000

  19. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  20. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  1. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cook

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some recent climate modeling results suggested a possible dieback of the Amazon rainforest under future climate change, a prediction that raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4 and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable as rainfall is projected to increase in nearly all models. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge of the Amazon and further south in central Brazil, are in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. Firstly, a decline in precipitation of 22% in the southern Amazon's dry season (May–September reduces soil moisture, despite an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to nonlinear responses in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season rainfall: (1 a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure; (2 a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient, and to lesser degree a warmer eastern equatorial Pacific. Secondly, evaporation demand will increase due to the general warming, further reducing soil moisture. In terms of ecosystem response, higher maintenance cost and reduced productivity under warming may also have additional adverse impact. The drying corresponds to a lengthening of the dry season by 11 days. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of 20% in vegetation carbon stock in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Further, VEGAS predicts enhancement of fire risk by 10–15%. The increase in fire is primarily due to the reduction in soil moisture, and the decrease in dry

  2. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-11-01

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  3. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  4. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This paper examines the spatial and temporal variation of limnological characteristics of floodplain lakes in the Solimões and Japurá confluence, an undisturbed region - the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR; METHODS: We analyzed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and transparency, and surface water samples were collected for determination of suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon, in two phases of the hydrograph stage, 2009 high water phase, 2008, 2009 and 2010 low water phases; RESULTS: The results showed that the studied water bodies have high variability in all measured variables: a between hydrograph phases; b among main rivers; and c between opposite margins of Japurá River; CONCLUSIONS: This shows the remarkable influence of the flood pulse and the primary water source on the limnology of this system. The monitoring of physical and chemical limnological variables in Mamirauá will serve as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for modeling the effects of climate change and anthropogenic influences on Amazon aquatic ecosystem.OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho investiga a variação temporal e espacial de algumas características limnológicas dos lagos da planície de inundação da região de confluência dos Rios Japurá e Solimões, onde está localizada a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (RDSM; MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se temperatura, condutividade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez e transparência da água em três profundidades (superfície, Secchi e no limite da zona fótica e coletadas amostras de água na superfície para a determinação de material orgânico e inorgânico em suspensão, clorofila-a, feofitina, nitrogênio e fósforo total, carbono orgânico e inorgânico dissolvido, em duas fases da hidrógrafa, água alta

  5. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  6. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  7. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  8. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  9. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  10. Effects of change in primary forest cover on armadillo (Cingulata, Mammalia burrow use in the Central Amazon Efectos del cambio en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de las madrigueras por los armadillos (Cingulata, Mammalia en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Arteaga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of primary forest to other vegetation types alters the availability and distribution of resources, and thus affects their use by species that inhabit the forest. Although armadillos are important earthmover mammals in the Amazon forest, and their burrows play an important physical and ecological role in the ecosystem, the impact of loss of primary forest cover on these organisms has been poorly understood. In order to evaluate the effects of change in the primary forest cover on burrow use by armadillos, we performed 2 censuses in 33 plots within 12 sites of different vegetation cover characteristics, and recorded burrow density and current use. A total of 109 armadillo burrows were found; the sites with higher percentages of primary forest cover showed a larger number of active burrows, although burrow density and the probability of establishing new burrows remained unaffected by this variable. Our results show that areas with higher quantities of primary forest habitat show more intense use by armadillos, probably due to the permanence time of individuals. These findings suggest that the viability of armadillo populations, as well as the role that these animals play within the ecosystem, may be affected in disturbed areas.La transformación del bosque primario a otro tipo de vegetación cambia la disponibilidad y distribución de los recursos, afectando su uso por especies que habitan el bosque. Los armadillos son el principal grupo de mamíferos escavadores del Amazonas y sus madrigueras cumplen un papel físico y ecológico en el ecosistema. Sin embargo, no se conoce el impacto de la pérdida del bosque sobre estos organismos. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los cambios en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de sus madrigueras, realizamos 2 censos en 33 parcelas dentro de 12 localidades con diferentes coberturas vegetales y reportamos la densidad y el estado de uso de las madrigueras. Encontramos 109 madrigueras y

  11. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity. Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  12. Variations of chromosomal structures in Caluromys philander (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Erica Martinha Silva de; Faresin e Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-03-01

    Caluromys is considered to be one of the most ancient genera of extant marsupials and is positioned among the basal taxa of the family Didelphidae. At least two species occur in Brazil, C. philander and C. lanatus, both of which have 2n = 14 chromosomes. For the first time, we present evidence of an intrapopulation polymorphism of the sexual chromosome pair in C. philander females from the Central Amazon region. Detailed cytogenetic results of animals from three localities on the Amazon region were analyzed using classical cytogenetics (NOR, C-Band and G-Band) and molecular techniques (18S rDNA and telomere probes). Similar to other conspecific individuals, the diploid number of these animals is 2n = 14, and their fundamental number is 24, with NOR present on the 6th autosomal pair. The X chromosome presented variation detectable by G banding, suggesting a pericentric inversion.

  13. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleska, Scott R; Didan, Kamel; Huete, Alfredo R; da Rocha, Humberto R

    2007-10-26

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that Amazon forests are vulnerable to both long- and short-term droughts, but satellite observations showed a large-scale photosynthetic green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005. These findings suggest that Amazon forests, although threatened by human-caused deforestation and fire and possibly by more severe long-term droughts, may be more resilient to climate changes than ecosystem models assume.

  14. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  15. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  16. Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Oliver L.; Aragao, Luiz; Lewis, Simon L.; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, J.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Malhi, Y; A. Monteagudo; J. Peacock; Quesada, C.A.; Van Der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, S; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed wh...

  17. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  18. Factors associated with overweight and central adiposity in urban workers covered by the Workers Food Program of the Brazilian Amazon Region Fatores associados ao sobrepeso e adiposidade central em trabalhadores urbanos assistidos pelo Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador da região amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília S. Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with overweight and abdominal obesity in male and female workers. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study. A representative sample of 1,054 workers ranging from 18 to 74 years of age, selected among individuals covered by the Workers´ Food Program living in the Metropolitan region of Belém, Northern Brazil. Health-related behavior and anthropometry were assessed. Fasting blood samples were collected. RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was 38.0% among women and 50.4% among men. Among overweight subjects, there were 6.1% obese women and 10.7% obese men. Multivariate analysis was used to identify social behavior and clinical-biochemical factors associated with increased body adiposity (BMI > 25 kg/m² and increased waist circumference: > 80 cm for women and > 94 cm for men. Variables positively and significantly associated with overweight and abdominal obesity in men according to prevalence ratio (PR values were: age (1.02, high family income (1.05, smoking (1.36, hypertension (systolic blood pressure, 1.41; diastolic blood pressure, 1.85 and hypertriglyceridemia (2.29. In women, the PR of increased body adiposity was associated with: age (1.02, alcohol intake (1.42, hypertriglyceridemia (1.44, diastolic blood pressure (1.65 and hyperglycemia (1.71. CONCLUSIONS: The association of overweight and abdominal obesity with social behavior variables should be corrected with preventive and educational measures. Furthermore, association of overweight and abdominal obesity with clinical and biochemical variables places the urban workers from the Amazon region assisted by the Workers´ Food Program at a possible risk for morbidity and mortality from increased body adiposity.OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores associados ao sobrepeso e a obesidade abdominal em trabalhadores de ambos os sexos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional, de uma amostra representativa de 1054 trabalhadores, com idade

  19. Modeling investigation of light-absorbing aerosols in the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Lavric, Jost V.; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-11-01

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret observed light-absorbing aerosols in Amazonia during the wet season. Observed aerosol properties, including black carbon (BC) concentration and light absorption, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site in the central Amazon have relatively low background levels but frequently show high peaks during the study period of January-April 2014. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in fine/coarse aerosol and BC concentrations as well as aerosol light absorption and its wavelength dependence over the Amazon Basin. The source attribution in the model indicates the important influence of open fire on the observed variances of aerosol concentrations and absorption, mainly from regional sources (northern South America) and from northern Africa. The contribution of open fires from these two regions is comparable, with the latter becoming more important in the late wet season. The analysis of correlation and enhancement ratios of BC versus CO suggests transport times of fossil fuel combustion in the southern part of the basin (AAE ˜ 1) but more open fire and dust influence in the northern part (AAE > 1.8). Uncertainty analysis shows that accounting for absorption due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles could result in differences of < 8 and 5-40 % in total absorption, respectively.

  20. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  1. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

  2. Disruption of hydroecological equilibrium in southwest Amazon mediated by drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Kim, Hyungjun; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Oki, Taikan

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of droughts on the Amazon ecosystem have been broadly discussed in recent years, but a comprehensive understanding of the consequences is still missing. In this study, we show evidence of a fragile hydrological equilibrium in the western Amazon. While drainage systems located near the equator and the western Amazon do not show water deficit in years with average climate conditions, this equilibrium can be broken during drought events. More importantly, we show that this effect is persistent, taking years until the normal hydrological patterns are reestablished. We show clear links between persistent changes in forest canopy structure and changes in hydrological patterns, revealing physical evidence of hydrological mechanisms that may lead to permanent changes in parts of the Amazon ecosystem. If prospects of increasing drought frequency are confirmed, a change in the current hydroecological patterns in the western Amazon could take place in less than a decade.

  3. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  4. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  5. Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon: temporal and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Vila Real Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulatory Diseases (CD are the major cause of death among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon. OBJECTIVE: to analyze standardized mortality rates of diseases of the circulatory system (DCS, according to the main causes of death among the elderly, in microregions of the Brazilian Amazon, in the period of 1998 - 2007. METHODS: ecological study of mortality rates distribution standardized by CD and corrected by deaths from poorly defined causes among the elderly (> 65 years of age who lived in Brazilian Amazon in the period of 1998 - 2007. The analysis were carried out by the linear regression, trend, and spatial distribution of Kernel. RESULTS: We verified an increasing trend in mortality by CD (β1 = 28.34 p = 0.01, due to the increasing trend in the States of Maranhão and Tocantins. The central region of Mato Grosso, Northern Tocantins, Eastern Pará and Southwestern Maranhão present hot spots with the highest mortality rates. Males present higher rates when compared to females all over the region; rates of mortality due to acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive disease present the same spatial standard of the CD group and the rates of cerebrovascular diseases present a different spatial distribution standard. Increment in mortality rates according to age was observed: the greater the age, the higher is mortality by CD. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Amazon presents an increasing trend with high rates of mortality by the circulatory diseases, and the geographic areas with the highest rates are around the Brazilian Amazon, in the states of Tocantins, Maranhão and Mato Grosso.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Aluminum in Clay from the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, S Carolina; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Williams, Lynda B

    2017-02-21

    The problems of antibiotic overuse compel us to seek alternative antibacterial agents. Some clays have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant human pathogens and may provide an alternative to known antibiotics. Here we show that Al toxicity plays a central role in the antibacterial action of a kaolin-rich clay from the Colombian Amazon (AMZ). Antibacterial susceptibility testing shows minimum inhibitory concentrations of 80 mg/mL against a model Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The clay buffered the media pH to ∼4.6 and Eh values to +360 mV. Chemical analysis of AMZ and bacteria showed that Al, P, and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) were exchanged during incubation at 37 °C. Only Al derived from the clay exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentrations for E. coli under acidic conditions. Ion imaging showed elevated Al levels in the bacterial membrane, and high intracellular Fe levels, relative to those of untreated controls. Phosphorus depletion in E. coli after reaction with AMZ, together with evidence of membrane permeabilization, suggests that Al reacts with membrane phospholipids, enhancing intracellular transport of metals. These results highlight the importance of dissolved Al for amplifying the toxicity of transition metals to human pathogens.

  7. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  8. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  9. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (<0.20 microm) in Amazon River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data

  10. Germinação de sementes e sobrevivência de plântulas de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce Wood. em resposta ao alagamento, nas várzeas da Amazônia Central Seed germination and seedling survival of Himatanthus sucuuba(Spruce Wood., in response to flooding in the varzeas of the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Silva Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus sucuuba é uma espécie que coloniza as várzeas na Amazônia Central. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar as estratégias de adaptação da planta ao alagamento prolongado dessas áreas. Para tanto, foram acompanhados a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas, simulando as condições naturais de campo (seca e alagamento. A germinação foi realizada em dois substratos: areia+serragem (não-alagado, e em água (alagado. Durante 120 dias, as plântulas geradas foram submetidas a três tratamentos: controle (irrigação diária, submersão parcial (sistema radicular e submersão total. Foram analisadas as alterações na morfologia das plântulas, na anatomia das raízes e a atividade da enzima álcool desidrogenase (ADH, nos tempos: 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. Foi constatado que a espécie apresenta elevada taxa de germinação e produção de plântulas, ambas acima de 80%, mesmo para sementes em água. Sob submersão parcial foram formadas lenticelas hipertrofiadas, raízes adventícias e aerênquima radicular. A atividade da ADH se manteve elevada até o 60º dia, com decréscimo após esse período. Plântulas sob submersão total perderam as folhas, não formaram raízes adventícias ou lenticelas, mas desenvolveram aerênquima. Estas plântulas apresentaram os maiores valores da ADH, que permaneceram altos até o término do experimento, indicando o desvio do metabolismo anaeróbico para produção de etanol como principal via para a manutenção da carga energética. Apesar de ter ocorrido a morte de algumas plântulas no tratamento de submersão total, o percentual de sobreviventes foi alto com 70% ao final dos 120 dias de duração do período experimental. Desta maneira, as plântulas de H. sucuuba modulam morfo-fisiologicamente a tolerância ao alagamento em função do tempo de exposição ao estresse e altura da coluna de água.Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree which colonizes the varzeas of Central

  11. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  12. The effect of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on net ecosystem exchange in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-07-01

    Carbon cycling in the Amazon is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity, were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance, f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun photometers. Carbon fluxes were measured using eddy covariance technique at the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) flux towers. Two sites were studied: the Jaru Biological Reserve (RBJ), located in Rondonia, and the Cuieiras Biological Reserve at the K34 LBA tower (located in a preserved region in the central Amazon). Analysis was performed continuously from 1999 to 2009 at K34 and from 1999 to 2002 at RBJ, and includes wet, dry and transition seasons. In the Jaru Biological Reserve, a 29% increase in carbon uptake (NEE) was observed when the AOD ranged from 0.10 to 1.5 at 550 nm. In the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, the aerosol effect on NEE was smaller, accounting for an approximate 20% increase in NEE. High aerosol loading (AOD above 3 at 550 nm) or high cloud cover leads to reductions in solar flux and strong decreases in photosynthesis up to the point where NEE approaches zero. The observed increase in NEE is attributed to an enhancement (~50%) in

  13. The record of the Amazon craton in two supercontinents: Paleomagnetic and geological constraints for Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohver, E.

    2008-05-01

    The Amazon craton plays a fundamental role in the evolution of two supercontinents, the late Mesoproterozoic Rodinia, the break-up of which led to thethe late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic formation of Gondwana. A recent review of the paleomagnetic database for South America and Africa highlights the different role of the principal elements of western Gondwana elements Amazonia, conjoined with West Africa, versus the more centrally- located pieces of Gondwana; -Congo-São Francisco, Kalahari, the Rio de Plata, and the accreted terranes of the Arabia-Nubia shield. Whereas the Amazon-West Africa conjoined craton appears to have been alongside Laurentia within the framework of Rodinia, the other "central Gondwana" cratons were not part of Rodinia. New paleomagnetic data from the SW Amazon craton demonstrate the transpressive evolution of the Grenvillian collision, which resulted in thousands of kilometers of along-strike between the Amazon and Laurentia cratons. Portions of Amazonian crust stranded within the North American craton, notably the Blue Ridge province of the southern Appalachians, is evidence for this long-lived motion. An extensive review of recent thermochronological data from the North American Grenville Province and new data from the SW Amazon belts of "Grenvillian" age reveals the effects of differential post-orogenic exhumation. Restoration of this exhumation gives us a crustal-scale cross-section of the synorogenic structure, marked by thrust-related imbrication on the North American side, and large-scale, strike-slip faults on the Amazon side. It is this asymmetric structure that accounts for the differences in tectonic style between the two cratons. The timing of the break-up of Rodinia is still mostly unconstrained by geochronological data from rift-related sediments from the Amazon side. The Paraguai belt that marks the SE margin of the Amazon craton is a curved, fold-and-thrust belt that affected the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sediments that

  14. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  15. Current Characterization at the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    At the estuary there are several mechanisms that cause turbulence: influence of solid contours (estuary bottom and shores), speed vertical shearing (fluid inside), wind shearing stress (free surface) and surface and internal gravity waves. Turbulence intensity controls vertical distribution of estuary water mass property concentration. As flow into the estuary takes place during the transition or turbulent regimen, produced by small space and time scale movements, entrainment, turbulent scattering and advection are the processes responsible for fresh water mixing up with the sea and for local salinity variation, as well as for concentration of natural properties and man-made ones. According to this focus, we shall describe general circulation, conveyance and mixing characteristics of the Amazon low estuary waters. Amazon estuary shows unusual characteristics: it is of vast length and enormous outflow. It is extremely wide - 150 Km - and its discharge into the Atlantic amounts to 180,000 m3s-1 (Otman, 1968, Figueiredo et al, 1991), which means 18% of all water discharged by rivers into oceans; this is the largest punctual source of fresh water for oceans (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Maximum outflow is 2.5 x 105 m3s-1, and it happens at the end of May. Minimum outflow is 1.2 x 105 m3 s-1, and it takes place in November. At Amazon River, the Mixing Zone occurs where the Coastal Zone usually is. The reason for that is the extension of fresh water plume moves Northeast for over 1000 Km (Gibbs, 1970; Muller-Karger et al 1988). This is the most extensive estuarine plume ever found in the ocean. During low fluvial discharge (June-November) plume reaches 300 Km; however, on high discharge (November-May) plume reaches 500 Km. Plume already is 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to 300 Km wide (Lentz and Limeburner, 1995). From June to January plume moves towards Africa, from whence 70% of it goes east carried by North Brazil Current retroflection and 30% goes towards the Caribbean. From

  16. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  17. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  18. Amazon's Profit Falls, but Beats Expectations,as Company Invests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fpr Amazon.com, down is the new up.The Internet retailer said Tuesday that its second-quarter profit dropped by 8 percent, which might seem like bad news.But the decline was not nearly as much as Amazon, or analysts, had expected, and the profit was being sacrificed for what the company said was a good cause, new investments in technology and warehouses.Revenue continued to be strong, rising 51 percent.

  19. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

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    Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

  20. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

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    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

  1. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  2. Swath altimetry measurements of the mainstem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Wilson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i characterize and illustrate in two-dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a "virtual mission" for a 300 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões River at its confluence with the Purus River, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths of greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-section averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1% average overall error in discharge, respectively.

  3. Swath altimetry measurements of the mainstem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterize and illustrate in two-dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a "virtual mission" for a 300 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River at its confluence with the Purus River, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths of greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-section averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1% average overall error in discharge, respectively.

  4. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  5. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  6. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  7. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  8. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  9. Microconflictos ambientales y crisis de gobernabilidad en la Amazonía ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontaine , Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación entre contaminación y conflictos ambientales en el norte de la Amazonía ecuatoriana. La idea central que se defiende es que el manejo de conflictos por la empresa petrolera del Ecuador, Petroecuador, puede llevar a negociaciones ¿eficientes¿ a corto plazo, a costa de la institucionalización de los arreglos y de un tratamiento de las causas estructurales de los conflictos. Este entorno, condicionado por una gestión ambiental inadecuada en el norte de la Amazonía, constituye el telón de fondo de los conflictos radicales en el centro y el sur de la región y seguirá siendo un marco referencial contra la política petrolera del Estado. En particular, el clima de tensión social que resulta de esta situación es agravado aún más por la mediatización del juicio contra Chevrón-Texaco. Sin una redefinición de las políticas públicas ¿en particular políticas ambiental y social responsables y equitativas¿ este clima amenaza con desembocar en una crisis de gobernabilidad democrática.

  10. Amazon old-growth forest wind disturbance and the regional carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D. M.; Roberts, D. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Lima, A.; Higuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating the carbon balance of a landscape is challenging. A key problem is determining whether or not measurements made in plots are representative of the carbon state of a larger region. A key parameter for calculating landscape carbon balance is the return frequency of episodic disturbances. If disturbances are clustered and occur more frequently than the time required for biomass recovery, a spatial mixture of patches in different stages of recovery occurs. Under these shifting steady-state mosaic conditions, quantifying the mean state of ecosystem attributes such as carbon balance or tree species diversity is difficult. In this study, satellite remote sensing (Landsat) was coupled with field investigations to create ~25 year landscape-scale disturbance chronosequence for old-growth forest in the Central Amazon. The detected disturbances were caused by strong storms which resulted in tree mortality events ranging from small clusters of 7-10 downed trees, to large contiguous blowdowns larger than 30 ha in size. Using the chronosequence, a cumulative probability distribution function was developed, which followed a power law, and was used to parameterize a forest carbon balance model. Results demonstrate that for power law exponents less than about 2.0, the spatial scale at which forest carbon balance establishes is much larger than generally expected. Ultimately, an increase in wind disturbance frequency and/or intensity with a warming climate has the potential to cause a net loss of carbon from Amazon forests to the atmosphere.

  11. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  13. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  14. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  15. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  16. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  17. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  18. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  19. CO2 flux spatial variability in a tropical reservoir in the Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, R. A. S. D.; do Vale, R. S.; Tota, J.; Miller, S. D.; Ferreira, R. B., Jr.; Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon budget over water surfaces in the Amazon has an important role in the total budget of this greenhouse gas a regional and global scale. However, more accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of the CO2 flux over those water surfaces are still required. In this context, this study aims to understand the spatial distribution of CO2 flux in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, located at Presidente Figueiredo city, Amazonas, Brazil. The floating chamber method was used to measure and calculate the CO2 flux. This method coup a chamber of known volume with an infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, LI-840A). Measurements were performed at 1 Hz during 20-30 minutes at 5 different points of the reservoir, four upstream (two near the edge and two in the middle) and one downstream of the dam. At all locations the surface water was supersaturated in pCO2 and fluxes were from the water to the atmosphere. The maximum CO2 flux observed was 1.2 μmol m-2 s-1 at the center point of the reservoir upstream the dam. The minimum CO2 flux was 0.05 μmol m-2 s-1, observed near the edge on the upstream side of the dam. On average, CO2 fluxes were larger downstream of the dam, 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1, compared to upstream, 0.45 μmol m-2 s-1. This pattern is consistent with that found in previous studies at this site using other flux estimation methods, and is consistent with turbulent mixing promoted by the water turbine. However, the mean CO2 flux for all measured points using the chambers, 0.47 μmol m-2 s-1, was much lower than those previously found using other methods. The reason for the difference between methods is unclear. In situ deployment of multiple flux estimation methods would be valuable, as would longer periods of measurements.

  20. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  1. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  2. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  3. Amazon Forests’ Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth’s climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests’ response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation index (VI data to assess Amazon forests’ response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6 MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1 the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; (2 the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3 in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  4. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  5. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  6. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  7. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Fusaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster, provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/. More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  8. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marques Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the massive water volume of the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by hundreds of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and bacterial abundances with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, phytoplankton abundance and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and bacterial abundances, DOC, pCO2 and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that bacterial abundances increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased viral abundances. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in

  9. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests, a

  10. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  11. Long-term decline of Amazon carbon the sink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brienen, R.J.W.; Phillips, O.L.; Feldpausch, T.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T.R.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades1, 2, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics3, particularly in the Amazon4. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will

  12. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  13. Aerosol retrieval from OMI: Applications to the amazon bassin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curier, R.L.; Veefkind, J.P.; Veilhmann, B.; Braak, R.; Torres, O.; Leeuw, G.de

    2007-01-01

    We present the aerosol optical depth retrieved from OMI measurements using the multi-wavelengthm algorithm for two different environments: over Western Europe where the aerosols are weakly absorbing and over the Amazon basin where aerosol optical properties are governed by biomass burning. The resul

  14. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  15. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  16. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  17. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark   Ea

  18. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Erik J. Jhonston; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  19. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  20. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These i

  1. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  2. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Learning big data with Amazon Elastic MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amarkant

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers and system administrators who want to learn about Big Data analysis using Amazon Elastic MapReduce. Basic Java programming knowledge is required. You should be comfortable with using command-line tools. Prior knowledge of AWS, API, and CLI tools is not assumed. Also, no exposure to Hadoop and MapReduce is expected.

  4. Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to processe

  5. Monitoring the Amazon plume northwestward transport along Lagrangian pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Severine; Gaultier, Lucile; Vandemark, Douglas; Lee, Tong; Gierach, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers are important to marine air-sea interactions and local biogeochemistry. By modifying the local and regional sea surface salinity (SSS), the freshwater inputs associated with major river plumes cause the formation of a layer near the surface with salinity stratification but near-uniform temperature, known as the barrier layer (BL). The BL prevent exchanges between the warm mixed layer and the cold ocean interior, and thus affect the vertical mixing of heat between the mixed layer and the thermocline. This can have an important impact on air-sea interactions such as hurricanes intensification. Our study focuses on the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, respectively the first and fourth world's largest rivers in terms of discharge. Amazon-Orinoco waters are carried northwestward by the North Brazilian Current (NBC) during the first part of the year and then eastward along the North Equatorial Counter Current. The hurricane season in the tropical Atlantic extends from June through November, the period of Amazon-Orinoco plume maximum northwestward extension, on a hurricane route. Being able to monitor the spatial and temporal dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco river plumes is therefore important to better understand their impact on barrier layer thickness and SST variation at seasonal to interannual time scales. Variations from year to year in spatial extent of the plume may result from several processes including changes in Amazon discharge, ocean advection, turbulent mixing, and wind field. Satellite remote sensing data provide several means to visualize the surface dispersal of the Amazon plume, with ocean color data being the first to track it in the tropical Atlantic ocean further than 1000 km from shore. With the launches of the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius/SAC-D missions, we are now able to use the SSS observations in combination with ocean color, altimetry and sea surface temperature observations to track surface plume

  6. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an independent analysis of airborne estimates of land-atmospheric fluxes during 2010. Relative to the long-term mean, the 2010 drought resulted in a reduction in biomass carbon uptake of 1.1 Pg C, compared to 1.6 Pg C for the 2005 event.

  7. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae in the Central Amazon Produção de biomassa e rendimento de óleo essencial de folhas, galhos finos e rebrotas utilizando poda da copa de Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pellegrini Manhães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the remaining crown and the resprouts were collected, in the dry season. The results showed that the essential oil yield and chemical composition differed among the stems, leaves and resprouts. The stems' essential oil production differed between the seasons and had a higher production in the resprouting stems than the old stems of the remaining crown. The production of essential oil and leaf biomass of resprouts were differently related to the canopy openness, indicating that light increases the production of the essential oil and decreases the biomass of resprouting leaves. This study revealed that plant organs differ in their essential oil production and that the canopy openness must be taken into account when pruning the A. canelilla tree crown in order to achieve higher oil productivity.Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. é uma espécie arbórea da Amazônia que produz óleo essencial. A extração do óleo de suas folhas e galhos pode ser uma forma alternativa de evitar a derrubada do tronco para sua produção de óleo essencial. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores que podem influenciar a produção de óleo essencial e sua biomassa da rebrota após a poda de folhas e galhos das árvores de A. canelilla. As copas das árvores foram podadas na estação chuvosa e, após nove meses, as folhas e os galhos da copa remanescente e da rebrota foram coletadas na estação seca. Os resultados mostraram que o rendimento e a composição química de

  8. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  9. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  10. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  11. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present sha

  12. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  13. Los planes de vida y la política indígena en la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Espinosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the political dimension of the «planes de vida indígena» (indigenous life plans are discussed in three cases from the Peruvian Amazon region. In these cases, the «planes de vida» have fulfilled a role in the process of indigenous self-government or in the negotiation of the indigenous agenda vis-à-vis the State. The three cases studied are those of the Achuar people, an Ashaninka local organization – the Central Asháninka del Río Ene (CARE – and the case of AIDESEP, the national-level indigenous organization for the Amazon region in Peru.

  14. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Queiroz

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261 regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%, followed by moderate (26.8%, and severe (4.6%. The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033 and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity.Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.

    2015-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross

  17. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  18. Long-term Carbon Loss and Recovery Following Selective Logging in Amazon Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.

    2010-09-30

    Amazon deforestation contributes significantly to global carbon (C) emissions. In comparison, the contribution from selective logging to atmospheric CO2 emissions, and its impact on regional C dynamics, is highly uncertain. Using a new geographically-based modeling approach in combination with high resolution remote sensing data from 1999-2002, we estimate that C emissions were 0.04 – 0.05 Pg C yr-1 due to selective logging from a ~2,664,960 km2 region of the Brazilian Amazon. Selective logging was responsible for 15-19% higher carbon emissions than reported from deforestation (clear-cutting) alone. Our simulations indicated that forest carbon lost via selective logging lasts two to three decades following harvest, and that the original live biomass takes up to a century to recover, if the forests are not subsequently cleared. The two- to three-decade loss of carbon results from the biomass damaged by logging activities, including leaves, wood, and roots, estimated to be 89.1 Tg C yr-1 from 1999-2002 over the study region, leaving 70.0 Tg C yr-1 and 7.9 Tg C yr-1 to accumulate as coarse woody debris and soil C, respectively. While avoided deforestation is central to crediting rainforest nations for reduced carbon emissions, the extent and intensity of selective logging are also critical to determining carbon emissions in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We show that a combination of automated high-resolution satellite monitoring and detailed forest C modeling can yield spatially explicit estimates of harvest related C losses and subsequent recovery in support of REDD and other international carbon market mechanisms.

  19. Uncertainties in Amazon Hydropower Development: Risk Scenarios and Environmental Issues around the Belo Monte Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Cabral de Sousa Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region is the final frontier and central focus of Brazilian hydro development, which raises a range of environmental concerns. The largest project in the Amazon is the planned Belo Monte Complex on the Xingu river. If constructed it will be the second biggest hydroelectric plant in Brazil, third largest on earth. In this study, we analyse the private and social costs, and benefits of the Belo Monte project. Furthermore, we present risk scenarios, considering fluctuations in the project’s feasibility that would result from variations in total costs and power. For our analysis, we create three scenarios. In the first scenario Belo Monte appears feasible, with a net present value (NPV in the range of US$670 million and a rate of return in excess of the 12% discount rate used in this analysis. The second scenario, where we varied some of the project costs and assumptions based on other economic estimates, shows the project to be infeasible, with a negative NPV of about US$3 billion and external costs around US$330 million. We also conducted a risk analysis, allowing variation in several of the parameters most important to the project’s feasibility. The simulations brought together the risks of cost overruns, construction delays, lower-than-expected generation and rising social costs. The probability of a positive NPV in these circumstances was calculated to be just 28%, or there is a 72% chance that the costs of the Belo Monte dam will be greater than the benefits. Several WCD recommendations are not considered in the project, especially those related to transparency, social participation in the discussion, economic analysis and risk assessment, and licensing of the project. This study underscores the importance of forming a participatory consensus, based on clear, objective information, on whether or not to build the Belo Monte dam.

  20. Atmospheric turbulence within and above an Amazon forest

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, F M; Sá, L D A; Rosa, R R; Ramos, Fernando M.; Bolzan, Mauricio J. A.; Sa, Leonardo D. A.; Rosa, Reinaldo R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of a rain forest canopy on the statistical characteristics of atmospheric turbulence. This issue is of particular interest for understanding on how the Amazon terrestrial biosphere interact with the atmosphere. For this, we used a probability density function model of velocity and temperature differences based on Tsallis' non-extensive thermostatistics. We compared theoretical results with experimental data measured in a 66 m micrometeorological tower, during the wet-season campaign of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). Particularly, we investigated how the value of the entropic parameter is affected when one moves into the canopy, or when one passes from day/unstable to night/stable conditions. We show that this new approach provides interesting insights on turbulence in a complex environment such as the Amazon forest.

  1. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  2. International media spotlight on the Amazon roams, but rarely enlightens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Tollefson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international media has played a powerful role by highlighting problems in the Brazilian Amazon, projecting the views of scientists and activists and projecting data from Brazil’s satellite monitoring program to throughout society. Journalists have also told powerful stories about violence and corruption and put pressure on both the Brazilian government and the agribusiness industry. But very few have attempted to explain the forces at work in the Brazilian Amazon today, despite the fact that the drop in deforestation, if sustained, would represent perhaps a singular environmental success story that could have repercussions across the world. If the goal of the media is to seek and promote understanding in the midst of confusion and debate, journalists must engage on a deeper level.

  3. ANALISIS E-BISNIS TERHADAP AMAZON DAN AQUARELLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinna Yosanny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing the two sites, the characteristics of e-commerce sites could be studied. As a result, there are striking differences between these two sites, where Amazon is more oriented to sales, while Aquarelle more on customer-oriented impact to the design and implementation of their e-business.

  4. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  5. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  6. Crowd Sourcing Data Collection through Amazon Mechanical Turk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    response (HR) file in compliance with a Broad Evaluation Plan ( BEP ) issued as part of the larger 7 project. Every response presented in the HR file...of variance API application programming interface ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory BEP Broad Evaluation Plan DT:CS Description Task...truth data in the form of action labels for these videos as interpreted by human respondents. Amazon Mechanical Turk was identified as the service to

  7. Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberti G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon. Understanding and mitigation the impact of the increasing population and global economic activities on tropical forests is one of the greatest challenges for scientists and policy makers. A summary of some of the latest findings and thinking on this topic has been reported by Malhi and colleagues in a recent paper published on Science. An overview and comments on this paper is herein proposed.

  8. Soybeans, Poverty and Inequality in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhold, Diana; Killick, Evan; Reis, Eustaquio Jose

    2011-01-01

    The recent growth of soybean cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon has been unprecedented, even as the debate continues over its economic and environmental consequences. Based on contemporary datasets as well as our own field studies, this paper examines the social and economic costs and benefits of increases in soybean production for local populations. After presenting some background information on the rise of soybean cultivation in Brazil we examine the relationship between increases in soyb...

  9. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  10. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  11. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE. Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury.

  12. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  13. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

  14. Assessing the Amazon Basin Circulation with Stable Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2004-05-01

    The isotopic abundances of Oxygen-18 (δ 18O) and Deuterium (δ D) over the Amazon are used to constrain simulations of the water cycle in this, the largest river basin in the world. Tracking the two stable but rare isotopes of water (1HD16O and 1H218O) makes it possible to trace Amazonian regional evaporative and condensation processes. This offers isotopic constraints on regional to global-scale atmospheric moisture budgets. Based on data in the Global Network on Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, we analyse the simulation of the land surface hydrology and water cycling. Temporal changes between 1965 and 2000 in stable water isotopic signatures in the Amazon have been used to evaluate global climate model (GCM) predictions revealing notable anomalies. For example, the differences in the wet season deuterium excess between Belem and Manaus are consistent with recent GCM simulations only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. Despite earlier predictions that land-use change signals would be found, late twentieth century data reveal no significant change in dry season isotopic characteristics. On the other hand, more recent isotopic data do show trends at stations in the Andes, where as much as 88% of the rainfall is thought to be derived from recycled moisture. At Izobamba the wet season depletions are enhanced (greater depletion) and the dry season ones decreased (less depletion). At Bogota only the wet months show statistically significant changes - also an enhancement. More depletion in the wet months is consistent with reductions in non-fractioning recycling such as through transpiration and in full re-evaporation of canopy-intercepted rainfall. These data might be linked to deforestation impacts. Results of GCM and simpler model simulations of the Amazon suggest that the recent stable isotope record is consistent with the predicted effects of forest removal, perhaps combined with

  15. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  16. Localised Voices in the globalised Amazon: challenges of civil society building in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brian Wallis (Brian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCivil society building efforts in Ecuador have provided the Achuar and Kichwas of the Amazon with a voice. This is particularly relevant given the global significance of the Amazon, which makes it essential that local voices are empowered to have a say in the future of their local space.

  17. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

  18. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

  19. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 case

  20. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  1. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  2. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  3. An explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venticinque, Eduardo; Forsberg, Bruce; Barthem, Ronaldo; Petry, Paulo; Hess, Laura; Mercado, Armando; Cañas, Carlos; Montoya, Mariana; Durigan, Carlos; Goulding, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Despite large-scale infrastructure development, deforestation, mining and petroleum exploration in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the management scale required for the protection of wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. This is due, in part, to the enormous size, multinational composition and interconnected nature of the Amazon River system, as well as to the absence of an adequate spatial model for integrating data across the entire Amazon Basin. In this data article we present a spatially uniform multi-scale GIS framework that was developed especially for the analysis, management and monitoring of various aspects of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon GIS-Based River Basin Framework is accessible as an ESRI geodatabase at doi:10.5063/F1BG2KX8.

  4. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper results are gaining knowledge of the number of visitors and Sales that accurred at Amazon.com. The Conclusions is about the impact of increasing customer Satisfaction in the business process e-commerce in the Amazone.com.

  5. What We Can Learn from Amazon for Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Sidra; Keshavjee, Karim; Karim, Arsalan; Guergachi, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Health care continue to lag behind other industries, such as retail and financial services, in the use of decision-support-like tools. Amazon is particularly prolific in the use of advanced predictive and prescriptive analytics to assist its customers to purchase more, while increasing satisfaction, retention, repeat-purchases and loyalty. How can we do the same in health care? In this paper, we explore various elements of the Amazon website and Amazon's data science and big data practices to gather inspiration for re-designing clinical decision support in the health care sector. For each Amazon element we identified, we present one or more clinical applications to help us better understand where Amazon's.

  6. Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon rain forest - Part 1: Aerosol size distribution, hygroscopicity, and new model parametrizations for CCN prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Ditas, Florian; Klimach, Thomas; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Araújo, Alessandro; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Cheng, Yafang; Chi, Xuguang; Ditz, Reiner; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Könemann, Tobias; Lavrič, Jošt V.; Martin, Scot T.; Mikhailov, Eugene; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rose, Diana; Saturno, Jorge; Su, Hang; Thalman, Ryan; Walter, David; Wang, Jian; Wolff, Stefan; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Size-resolved long-term measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the central Amazon Basin over a 1-year period and full seasonal cycle (March 2014-February 2015). The measurements provide a climatology of CCN properties characteristic of a remote central Amazonian rain forest site.The CCN measurements were continuously cycled through 10 levels of supersaturation (S = 0.11 to 1.10 %) and span the aerosol particle size range from 20 to 245 nm. The mean critical diameters of CCN activation range from 43 nm at S = 1.10 % to 172 nm at S = 0.11 %. The particle hygroscopicity exhibits a pronounced size dependence with lower values for the Aitken mode (κAit = 0.14 ± 0.03), higher values for the accumulation mode (κAcc = 0.22 ± 0.05), and an overall mean value of κmean = 0.17 ± 0.06, consistent with high fractions of organic aerosol.The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, exhibits remarkably little temporal variability: no pronounced diurnal cycles, only weak seasonal trends, and few short-term variations during long-range transport events. In contrast, the CCN number concentrations exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle, tracking the pollution-related seasonality in total aerosol concentration. We find that the variability in the CCN concentrations in the central Amazon is mostly driven by aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution, while variations in aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition matter only during a few episodes.For modeling purposes, we compare different approaches of predicting CCN number concentration and present a novel parametrization, which allows accurate CCN predictions based on a small set of input data.

  7. Reactive and dissolved meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Hella; Dannhaus, Nadine; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Suessenberger, Annette; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Maurice, Laurence; Filizola, Naziano; Gaillardet, Jerome; Christl, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be to stable 9Be has been established as a weathering and erosion proxy where meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in reactive phases of secondary weathering products leached from detrital Amazonian river sediment were measured[1]. For this dataset, we derived a new 10Be-based mass balance, which compares the fluxes exported during erosion and weathering, Fout, calculated by the sum of [10Be]reac multiplied by gauging-derived sediment discharge and [10Be]dissmultiplied by water discharge, to the meteoric depositional flux Fin. This assessment allows evaluating the weathering state of the Amazon basin. Further, in order to assess equilibration of reactive phases in the water column, we measured (10Be/9Be)reac ratios leached from suspended sediments for two depth profiles of the Amazon (55m depth) and Madeira (12m depth) Rivers, their corresponding surface dissolved 10Be/9Be ratios, as well as dissolved ratios of smaller Amazon tributaries (Beni, Madre de Dios) to compare with published reactive ratios[1]. In these rivers, modest pH and salinity fluctuations help to constrain a 'simple' system that might however still be affected by seasonally changing isotopic compositions between water and suspended sediment[2] and seasonal fluctuations of TSS and TDS[3]. The 10Be-based mass balance shows that in Andean source areas Fout/Fin ≡1, indicating a balance between ingoing and exported flux, whereas in the Shield headwaters, Fout/Fin=0.3, indicating a combination of decay of 10Be during storage and little export of 10Be associated with particulate and dissolved loads. In central Amazonia, the export of 10Be decreases slightly relative to its atmospheric flux as evidenced by Fout/Fin=0.8 for the Amazon and Madeira Rivers. This value is interpreted as being close to steady state, but its modification could be due to additions of Shield-derived sediment to sediment carried in the main river[4]. Regarding the depth profiles, our

  8. Using Amazon S3 in Digital Preservation in a mid sized academic library: A case study of CCSU ERIS digital archive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Iglesias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing numbers of born digital and digitized objects in academic libraries from sources such as digital collections and institutional repositories many academic libraries need to seriously consider implementing some form of digital preservation system. In 2009 the Central Connecticut State University Library decided to use Amazon S3 for digital preservation storage despite some drawbacks. The library has developed a system, ERIS Digital Archive, to manage all digital preservation processes and to make the system as compliant with the OAIS model and "Trustworthy Digital Repositories" as possible.

  9. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  10. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  11. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  12. PALEOCLIMATE: The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J L

    2000-12-22

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

  13. Creating A Galactic Plane Atlas With Amazon Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Berriman, G Bruce; Good, John; Juve, Gideon; Kinney, Jamie; Merrihew, Ann; Rynge, Mats

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes by example how astronomers can use cloud-computing resources offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS) to create new datasets at scale. We have created from existing surveys an atlas of the Galactic Plane at 16 wavelengths from 1 {\\mu}m to 24 {\\mu}m with pixels co-registered at spatial sampling of 1 arcsec. We explain how open source tools support management and operation of a virtual cluster on AWS platforms to process data at scale, and describe the technical issues that users will need to consider, such as optimization of resources, resource costs, and management of virtual machine instances.

  14. 运动奖:木雕Amazon Kindle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    入围理由:当然这玩意不能真正的翻页,不过他比真正Kindle2高级的是,可以当作柴烧。Amazon Kindle是Amazone出品的一款电子阅读器。Google之。而图中看到的这个则是eBay用户stylograph制作的工艺品。呃,当然这玩意不能真正的翻页,不过他比真正Kindle2高级的是,可以当作柴烧。

  15. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  16. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  17. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

  18. Biogenic Aerosols Over the Amazon Basin: Optical Properties and Relationship With Elemental and Ionic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Godoy, J. M.; Godoy, M. L.; Rizzo, L. V.; Paixao, M.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the optical properties of natural biogenic aerosol particles over the central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the wet season in February and March 2008. The measurements were conducted as part of the AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment) sampling campaign. Light absorption was determined with the use of an Aethalometer and an MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). Light scattering was measured with a 3 wavelength TSI nephelometer and an Ecotech nephelometer. The elemental composition was measured trough PIXE and IC. Single scattering albedo shows relatively low values varying from 0.86 to 0.95. Very low fine mode aerosol mass was measured, and coarse mode particles are responsible for a significant fraction of scattering and absorption. Sulfur was observed in very low concentrations, and most of the aerosol mass was organic. Long range transport of soil dust from Sahara were observed and reflected in the light scattering coefficient. Wavelength dependence of absorption indicates the strong influence of coarse mode aerosol. Aerosol optical thickness shows low values, but with significant single scattering albedo values, showing strong absorption properties of these biogenic aerosols. Size distribution measurements shows consistence with the scattering coefficients measured, if the coarse mode particles are taken into account.

  19. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis and intestinal ganglionitis in a spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) infected with Mycobacterium genavense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Saggese, M D; Weeks, B R; Hoppes, S M; Porter, B F

    2011-01-01

    An approximately 30-year-old male spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, head shaking, weight loss and seizures. Gross findings on necropsy examination included atrophy of the musculature, ruffled feathers and minimal epicardial and abdominal fat. Microscopically, there were perivascular cuffs of macrophages with fewer lymphocytes in the grey and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions were accompanied by gliosis and mild vacuolation of the white matter. In the small intestine, up to 70% of the intestinal ganglia were effaced by infiltrates of macrophages and fewer lymphocytes. The intestinal lamina propria contained multiple inflammatory aggregates of a similar nature. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of numerous bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric ganglia. Amplification of the DNAJ gene confirmed a mycobacterial infection and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer confirmed the aetiology as Mycobacterium genavense. Infection of the CNS with Mycobacterium spp. is uncommon and has not been previously reported in a parrot. This case is unusual in that the organism exhibited tropism for neural tissue.

  20. Spatiotemporal NDVI, LAI, albedo, and surface temperature dynamics in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Beneditti, Cristina Aparecida; Machado, Nadja Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo José Gama; da Silva Querino, Juliane Kayse Albuquerque; dos Santos Neto, Luiz Alves; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, the Amazon rainforest underwent uncontrolled exploitation that modified its environmental variables. The current paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and surface albedo, and temperature in two different vegetation covers, preserved and deforested areas. We calculated the remote-sensing products using Landsat 5 TM images obtained during the dry season 1984, 1991, 2000, and 2011 of the central region of the State of Rondônia, Brazil. The results showed a reduction of vegetation indexes NDVI (˜0.70 in 1984 to ˜0.27 in 2011) and LAI (˜1.8 in 1984 to ˜0.3 in 2011), with an increase of surface albedo (0.12 in 1984 to 0.20 in 2011) and temperature (˜24°C in 1984 to 30°C in 2011) as the effect of the rainforest converted in grassland during the study period. No changes in any variables were observed in the protected area. Forest conversion into grassland resulted in a decrease of 69% in NDVI and 110% in LAI and a rise of 59% and 24% in albedo and surface temperature, respectively.

  1. Gold mining as a source of mercury exposure in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, O

    1998-05-01

    Amalgamation has been used for more than 4500 years in mining processes. Mercury has been extensively used in South America by Spanish colonizers for precious metal recovery. It is estimated that between 1550 and 1880, nearly 200,000 metric tonnes of mercury was released to the environment. During the present gold rush, Brazil is first in South America and second in the world in gold production (with 90% coming from informal mining or garimpos). At least 2000 tonnes of mercury has been released to the environment in the present gold rush. From the mid 1980s, environmental research has been carried out in impacted Amazon rivers, later followed by human exposure studies. The river basins studied were the Tapajós, Madeira, and Negro, but also some man-made reservoirs and areas in central Brazil. The analyses mainly involved sediments, soil, air, fish, human hair, and urine. The results show high variability, perhaps related to biological diversity, biogeochemical differences in the river basins, and seasonal changes. High mercury values also occur in some areas with no known history of gold mining. The results available document a considerable impact on environmental mercury concentrations and frequent occurrence of human exposure levels that may lead to adverse health effects.

  2. Rivers, refuges and population divergence of fire-eye antbirds (Pyriglena) in the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Coelho, M; Blake, J G; Silveira, L F; Batalha-Filho, H; Ricklefs, R E

    2013-05-01

    The identification of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that might account for the elevated biotic diversity in tropical forests is a central theme in evolutionary biology. This issue is especially relevant in the Neotropical region, where biological diversity is the highest in the world, but where few studies have been conducted to test factors causing population differentiation and speciation. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine the genetic structure within white-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) populations along the Tocantins River valley in the south-eastern Amazon Basin, and we confront the predictions of the river and the Pleistocene refuge hypotheses with patterns of genetic variation observed in these populations. We also investigated whether these patterns reflect the recently detected shift in the course of the Tocantins River. We sampled a total of 32 individuals east of, and 52 individuals west of, the Tocantins River. Coalescent simulations and phylogeographical and population genetics analytical approaches revealed that mtDNA variation observed for fire-eye populations provides little support for the hypothesis that populations were isolated in glacial forest refuges. Instead, our data strongly support a key prediction of the river hypothesis. Our study shows that the Tocantins River has probably been the historical barrier promoting population divergence in fire-eye antbirds. Our results have important implications for a better understanding of the importance of large Amazonian rivers in vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics.

  3. A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. J. Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A permanent UV Raman lidar station, designed to perform continuous measurements of aerosols and water vapor and aiming to study and monitor the atmosphere from weather to climatic time scales, became operational in the central Amazon in July 2011. The automated data acquisition and internet monitoring enabled extended hours of daily measurements when compared to a manually operated instrument. This paper gives a technical description of the system, presents its experimental characterization and the algorithms used for obtaining the aerosol optical properties and identifying the cloud layers. Data from one week of measurements during the dry season of 2011 were analyzed as a mean to assess the overall system capability and performance. Both Klett and Raman inversions were successfully applied. A comparison of the aerosol optical depth from the lidar and from a co-located Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sun photometer showed a correlation coefficient of 0.86. By combining nighttime measurements of the aerosol lidar ratio (50–65 sr, back-trajectory calculations and fire spots observed from satellites, we showed that observed particles originated from biomass burning. Cirrus clouds were observed in 60% of our measurements. Most of the time they were distributed into three layers between 11.5 and 13.4 km a.g.l. The systematic and long-term measurements being made by this new scientific facility have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the climatic implications of the anthropogenic changes in aerosol concentrations over the pristine Amazonia.

  4. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  5. Scientists as citizens and knowers in the detection of deforestation in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko; Rajão, Raoni

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how scientists deal with tensions emerging from their role as providers of objective knowledge and as citizens concerned with how their research influences policy and politics in Brazil. This is accomplished through an ethnographic account of scientists using remote sensing technology, of their knowledge-making activities and of the broader socio-political controversies that permeate the detection of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. Strategies for mitigating uncertainty are central aspects of the knowledge practices analyzed, bringing controversies 'external' to the laboratory 'into' the lab, making these boundaries conceptually problematic. In particular, the anticipation of alternative interpretations of rainforest cover is a crucial way that scientists bring the world into the lab, helping to shed light on how scientists, usually seen and analyzed as isolated, are in fact often in constant dialogue with the broader political controversies related to their work. These insights help question the idea that the monitoring of deforestation through remote sensing is a form of secluded research, drawing a more complex picture of the dual role of scientists as knowledge producers and concerned citizens.

  6. Riverside Population in Amazon: Culture, Environment and Construction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Moretti Meirelles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article´s objective is to study the construction techniques of the riverside dwellers in the Amazon rainforest. The studied communities are located in the banks of the Solimões River, and suffer with the constant floods and physical phenomena related to the region environment. An ecosystem of thunderous natural forces, which makes it harder the importation of approaches from other regions as alternatives to the Amazon rainforest. As a method of research and understanding of the problematics, an assessment of the riverside communities in the city of Manacapuru and in two rural communities was carried out, surveying the cultural, social, and environmental characteristics of each community, and surveying the local constructive characteristics, materials and vernacular techniques. In the conclusion, we observed that: the relevance of a joint action to understand the wood and the housing durability, expanding the life cycle of the river buildings and reducing the impact on the rainforest. Regarding thermic comfort, it is important to redeem the bioclimatic techniques of crossed ventilation and to highlight the relevancy of sustainable techniques that work with local materials, such as natural fibers

  7. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

  9. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  10. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

    2005-12-01

    Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences.

  11. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  12. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-01-01

    The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper resu...

  13. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults

  14. Effects of biomass burning aerosols on CO2 fluxes on Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Moreira, Demerval; Freitas, Saulo; Longo, Karla; Rosario, Nilton

    2015-04-01

    During the dry season in Central Brazil and Southern Amazon, there is an usually high concentration of aerosol particles associated with intense human activities, with extensive biomass burning. It has been observed through remote sensing that the smoke clouds in these areas often cover an area of about 4 to 5 million km2. Thus, the average aerosol optical depth of these regions at 500 ηm, is usually below 0.1 during the rainy season and can exceed 0.9 in the fire season. Aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei and also increase scattering and absorption of the incident radiation. Therefore, the layer of the aerosol alters the precipitation rate; reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches the surface, producing a cooling; and causes an increase of diffuse radiation. These factors directly and indirectly affect the CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, the chemical-atmospheric model CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) coupled to the surface model JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) was used to simulate the effects of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region. Both the total effect of the aerosols and the contribution related only to the increase of the diffuse fraction caused by the their presence were analyzed. The results show that the effect of the scattered fraction is dominant over all other effects. It was also noted that the presence of aerosols from fires can substantially change biophysiological processes of the carbon cycle. In some situations, it can lead to a sign change in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), turning it from a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, when the aerosol is not considered in the simulations, to a sink, when it is considered. Thus, this work demonstrates the importance of considering the presence of aerosols in numerical simulations of weather and climate, since carbon dioxide is a major

  15. Effects of Biomass Burning Aerosols on CO2 Fluxes in the Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, D. S.; Freitas, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    During the dry season in Central Brazil and Southern Amazon, there is an usually high concentration of aerosol particles associated with intense human activities, with extensive biomass burning. It has been observed through remote sensing that the smoke clouds in these areas often cover an area of about 4 to 5 million km2. Thus, the average aerosol optical depth of these regions at 500 ηm, is usually below 0.1 during the rainy season and can exceed 0.9 in the fire season. Aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei and also increase scattering and absorption of the incident radiation. Therefore, the layer of the aerosol alters the precipitation rate; reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches the surface, producing a cooling; and causes an increase of diffuse radiation. These factors directly and indirectly affect the CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, the chemical-atmospheric model CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) coupled to the surface model JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) was used to simulate the effects of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region. Both the total effect of the aerosols and the contribution related only to the increase of the diffuse fraction caused by the their presence were analyzed. The results show that the effect of the scattered fraction is dominant over all other effects. It was also noted that the presence of aerosols from fires can substantially change biophysiological processes of the carbon cycle. In some situations, it can lead to a sign change in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), turning it from a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, when the aerosol is not considered in the simulations, to a sink, when it is considered. Thus, this work demonstrates the importance of considering the presence of aerosols in numerical simulations of weather and climate, since carbon dioxide is a major

  16. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability and sound characterization in silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae in the Central Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Borie

    Full Text Available The fish family Sciaenidae has numerous species that produce sounds with superfast muscles that vibrate the swimbladder. These muscles form post embryonically and undergo seasonal hypertrophy-atrophy cycles. The family has been the focus of numerous passive acoustic studies to localize spatial and temporal occurrence of spawning aggregations. Fishes produce disturbance calls when hand-held, and males form aggregations in late afternoon and produce advertisement calls to attract females for mating. Previous studies on five continents have been confined to temperate species. Here we examine the calls of the silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus, a freshwater equatorial species, which experiences constant photoperiod, minimal temperature variation but seasonal changes in water depth and color, pH and conductivity.Dissections indicate that sonic muscles are present exclusively in males and that muscles are thicker and redder during the mating season. Disturbance calls were recorded in hand-held fish during the low-water mating season and high-water period outside of the mating season. Advertisement calls were recorded from wild fish that formed aggregations in both periods but only during the mating season from fish in large cages. Disturbance calls consist of a series of short individual pulses in mature males. Advertisement calls start with single and paired pulses followed by greater amplitude multi-pulse bursts with higher peak frequencies than in disturbance calls. Advertisement-like calls also occur in aggregations during the off season, but bursts are shorter with fewer pulses.Silver croaker produce complex advertisement calls that vary in amplitude, number of cycles per burst and burst duration of their calls. Unlike temperate sciaenids, which only call during the spawning season, silver croaker produce advertisement calls in both seasons. Sonic muscles are thinner, and bursts are shorter than at the spawning peak, but males still produce complex calls outside of the mating season.

  18. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  19. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  20. From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homero Diniz, F.

    2013-01-01

      Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform   Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale being

  1. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  2. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk

    1998-01-01

    When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation le

  3. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  4. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez,Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of thi...

  5. Amazon vegetation greenness as measured by satellite sensors over the last decade

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, P.M.; Dash, J.; Jeganathan, C.

    2011-01-01

    [1] During the last decade two major drought events, one in 2005 and another in 2010, occurred in the Amazon basin. Several studies have claimed the ability to detect the effect of these droughts on Amazon vegetation response, measured through satellite sensor vegetation indices (VIs). Such monitoring capability is important as it potentially links climate changes (increasing frequency and severity of drought), vegetation response as observed through vegetation greenness, and land-atmosphere ...

  6. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  7. Deforestation, Development, and Government Policy in the Brazilian Amazon: an Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.; Eustáquio J. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model of deforestation and economic development in the Amazon. It is based on the determinants of demand for agricultural land, i.e. on the interactions between population dynamics, urbanization and the growth of local markets, land prices, and government policies. The model is estimated using a panel data set covering 316 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 1970/85. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different policy instruments. The trade...

  8. The academic formation and the scientific production of physiotherapist researchers from Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Warken, Gianne de La-Rocque Barros; Freitas,Jofre Jacob da Silva; Domingues, Robson José de Souza; Kietzer, Katia Simone

    2016-01-01

    This article correlates educational data from 66 Amazonian physiotherapist researchers with their scientific production. The data show that only 24.2% are doctors, 50% had studied at the graduate level in the Amazon region, and 13% had graduate study in the physiotherapy area, in all cases outside of the Amazon region. It was found that the scientific production is concentrated in journals Qualis B. We believe that the way for the physiotherapist of the region to produce knowledge oriented to...

  9. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, G, Andres M.; Baldeviano, Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Paul C F Graf; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Article Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time ...

  10. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloor, M.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Malhi, Y; Baker, T. R.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; J. Peacock; Almeida, S; Alves de Oliveira, Atila Cristina; Alvarez, E; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Positive aboveground biomass trends have been reported from old-growth forests across the Amazon basin and hypothesized to reflect a large-scale response to exterior forcing. The result could, however, be an artefact due to a sampling bias induced by the nature of forest growth dynamics. Here, we characterize statistically the disturbance process in Amazon old-growth forests as recorded in 135 forest plots of the RAINFOR network up to 2006, and other independent research programmes, and explo...

  11. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  12. Smoke Invigoration Versus Inhibition of Clouds over the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Lorraine, A. Remer; Afargan, Hila

    2008-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is one of the most important and least understood aspects of human-induced climate change. Small changes in the amount of cloud coverage can produce a climate forcing equivalent in magnitude and opposite in sign to that caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and changes in cloud height can shift the effect of clouds from cooling to warming. Focusing on the Amazon, we show a smooth transition between two opposing effects of aerosols on clouds: the microphysical and the radiative. We show how a feedback between the optical properties of aerosols and the cloud fraction can modify the aerosol forcing, changing the total radiative energy and redistributing it over the atmospheric column.

  13. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

  14. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  15. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  16. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  17. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  18. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M D Rosa

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1 it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2 the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3 deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia"-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy, annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  19. Sources of optically active aerosol particles over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Pascal; Graham, Bim; Roberts, Gregory C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Maenhaut, Willy; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    Size-fractionated ambient aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site and a primary rainforest site in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during two field campaigns (April-May and September-October 1999), as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). The samples were analyzed for up to 19 trace elements by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), for equivalent black carbon (BC e) by a light reflectance technique and for mass concentration by gravimetric analysis. Additionally, we made continuous measurements of absorption and light scattering by aerosol particles. The vertical chemical composition gradients at the forest site have been discussed in a companion article (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108 (D18), 4591 (doi:4510.1029/2003JD003465)). In this article, we present the results of a source identification and quantitative apportionment study of the wet and dry season aerosols, including an apportionment of the measured scattering and absorption properties of the total aerosol in terms of the identified aerosol sources. Source apportionments (obtained from absolute principal component analysis) revealed that the wet and dry season aerosols contained the same three main components, but in different (absolute and relative) amounts: the wet season aerosol consisted mainly of a natural biogenic component, whereas pyrogenic aerosols dominated the dry season aerosol mass. The third component identified was soil dust, which was often internally mixed with the biomass-burning aerosol. All three components contributed significantly to light extinction during both seasons. At the pasture site, up to 47% of the light absorption was attributed to biogenic particles during the wet season, and up to 35% at the tower site during the wet-to-dry transition period. The results from the present study suggest that, in addition to pyrogenic particles, biogenic and soil dust aerosols must be

  20. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  1. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  2. The geological record preserved by Amazon shelf sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Allison, Mead A.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Rine, James M.; Faria, L. Ercilio C.; Silveira, Odete M.

    A recent study of the subaqueous delta and coastal plain near the mouth of the Amazon River provides insight to the geological record created there and elsewhere. A compound clinoform structure is forming across the Amazon shelf. The uppermost portion is the shoreline, whose aggradation brings the modern sedimentary deposit to sea level and produces a deposit 5-10 m thick. It contains sediments accumulating primarily in shallow subtidal areas, intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, and progradation occurs by overlapping of northward-extending mudcapes. Through these processes, the coastal plain has been widened by 10-100 km during the Holocene. The shoreline deposits are prograding across topset strata of the modern subaqueous delta, which is the lowermost and dominant portion of the compound clinoform structure. The subaqueous delta extends to a water depth of 70 m, with a depositional break between topset and foreset strata at 30-40 m. Advective sediment input to the foreset region causes high accumulation rates, which control the geometry and progradation of the clinoform structure. On time scales of 10 2-10 3 y, physical processes (e.g. waves, currents) have changed and the upper portions of the coastal plain and subaqueous delta have been eroded. One expression of this is a widespread unconformity recorded within late Holocene strata on the inner shelf. Over longer time scales (10 3-10 4 y) sea-level changes have led to more extensive erosion and only the lower 20 m of the compound clinoform structure is preserved, overlain by a transgressive sand layer. On other continental margins with different regional characteristics (e.g. more rapid subsidence) larger fractions of the clinoform structures could be preserved.

  3. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  4. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

  5. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Philip B; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2015-10-27

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests.

  6. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  7. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  8. Comunidades locales, conservación de la avifauna y de la biodiversidad en la Amazonía peruana

    OpenAIRE

    José Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    La Amazonía peruana ha sido vista por la mayoría de los gobiernos como una región rica en recursos, subutilizada y abierta para ser explotada. La visión de la Amazonía ha estado (y en cierto modo todavía está) deformada por lo que algunos han dado en llamar “los mitos sobre la Amazonía” (CADMA, 1992).

  9. Comunidades locales, conservación de la avifauna y de la biodiversidad en la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La Amazonía peruana ha sido vista por la mayoría de los gobiernos como una región rica en recursos, subutilizada y abierta para ser explotada. La visión de la Amazonía ha estado (y en cierto modo todavía está deformada por lo que algunos han dado en llamar “los mitos sobre la Amazonía” (CADMA, 1992.

  10. Performance of the Enhanced Vegetation Index to Detect Inner-annual Dry Season and Drought Impacts on Amazon Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Dutrieux, L.; Herold, M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon rainforests represent the largest connected forested area in the tropics and play an integral role in the global carbon cycle. In the last years the discussion about their phenology and response to drought has intensified. A recent study argued that seasonality in greenness expressed as Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is an artifact of variations in sun-sensor geometry throughout the year. We aimed to reproduce these results with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD43 product suite, which allows modeling the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and keeping sun-sensor geometry constant. The derived BRDF-adjusted EVI was spatially aggregated over large areas of central Amazon forests. The resulting time series of EVI spanning the 2000-2013 period contained distinct seasonal patterns with peak values at the onset of the dry season, but also followed the same pattern of sun geometry expressed as Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Additionally, we assessed EVI's sensitivity to precipitation anomalies. For that we compared BRDF-adjusted EVI dry season anomalies to two drought indices (Maximum Cumulative Water Deficit, Standardized Precipitation Index). This analysis covered the whole of Amazonia and data from the years 2000 to 2013. The results showed no meaningful connection between EVI anomalies and drought. This is in contrast to other studies that investigate the drought impact on EVI and forest photosynthetic capacity. The results from both sub-analyses question the predictive power of EVI for large scale assessments of forest ecosystem functioning in Amazonia. Based on the presented results, we recommend a careful evaluation of the EVI for applications in tropical forests, including rigorous validation supported by ground plots.

  11. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  12. Amazon Web Services(AWS)云平台可靠性技术研究%Research on Reliability Technology of Amazon Web Services(AWS) Cloud Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义颖

    2014-01-01

    目前软件应用广泛,对软件可靠性要求越来越高。近几年云计算技术的研究逐渐增多,对于云平台的可靠性技术也有了新的要求。Amazon Web Services(AWS)提供了一整套云计算服务,用户能够构建复杂、可扩展的应用程序。AWS在最小成本情况下,为用户提供了一套构建容错的软件系统平台。在技术和性能等多方面的优势,被业界广泛认可和接受。该文主要研究Amazon Web Services云平台中的核心组件是如何提供可靠性技术的,分别对核心组件Amazon EC2, Amazon Simple Storage (S3),Elastic Storage Block (EBS),Elastic Load Balancing,Auto Scaling进行研究分析,为以后云计算平台的搭建和可靠性技术的研究提供依据。%At present, the software is widely used, the requirement of reliability of software is more and more high necessary. In recent years, the research about cloud computing has gradually increased, the reliability technology of cloud platform also has new requirements. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a set of cloud computing services, users can build complex and scalable ap⁃plications. In the minimum cost situation, AWS provides a set of building fault-tolerant software platform for the users. Because of the advantages of technology and performance, it was widely recognized and accepted. This paper mainly studies that how the core component of Amazon Web Services cloud platform can provide reliability technology, research on the core components of Amazon were EC2, Amazon Simple Storage (S3), Elastic Storage Block (EBS), Elastic Load Balancing, Auto Scaling, to provide the basis theory for building a cloud computing platform or research on reliability technology.

  13. Challenges to managing ecosystems sustainably for poverty alleviation: Securing well-being in the Andes/Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    ESPA-AA (Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation Program)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the Amazon basin and the eastern Andean slopes (herein referred to as the Andes/Amazon ecosystem or region). The Amazon is the largest fresh water system and tropical forest in the world. Large portions of the region are still covered by relatively intact primary forests that provide substantial locally and globally valuable ecosystem services (ES). Rural population densities in the region are among the lowest in the world. As such, the Andes/Amazon is a contrast to oth...

  14. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  15. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  16. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  17. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  18. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

  19. Investigating Landsat-derived forest evapotranspiration in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khand, K. B.; Numata, I.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Cochrane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly half of annual rainfall in the Amazon rainforest region is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). However, this land-atmosphere water vapor feedback in Amazonia has been continuously disturbed by anthropogenic influence and climate change such as severe drought events. While forest ET dynamics in the Amazon have been studied from both point estimates (or in-situ measurements) and regional land-surface models as well as coarse-spatial satellite data, finer spatial data is required to address the spatial variability of forest ET associated with both forest disturbances and extreme climate events. We use Landsat-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model to generate high-resolution (30 m) ET products and investigate its potential to characterize local and regional ET behavior by comparison to ET calculated from flux tower data. METRIC estimates actual ET as residual of the surface energy balance and is applied to capture the spatial variability of forest ET. The flux tower data were collected at two sites with different forest types: Para with wet equatorial forest and Rondônia with seasonally dry tropical forest. Our study was conducted on the dry season of the years 2003 and 2005 for Para, and 2000 through 2002 for Rondônia as a function of data availability of both cloud-free Landsat images and meteorological data for METRIC processing. Daily gridded actual ET estimates from METRIC during the dry season were obtained using a cubic spline interpolation of ETrF (fraction of reference ET) values between the satellite image dates and multiplying by daily reference ET. Across the all study years, differences between the daily ET estimates for the selected image dates from METRIC and the flux towers were less than 1.2 mm/day, while on monthly basis, these averaged daily ET differences were much lower (< 0.5 mm). At Para, the correlation (R2) between the daily ET rates from METRIC and the

  20. Global Changes And Tree Growth Rate In The Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, P. B.; Vieira, S. A.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    A better understanding of the variations in the dynamics and structure of trees in tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon. In general, tropical forests have been treated as if all trees behaved similarly, and little is known about how forests vary across the large extent of the Amazon basin. Our data show large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates among plots under study in three locations in Brazil: ZF-2 Bionte/Jacaranda plots \\(Manaus\\), Catuaba Reserve \\(Rio Branco\\), and Tapaj¢s National Forest \\(Santarém\\). These locations span an east-west transect of the Amazon basin with different dry-season lengths. The number of stems >10cm diameter and stocks of C in aboveground biomass are the highest in Manaus \\(626ha-1, 180.1Mg.C.ha-1\\), than Rio Branco \\(466ha-1, 122.1Mg.C.ha-1\\) or Santarém \\(460ha-1, 140.6Mg.C.ha-1\\). Estimates of mean annual accumulation of C ranged from 1.6 \\(Manaus\\) and 2.5 \\(Rio Branco\\) to 2.8Mg.C.ha-1.yr-1 \\(Santarém\\). Trees in the 10-30cm diameter-size showed the highest accumulation of C \\(38%, 55%, and 56% - Manaus, Rio Branco, and Santarém, respectively\\). Our results showed marked seasonal growth, with the highest growth rates in the wet-season and the lowest growth rates in the dry-season. This effect was most evident for trees with diameter >50cm. The comparison of the three areas investigated suggests that forests experiencing a longer dry-season have larger annual diameter growth increments for individual trees. Tree average age was larger in Manaus where the increment was smaller. In all the three areas it was found specimens with DBH smaller than 30cm, but with ages over 200 years. It was found a specimen of 17 cm of DBH and age of 920 years. The fact that small trees can reach old ages may alter the scope of the present forest management planning whose focus is tree species of economical interest and the time the

  1. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  2. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  3. Downscaling Statistical Model Techniques for Climate Change Analysis Applied to the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is an area covered predominantly by dense tropical rainforest with relatively small inclusions of several other types of vegetation. In the last decades, scientific research has suggested a strong link between the health of the Amazon and the integrity of the global climate: tropical forests and woodlands (e.g., savannas exchange vast amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are thought to be important in controlling local and regional climates. Consider the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the role of the protected area in the conservation of biodiversity and state-of-art of downscaling model techniques based on ANN Calibrate and run a downscaling model technique based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN that is applied to the Amazon region in order to obtain regional and local climate predicted data (e.g., precipitation. Considering the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the state-of-art of downscaling techniques for climate models, the shower of this work is presented as follows: the use of ANNs good similarity with the observation in the cities of Belém and Manaus, with correlations of approximately 88.9% and 91.3%, respectively, and spatial distribution, especially in the correction process, representing a good fit.

  4. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  5. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  6. Palaeohydrological controls on sedimentary organic matter in an Amazon floodplain lake, Lake Maracá (Brazil) during the late Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, L.S.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Kim, J.-H.; Caquineau, S.; Mandeng-Yogo, M.; Macario, K.D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of hydrological changes of the Amazon River on sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition in Amazonian floodplain lakes, three sediment cores were collected from Lake Maracá (eastern Amazonia) along a transect from the Amazon River main channel to inland. The cores

  7. Interagency Command and Control Approaches in Amazon Environment to Include, Trust, Cultural and Personal Relationship into a C2 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    makes the interpersonal trust among the officers play a greater role than a simple institutional relationship. AMAZON BRAZILIAN CULTURE...There is a duality in the concept of warmth . The most actions of the Brazilian people are directed by the heart than by reason, and...exchange in Brazilian Amazon environment is stronglly affected by the interpersonal relationship amongthe people involved in

  8. Response of the Amazon carbon balance to the 2010 drought derived with CarbonTracker South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan-Luijkx, van der I.T.; Velde, van der I.R.; Krol, M.C.; Gatti, L.V.; Domingues, L.G.; Correia, C.S.C.; Miller, J.B.; Gloor, M.; Leeuwen, van T.T.; Kaiser, J.W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Basu, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Two major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. (2014) suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close-to-neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substant

  9. Response of the Amazon carbon balance to the 2010 drought derived with CarbonTracker South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; van der Velde, Ivar; Krol, Maarten; Gatti, Luciana; Miller, John; Gloor, Manuel; van Leeuwen, Thijs; Kaiser, Johannes; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Basu, Sourish; Clerbaux, Cathy; Peters, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Two major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. [2014] suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close to neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substant

  10. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  11. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lee Stronza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests, and river habitats. Longitudinal, ethnographic data gathered over 12 years about a joint venture ecotourism project between a private company and a local community show three outcomes that support commons management and three outcomes that challenge it. The outcomes in favor of commons management include: direct economic returns that act as conservation incentives, strengthened organization resulting from participatory management of ecotourism, and expanded networks of support from outside actors. Outcomes that are challenging the potential for collective action include: direct economic returns that enable expanded individual production and extraction, a new spirit of individual entrepreneurship that threatens to debilitate traditional social relations and institutions, and a conservation ethic that fosters dualistic thinking about people and nature and the zoning of places where resources are used vs. where they are preserved.

  12. INSETICIDAL OILS FROM AMAZON PLANTS IN CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential insecticidal of oils from southwestern Amazon plants against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was investigated. Initial bioassays were performed with undiluted oils from 11 plant species. The efficacy of the oils was evaluated against eggs and third-instar caterpillars of S. frugiperda. The oils of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae, Orbignya phalerata (Arecaceae, and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae displayed a high efficacy against the caterpillars and were used in subsequent concentration-response bioassays, at concentrations established through preliminary tests. The highest nonlethal concentrations of oils and the lowest lethal concentrations were calculated. A completely randomized design was adopted in both bioassays. The LC50 of the oils varied from 7.50 to 60.84% (v/v. Copaifera sp. oil had the highest toxicity and was 6.84-fold more toxic than O. phalerata oil and 8.11-fold more toxic than Carapa guianensis oil. In general, oils from Copaifera sp., O. phalerata, and Carapa guianensis were effective in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars under laboratory conditions, and are good candidates for use in integrated management programs of corn pests.

  13. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  14. Assessing Model Treatment of Drought Legacy Effects in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolus, H. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events play an important and potentially lasting role in terrestrial carbon cycling and storage. In particular, satellite and in-situ measurements have shown that forest recovery time following severe drought can extend several years beyond the return to normal climate conditions. However, terrestrial ecosystem models generally do not account for the physiological mechanisms that cause these legacy effects and, instead, assume complete and rapid vegetation recovery from drought. Using a suite of fifteen land surface models from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we assess models' ability to capture legacy effects by analyzing the spatial and temporal extent of modeled vegetation response to the 2005 Amazon drought. We compare the simulated primary production and ecosystem exchange (GPP, NPP, NEE) to previous recovery-focused analysis of satellite microwave observations of canopy backscatter. Further, we evaluate the specific model characteristics that control the timescale and magnitude of simulated vegetation recovery from drought. Since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events, improving models' ability to simulate the legacy effects of these events will likely refine estimates of the land carbon sink and its interannual variability.

  15. Drought impacts on the Amazon forest: the remote sensing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Alencar, Ane

    2010-08-01

    Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: fires and burn scars are more common during drought years; hydrological function including floodplain area is significantly affected by drought; and land use affects the sensitivity of the forest to dry conditions and increases fire susceptibility during drought. We highlight two controversial areas of research centering on canopy physiological responses to drought and changes in subcanopy fires during drought. By comparing findings from field and satellite studies, we contend that current remote sensing observations and techniques cannot resolve these controversies using current satellite observations. We conclude that studies integrating multiple lines of evidence from physiological, disturbance-fire, and hydrological remote sensing, as well as field measurements, are critically needed to narrow our uncertainty of basin-level responses to drought and climate change.

  16. Sensitivity of Amazon rainforest to drought: results from forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteucci G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on inventory data from the RAINFOR network, published in the journal Science, reported a relevant effect of an anomalous dry year (2005 on biomass accumulation and mortality in Amazon old-growth forests. Results were obtained by comparing inventory data taken before and after the dry year and point to biomass losses in consequence of drought. These losses were driven by large mortality increases at some plots and by small but diffuse declines in growth. If upscaled to the area affected by drought, the release of carbon (1.21 PgC would be much larger than that resulting from deforestation in the area (0.3÷0.8 PgC and would offset the carbon gained in the recent past (0.5 PgC. As the frequency of extreme dry years is expected to increase in future climate scenarios, regional carbon balances may be strongly impacted with a positive feedback on climate change. The main results of the paper are briefly presented and commented.

  17. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Turcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.. Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined application performance model. A first goal of our performance measurements is to determine an optimal file size for our application to consume. Using the subset-sum first fit heuristic we reshape the input data by merging files in order to match as closely as possible the desired file size. This also speeds up the task of retrieving the results of our application, by having the output be less segmented. Using predictions of the performance of our application based on measurements on small data sets, we devise an execution plan that meets a user specified deadline while minimizing cost.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Heidi L; da Silva, Vera M F; Martin, Anthony R; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-09-01

    Classical and molecular cytogenetic (18S rDNA, telomeric sequence, and LINE-1 retrotransposon probes) studies were carried out to contribute to an understanding of the organization of repeated DNA elements in the Amazon River dolphin (boto, Inia geoffrensis). Twenty-seven specimens were examined, each presenting 2n = 44 chromosomes, the karyotype formula 12m + 14sm + 6st + 10t + XX/XY, and fundamental number (FN) = 74. C-positive heterochromatin was observed in terminal and interstitial positions, with the occurrence of polymorphism. Interstitial telomeric sequences were not observed. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located at a single site on a smallest autosomal pair. LINE-1 was preferentially distributed in the euchromatin regions, with the greatest accumulation on the X chromosome. Although the karyotype structure in cetaceans is considered to be conserved, the boto karyotype demonstrated significant variations in its formula, heterochromatin distribution, and the location of the NOR compared to other cetacean species. These results contribute to knowledge of the chromosome organization in boto and to a better understanding of karyoevolution in cetaceans.

  19. Hydrogeology of the Western Amazon Aquifer System (WAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Fátima Ferreira do; Custodio, Emilio; Silva, Gerson Cardoso da, Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Amazon Aquifer System (WAAS), as defined and proposed in the present work, encompasses an area of about 2.0·106 km2 located in the northwestern portion of South America. Published and unpublished data were used to define WAAS boundaries and main hydrogeologic characteristics. Petroleum industry data, environmental data, and other diverse thematic data were compiled for this study according to the data's origin. The analysis, treatment and integration of available data allowed us to define the WAAS as a multilayered aquifer system comprised of the Tertiary Solimões Aquifer System (SAS) and the Cretaceous Tikuna Aquifer System (TAS). The thick clay-rich basal strata of the SAS appear to confine the TAS. The SAS is widely used for both domestic and industrial purposes, providing good quality freshwater. The TAS has varying water quality: it contains freshwater near its recharge areas in the Sub-Andean fault belt zone, brackish to brine water in the Sub-Andean basins, and salty water in the Solimões Basin (Brazil). The interpretation and conclusions provided by an increasing understanding of the area's hydrogeology resulting from this work made it possible to propose an improved and new WAAS regional hydrogeologic conceptual model with data and descriptions not previously available. Some surprising results have been later confirmed as true by looking at unpublished reports, logs and field notes. Therefore, this work resulted in new findings and settled the basis for future works, especially for the poorly understood TAS.

  20. Nitrogen turnover in drying sediments of an Amazon floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Matthias

    2005-05-01

    In the Amazon floodplain large areas are subject to annual cycles of drying and rewetting. The turnover of nitrogen in the periodically drying sediments is an important regulator of floodplain fertility. In the present study the transition of a lake sediment from flooded to dry conditions was studied with respect to microbial nitrogen turnover. Soil nitrogen pools, as well as the activity and abundance of denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria, were investigated during one dry season. During the first weeks after drying, most of the inorganic nitrogen vanished from the sediment. The process was inhibited by a nitrification inhibitor, showing that coupled nitrification-denitrification was responsible for the nitrogen loss. Assimilation by plants or microbes, as well as leaching, were not important mechanisms of nitrogen loss. During a period of only 10 days, 59% of the total denitrification and 94% of the total N2O emission during the dry period occurred. Cell numbers of denitrifiers were not correlated with activities. Denitrification was not correlated with other sediment variables but was regulated by the patchy distribution of reduced and oxidized zones in the uppermost centimeters of the sediment. This heterogeneity was probably introduced by the bioturbation of small insects, which was restricted to a rather short time period shortly after drying.

  1. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  2. On the footprints of a major Brazilian Amazon earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO V. VELOSO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining historical accounts and seismological studies, three hundred years of dormant information emerged as a source of the largest known seismic event that rocked Brazil since the beginning of our colonization. The probable epicenter location of the 1690 tremor lies on the left bank of the Amazon River, about 45 km downstream from the modern day Manaus. A year later, while passing this area, a missionary met witnesses of the tremor and observed remarkable changes in the topography and vegetation along the margin of the river. By 1692 another priest confirmed this event and the occurrence of large waves in the river, which led to the flooding of the Native Indians' terrains. The tremor spread seismic waves throughout the forest and shook indigenous constructions as far as one thousand kilometers away. A calculation of the seismic parameters shows an estimated magnitude of 7, a maximum intensity of IX MM and a felt area of about 2 million km2. Due to the long recurrence period for this type of tremor, the discovery of one of these events is valuable for seismic global intraplate studies. As for Brazil, it unravels the myth that the country was never hit by severe earthquakes.

  3. Nitrogen mass balance in the Brazilian Amazon: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, L A; Pinto, A S; Nardoto, G B; Ometto, J P H B; Filoso, S; Coletta, L D; Ravagnani, E C

    2012-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to perform a nitrogen budget survey for the entire Brazilian Amazon region. The main inputs of nitrogen to the region are biological nitrogen fixation occurring in tropical forests (7.7 Tg.yr(-1)), and biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands mainly due to the cultivation of a large area with soybean, which is an important nitrogen-fixing crop (1.68 Tg.yr(-1)). The input due to the use of N fertilizers (0.48 Tg.yr(-1)) is still incipient compared to the other two inputs mentioned above. The major output flux is the riverine flux, equal to 2.80 Tg.yr(-1) and export related to foodstuff, mainly the transport of soybean and beef to other parts of the country. The continuous population growth and high rate of urbanization may pose new threats to the nitrogen cycle of the region through the burning of fossil fuel and dumping of raw domestic sewage in rivers and streams of the region.

  4. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  5. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  6. Micrometeorological Conditions at the ATTO - Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Sörgel, Matthias; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Berger, Martina; de Abreu Sá, Leonardo D.; de Oliveira Sá, Marta; Dias, Nelson L.; Dlugi, Ralph; Manzi, Antonio O.; Oliveira, Pablo E. S.; Zelger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ATTO site is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km north east of Manaus. The site is currently equipped with two walk-up towers (325 m and 80 m) and an 80 m high mast. The canopy height is about 35 m. A detailed description of the site and the ongoing measurements is given in the overview paper by Andreae et al. (2015). The 325 m tower was completed in 2015 and will be equipped in 2016. The 80 m walk-up tower is operational since 2012 with a full set of micrometeorological measurements (e.g. wind and temperature profile, radiation, and a few levels for flux measurements). Measurements of vertical profiles of wind velocity components, temperature, humidity, and energy fluxes, together with 3d sonic anemometer measurements at 150 m on the ATTO tower, are analysed to determine characteristics of momentum, heat and water vapour exchange. In addition, the day time influences of secondary circulation on energy fluxes is described, together with the interaction of these circulations with cloud development. The diurnal cycle of stability and the onset and development of convection is shown to be strongly dependent on the onset of cloud formation. Implications on trace gas transport are discussed.

  7. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in Eastern Amazon during the Rainy Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista da Silva Ferreira, Douglas; Barreiros de Souza, Everaldo; Cavalcanti de Moraes, Bergson; Meira Filho, Luiz Gylvan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and composites analysis were employed on pentad data in order to investigate the tropical atmospheric-ocean patterns over the Atlantic Ocean and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rainfall in eastern Amazon during the peak of the rainy season (February to April). The EOF results evidenced that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the main rainfall-producing system in eastern Amazon during the rainy season. Conditions associated with the southward SST gradient in the intertropical Atlantic formed the dynamic patterns that favored the position of the ITCZ to south of the equator, thus explaining the predominance of positive precipitation anomalies in eastern Amazon, especially in the state of Maranhão and northeastern Pará during the February and April months. PMID:25793218

  9. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States); Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos, E-mail: chris.potter@nasa.gov [Planetary Skin Institute, Silicon Valley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO{sub 2} uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  10. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  11. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  12. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  13. Validation and analysis of MOPITT CO observations of the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. C.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze satellite retrievals of carbon monoxide from the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument over the Amazon Basin, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The possible influence of smoke aerosol as a source of retrieval bias is investigated using collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at two sites but does not appear to be significant. Finally, we exploit the MOPITT record to analyze both the mean annual cycle and the interannual variability of CO over the Amazon Basin since 2002.

  14. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  15. Saving the Other Amazon: Changing Understandings of Nature and Wilderness among Indigenous Leaders in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet S. Erazo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new set of policies embraced by indigenous leaders in the Upper Napo region of the Ecuadorian Amazon, driven, in part, by a growing appreciation for “wilderness” —large areas where humans exercise a very light touch. In the past few years, leaders have pursued wilderness conservation initiatives while simultaneously promoting petroleum extraction in their own backyards. Both political positions run counter to those pursued in previous decades, when opposition to both oil development and strict forms of conservation within their territory was strong. To address this reversal, I trace some of the development interventions and North-South collaborations that have contributed to the emergence of “nature” as a meaningful imaginary for Amazonian indigenous leaders and for a new generation of young people, drawing connections to William Cronon’s critical analysis of how wilderness conservation became a priority in the United States. I conclude that more than two decades of conservationist interventions in the Upper Napo region have led to some largely unintended consequences, as Amazonian leaders increasingly subscribe to Northern environmentalists’ romanticization of “the Amazon” as a wild place, one that therefore must be distant from the places where they work and live.

  16. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  17. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  18. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  19. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  20. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  1. Source area and seasonal Sr-87/Sr-86 variations in rivers of the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Santos; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gérard; Lagane, C.; Brunet, P.; Hattingh, K.; Chaves, J. G. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a detailed study of dissolved Sr isotopes in the Solimoes and Beni-Madeira Rivers of the Amazon basin. This study developed data collected over 8years indicating large spatial and temporal variations in dissolved Sr isotopes among the rivers of the Amazon basin. The large Sr-87/Sr-86 variations were found to be correlated with the geology of the source areas of the suspended sediments. The Beni-Madeira River displays a high average Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio and large Sr-87/Sr...

  2. Migration decisions among settler families in the Ecuadorian Amazon: the second generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurian, L; Bilsborrow, R E; Murphy, L

    1998-01-01

    The authors use survey data collected in 1990 from 418 household heads of recent settlements in the Ecuadorian Amazon to study the extent of and reasons for out-migration of the settlers' children. "Our research identifies the types and incidence of out-migration of young adults from settler households in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as well as the effects of individual and household-level factors of out-migration. Important gender differences in both the levels and patterns of migration and in the factors affecting migration decisions are documented."

  3. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  4. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-07-01

    probably lessened muddy deposition. The third theme concerns sand supply by the Guiana Shield rivers. The rare sand deposits are important in providing sites for human settlements and routes and for nesting by marine turtles. The limited presence of sand bodies on this coast may reflect 'mud blanketing', a hypothesis that requires verification through high-resolution seismic analyses of shelf deposits and coring operations. The large Guiana Shield rivers, especially in Surinam and Guyana, have supplied sand for the construction of significant bands of cheniers, probably enhanced by the afore-mentioned downdrift hydraulic-groyne effect on hindered mud deposition. In all the three themes of this future research agenda, two central elements are the sediment input of the rivers of the Amazon basin, starting with the massive mud supply from the Amazon catchment itself, followed by sand inputs by the Guiana Shield rivers and their river-mouth effects on mud banks.

  5. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  6. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-06-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.

  7. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  8. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  9. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  10. A GCM investigation of impact of aerosols on the precipitation in Amazon during the dry to wet transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Lu, Sarah; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The climatic effects of aerosols on the precipitation over the Amazon during the dry to wet transition period have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/AGCM, and the aerosol climatology data. We found increased instability during the dry season and delayed wet season onset with aerosols included in the model simulation, leading to the delay of the maximum precipitation over the Amazon by about half a month. In particular, our GCM simulations show that surface solar flux is reduced in the Amazon due to the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation by aerosols, leading to decreased surface temperature. Reduced surface solar flux is balanced by decreases in both surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. During the wet season, the subtropical system over the Amazon has a shallower convection. With the inclusion of aerosols in the simulation, precipitation in the rainy season over the Amazon decreases in the major rainfall band, which partially corrects the overestimate of the simulated precipitation in that region. The reduced surface temperature by aerosols is also coupled with a warming in the middle troposphere, leading to increased atmosphere stability and moisture divergence over the Amazon. However, during the dry season when the convective system is stronger over the Amazon, rainfall increases in that region due to the warming of the air over the upper troposphere produced by biomass burning aerosols, which produces an anomalous upward motion and a convergence of moisture flux over the Amazon and draws the moisture and precipitation further inland. Therefore, aerosol effects on precipitation depend on the large-scale atmospheric stability, resulting in their different roles over the Amazon during the dry and wet seasons.

  11. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  12. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  13. Land-use system shapes soil bacterial communities in Southeastern Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.W.; Brossi, M.J.L.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agriculture has become the main agent of disturbance in the Amazon region, and such alteration has consequences on soil microbial communities, which represent the majority of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we assessed the effects of land-use changes on phy

  14. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs Ama

  15. What drives interannual variation in tree ring oxygen isotopes in the Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Tindall, J. C.; Clerici, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings (δ18OTR) from northern Bolivia record local precipitation δ18O and correlate strongly with Amazon basin-wide rainfall. While this is encouraging evidence that δ18OTR can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions, it remains unclear whether variation in δ18OTR is truly driven by within-basin processes, thus recording Amazon climate directly, or if the isotope signal may already be imprinted on incoming vapor, perhaps reflecting a pan-tropical climate signal. We use atmospheric back trajectories combined with satellite observations of precipitation, together with water vapor transport analysis to show that δ18OTR in Bolivia are indeed controlled by basin-intrinsic processes, with rainout over the basin the most important factor. Furthermore, interannual variation in basin-wide precipitation and atmospheric circulation are both shown to affect δ18OTR. These findings suggest δ18OTR can be reliably used to reconstruct Amazon precipitation and have implications for the interpretation of other paleoproxy records from the Amazon basin.

  16. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, van W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.; Leirs, H.

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the existence of a new species of even-toed ungulate in the Brazilian Amazon, which we name Pecari maximus, the giant peccary. It represents the largest of living peccary species. One complete mitochondrial D-loop and two nuclear SINE PRE-1 DNA sequences of giant peccary compared w

  17. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feitosa Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  18. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  19. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  20. Progress in Remote Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity over the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio Helder Resende de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantifying the massive exchange of carbon that takes place over the Amazon Basin remains a challenge, progress is being made as the remote sensing community moves from using traditional, reflectance-based vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, to the more functional Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI. This new index, together with satellite-derived estimates of canopy light interception and Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, provide improved estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP. This paper traces the development of these new approaches, compares the results of their analyses from multiple years of data acquired across the Amazon Basin and suggests further improvements in instrument design, data acquisition and processing. We demonstrated that our estimates of PRI are in generally good agreement with eddy-flux tower measurements of photosynthetic light use efficiency (ε at four sites in the Amazon Basin: r2 values ranged from 0.37 to 0.51 for northern flux sites and to 0.78 for southern flux sites. This is a significant advance over previous approaches seeking to establish a link between global-scale photosynthetic activity and remotely-sensed data. When combined with measurements of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, PRI provides realistic estimates of seasonal variation in photosynthesis over the Amazon that relate well to the wet and dry seasons. We anticipate that our findings will steer the development of improved approaches to estimate photosynthetic activity over the tropics.

  1. Synergisms among fire, land use, and climate change in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Mark A; Laurance, William F

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon is being rapidly transformed by fire. Logging and forest fragmentation sharply elevate fire incidence by increasing forest desiccation and fuel loads, and forests that have experienced a low-intensity surface fire are vulnerable to far more catastrophic fires. Satellites typically detect thermal signatures from 40 000 to 50 000 separate fires in the Amazon each year, and this number could increase as new highways and infrastructure expand across the basin. Many are concerned that large-scale deforestation, by reducing regional evapotranspiration and creating moisture-trapping smoke plumes, will make the basin increasingly vulnerable to fire. The Amazon may also be affected by future global warming and atmospheric changes, although much remains uncertain. Most models suggest the basin will become warmer throughout this century, although there is no consensus about how precipitation will be affected. The most alarming scenarios project a permanent disruption of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, leading to greatly increased drought or destructive synergisms between regional and global climate change in the Amazon.

  2. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M.J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 The Author(s).Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Am

  3. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  4. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2013-01-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-

  5. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  6. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  7. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both ...

  8. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe Miocen

  9. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  10. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  11. The Amazon's energetic paradox; O paradoxo energetico da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente (GEAM), Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented.

  12. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martin, S. T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kleinman, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thalman, R. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol indirect effects, which represent the impact of aerosols on climate through influencing the properties of clouds, remain one of the main uncertainties in climate predictions (Stocker et al. 2013). Reducing this large uncertainty requires both improved understanding and representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models, including the cloud activation properties of aerosols. The Atmospheric System Research (ASR) science program plan of January 2010 states that: “A key requirement for simulating aerosol-cloud interactions is the ability to calculate cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei (CCN and IN, respectively) concentrations as a function of supersaturation from the chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol.” The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity (Manaus)—in particular, the differences in cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions between polluted and pristine conditions. One key question of GoAmazon2014/5 is: “What is the influence of the Manaus pollution plume on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of the aerosol particles and the secondary organic material in the particles?” To address this question, we measured size-resolved CCN spectra, a critical measurement for GoAmazon2014/5.

  13. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  14. Four novel Talaromyces species isolated from leaf litter from Colombian Amazon rain forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, Neriman; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela; Frisvad, Jens C.; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Samson, Robert A.; Houbraken, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Various Talaromyces strains were isolated during a survey of fungi involved in leaf litter decomposition in tropical lowland forests in the Caquetá and Amacayacu areas of the Colombian Amazon. Four new Talaromyces species are described using a polyphasic approach, which includes phenotypic character

  15. Evaluating sustainability options in an agricultural frontier of the Amazon using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Debortoli, N.; Lindoso, D.; Nesheim, I.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are driven by a complex interaction between economic and demographic drivers and institutional constraints. Land use policies such as Conservation Units and the Forest Code law should conserve biodiversity and other environmental aspec

  16. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A.; Paredes, Andrea; Walteros, Diana M.; Tolosa-Pérez, Erica Natalia; Laiton-Donato, Katherine; Pinzón, Maria del Carmen; Petersen, Brett W.; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F.; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Gao, Jinxin; Patel, Nishi; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Reynolds, Mary G.; Satheshkumar, P. S.; Emerson, Ginny L.

    2017-01-01

    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia. PMID:28322708

  17. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  18. The Battle for Critical Internet Resources: South America vs. Amazon.com, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vargas-Leon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the controversy about the allocation of critical Internet resources generated by ICANN's new gTLD program with a particular focus on the .AMAZON TLD. Methodology/approach/design – This article presents an exploratory case study about the .AMAZON controversy. The initial analysis of this ongoing research is based on data collected from various reports and media coverage on ICANN's new gTLD policy. The article draws from political economy theory to analyze disputes about critical Internet resources. Findings – This article discusses preliminary findings of the .AMAZON case, a contested prime example in ICANN's efforts to extend the Internet's domain name space. Practical implications – The findings may inform related controversies in the gTLD program and contribute to a differentiated understanding of CIR allocation in Internet governance, and respective policy-making. Originality/value – The value of this article is the specific discussion of the .AMAZON case in the larger context of ICANN's new gTLD program, and its analysis that describes the controversy from a property rights perspective.

  19. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  20. Disturbance Level Determines the Regeneration of Commercial Tree Species in the Eastern Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, G.; Lopes, J.C.; Kanashiro, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Pena Claros, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reduced-impact logging (RIL) on the regeneration of commercial tree species were investigated, as long-term timber yields depend partly on the availability of seedlings in a managed forest. On four occasions during a 20-month period in the Tapajós National Forest (Eastern Amazon, Braz

  1. Impact of Amazon land use on the community of soil fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle G. M. Fracetto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considered as one of the most biodiverse biomes, the Amazon has a featured role in the discovery of new species of plants, animals and microorganisms, which may be important for the functionality of different ecosystems. However, studies on the impacts resulted from changes in the Amazon land use on microbial communities and their functions are still limited. In this context, the soil fungal diversity can act as an important indicator of environmental stress caused by land use of the Amazon. This study describes changes in soil fungal communities caused by different systems of land use (primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. Communities were observed in each of the areas using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of 18S rRNA gene combined with the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS. Unique bands indicated the dominance of particular fungal groups in each of the specific treatments, mainly in areas converted to pasture, which differed greatly from samples of other systems of land use (SLU. The analysis of partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of fungi in soils under primary forest, agriculture and pasture showed differences (p = 0.001, evidencing the fungal community response to such changes. Most abundant phyla were the Zygomycota in the soil under primary forest and agricultural land, and Basidiomycota in the soil under pasture. The results show that the Amazon soil is an ecosystem susceptible to environmental changes in regarding the fungi community inhabiting this niche.

  2. Diversity and complexity of the Araracuara sandstone flora and vegetation in the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Cleef; M.V. Arbelaez Velasquez

    2005-01-01

    Insular open vegetation of the western Guayana Shield in Colombia (c.150-1000 m) surrounded by NW Amazon rain forest (over 3000 mm annual precipitation) has been botanically unexplored until the early 1990¿s. During recent botanical exploration of the sandstone plateaus of the Araracuara region a to

  3. Local and remote climatic impacts due to land use degradation in the Amazon "Arc of Deforestation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Pereira, Gabriel; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfírio

    2016-08-01

    Many numerical studies, among them, global and regional models, have been used to simulate climatic impact due to Amazon deforestation. Most of them did not consider deforestation as usually observed and the induced dynamic changes. The present study explores the physical impacts due to Amazon deforestation by considering local and remote changes in the circulation and thermodynamics. For this, numerical experiments were conducted with RegCM3 using a relatively fine horizontal grid spacing (50 km), more realistic deforested areas (similar to the highway-network-shaped), and an updated land use map. The studied period was 2001-2006 October-March. As in most previous studies focusing on Amazon deforestation, the RegCM3-simulated air temperature increases over degraded areas, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 °C, and precipitation decreases of around 10 %. This result is mainly related to depletion in evapotranspiration rates provided by lesser soil water extraction by the degraded vegetation. The weakening of upward motion in the mid-upper troposphere is an associated mechanism that explains the precipitation decrease after Amazon deforestation. A new result is the simulated precipitation increase, about 10 %, over the eastern South America and the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. In these areas, the precipitation increase during October-March is associated with intensification of upper-level high pressure (the Bolivian high) coupled with negative geopotential height anomalies southeastward of the center of the high.

  4. Demography of Oenocarpus bataua and implications for sustainable harvest of its fruit in western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaza, Carolina; Matorrell, C; Cevallos, G;

    2016-01-01

    Oenocarpus bataua is one of the most abundant and most used palm in the Amazon region. The main resource obtained from the species is the fruits that are harvested for human consumption. Across its distribution area adults are felled to obtain the racemes, which may affect the palm’s populations....

  5. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  6. Metagenome Sequencing of Prokaryotic Microbiota Collected from Rivers in the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Toyama, Danyelle; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical freshwater environments, like rivers, are important reservoirs of microbial life. This study employed metagenomic sequencing to survey prokaryotic microbiota in the Solimões, Purus, and Urucu Rivers of the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We report a rich and diverse microbial community. PMID:28082494

  7. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  8. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  9. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  10. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  11. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  12. Erosion risk assessment in the southern Amazon - Data Preprocessing, data base application and process based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Herrmann, Anne-Katrin; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The study region along the BR 16 highway belongs to the "Deforestation Arc" at the southern border of the Amazon rainforest. At the same time, it incorporates a land use gradient as colonization started in the 1975-1990 in Central Mato Grosso in 1990 in northern Mato Grosso and most recently in 2004-2005 in southern Pará. Based on present knowledge soil erosion is one of the key driver of soil degradation. Hence, there is a strong need to implement soil erosion control measures in eroding landscapes. Planning and dimensioning of such measures require reliable and detailed information on the temporal and spatial distribution of soil loss, sediment transport and deposition. Soil erosion models are increasingly used, in order to simulate the physical processes involved and to predict the effects of soil erosion control measures. The process based EROSION 3D simulation model is used for surveying soil erosion and deposition on regional catchments. Although EROSION 3D is a widespread, extensively validated model, the application of the model on regional scale remains challenging due to the enormous data requirements and complex data processing operations. In this context the study includes the compilation, validation and generalisation of existing land use and soil data in order to generate a consistent EROSION 3D input datasets. As a part of this process a GIS-linked data base application allows to transfer the original soil and land use data into model specific parameter files. This combined methodology provides different risk assessment maps for certain demands on regional scale. Besides soil loss and sediment transport, sediment pass over points into surface water bodies and particle enrichment can be simulated using the EROSION 3D model. Thus the estimation of particle bound nutrient and pollutant inputs into surface water bodies becomes possible. The study ended up in a user-friendly, timesaving and improved software package for the simulation of soil loss and

  13. Modeling Amazon forest vegetation dynamics and community response to increased wind disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Knox, R. G.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; McGroddy, M. E.; Urquiza-Muñoz, J. D.; Tello-Espinoza, R.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; Higuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the drivers of tree mortality in Amazonia is a complex task, yet essential to reliable prediction of carbon storage in a warmer climate. Past studies have shown an east-west gradient of forest disturbance and rainfall amount across Amazonia. This study uses remote sensing and dynamic vegetation modeling to take a deeper look at drivers of tree mortality and community composition shifts associated with varying mortality rates. Our analysis, using 20 years of Landsat 5 images, showed that ever-wet Amazonia (located in north-west Amazonia, i.e. NWA) was more susceptible to windthrows than the Central Amazon (i.e. CA), which has a a well-defined dry season. The higher frequency of windthrows in NWA forest correlates with higher frequency and intensity of deep convection events in this region, observed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. While a combination of factors including: soil characteristics (and by proxy rooting depth) and community composition exacerbate the regional gradient of disturbance, wind was the mechanistic agent of disturbance. Using an individual-based gap model for tropical forests populated with the most representative NWA tree species and increased mortality rates, we found a decrease of biomass in this region and a slight increase in NPP compared to a control simulation, a pattern that is similar to observations. The model predicted which species had the largest response in basal area change due to elevated disturbance, but there was a non-significant shift in community composition in the NWA forests. However, analysis found strong differences in community composition between the modeled NWA and CA regions, consistent with observed results. When CA forests were subject to higher mortality rate similar to the current NWA region, dissimilarity in community composition continued to persist. In addition the model identified species-specific maximum tree height and maximum diameter as the most influential predictors of

  14. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Delgado-Ratto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road.From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002. Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5-2 compared to rural areas (MOI = 1 (p = 0.003. The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66-0.76, p = 0.32 though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001. Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas ([Formula: see text] = 0.08-0.49, for all p<0.0001. Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population.Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described are important from the public

  15. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  16. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  17. The ambiguity of drought events, a bottleneck for Amazon forest drought response modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Zhang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Considering the important role of the Amazon forest in the global water and carbon cycle, the prognosis of altered hydrological patterns resulting from climate change provides strong incentive for apprehending the direct implications of drought on the vegetation of this ecosystem. Dynamic global vegetation models have the potential of providing a useful tool to study drought impacts on various spatial and temporal scales. This however assumes the models being able to properly represent drought impact mechanisms. But how well do the models succeed in meeting this assumption? Within this study meteorological driver data and model output data of 4 different DGVMs, i.e. ORCHIDEE, JULES, INLAND and LPGmL, are studied. Using the palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the mean cumulative water deficit (MWD), temporal and spatial representation of drought events are studied in the driver data and are referenced to historical extreme drought events in the Amazon. Subsequently, within the resulting temporal and spatial frame, we studied the drought impact on the above ground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes. Flux tower data, field inventory data and the JUNG data-driven GPP product for the Amazon region are used for validation. Our findings not only suggest that the current state of the studied DGVMs is inadequate in representing Amazon droughts in general, but also highlights strong inter-model differences in drought responses. Using scatterplot-studies and input-output correlations, we provide insight in the origin of these encountered inter-model differences. In addition, we present directives of model development and improvement in scope of Amazon forest drought response modelling.

  18. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  20. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.

  1. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and aerosol particle number concentration (CN made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November–December 2008 (BARCA-A and May–June 2009 (BARCA-B, which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin.

    Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008 originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009 low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm−3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1–3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires.

    During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300–500 cm−3 prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced

  2. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  3. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio; André Alexandre Gomes; Iran Mendonça Silva; Jacqueline Sachett; Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira; Sâmella Oliveira; Meritxell Sabidò; Hipócrates Chalkidis; Maria Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra; Jorge Luis Salinas; Fan Hui Wen; Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda; Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with se...

  4. The Influence of Urban Emissions on Background Aerosols and Trace Gases in Amazonia as Seen in the GoAmazon2014/2015 Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Barbosa, H. M.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöhlker, C.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GoAmazon2014/2015 experiment, several aerosol and trace gas monitoring stations are being operated for two years before and after the Manaus urban plume in Central Amazonia. Three sites are being operated in pristine conditions, with atmospheric properties under natural biogenic conditions. These three sites named T0 are ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), ZF2 and EMBRAPA. After the air masses are exposed to the Manaus plume, one site (called T2) is being operated under the direct influence of the Manaus plume at 5 Km downwind. Finally, at about 150 Km downwind of Manaus is the T3 Manacapuru site. Aerosol chemical composition is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as three Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors) instruments. Optical properties were measured with several AE33 aethalometers and MAAP, and multi wavelengths nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizers. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sunphotometers before and after the Manaus plume, as well as several Lidar systems. The three sites before the Manaus plume show remarkable similar variability in aerosol concentrations and optical properties. This pattern is very different at the T2 site, with large aerosol concentrations enhancing aerosol absorption and scattering significantly as a result of the Manaus pollution plume. The aerosol is very oxidized before being exposed to the Manaus plume, and this pattern changes significantly for T2 and T3 sites, with a much higher presence of less oxidized aerosol. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day before Manaus plume is a low 10-12 ppb, value that changes to 50-70 ppb for air masses suffering the influence of Manaus plume. Aerosol size distribution also change significantly, with stronger presence of nucleation mode particles. A detailed comparison of aerosol characteristics and composition for the several sites will be

  5. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmenta lservices. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population.A floresta amazônica produz serviços ambientais, tais como a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono. Estes serviços têm um valor muito maior para a sociedade humana do que a madeira, carne bovina e outros produtos que são obtidos destruindo a floresta. Mecanismos institucionais ainda estão faltando para transformar o valor da floresta em pé no alicerce de uma economia baseada em manter, em lugar de destruir, este ecossistema. Manejo florestal para madeira e para produtos florestais n

  6. U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a

  7. THE QUADRANTS METHOD TO ESTIMATE QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES IN MANAGEMENT PLANS IN THE AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel da Silva Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the accuracy in estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume per hectare, by the quadrants method applied to an area of 1.000 hectares of rain forest in the Amazon. Samples were simulated by random and systematic process with different sample sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 sampling points. The amounts estimated by the samples were compared with the parametric values recorded in the census. In the analysis we considered as the population all trees with diameter at breast height equal to or greater than 40 cm. The quadrants method did not reach the desired level of accuracy for the variables basal area and commercial volume, overestimating the observed values recorded in the census. However, the accuracy of the estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume was satisfactory for applying the method in forest inventories for management plans in the Amazon.

  8. Los antis: la Amazonía como frontera y mundo desconocido en dos fuentes coloniales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Zanelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to explore the development of the Amazon region, specifically from the use of the Quechua word anti, from which the toponym Andes, in two veryrepresentative colonial texts such as the Huarochiri Manuscript (1608 and the two sides of the Comments actual Incas (1609 and 1617, founding text of Peruvian letters written by the mestizo chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega. This word means the limit or border of the Amazonian world, hence Antisuyo to designate the eastern part of the Inca empire which borders the Amazon but that clearly does not. This space is characterized by coincidence in the three texts as a wild, wild and not-well known Amazonia is represented as an area which is outside the controlled space, both known and cultivated by the people who worship the huaca Pariacaca in Huarochiri provinces as "civilized" Inca Garcilaso.

  9. Brazilian Amazon Traditional Medicine and the Treatment of Difficult to Heal Leishmaniasis Wounds with Copaifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Kelly Cristina Oliveira; da Veiga, Andreza do Socorro Silva; Silva, João Victor da Silva e; Brigido, Heliton Patrick Cordovil; Ferreira, Erica Patrícia dos Reis; Costa, Erica Vanessa Souza; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosário; Percário, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the use of the traditional species Copaifera for treating wounds, such as ulcers scarring and antileishmanial wounds. It also relates phytochemical studies, evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity, and toxicity. The species of Copaifera with a higher incidence in the Amazon region are Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera multijuga Hayne. The copaiba oil is used in the Amazon's traditional medicine, especially as anti-inflammatory ingredient, in ulcers healing, and in scarring and for leishmaniasis. Chemical studies have shown that these oils contain diterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The copaiba oil and terpenes isolated have antiparasitic activity, more promising in the amastigote form of L. amazonensis. This activity is probably related to changes in the cell membrane and mitochondria. The oil showed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Furthermore, it may interfere with immune response to infection and also has a healing effect. In summary, the copaiba oil is promising as leishmanicidal agent.

  10. Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Pedro A; Figueiredo, Poliana O; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Lima, Danillo H S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Silva, Natália S; Campos, Karinny F; Oliveira, Carlos Magno C; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Kroon, Erna G; de Souza Trindade, Giliane

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. The results of molecular diagnostics, followed by sequencing data demonstrated the circulation of both viruses (PCPV and BVDV-1) in an area previously affected by another poxvirus, as Vaccinia virus.The cocirculation between PCPV and BVDV-1 indicates a major concern for animal health because the clinical presentation can be a severe disease. This is the first detection of PCPV in the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Rainforest Aerosols as Biogenic Nuclei of Clouds and Precipitation in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Martin, S. T.; Sinha, B.; Chen, Q.; Gunthe, S. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Borrmann, S.; Farmer, D. K.; Garland, R. M.; Helas, G.; Jimenez, J. L.; King, S. M.; Manzi, A.; Mikhailov, E.; Pauliquevis, T.; Petters, M. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Roldin, P.; Rose, D.; Schneider, J.; Su, H.; Zorn, S. R.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2010-09-01

    The Amazon is one of the few continental regions where atmospheric aerosol particles and their effects on climate are not dominated by anthropogenic sources. During the wet season, the ambient conditions approach those of the pristine pre-industrial era. We show that the fine submicrometer particles accounting for most cloud condensation nuclei are predominantly composed of secondary organic material formed by oxidation of gaseous biogenic precursors. Supermicrometer particles, which are relevant as ice nuclei, consist mostly of primary biological material directly released from rainforest biota. The Amazon Basin appears to be a biogeochemical reactor, in which the biosphere and atmospheric photochemistry produce nuclei for clouds and precipitation sustaining the hydrological cycle. The prevailing regime of aerosol-cloud interactions in this natural environment is distinctly different from polluted regions.

  12. Variability of continental water storage and its relationship to extreme hydrological events in the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Diniz Silva Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the variability of total continental water storage derived from estimates of balance water using satellite data in association with hydro-meteorological data. The occurrence of extreme hydrological events such as drought and flood in the Amazon basin was related to the variability of total storage of continental water. Both estimation methods (PER- Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff and GRACE show a strong decrease in water storage during the 2005 drought and a strong recovery during the 2009 flood. The results show that there is strong relationship between the occurrences of extreme hydrological events and water storage in the Amazon. Local and deep measurements of continental water storage can provide more precise indications of the dynamics of the hydrological system and its response to climate variability.

  13. Potential Negative Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Dry Season Convection in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation because the additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focused on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River Basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. In addition, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation resulting from downward transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, which have implications for precipitation changes during the dry season observed in most current climate models.

  14. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  15. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. Description of data reanalysis of daily discharge and gauge height over the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviercoski, R. F.; Travis, B. J.; Eggert, K.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon River is the world's largest, discharging more water to the ocean than any other river. Study of the world's freshwater resources becomes more significant with increasing awareness of global climate change and its potential effect on those resources and atmospheric forcing. In this work, a reanalysis of the daily discharge and gauge height data for 87 active gauge stations throughout the Amazon River Basin is presented. The data was originally obtained from the web site maintained by ANEEL - Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency. We describe the problems encountered in trying to use the original data and the assumptions applied in the reanalysis procedure. The reanalysis consisted of filtering inconsistencies in the comma (decimal) notation, filling in missing data, and replacing inconsistent data values by applying the assumption of a stationary Markov process. The reanalyzed data is available to the community through an anonymous ftp-site.

  17. Amazon Kindie“点燃崭新阅读方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茂林

    2008-01-01

    就像深林里的蘑菇在悄声无息地不断增长。每天都有无数新奇的数码设备在世界某些角落静静地诞生,他们的出现让我们平淡的生活增添了几许期待,它们中有的如雨后天边的彩虹,美丽、短暂;有的却注定会影响和改变我们的生活方式。目前正在全球最大网上书店(www.amazon.com)热卖的Amazon Kndle无疑将是后者中的一款。

  18. Behavior of tomato in greenhouse and agroecological management under the Amazon Ecuadorian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Demesio Alemán Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the Centre of research, postgraduate and conservation of the Ama - zon biodiversity (CIPCA which belong to the Amazon State University (UEA, of Ecuador, located in the Arosemena Tola canton, in the Napo province. It consisted in studying the morphological and productive indicators in SYTA variety of tomato under greenhouse conditions. Compost and foliar fertilizer were applied. The seedling was mounted on trays of 128 alveoli with commercial peat substrate. Thirty one days after germination, plantlets were transplanted by the method to three rolls in beds of 1.20 m wide adequately prepared. Morphological indicators have shown a good general development under these conditions. Performance components of tomato under the Amazon Ecuadorian conditions obtained similar productions to the indicators obtained in other regions.

  19. The Scenario of Brazilian Amazon Transportation Infrastructure in the Natural Hazards Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is related, in part, to its ability to establish relations with other regions and the efficiency with which it operates internally and streamlines their intra relations. The study of the impacts in the availability of transport infrastructure in regional development interests by the influence it has on the location decisions of investment. The network of transport infrastructure in the Brazilian Amazon region is susceptible to interruptions in its functioning by pressures arising from the interaction of coupled human and natural systems, impacting regional development mainly by isolating regions raising concerns about human security of local residents and the economic development to the extent that regional production does not circulates temporarily, eliminating one of the economy dynamics main stages. The susceptibility indicators of transport infrastructure system in the Amazon are unclear and this study presents disruptions causes, frequency, potential risks and impacts in this system functioning.

  20. Deforestation control in Mato Grosso: a new model for slowing the loss of Brazil's Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2003-08-01

    Controlling deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region has long been illusive despite repeated efforts of government authorities to slow the process. From 1997 to 2000, deforestation rates in Brazil's 9-state "Legal Amazon" region continually crept upward. Now, a licensing and enforcement program for clearing by large farmers and ranchers in the state of Mato Grosso appears to be having an effect. The deforestation rate in Mato Grosso was already beginning to slacken before initiation of the program in 1999, but examination of county-level data suggests that deforestation in already heavily cleared areas was falling due to lack of suitable uncleared land, while little-cleared areas were experiencing rapid deforestation. Following initiation of the program, the clearing rates declined in the recent frontiers. Areas with greater enforcement effort also appear to have experienced greater declines. Demonstration of government ability to enforce regulations and influence trends is important to domestic and international debates regarding use of avoided deforestation to mitigate global warming.

  1. Use and management of the natural resources of the Colombian Amazon rain forest: a biological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yaneth Landínez Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main features associated with biological use practices and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cut proposal contrasts biological level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts depending on the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. In this way, provides an integrative perspective that will address conflict situations considering environmental factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios , to give sustenance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulation mechanisms in especially in areas such as strategic biological Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, sketching involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Native Microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon with Potential for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Cobos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae triacylglycerols is growing, because this feedstock is a more sustainable and advantageous alternative. In this study, we isolated and identified fourteen strains of native microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon. These strains showed great heterogeneity in biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content, and thus, three of them (Acutodesmus obliquus, Ankistrodesmus sp. and Chlorella lewinii were selected for further evaluation under culture of nitrogen-sufficient (+N and nitrogen-deficient (−N Chu medium No. 10. These microalgae species showed modifications in biomolecule content (protein, lipid and carbohydrate with a pronounced increase of lipids and carbohydrate and a decrease of protein content under stress culture. Furthermore, the fatty acid profile was peculiar for each species, and these patterns showed evident changes, particularly in the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The results of this research suggest that the isolated native microalgae, from the Peruvian Amazon, could be suitable candidates for biodiesel production

  3. Comparison of Cloud Database: Amazon SimpleDB and Google Bigtable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Ramanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing can be defined as a service or a platform, or an operating system over the Internet to perform tasks. Database has become a part and parcel of life and is being used in almost every computer application. As it is considered the most basic thing, Cloud Computing offers this database service too. There are different cloud providers or platforms like Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and many more available in the market. Every cloud platform provides a database for the developers and each one of them has their own merits and demerits. In this paper the characteristics, architectures, advantages of Amazons SimpleDB and Googles Big Table database are analyzed and discussed in detail. From the comparison of these databases, users can better understand the different cloud database and more reasonably choose what they want.

  4. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  5. The Northwest Amazon in Perspective: A Reading from the 5th-6th Centuries to 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Goulard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of northwestern South America, focusing on the Amazon basin, is put into perspective using the prevalent models of social organization in the lowlands of the Amazon for more than a thousand years. The proposed analysis makes it possible to understand the modes and periods of occupation of this territory. The article concludes that the region should be perceived as a whole, irrespective of which populations inhabited it in the different periods. Thus it is apparent that several waves of occupation took place. The first, Arawakan, wave established a spatial scheme that was retained by the following ones, adapting it to their needs. Furthermore, the author proposes approaching the installation of the Jesuit missions with the same perspective, since they also appropriated the spatial arrangement they found upon their arrival. Only after their expulsion did the partitioning of the territory begin according to European criteria.

  6. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  7. New species of Gieysztoria (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela) from Peruvian Amazon floodplain with description of their stylet ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborenea, Cristina; Brusa, Francisco; Noreña, Carolina

    2005-12-01

    The free-living Platyhelminthes of the Amazon basin are poorly known. Presently only four turbellarian species have been mentioned from the Amazon river, a fact that confirms the lack of information on this kind of faunas in this huge basin. Three new species of Gieysztoria from Amazonian floodplain in Peru are described herein: G. chiqchi n. sp., G. kasasapa n. sp. and G. sasa n. sp. The samples were taken in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (Peru) during September 2002. Besides the usual description of the stylet based on whole mounted specimens, we provide a complementary description using SEM, which allowed differentiation of the new species within the currently yet imperfect picture of the Amazonian turbellarian fauna. Although further research is desired, current findings are suggestive of high diversity of free-living Turbellaria in the surveyed region.

  8. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  9. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S

    2015-10-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI705) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest.

  10. Deforestation in the Amazon: What is illegal and what is not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Hummel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil has succeeded in reducing deforestation rates in the Amazon, but has not succeeded in explaining to the general public how much of this deforestation was illegal and how much was legally authorized. Transparency of deforestation data is limited, and pertinent legislation is little understood and poorly applied in practice. Lack of dissemination of information on authorized clearing of vegetation and lack of implementation of regulatory frameworks are contentious issues when defining strategies to reach zero deforestation in the Amazon region and for building policies related to climate change mitigation. The need to establish the new Forest Code provides an opportunity to establish goals and regulations for zero deforestation. This paper provides recommendations on how to communicate this information to the general public, how to make regulatory instruments effective and how to implement a zero deforestation agenda.

  11. Seeing REDD in the Amazon: a win for people, trees and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.

    2009-03-15

    Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.

  12. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  13. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  14. Parasites in Arapaima gigas from the Peruvian Amazon by age group

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Tantaleán V., Manuel; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Leguía P., Guillermo; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Quispe H., Marco; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Casas V., Gina C.; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in 120 paiches (Arapaima gigas) distributed in four age groups (10 to 30, 31 to 180, 181 to 365 days and >1 year of age) from fish farms in the Peruvian Amazon to determine the prevalence and the affected organs. Eight parasite species are reported: monogeneans (Dawestrema cycloancistrium and D. cycloancistrioides), digeneans (Caballerotrema brasiliense), protozoa (Piscinodinium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp), cestodes (Schizochoerus l...

  15. Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

  16. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  17. Up-regulation of Amazon forest photosynthesis precedes elevated mortality under drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleska, S. R.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Longo, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Alves, L. F.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Stark, S. C.; Hayek, M.; Wu, J.; Munger, J. W.; Meir, P.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P. B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models indicate that Amazon forests may be vulnerable to drought, with some predicting drought-induced collapse of the Amazon forest and conversion to savanna, under future climate change. While much progress has been made in understanding tropical forest drought response, a holistic picture encompassing both short-term physiological (e.g., photosynthesis) and longer term demographic responses (e.g., mortality) remains elusive, mainly due to the rarity of coinciding relevant measurements and drought events. Here we address this knowledge gap by analyzing the response of an eastern Amazonian forest at both timescales to the El Nino-induced drought of late 2009 / early 2010 (distinct from the Atlantic SST-induced drought to hit Western Amazonia in mid/late 2010) using eddy flux measurements of carbon exchange and periodic tree demographic surveys. We partitioned the drought response of GPP into environmental (light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), diffuse light) and biological responses. Based on environmental conditions alone (high VPD), we expected GPP to be 1-2 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 less than average during drought. In contrast, GPP was elevated by 2-4 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 above this expected negative response over a period of ~45 days, consistent with previously observed green-up from satelliltes during the 2005 Amazon drought. At the same time, drought significantly elevated 2009-2011 tree mortality, by ~50% above that during non-drought periods, consistent with a quantitative drought-mortality relationship reported for other Amazon forests. This work suggests that observations of "green-up" of forest canopies during drought may be consistent with subsequent drought-induced tree mortality, in contrast to expectation. More importantly, it highlights endogenous biological regulation of photosynthesis as an important mechanism, neglected by models, in mediating drought responses in tropical forests.

  18. Surface freshwater storage and dynamics in the Amazon basin during the 2005 exceptional drought

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Santos Da Silva, Joecila; Ramillien, Guillaume; Prigent, Catherine; Seyler, Frédérique; Calmant, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Amazon river basin has been recently affected by extreme climatic events, such as the exceptional drought of 2005, with significant impacts on human activities and ecosystems. In spite of the importance of monitoring freshwater stored and moving in such large river basins, only scarce measurements of river stages and discharges are available and the signatures of extreme drought conditions on surface freshwater dynamics at the basin scale are still poorly known. He...

  19. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Philip B.; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P.; Field, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent severe droughts in the Amazon basin have increased interest in future climatological and ecological conditions of this region. Future changes in drought and wet periods could have enormous impacts on forest structure, biomass, and composition, but our ability to predict changes in the hydrological regime remains highly uncertain. We evaluate an ensemble of state-of-the-art climate models and demonstrate their accuracy in simulating processes influencing drought in Amazonia. These model...

  20. Performance management of high performance computing for medical image processing in Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M.; Landman, Bennett A.; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-03-01

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical- Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for- use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  1. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  2. Limited Diversity of Anopheles Darlingi in The Peruvian Amazon Region of Iquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Sheen, Patricia; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; OSWALD, WILLIAM E.; JERI, CESAR; VITTOR, AMY YOMIKO; Patz, Jonathan A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Amazon basin of South America, and is capable of transmitting both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. To understand the genetic structure of this vector in the Amazonian region of Peru, a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test to identify this species of mosquito was used. A random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR was used to study genetic variation at the micro-geographic level in nine geographically separate populations...

  3. Increased Frequency of Large Blowdown Formation in Years With Hotter Dry Seasons in the Northwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, S. W.; Anderson, L. O.; Bohlman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blowdowns, which are large tree mortality events caused by downbursts, create large pulses of carbon emissions in the short term and alter successional dynamics and species composition of forests, thus affecting long term biogeochemical cycling of tropical forests. Changing climate, especially increasing temperatures and frequency of extreme climate events, may cause changes in the frequency of blowdowns, but there has been little spatiotemporal analysis to associate the interannual variation in the frequency of blowdowns with annual climate parameters. We mapped blowdowns greater than 25 ha using a time series of Landsat images from 1984-2012 in the northwestern Amazon to estimate the annual size distribution of these blowdowns. The difference in forest area affected by blowdowns between the years with the highest and lowest blowdown activity were on the order of 10 - 30 times greater depending on location. Spatially, we found the probability of large blowdowns to be higher in regions with higher annual rainfall. Temporally, we found a positive correlation between the probability of large blowdown events and maximum dry season air temperature (R2 = 0.1-0.46). Mean and maximum blowdown size also increased with maximum dry season air temperature. The strength of these relationships varied between scene locations which may be related to cloud cover obscuring the land surface in the satellite images, or biophysical characteristics of the sites. Potentially, elevated dry season temperatures during the transition from the dry season to the wet season (October - December) may exacerbate atmospheric instabilities, which promote downburst occurrences. Most global circulation models predict dry season air temperatures to increase 2-5 ℃ in the northwestern Amazon by 2050. Should the blowdown disturbance regime continue increasing with elevated dry season temperatures, the northwestern Amazon is likely to experience more catastrophic tree mortality events which has direct

  4. Yeast succession in the Amazon fruit Parahancornia amapa as resource partitioning among Drosophila spp.

    OpenAIRE

    MORAIS, PB; MARTINS, MB; Klaczko, LB; MENDONCAHAGLER, LC; HAGLER, AN

    1995-01-01

    The succession of yeasts colonizing the fallen ripe amapa fruit, from Parahancornia. amapa, aas examined. The occupation of the substrate depended on both the competitive interactions of yeast species, such as the production of killer toxins, and the selective dispersion by the drosophilid guild of the amapa fruit. The yeast community associated with this Amazon fruit differed from those isolated from other fruits in the same forest. The physiological profile of these yeasts was mostly restri...

  5. Indigenous women, globalization, food and social policies in the “Amazon Trapezoid”

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Alfonso Palacio; Juana Valentina Nieto

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a broader research conducted during 2009-2010. It tries to understand the range of possibilities that the socio-political and natural environment offers to indigenous women to solve food problems in the Amazon Trapezoid in Colombia, particularly in Leticia. This research differentiates between urban and rural indigenous women, and tries to contribute to a broader research, offering a general framework to understand the significance and conditions imposed by globalizati...

  6. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  7. Predicting Amazon Deforestation through the deterninants of demand for agricultural land

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a model of deforestation pressure in the Amazon. It is based on the determinants of demand for agricultural land, i.e. the interactions between population dynamics, urbanization and the growth of local markets, land prices, and government spending and policies. The mo deI is estimated using data from the period 1970 - 1985, and predictions for the period 1985 - 2010 are made under explicit assumptions about the underlying factors of deforestation. The ...

  8. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  9. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Commodity gold prices increased substantially following the 2008 global financial crisis. Gold demand has fueled a massive increase in mining activity, some of which is centered in the Amazon basin. Western Amazonian forests of Peru have become an epicenter for mostly illegal gold mining, but the clandestine nature of mining activities has made monitoring and reporting of forest losses extremely challenging. We combined high-resolution satellite and aircraft-based imaging with field surveys t...

  10. Assessment of Atmospheric Correction Methods for Sentinel-2 MSI Images Applied to Amazon Floodplain Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Souza Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data provide the only viable means for extensive monitoring of remote and large freshwater systems, such as the Amazon floodplain lakes. However, an accurate atmospheric correction is required to retrieve water constituents based on surface water reflectance ( R W . In this paper, we assessed three atmospheric correction methods (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV, ACOLITE and Sen2Cor applied to an image acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI on-board of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2A platform using concurrent in-situ measurements over four Amazon floodplain lakes in Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the correction of forest adjacency effects based on the linear spectral unmixing model, and performed a temporal evaluation of atmospheric constituents from Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC products. The validation of MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD indicated satisfactory retrievals over the Amazon region, with a correlation coefficient (R of ~0.7 and 0.85 for Terra and Aqua products, respectively. The seasonal distribution of the cloud cover and AOD revealed a contrast between the first and second half of the year in the study area. Furthermore, simulation of top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance showed a critical contribution of atmospheric effects (>50% to all spectral bands, especially the deep blue (92%–96% and blue (84%–92% bands. The atmospheric correction results of the visible bands illustrate the limitation of the methods over dark lakes ( R W < 1%, and better match of the R W shape compared with in-situ measurements over turbid lakes, although the accuracy varied depending on the spectral bands and methods. Particularly above 705 nm, R W was highly affected by Amazon forest adjacency, and the proposed adjacency effect correction minimized the spectral distortions in R W (RMSE < 0.006. Finally, an extensive validation of the methods is required for

  11. Patterns of land-cover transitions from satellite imagery of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L.; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land-use systems in tropical regions, including deforestation, are a key challenge for global sustainability because of their huge impacts on green-house gas emissions, local climate and biodiversity. However, the dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in regions of frontier expansion such as the Brazilian Amazon is not yet well understood because of the complex interplay of ecological and socio-economic drivers. In this paper, we combine Markov chain analysis and complex ne...

  12. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-07-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil at the beginning of the second Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon)2014/15 intensive operational period (IOP2) in September 2014 through the end of the field campaign in December 2015. The Parsivel2 provided one-minute drop-size distribution (DSD) observations that have already been used for a number of applications related to GoAmazon2014/15 science objectives. The first use was the creation of a reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) relation enabling the calculation of rain rates from the Brazilian Sistema de Protecao da Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band operational radar in Manaus. The radar-derived rainfall is an important constraint for the variational analysis of a large-scale forcing data set, which was recently released for the two IOPs that took place in the 2014 wet and transition seasons, respectively. The SIPAM radar rainfall is also being used to validate a number of cloud-resolving model simulations being run for the campaign. A second use of the Parsivel2 DSDs has been to provide a necessary reference point to calibrate the vertical velocity retrievals from the AMF1 W Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) cloud-profiling and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind-profiling instruments. Accurate retrievals of in-cloud vertical velocities are important to understand the microphysical and kinematic properties of Amazonian convective clouds and their interaction with the land surface and atmospheric aerosols. Further use of the Parsivel2 DSD observations can be made to better understand precipitation characteristics and their variability during GoAmazon2014/15.

  13. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  14. Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild rice Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Júnior,Paulo Ivan; Duarte Pereira, Gilmara Maria; Perin, Liamara; da Silva, Luana Mesquita; Cardoso Baraúna, Alexandre; Muniz Alves, Francilene; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Édson Zilli, Jerri

    2013-01-01

    The association of wild grasses with diazotrophic bacteria in Brazilian biomes is poorly understood. The isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with wild grasses can contribute to understand the diazotrophic ecology as well as to identify bacteria with biotechnological applications. In this study, we isolated and characterized diazotrophic bacterial isolates from Oryza glumaepatula collected in Cerrado and Forest areas of the Amazon in Roraima State, Brazil. Healthy O. glumepat...

  15. Performance Management of High Performance Computing for Medical Image Processing in Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-02-27

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical-Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for-use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  16. Changes in cloudiness over the Amazon rainforests during the last two decades: diagnostic and potential causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola A. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Ingenieria y Gestion Ambiental (GIGA), Medellin (Colombia); Jackson School of Geosciences, Geology Foundation, PO Box B, Austin, TX (United States); Fu, Rong [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Hoyos, Carlos D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Li, Wenhong [Duke University, Division of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Durham, NC (United States); Zhou, Liming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Science Foundation, Climate and Large Scale Dynamics Program, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This study shows a decrease of seasonal mean convection, cloudiness and an increase of surface shortwave down-welling radiation during 1984-2007 over the Amazon rainforests based on the analysis of satellite-retrieved clouds and surface radiative flux data. These changes are consistent with an increase in surface temperature, increased atmospheric stability, and reduction of moisture transport to the Amazon based on in situ surface and upper air meteorological data and reanalysis data. These changes appear to link to the expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during the December-February season, to the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and increase of SST over the eastern Pacific SST during the March-May season, and to an increase of the tropical Atlantic meridional SST gradient and an expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during September-November season. The resultant increase of surface solar radiation during all but the dry season in the Amazon could contribute to the observed increases in rainforest growth during recent decades. (orig.)

  17. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  18. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

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    Paulo FP Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

  19. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Change: The Peasant Economy of Colonization in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus; Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Aldrich, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses deforestation processes in the Amazon basin. It deploys a methodology combining remote sensing and survey-based fieldwork to examine, with regression analysis, the impact household structure and economic circumstances on deforestation decisions made by colonist farmers in the forest frontiers of Brazil. Unlike most previous regression-based studies, the methodology implemented analyzes behavior at the level of the individual property. The regressions correct for endogenous relationships between key variables, and spatial autocorrelation, as necessary. Variables used in the analysis are specified, in part, by a theoretical development integrating the Chayanovian concept of the peasant household with spatial considerations stemming from von Thuenen. The results from the empirical model indicate that demographic characteristics of households, as well as market factors, affect deforestation in the Amazon. Thus, statistical results from studies that do not include household-scale information may be subject to error. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that environmental policies in the Amazon based on market incentives to small farmers may not be as effective as hoped, given the importance of household factors in catalyzing the demand for land. The paper concludes by noting that household decisions regarding land use and deforestation are not independent of broader social circumstances, and that a full understanding of Amazonian deforestation will require insight into why poor families find it necessary to settle the frontier in the first place.

  20. The future of the Amazon: new perspectives from climate, ecosystem and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A; Malhi, Yadvinder; Roberts, J Timmons

    2008-05-27

    The potential loss or large-scale degradation of the tropical rainforests has become one of the iconic images of the impacts of twenty-first century environmental change and may be one of our century's most profound legacies. In the Amazon region, the direct threat of deforestation and degradation is now strongly intertwined with an indirect challenge we are just beginning to understand: the possibility of substantial regional drought driven by global climate change. The Amazon region hosts more than half of the world's remaining tropical forests, and some parts have among the greatest concentrations of biodiversity found anywhere on Earth. Overall, the region is estimated to host about a quarter of all global biodiversity. It acts as one of the major 'flywheels' of global climate, transpiring water and generating clouds, affecting atmospheric circulation across continents and hemispheres, and storing substantial reserves of biomass and soil carbon. Hence, the ongoing degradation of Amazonia is a threat to local climate stability and a contributor to the global atmospheric climate change crisis. Conversely, the stabilization of Amazonian deforestation and degradation would be an opportunity for local adaptation to climate change, as well as a potential global contributor towards mitigation of climate change. However, addressing deforestation in the Amazon raises substantial challenges in policy, governance, sustainability and economic science. This paper introduces a theme issue dedicated to a multidisciplinary analysis of these challenges.

  1. The effects on Amazon floodplains of the dynamics between the water and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waters and lands in the Amazon, especially near the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers, are very dynamic, recreating the landscapes along the rivers’ paths. The waters transport and deposit eroded materials, causing changes in the lifestyles of the meadow’s residents. In addition to this, there are the recent climatic changes caused by the El Niño phenomenon, intensifying the meadows’ transformations. This research explored the quantitative and qualitative values of knowledge of local people in order to understand the environment in which they live. With an understanding of the islands’ environmental system and the perceptions of seventeen female farmers of the amazon meadow, coupled with appropriate theory and methods, it was possible to explore and execute this research. Valha-me-Deus and Chaves, both in the county of Jurupis, PA, were the islands chosen for the study. The goal of the study was to characterize the dynamics of the waters and lands of the Amazon River together with the re-creation of the river islands and the effects of climate change over the floodplains. The data show meaningful changes in the studied environmental systems, resulting in irreversible losses in the cultivation of food crops such as papaya, cocoa, manioc and bananas, especially after the intense river flooding of 2009.

  2. Deforestation monitoring in the Amazon River estuary by multi-temporal Envisat ScanSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Ishwaran, N.; Brito Pezzuti, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have capitalized on the all-weather, all-day operational capability of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems and used multi-temporal (from 2002 to 2006), multi-track (track 174, 360 and 447) Envisat ScanSAR amplitude images for deforestation mapping and change detection in the Amazon River estuary. A synergistic approach to deforestation mapping was adopted using SAR backscattering anomalies, the neighbouring forest constraint and DEM-derived slopes based on the three following characteristics: (1) backscattering is reduced in regions suspected to have undergone deforestation; (2) open regions without neighbouring forests were identified for removal; and (3) false-alarms linked to water bodies are mitigated using the shape threshold of flat-slope objects. Our results show that deforestation in the Amazon River estuary continues to be a serious problem, particularly along the rivers, streams or roads, which are more susceptible to anthropogenic activities than other areas. Up to 2006, the deforested portion accounts for 4.6 per cent (3,096,000 pixels) of the entire study site of approximately 458,000 square kilometers (67,320,000 pixels). However, this figure, validated by Landsat ETM images, may have overestimated deforestation to some extent. Nevertheless, multi-temporal analysis using SAR systems, as done in this study, have a clear potential for surveillance of deforestation in the Amazon, particularly in light of the frequent cloud cover typical of the area and the limitations of deforestation monitoring by means of optical satellite imagery.

  3. Ecosystem heterogeneity determines the ecological resilience of the Amazon to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi M; Zhang, Ke; Longo, Marcos; Baccini, Alessandro; Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Segalin de Andrade, Ana Cristina; Brienen, Roel J W; Erwin, Terry L; Feldpausch, Ted R; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo; Nuñez Vargas, Percy; Prieto, Adriana; Silva-Espejo, Javier Eduardo; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2016-01-19

    Amazon forests, which store ∼ 50% of tropical forest carbon and play a vital role in global water, energy, and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intense dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, whereas several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. Combining remote-sensing and ground-based observations with a size- and age-structured terrestrial ecosystem model, we explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. We demonstrate that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, explains observed patterns of variation in ecosystem biomass, composition, and dynamics across the region, and strongly influences the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Specifically, our analysis suggests that in contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high-biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah-like states. Fire, logging, and other anthropogenic disturbances may, however, exacerbate these climate change-induced ecosystem transitions.

  4. The size distribution of organic carbon in headwater streams in the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joana D'Arc; Luizão, Flávio Jesus; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representativeness of streams in the Amazon basin, their role in the accumulation of coarse particulate organic carbon (CPOC), fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in transport, an important energy source in these environments, is poorly known. It is known that the arboreal vegetation in the Amazon basin is influenced by soil fertility and rainfall gradients, but would these gradients promote local differences in organic matter in headwater streams? To answer this question, 14 low-order streams were selected within these gradients along the Amazon basin, with extensions that varied between 4 and 8 km. The efficiency of the transformation of particulate into dissolved carbon fractions was assessed for each stream. The mean monthly benthic organic matter storage ranged between 1.58 and 9.40 t ha(-1) month(-1). In all locations, CPOC was the most abundant fraction in biomass, followed by FPOC and DOC. Rainfall and soil fertility influenced the distribution of the C fraction (p = 0.01), showing differentiated particulate organic carbon (POC) storage and DOC transportation along the basin. Furthermore, the results revealed that carbon quantification at the basin level could be underestimated, ultimately influencing the global carbon calculations for the region. This is especially due to the fact that the majority of studies consider only fine particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter, which represent less than 50 % of the stored and transported carbon in streambeds.

  5. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  6. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  7. Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Cruz, Francisco W.; Dorale, Jeffrey A.; Chiang, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin—one of Earth’s major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Our results are based on a decadally resolved, uranium/thorium-dated, oxygen isotopic record for much of the past 45,000 years, obtained using speleothems from Paraíso Cave in eastern Amazonia; we interpret the record as being broadly related to precipitation. Relative to modern levels, precipitation in the region was about 58% during the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21,000 years ago) and 142% during the mid-Holocene epoch (about 6,000 years ago). We find that, as compared with cave records from the western edge of the lowlands, the Amazon was widely drier during the last glacial period, with much less recycling of water and probably reduced plant transpiration, although the rainforest persisted throughout this time.

  8. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Achcar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using Bayesian spatiotemporal methods. METHODS: We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a Bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. RESULTS: The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI are important in the prediction of malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the Bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  9. Indigenous women, globalization, food and social policies in the “Amazon Trapezoid”

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    Germán Alfonso Palacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a broader research conducted during 2009-2010. It tries to understand the range of possibilities that the socio-political and natural environment offers to indigenous women to solve food problems in the Amazon Trapezoid in Colombia, particularly in Leticia. This research differentiates between urban and rural indigenous women, and tries to contribute to a broader research, offering a general framework to understand the significance and conditions imposed by globalization and public policies targeting indigenous women. It is an attempt to offer explanatory elements to understand mediations between the micro and the local vis-a-vis the state and the global scales. A source of social power for indigenous women in the Amazon is the “chagra”, a sort of women indigenous right to use the land to produce food and other land products. Some international institutions and state agencies have incorporated a gender perspective in their projects, assuming that women are more responsible and administer better family resources than men. However, other type of evident outcomes is that women are being socialized in dealing with money. This question arises: are these programs strengthening women indigenous power? Or are they preparing the road for a more commercial, capitalist economy in the Amazon?

  10. Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez

    1988-06-01

    This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

  11. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

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    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  12. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Hyman, Glenn, E-mail: navin.ramankutty@mcgill.ca [International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali (Colombia)

    2010-04-15

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  13. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  14. Diagnosing nonlinearities in the local and remote responses to partial Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Using a set of fully coupled climate model simulations, the response to partial deforestation over the Amazon due to agricultural expansion has been analyzed. Three variations of 50% deforestation (all of western half, all of eastern half, and half of each grid box) were compared with total deforestation to determine the degree and character of nonlinearity of the climate response to partial deforestation. A metric is developed to quantify the degree and distribution of nonlinearity in the response, applicable to any variable. The metric also quantifies whether the response is saturating or accelerating, meaning significantly either more or less than 50% of the simulated response to total deforestation is attained at 50% deforestation. The spatial structure of the atmospheric response to Amazon deforestation reveals large areas across the tropics that exhibit a significant nonlinear component, particularly for temperature and geopotential height. Over the domain between 45°S and 45°N across all longitudes, 50% deforestation generally provides less than half of the total response to deforestation over oceans, indicating the marine portion of climate system is somewhat resilient to progressive deforestation. However, over continents there are both accelerating and saturating responses to 50% Amazon deforestation, and the response is different depending on whether the eastern or western half of Amazonia is deforested or half of the forest is removed uniformly across the region.

  15. The Scope for Reducing Emissions from Forestry and Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Sven Wunder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land uses is considered an essential ingredient of an effective strategy to mitigate global warming. Required changes in land use and forestry, however, often imply foregoing returns from locally more attractive resource use strategies. We assess and compare the prospects of mitigating climate change through emission reductions from forestry and agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon. We use official statistics, literature, and case study material from both old and new colonization frontiers to identify the scope for emission reductions, in terms of potential additionality, opportunity costs, technological complexity, transaction costs, and risks of economic and environmental spillover effects. Our findings point to a comparative advantage in the Brazilian Amazon of forest conservation-based over land-use modifying mitigation options, especially in terms of higher potential additionality in emission reductions. Low-cost mitigation options do exist also in use-modifying agriculture and forestry, but tend to be technologically complex thus requiring more costly intervention schemes. Our review points to a series of regional development deficits that may come to hamper attempts to tap into the large-scale climate change mitigation potential often associated with the Amazon. Low-hanging fruits for mitigation do exist, but must be carefully identified based on the performance indicators we discuss.

  16. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J Timmons

    2008-05-27

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazon region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors-whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmentalist policy initiatives); the type and level of international support they have; and the organizational and financial resources that they are able to mobilize. In analysing the four periods, this article finds that while international influences and resources have been substantial in enabling environmentalist networks to flourish and influence the policy, their effectiveness has been nearly always outweighed by Brazilian developmentalist interests. The outcome in each phase has been a different form of stalemate on environmental protection, and the deforestation continued each time, albeit at slower rates. These findings suggest that the key for significantly lower rates of deforestation on the Amazon may be in the ability of pro-environment networks to neutralize opposition by creating an incentive structure that 'compensates' potential losers of policies that promote conservation.

  17. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  19. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  20. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  1. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  2. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress. PMID:27638214

  3. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-27

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two "tipping points," namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale "savannization" of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation-80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade-opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm-away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity-in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  4. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

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    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  5. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Valencia, Jorge H; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J; Ron, Santiago R; Cannatella, David C

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated

  6. Simulating fire regimes in the Amazon in response to climate change and deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Rafaella Almeida; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel; Coe, Michael; Rodrigues, Hermann; Assunção, Renato

    2011-07-01

    Fires in tropical forests release globally significant amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and may increase in importance as a result of climate change. Despite the striking impacts of fire on tropical ecosystems, the paucity of robust spatial models of forest fire still hampers our ability to simulate tropical forest fire regimes today and in the future. Here we present a probabilistic model of human-induced fire occurrence for the Amazon that integrates the effects of a series of anthropogenic factors with climatic conditions described by vapor pressure deficit. The model was calibrated using NOAA-12 night satellite hot pixels for 2003 and validated for the years 2002, 2004, and 2005. Assessment of the fire risk map yielded fitness values > 85% for all months from 2002 to 2005. Simulated fires exhibited high overlap with NOAA-12 hot pixels regarding both spatial and temporal distributions, showing a spatial fit of 50% within a radius of 11 km and a maximum yearly frequency deviation of 15%. We applied this model to simulate fire regimes in the Amazon until 2050 using IPCC's A2 scenario climate data from the Hadley Centre model and a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of deforestation and road expansion from SimAmazonia. Results show that the combination of these scenarios