WorldWideScience

Sample records for balanced chromosomal translocation

  1. A strategy for generation and balancing of autosome: Y chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sonal S; Cheong, Han; Meller, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for generation and maintenance of translocations that move large autosomal segments onto the Y chromosome. Using this strategy we produced ( 2;Y) translocations that relocate between 1.5 and 4.8 Mb of the 2nd chromosome.. All translocations were easily balanced over a male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) mutant chromosome. Both halves of the translocation carry visible markers, as well as P-element ends that enable molecular confirmation. Halves of these translocations can be separated to produce offspring with duplications and with lethal second chromosome deficiencies . Such large deficiencies are otherwise tedious to generate and maintain.

  2. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a girl with characteristic features of Rett syndrome (RTT) who carries a de novo balanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7. Both breakpoints were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization with selected genomic clones from the regions of interest. Southern blot...

  3. Nuclear volume differences between balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa in chromosomal translocation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Alexandre; Lavillaureix, Alinoë; Hyon, Capucine; Heide, Solveig; Clède, Sylvain; Balet, Richard; Kott, Esther; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    While chromosomal translocations are usually associated with a normal phenotype, they can still cause male infertility as well as recurrent miscarriages and fetal malformations related to their transmission in an unbalanced state. The distinction between balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa on morphological criteria is still unfeasible. However, we previously showed that: i) spermatozoa with an unbalanced content have a higher rate of DNA fragmentation; and ii) that density gradient centrifugation partially separates balanced from unbalanced sperm cells. We hypothesized that a chromosomal imbalance could alter the fine spermatic nuclear architecture and consequently the condensation of DNA, thus modifying normal sperm density. Spermatic nuclear volumes in four translocation carriers were analyzed using confocal microscopy. Secondarily, FISH analysis was used to establish the segregation mode of each spermatozoon. We found the average spermatic nuclei size to be higher among unbalanced spermatozoa in all patients but one. All the unbalanced modes were associated with larger nuclei in two patients, while this was the case for the 3:1 mode only in the other two, suggesting an abnormal condensation. This could be the first step in elaborating a procedure to completely eliminate unbalanced spermatozoa from semen prior to in vitro fertilization. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Whalley

    Full Text Available Individuals carrying rare, but biologically informative genetic variants provide a unique opportunity to model major mental illness and inform understanding of disease mechanisms. The rarity of such variations means that their study involves small group numbers, however they are amongst the strongest known genetic risk factors for major mental illness and are likely to have large neural effects. DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 is a gene containing one such risk variant, identified in a single Scottish family through its disruption by a balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 11; t(1;11 (q42.1;q14.3.Within the original pedigree, we examined the effects of the t(1;11 translocation on white matter integrity, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA. This included family members with (n = 7 and without (n = 13 the translocation, along with a clinical control sample of patients with psychosis (n = 34, and a group of healthy controls (n = 33.We report decreased white matter integrity in five clusters in the genu of the corpus callosum, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, acoustic radiation and fornix. Analysis of the mixed psychosis group also demonstrated decreased white matter integrity in the above regions. FA values within the corpus callosum correlated significantly with positive psychotic symptom severity.We demonstrate that the t(1;11 translocation is associated with reduced white matter integrity in frontal commissural and association fibre tracts. These findings overlap with those shown in affected patients with psychosis and in DISC1 animal models and highlight the value of rare but biologically informative mutations in modeling psychosis.

  5. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    impedance spectroscopy was selected as the sensing method on a microfabricated chip with array of 12 electrode sets. Two independent chips (Chip1 and Chip2) were used for targeting the chromosomal fragments involved in the translocation. Each chip was differentially functionalized with DNA probes matching......Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...

  6. The clinical impact of chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints upstream of the SOX9 gene: two novel de novo balanced translocations associated with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Carolina S; Bonaldi, Adriano; Bertola, Débora R; Kim, Chong A; Otto, Paulo A; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M

    2013-05-07

    The association of balanced rearrangements with breakpoints near SOX9 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9] with skeletal abnormalities has been ascribed to the presumptive altering of SOX9 expression by the direct disruption of regulatory elements, their separation from SOX9 or the effect of juxtaposed sequences. We report on two sporadic apparently balanced translocations, t(7;17)(p13;q24) and t(17;20)(q24.3;q11.2), whose carriers have skeletal abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD; MIM 114290). No pathogenic chromosomal imbalances were detected by a-CGH. The chromosome 17 breakpoints were mapped, respectively, 917-855 kb and 601-585 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. A distal cluster of balanced rearrangements breakpoints on chromosome 17 associated with SOX9-related skeletal disorders has been mapped to a segment 932-789 kb upstream of SOX9. In this cluster, the breakpoint of the herein described t(17;20) is the most telomeric to SOX9, thus allowing the redefining of the telomeric boundary of the distal breakpoint cluster region related to skeletal disorders to 601-585 kb upstream of SOX9. Although both patients have skeletal abnormalities, the t(7;17) carrier presents with relatively mild clinical features, whereas the t(17;20) was detected in a boy with severe broncheomalacia, depending on mechanical ventilation. Balanced and unbalanced rearrangements associated with disorders of sex determination led to the mapping of a regulatory region of SOX9 function on testicular differentiation to a 517-595 kb interval upstream of SOX9, in addition to TESCO (Testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 core). As the carrier of t(17;20) has an XY sex-chromosome constitution and normal male development for his age, the segment of chromosome 17 distal to the translocation breakpoint should contain the regulatory elements for normal testis development. These two novel translocations illustrate the clinical variability in carriers of balanced

  7. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. (a–i) Putative novel genes created by the breakpoints. Translocation chromosomes are shown with the translocated segment indicated in red and the untranslocated segments in black or blue. Purple arrows indicate whether the chromosome is a donor (arrow pointing up) or a recipient (arrow ...

  8. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  10. Two translocations of chromosome 15q associated with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Nopola-Hemmi, J.; Taipale, M.; Haltia, T.; Lehesjoki, A.; Voutilainen, A.; Kere, J.

    2000-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is characterised by difficulties in learning to read. As reading is a complex cognitive process, multiple genes are expected to contribute to the pathogenesis of dyslexia. The genetics of dyslexia has been a target of molecular studies during recent years, but so far no genes have been identified. However, a locus for dyslexia on chromosome 15q21 (DYX1) has been established in previous linkage studies. We have identified two families with balanced translocations involvi...

  11. Balanced reciprocal translocation 5,18: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Savad

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: A balanced reciprocal translocation carrier is phenotypically normal, but during meiosis І, carrier chromosomes cant pair normally and form quadrivalant instead of bivalant that depend on type of their segregation (alternate, adjacent 1, adjacent 2,3:1,4:0, produce gametes that are chromosomally unbalanced which can result in early fetus abortion. Considering the number of abnormal gametes, the most effective way to help couples with this problem seems to be PGD 24sure, since it can identify reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation and allows concurrent screening of all chromosomes for aneuploidy. Another technique that can be compared with PGD 24sure is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, but it has several technical limitations such as it is expensive and complexity, in addition it has only few probes (for chromosomes 21, 13, 18, X, Y so sometimes necessary to create patient specific protocols.

  12. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is little doubt that chromosomal translocations can contribute to cancer, there is an active "chicken and the egg" discussion about the role translocations and other chromosomal abnormalities play—do they actually cause cancer or merely occur because of other changes within the cancer cell.  

  13. Balanced Reciprocal Translocations Detected at Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Balanced reciprocal translocations detected at amniocentesis may be associated with fetal anomalies in cases of concomitant aneuploidy, de novo X-autosome translocation or de novo CCR. Genetic counseling of a de novo simple reciprocal translocation at amniocentesis remains difficult because approximately one-fourth of the parents opt for termination of the pregnancy, and detailed ultrasonography and array comparative genomic hybridization are helpful for parental counseling under such circumstances.

  14. Balanced Autosomal Translocations in Two Women Reporting Recurrent Miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Brindha; Samuel, Chandra R; Thyagarajan, Santhiya Sathiyavedu

    2016-12-01

    Spontaneous abortion or loss of fetus prior to 20 weeks of gestation is observed in 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and it affects 1-2% of women. Parental chromosomal rearrangements account for 2-5% of RM. This report describes two couples with a clinical history of RM who were subjected to conventional cytogenetic analysis to ascertain the chromosomal aetiology. Analysis of GTG-banded metaphases obtained from cultured lymphocytes at approximately 500-band resolution revealed balanced translocation in the female spouses as 46,XX,t(8;11)(p11.2;q23.3) in BR27W and 46,XX,t(5;7)(p15.1;q32) pat in BR49W. Both the male partners exhibited 46,XY karyotype. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis was subsequently carried out to confirm the balanced translocation using suitable whole chromosome paint probes. These balanced chromosomal abnormalities in the parents could be responsible for the repeated fetal losses. Hence, karyotype analysis should be a mandatory etiological investigation for couples with RM towards genetic counselling. Disruption of critical genes through these rearrangements could also underlie the pregnancy outcome.

  15. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    †Dedicated to the memory of our colleague T Bhavani Prasanna. Abbreviations used: Dp, duplication; Df, deficiency; ITs, insertional translocations; LG, lineage group; OR, Oak Ridge; ORFs, open reading frames; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTs, quasiterminal translocations; RIP, repeat-induced point mutation.

  16. A de novo complex karyotype with two independent balanced translocations and a double inversion of chromosome 6 presenting with multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Antonie D; Griffin, Constance A; Haddadin, Mary H; Chudoba, Ilse; Morsberger, Laura A; Hawkins, Anita L; Amato, R Stephen; Munshi, Gaurang; Cohen, Maimon M

    2004-08-30

    We report a 4-year-old female with a de novo complex karyotype with multiple chromosomal rearrangements and a distinctive phenotype. Her medical history is significant for having been a twin born at 35 weeks gestation, breech presentation, with feeding problems and poor growth as an infant, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peripheral pulmonic stenosis, omphalocele, high myopia, and severe mental retardation. She is small for her age with microcephaly, posteriorly sloping forehead, shallow orbits, long palpebral fissures, prominent nose, wide mouth, absent uvula, kyphosis, brachydactyly, bridged palmar crease, and hypertonia. Peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(1;12)(p22.3;q21.3),inv(6)(p24q23),t(7;18)(q11.2;q21.2) in all cells. Parental karyotypes and that of her twin were normal. Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 12, and 18 did not reveal additional rearrangements. Prometaphase G-banding analysis suggested that the "inverted" chromosome 6 might contain a cryptic rearrangement. Although no deletion nor duplication was detected using metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), multicolor high resolution banding (mBAND) demonstrated a double inversion of chromosome 6, resulting in a final karyotype as above but including der(6)(pter --> p23::q21 --> q22.3::q21 --> p23::q22.3 --> qter). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A small (sSMC) chromosome 22 due to a maternal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 22: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhofir, F E P; Kooper, A J A; Winarni, T I; Smits, A P T; Faradz, S M H; Hamel, B C J

    2010-01-01

    We report on a boy with partial trisomies for chromosomes 8 and 22 caused by the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC), a der(22)t(8;22)(p22;q11.21), inherited from a t(8;22)(p22;q11.21) translocation carrier mother. He has mild mental retardation, unability to speak distinct words and several minor anomalies i.e. high forehead and hairline, telecanthus, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, nail hypoplasia, toe position anomaly and 5th finger clinodactyly. He has two maternal uncles and one maternal aunt with mental retardation. G-banding technique showed 47,XY,+mar whilst his mother's karyotype showed a balanced reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 8 and 22. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique with probes for centromere 22 and 8pter were used to detect the origin of marker chromosome and confirmed the marker chromosome in the proband showing to be extra chromosomal material originated from chromosome 8 and 22. Additional genome wide microarray analysis, using the Affymetrix Nspl 250K SNP array platform was performed to further characterize the marker chromosome and resulted in a der(22)t(8;22)(p22;q11.21). Furthermore, cytogenetic analysis of three affected family members showed the same unbalanced translocation, due to 3:1 meiotic segregation. This indicated the viability of this unbalanced pattern and combined with the recurrent miscarriages by the proband's mother, the mechanism of transmitting extrachromosomal material is probably not a random process. Since, there is no similar translocation (8p;22q) reported and the chromosomal translocation largely exists of additional 8p22-8pter we compare the clinical outcomes with reported cases of 8p22-8pter triplication, although there is a part of genetic material derived from chromosome 22 present. This unique familial chromosome translocation case from Indonesia will give insight in the underlying mechanism of this recurrent chromosomal abnormality

  18. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  19. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generating translocations; ... are summarized in table 1. 2.3 Overview of the method used to define the breakpoint junction sequences .... showed linkage with the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) in LG VL but not to markers on LG VL or LG V ...

  20. Cloning of a balanced translocation breakpoint mapping in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demczuk, S.; Zucman, J.; Desmaze, C. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of thymus, parathyroids and heart, which is associated with microdeletions in chromosomal region 22q11.2. A detailed physical map of the region has been established and a shortest region of overlap based on deletions and unbalanced translocations giving rise to DGS has been derived. Moreover, the breakpoint of a balanced translocation borne by a DGS patient has been localized in that critical region; thereby suggesting that the translocation breakpoint interrupts the or one of the major gene(s) implicated in DGS. We have initiated a chromosome walk by establishing cosmid contigs from probes distally flanking the breakpoint. One contig covers 150 kb of genomic DNA and a second one spans 350 kb in the region and contains the balanced translocation breakpoint. Phylogenetically conserved sequences are being searched for in the vicinity of the breakpoint to be used as probes in order to isolate cDNAs.

  1. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...... and detection chambers. The burst frequencies of the two capillary burst microvalves are separated by 180 rpm enabling precise control of hybridization in each of the chambers. The DNA probes targeting a translocation are immobilized directly on PMMA by a UV-activated procedure, which is compatible...

  2. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  3. Molecular diagnosis of sarcomas: chromosomal translocations in sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alexander; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Pollock, Raphael E; Lee, Sangkyou; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2006-08-01

    Sarcomas are rare, numerous in type, and often difficult to definitively classify. Work in the last 2 decades has revealed that a significant subset of sarcomas are associated with specific chromosomal translocations producing chimeric (fusion) genes that play a role in the sarcomas' biology and are helpful in their differential diagnosis. To briefly review the sarcomas associated with specific translocations presenting Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma as archetypes and to further explain how cytogenetic and molecular biologic approaches are being used in the diagnosis of sarcomas. This work is based on a selected review of the relevant medical and scientific literature and our extensive experience with molecular testing in sarcomas. In addition to, and complementing, the traditional diagnostic methods of examination of hematoxylin-eosin stained slides, immunohistochemistry, and sound clinical-pathologic correlation, additional cytogenetic and molecular biologic methods are being increasingly utilized and relied on in sarcoma pathology. These methods include chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, spectral karyotyping, and polymerase chain reaction- based methods for demonstrating specific chromosomal translocations and fusion genes. Understanding the basis of these methods and their application is critical to better provide accurate and validated specific diagnoses of sarcomas.

  4. RNAi drives nonreciprocal translocations at eroding chromosome ends to establish telomere-free linear chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnis, Martina; Apte, Manasi S; Masuda, Hirohisa; Jain, Devanshi; Wheeler, David Lee; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2018-04-13

    The identification of telomerase-negative HAATI (heterochromatin amplification-mediated and telomerase-independent) cells, in which telomeres are superseded by nontelomeric heterochromatin tracts, challenged the idea that canonical telomeres are essential for chromosome linearity and raised crucial questions as to how such tracts translocate to eroding chromosome ends and confer end protection. Here we show that HAATI arises when telomere loss triggers a newly recognized illegitimate translocation pathway that requires RNAi factors. While RNAi is necessary for the translocation events that mobilize ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tracts to all chromosome ends (forming "HAATI rDNA " chromosomes), it is dispensable for HAATI rDNA maintenance. Surprisingly, Dicer (Dcr1) plays a separate, RNAi-independent role in preventing formation of the rare HAATI subtype in which a different repetitive element (the subtelomeric element) replaces telomeres. Using genetics and fusions between shelterin components and rDNA-binding proteins, we mapped the mechanism by which rDNA loci engage crucial end protection factors-despite the absence of telomere repeats-and secure end protection. Sequence analysis of HAATI rDNA genomes allowed us to propose RNA and DNA polymerase template-switching models for the mechanism of RNAi-triggered rDNA translocations. Collectively, our results reveal unforeseen roles for noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in assembling a telomere-free chromosome end protection device. © 2018 Begnis et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes (no.21/14) in relation to the history of spontaneous abortion in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi, Mohammad; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Namazi, Iman; Mirzaee, Salmeh

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed. Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement. six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.

  6. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Lampert, F.; Kaneko, Y.; Slater, R.; Kroes, W. G.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Ludwig, W. D.; Karpas, A.

    1993-01-01

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). We report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell,

  7. Chromosomal translocation in a mongoloid male child and his normal mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Beçak

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a translocation 21/13-15 is related in 46 chromosomes, karyotypes of a mongoloid male child (Down's syndrome. The abnormal chromosome was transmitted by the mother of the patient. The possible deficiency of translocated chromosome 21 and the possible origin of the anomaly in the family was discussed and the presence of a markedly large Y chromosome in the karyotypes of the patient as in those of his father was also noted.

  8. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  9. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based concurrent screening of 24-chromosome aneuploidy and unbalanced translocations in preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Northrop, Lesley E; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Su, Jing; Levy, Brynn; Scott, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    To develop, validate, and apply a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray-based method for simultaneous preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of unbalanced inheritance of rearranged chromosomes and 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Prospective clinical research study. Academic reproductive medicine center. Eighteen couples carrying a balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement. PGD on blastocyst trophectoderm biopsy specimens. Aneuploidy, implantation, pregnancy, and delivery rates after SNP microarray-based aneuploidy and translocation screening. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray was capable of detecting translocation-associated imbalances as small as 9.0 megabases. In the 12 transfers performed, sustained implantation occurred for 9 (45%) of 20 balanced-normal and euploid embryos replaced. The clinical pregnancy rate in patients receiving a transfer was 75% with six singleton deliveries and three ongoing singleton pregnancies thus far. Significantly fewer embryos were eligible for transfer with the incorporation of simultaneous 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Arrested embryos were also significantly more likely to possess unbalanced chromosomes when compared with developmentally competent blastocysts. This SNP microarray-based method provides the first opportunity to improve outcomes through comprehensive identification of euploid embryos from translocation carrier couples. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Down syndrome consequent to a cryptic maternal 12p;21q chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.; Wenger, S.L.; Chakravarti, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    A 9-year-old, mildly mentally retarded girl presented with phenotypic manifestations of Down syndrome. G-banded chromosomal analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patient and her parents, and skin fibroblasts from the patient, did not detect any abnormality. Molecular analysis of 15 highly polymorphic chromosome 21 dinucleotide repeat markers demonstrated a partial duplication of the Down syndrome critical region (D21S55, subband 21q22.2) of maternal origin in the patient. The segmental trisomy was confirmed by FISH analysis using the cosmid probe D21S55. Further analysis demonstrated that the trisomy was due to segregation of an apparently balanced cryptic translocation from the mother. The patient`s karyotype is 46,XX,-12,tder(12)t(12;21)(p13.1;q22.2)mat. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Genomic and Cytogenetic Characterization of a Balanced Translocation Disrupting NUP98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, My Linh; Steinraths, Michelle; Brown, Lindsay; Zong, Zheyuan; Shomer, Naomi; Taubert, Stefan; Mungall, Karen L; Ma, Yussanne P; Mueller, Rosemary; Birol, Inanc; Lehman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A 41-year-old Asian woman with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AML) was incidentally identified to have a balanced translocation, 46,XX,t(11;12)(p15.4;q15). She had no other features or family history to suggest a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Her healthy daughter had the same translocation and no renal AML at the age of 3 years. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on genomic maternal DNA isolated from blood. A targeted de novo assembly was then conducted with ABySS for chromosomes 11 and 12. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the translocation breakpoints. As a result, genomic characterization of chromosomes 11 and 12 revealed that the 11p breakpoint disrupted the NUP98 gene in intron 1, causing a separation of the promoter and transcription start site from the rest of the gene. The translocation breakpoint on chromosome 12q was located in a gene desert. NUP98 has not yet been associated with renal AML pathogenesis, but somatic NUP98 alterations are recurrently implicated in hematological malignancies, most often following a gene fusion event. We also found evidence for complex structural events involving chromosome 12, which appear to disrupt the TDG gene. We identified a TDGP1 partially processed pseudogene at 12p12.1, which adds complexity to the de novo assembly. In conclusion, this is the first report of a germline constitutional structural chromosome rearrangement disrupting NUP98 that occurred in a generally healthy woman with bilateral renal AML. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Identification of novel translocation between short arm of chromosome 4 and long arm of chromosome 6 in an infertile man using Interphase Chromosome Profiling (ICP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, S; Kaur, H; Vats, S K S; Chawla, J; Jindal, R; Khetarpal, P

    2018-02-07

    Conventional cytogenetics has always been a favourite to detect chromosomal aberrations. Carriers of chromosomal translocation are often phenotypically normal but are infertile. Couples are often advised to go for karyotyping, but culture failure or improper metaphase spread with poor banding often makes the analysis difficult. We report here a novel translocation between short arm of chromosome 4 and long arm of chromosome 6 in an infertile man using an advanced molecular cytogenetic technique of Interphase Chromosome Profiling (ICP). © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  15. Advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal translocations and fusion genes are very common in human cancer especially in subtypes of sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of novel chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in different tumors are due to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome sequencing. Recently, many novel chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have been identified in different types of sarcoma through NGS approaches. In addition to previously known sarcoma fusion genes, these novel specific fusion genes and associated molecular events represent important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sarcomas. This review focuses on recent advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  17. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  18. Genetic mechanisms leading to primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Dos Santos; Dantas, Anelisa Gollo; Ueta, Renata; Perez, Ana Beatriz; Haidar, Mauro; Canonaco, Rosane; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-05-01

    To map the X-chromosome and autosome breakpoints in women with balanced X-autosome translocations and primary amenorrhea, searching candidate genomic loci for female infertility. Retrospective and case-control study. University-based research laboratory. Three women with balanced X-autosome translocation and primary amenorrhea. Conventional cytogenetic methods, genomic array, array painting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Karyotype, copy number variation, breakpoint mapping, and gene expression levels. All patients presented with breakpoints in the Xq13q21 region. In two patients, the X-chromosome breakpoint disrupted coding sequences (KIAA2022 and ZDHHC15 genes). Although both gene disruptions caused absence of transcription in peripheral blood, there is no evidence that supports the involvement of these genes with ovarian function. The ZDHHC15 gene belongs to a conserved syntenic region that encompasses the FGF16 gene, which plays a role in female germ line development. The break in the FGF16 syntenic block may have disrupted the interaction between the FGF16 promoter and its cis-regulatory element. In the third patient, although both breakpoints are intergenic, a gene that plays a role in the DAX1 pathway (FHL2 gene) flanks distally the autosome breakpoint. The FHL2 gene may be subject to position effect due to the attachment of an autosome segment in Xq21 region. The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect. The fine mapping of the rearrangement breakpoints may be a tool for identifying genetic pathogenic mechanisms for primary amenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hereditary pancreatitis associated with a balanced translocation (5q;11p)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasouki, J.J.; Summar, M.L.; Mixon, C. [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center and Cytogenetics Lab Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Dominantly inherited pancreatitis was first described by Comfort and Steinberg in 1952. It is estimated to account for <1% of all childhood pancreatitis cases. Patients as young as 17 months of age were reported. Presentation varies from acute abdominal pain mimicking familial Mediterranean fever to more chronic steatorrhea causing malabsorption. Urinary excretion of cystine in both affected and unaffected family members is an unexplained feature. Our 37 year old, G{sub 1}P{sub 0{minus}1} proband is known to have familial pancreatitis which complicated her current pregnancy. Family history was also positive in her mother and a sister who has a 12 year old daughter with recurrent abdominal pain. The proband sought genetic counselling because her amniocentesis showed a male fetus with an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation: t(5;11)(q13;p15). A detailed fetal ultrasound examination failed to show any abnormality. On chromosomal analysis, the proband was found to have a similar translocation. Her plasma aminogram was normal, however the spot and 24 hour urine aminograms demonstrated generalized aminoaciduria. This is the first report of hereditary pancreatitis with a segregating balanced autosomal translocation which may be etiologically important. In addition, unlike what was described previously, the aminoaciduria was generalized and nonspecific. Molecular analysis of the genes located in the breakpoint region may prove to be helpful in identifying the responsible gene and the delineation of the pathogenesis of this developmental disorder.

  20. Analysis of initial events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. Investigation of chromosome aberration including translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of chromosome aberrations in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis, chromosome G-banding analysis of the lymphoma cells (8 groups and 34 kinds of cells), of which each group was derived from a single donor by intra-thymic injection of a limited number of prelymphoma cells, was performed. Many numerical and structural aberrations were observed in the donor-derived T cell lymphomas. Common aberrations including translocations were found almost in the lymphomas of all groups. Translocations between chromosomes 11 and 12, 12 and 15, 7 and 10, 1 and 13, 6 and X were found in D, E, F, G, H, groups, respectively. There were also common aberrations such as trisomy 15 in A and F groups. These results indicate that chromosome aberrations including translocations may be important candidates of initiating events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis

  1. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Supriya; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2016-06-01

    Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a) many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter) or the origin of replication (oriC); (b) translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c) symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences. Copyright © 2016 Khedkar and Seshasayee.

  2. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Qing

    Full Text Available Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  3. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV) can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  4. Rapid Karyotype Evolution in Lasiopodomys Involved at Least Two Autosome – Sex Chromosome Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Serdyukova, Natalya A.; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Kovalskaya, Julia M.; Smorkatcheva, Antonina V.; Golenishchev, Feodor N.; Perelman, Polina L.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The generic status of Lasiopodomys and its division into subgenera Lasiopodomys (L. mandarinus, L. brandtii) and Stenocranius (L. gregalis, L. raddei) are not generally accepted because of contradictions between the morphological and molecular data. To obtain cytogenetic evidence for the Lasiopodomys genus and its subgenera and to test the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis of sex chromosome complex origin in L. mandarinus proposed previously, we hybridized chromosome painting probes from the field vole (Microtus agrestis, MAG) and the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, DTO) onto the metaphases of a female Mandarin vole (L. mandarinus, 2n = 47) and a male Brandt's vole (L. brandtii, 2n = 34). In addition, we hybridized Arctic lemming painting probes onto chromosomes of a female narrow-headed vole (L. gregalis, 2n = 36). Cross-species painting revealed three cytogenetic signatures (MAG12/18, 17a/19, and 22/24) that could validate the genus Lasiopodomys and indicate the evolutionary affinity of L. gregalis to the genus. Moreover, all three species retained the associations MAG1bc/17b and 2/8a detected previously in karyotypes of all arvicolins studied. The associations MAG2a/8a/19b, 8b/21, 9b/23, 11/13b, 12b/18, 17a/19a, and 5 fissions of ancestral segments appear to be characteristic for the subgenus Lasiopodomys. We also validated the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis on the origin of complex sex chromosomes in L. mandarinus. Two translocations of autosomes onto the ancestral X chromosome in L. mandarinus led to a complex of neo-X1, neo-X2, and neo-X3 elements. Our results demonstrate that genus Lasiopodomys represents a striking example of rapid chromosome evolution involving both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Multiple reshuffling events including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fissions, inversions and heterochromatin expansion have led to the formation of modern species karyotypes in a very short time, about 2.4 MY. PMID

  5. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  6. Population-based survey of cancer risks in chromosome 3 translocation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, Emma R; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Cruger, Dorthe G

    2010-01-01

    Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is genetically heterogeneous and may be associated with germline mutations in a number of genes. Twelve different constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3 have also been described in association with inherited RCC. In some families the lifetime risk...

  7. Genetic markers, translocations and sexing genes on chromosome 2 of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladera, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    A review is presented of results obtained in a search for genetic markers, translocations and selectable genes obtained at the Instituto de Genetica, Castelar, Argentina, with special reference to chromosome 2 linked mutations and genes useful for developing self-sexing strains in Ceratitis capitata. (author)

  8. Breeding few-seed/seedless watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation induced by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, W.; Xingping, Z.; Xian, Z.; Kechi, N.; Shuai, Z.; Juenlian, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The development of autotriploid watermelon was a great advance in the field of watermelon breeding. However, some disadvantages still existed with this type of seedless watermelon. Partial sterility may be induced in diploid watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation. We used gamma-rays to irradiate the seeds of homozygous translocation strains with one translocation ring composed of 4 chromosomes (symbol (4) ). Watermelon strains were 'Asahi Yamato', 'Mioyaka', and 'Fumin' saent to us by H. Kihara in 1977. In order to further induce multiple reciprocal translocations for developing new few-seed/seedless watermelon strains, the seeds of the above 3 strains were sown for further selfing in 1978. The seeds of each selfed fruit were grown as a single plant line in 1979 for evaluation of their characters. In addition, some crosses between common diploid watermelon cultivars and translocations were carried out to test the seed setting rate of the heterozygous translocation strains. Some of the crosses were 'Sugar Baby' x 'Asahi Yamato AT-1' and 'Akakotama' x Asahi Yamato AT-2'. The plump seed setting rate of the F1 of these crosses were ca. 50%

  9. Recombinase, chromosomal translocations and lymphoid neoplasia: targeting mistakes and repair failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Rodrig; Vanura, Katrina; Montpellier, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine; Le, Trang; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Jäger, Ulrich; McBlane, Fraser; Nadel, Bertrand

    2006-09-08

    A large number of lymphoid malignancies is characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which are closely linked to the initial steps of pathogenesis. The hallmark of these translocations is the ectopic activation of a silent proto-oncogene through its relocation at the vicinity of an active regulatory element. Due to the unique feature of lymphoid cells to somatically rearrange and mutate receptor genes, and to the corresponding strong activity of the immune enhancers/promoters at that stage of cell development, B- and T-cell differentiation pathways represent propitious targets for chromosomal translocations and oncogene activation. Recent progress in the understanding of the V(D)J recombination process has allowed a more accurate definition of the translocation mechanisms involved, and has revealed that V(D)J-mediated translocations result both from targeting mistakes of the recombinase, and from illegitimate repair of the V(D)J recombination intermediates. Surprisingly, V(D)J-mediated translocations turn out to be restricted to two specific sub-types of lymphoid malignancies, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and a restricted set of mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

  10. Chromosome territories, X;Y translocation and Premature Ovarian Failure: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betri Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea occurring before the age of 40 and affecting 1-3% of females. Chromosome anomalies account for 6-8% of POF cases, but only few cases are associated with translocations involving X and Y chromosomes. This study shows the cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a POF patient came to our attention as she developed a left ovary choriocarcinoma at the age of 10 and at 14 years of age she presented secondary amenorrhea with elevated levels of gonadotropins. Results Breakpoint position on X and Y chromosomes was investigated using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH with a panel of specific BAC probes, microsatellite analysis and evaluation of copy number changes and loss of heterozigosity by Affymetrix® GeneChip platform (Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patient's karyotype resulted 46, X, der(Yt(X;Y(q13.1;q11.223. X inactivation study was assessed by RBA banding and showed preferential inactivation of derivative chromosome. The reciprocal spatial disposition of sexual chromosome territories was investigated using whole chromosome painting and centromeres probes: patient's results didn't show a significant difference in comparison to normal controls. Conclusion The peculiar clinical case come to our attention highlighted the complexity of POF aetiology and of the translocation event, even if our results seem to exclude any effect on nuclear organisation. POF phenotype could be partially explained by skewed X chromosome inactivation that influences gene expression.

  11. Unbalanced interchromosomal insertion diagnosed prenatally by FISH, with carrier mother, previously misdiagnosed as having a balanced reciprocal translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, M.T.; Leiber, E.; Qazi, Q. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Insertion translocations are rare. A carrier with a balanced insertion translocation is most likely to be detected through offspring with an unbalanced translocation. We with to report a case where a correct diagnosis, made prenatally with FISH, corrected the initial misdiagnosis of the mother in another institute. PDL received an amniotic fluid sample from a 28 y.o. woman (G5P2Sab1TOP1) at 19 wks gestation. The indications were a reported balanced translocation, t(6;13), in the mother and a previous daughter with an unbalanced translocation. Chromosome analysis of the amniocytes showed a female karyotype with an abnormal chr. 13. Since the mother was diagnosed as having t(6;13)(q21;q34), the der(13) in the amniocytes was initially assumed to result from an adjacent segregation of the t(6;13). However, the banding patterns of this abnormal chr. 13 did not fit into the above defined translocation. With FISH and a chr. 13 painting probe, this der(13) was painted in the proximal and the distal thirds, but NOT in the middle region. This indicates that the middle section of the der(13) must have originated from 6q. The banding pattern is compatible with a direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into 13q21.2. Thus, the fetus has partial trisomy 6q. After counseling, the mother elected to terminate the pregnancy but later changed her mind. An 8 lb 12 oz baby girl was born at 36 wks. (mother diabetic). Chromosome analysis of the newborn blood confirmed the dx. The mother was studied, using multicolor painting probes for chromosomes 13 and 6, a balanced direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into chr. 13q21.2 was clearly shown. The previous affected daughter with a 13q+ is now 4 y.o. (a restudy is planned). She has microcephaly, severe developmental delay and other dysmorphic features. This case illustrates the advantage of using FISH to arrive at a definitive diagnosis of an insertion translocation.

  12. Y autosome translocation and complex chromosome rearrangement in cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, J F; Mattei, M G; Coignet, J; Giraud, F

    1978-01-01

    An unbalanced Y autosome translocation t(5;Y) and an apparently balanced translocation t(2;13) are identified with the Q and R banding in a 7-year-old boy with severe encephalopathy and a multiple malformation syndrome. At birth, the clinical diagnosis of 'cri du chat' syndrome based on the characteristic crying was not confirmed after karyotyping, using conventional staining techniques. Images PMID:641952

  13. Rapid Development and Characterization of Chromosome Specific Translocation Line of Thinopyrum elongatum with Improved Dough Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The protein content and its type are principal factors affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum end product quality. Among the wheat proteins, glutenin proteins, especially, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS are major determinants of processing quality. Wheat and its primary gene pool have limited variation in terms of HMW-GS alleles. Wild relatives of wheat are an important source of genetic variation. For improvement of wheat processing quality its wild relative Thinopyrum elongatum with significant potential was utilized. An attempt was made to replace Th. elongatum chromosome long arm (1EL carrying HMW-GS genes related to high dough strength with chromosome 1AL of wheat with least or negative effect on dough strength while retaining the chromosomes 1DL and 1BL with a positive effect on bread making quality. To create chromosome specific translocation line [1EL(1AS], double monosomic of chromosomes 1E and 1A were created and further crossed with different cultivars and homoeologous pairing suppressor mutant line PhI. The primary selection was based upon glutenin and gliadin protein profiles, followed by sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. These steps significantly reduced time, efforts, and economic cost in the generation of translocation line. In order to assess the effect of translocation on wheat quality, background recovery was carried out by backcrossing with recurrent parent for several generations and then selfing while selecting in each generation. Good recovery of parent background indicated the development of almost near isogenic line (NIL. Morphologically also translocation line was similar to recipient cultivar N61 that was further confirmed by seed storage protein profiles, RP-HPLC and scanning electron microscopy. The processing quality characteristics of translocation line (BC4F6 indicated significant improvement in the gluten performance index (GPI, dough mixing

  14. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  15. Partial deletions of the W chromosome due to reciprocal translocation in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Seki, M; Ohbayashi, F; Tanaka, N; Yamashita, J; Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M; Banno, Y; Sahara, K; Yoshido, A; Ihara, J; Yasukochi, Y; Mita, K; Ajimura, M; Suzuki, M G; Oshiki, T; Shimada, T

    2005-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori (female, ZW; male, ZZ), femaleness is determined by the presence of a single W chromosome, irrespective of the number of autosomes or Z chromosomes. The W chromosome is devoid of functional genes, except the putative female-determining gene (Fem). However, there are strains in which chromosomal fragments containing autosomal markers have been translocated on to W. In this study, we analysed the W chromosomal regions of the Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) at the molecular level. Initially, we undertook a project to identify W-specific RAPD markers, in addition to the three already established W-specific RAPD markers (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai and W-Kamikaze). Following the screening of 3648 arbitrary 10-mer primers, we obtained nine W-specific RAPD marker sequences (W-Bonsai, W-Mikan, W-Musashi, W-Rikishi, W-Sakura, W-Sasuke, W-Yukemuri-L, W-Yukemuri-S and BMC1-Kabuki), almost all of which contained the border regions of retrotransposons, namely portions of nested retrotransposons. We confirmed the presence of eleven out of twelve W-specific RAPD markers in the normal W chromosomes of twenty-five silkworm strains maintained in Japan. These results indicate that the W chromosomes of the strains in Japan are almost identical in type. The Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) lacked the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) lacked the W-Mikan RAPD marker. These results strongly indicate that the regions containing the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers or the W-Mikan RAPD marker were deleted in the T(W;3)Ze and T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosomes, respectively, due to reciprocal translocation between the W chromosome and the autosome. This deletion apparently does not affect the expression of Fem; therefore, this deleted region of the W chromosome does not contain the putative Fem gene.

  16. Birth of a child with Down syndrome in a family transmitting an unusual chromosome 22 arising from a translocation between chromosomes 21 and an inverted chromosome 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviv, H.A.; Desposito, F. [UMDNJ-NJ Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Lieber, C. [Hackensack Medical Center, NJ (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal analysis of a child with Down syndrome resulted in the identification of a family with an unusual translocation and in the definition of the translocation breakpoints. Studies were performed on the child, his siblings, mother, mother`s sister, and grandmother. All of the family members were carriers of the translocation. We performed G-banding, silver stain, C-banding, and hybridization with the following FISH probes (Oncor): {alpha}-satellite 13/21; {beta}-satellite, coatasome 21 and 22, and the probes for chromosome 22 at 22q11 (DiGeorge region) and 22q13.3 (control region). Using the banding techniques and probes, we characterized the karyotype as: 45,XX,-21,-22,+der(22),t(21;22)(22qter{r_arrow}22q11.2::22p13{r_arrow}22q11.2::21q11.2{r_arrow}21qter). The effect of deletion of 21q11.2 and the break of chromosome 22 in the DiGeorge region in this family is not clear. However, the presence of the translocation increases the risk of family members of conceiving children with Down syndrome.

  17. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Three-way balanced translocations are unusual and can lead to infertility as well as abnormal embryos. In this case report, we describe a couple who experienced repeated miscarriages as a result of the male partner being a carrier of a three-way translocation t(5;8;12). Objectives: Array comparative genomic ...

  18. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated th...

  19. Evolution of the Banana Genome (Musa acuminata) Is Impacted by Large Chromosomal Translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Carreel, Françoise; Coriton, Olivier; Hervouet, Catherine; Cardi, Céline; Derouault, Paco; Roques, Danièle; Salmon, Frédéric; Rouard, Mathieu; Sardos, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique

    2017-09-01

    Most banana cultivars are triploid seedless parthenocarpic clones derived from hybridization between Musa acuminata subspecies and sometimes M. balbisiana. M. acuminata subspecies were suggested to differ by a few large chromosomal rearrangements based on chromosome pairing configurations in intersubspecies hybrids. We searched for large chromosomal rearrangements in a seedy M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis banana accession through mate-pair sequencing, BAC-FISH, targeted PCR and marker (DArTseq) segregation in its progeny. We identified a heterozygous reciprocal translocation involving two distal 3 and 10 Mb segments from chromosomes 01 and 04, respectively, and showed that it generated high segregation distortion, reduced recombination and linkage between chromosomes 01 and 04 in its progeny. The two chromosome structures were found to be mutually exclusive in gametes and the rearranged structure was preferentially transmitted to the progeny. The rearranged chromosome structure was frequently found in triploid cultivars but present only in wild malaccensis ssp. accessions, thus suggesting that this rearrangement occurred in M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis. We propose a mechanism for the spread of this rearrangement in Musa diversity and suggest that this rearrangement could have played a role in the emergence of triploid cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  1. Systematic re-examination of carriers of balanced reciprocal translocations: a strategy to search for candidate regions for common and complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Iben; Hjorth, Mads; Bugge, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Balanced reciprocal translocations associated with genetic disorders have facilitated the identification of a variety of genes for early-onset monogenic disorders, but only rarely the genes associated with common and complex disorders. To assess the potential of chromosomal breakpoints associated...... linkage data and/or the translocation co-segregated with the reported phenotype, for example, we found a significant linkage (lod score=2.1) of dyslexia and a co-segregating translocation with a breakpoint in a previously confirmed locus for dyslexia. Furthermore, we identified 441 instances of at least...... two unrelated carriers with concordant breakpoints and traits. If applied to other populations, re-examination of translocation carriers may identify additional genotype-phenotype associations, some of which may be novel and others that may coincide with and provide additional support of data...

  2. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  3. A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chun Huang

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates an effective PGD strategy with promising outcomes. Blastocyst biopsy can retrieve more genetic material and may provide more reliable results, and aCGH offers not only detection of chromosomal translocation but also more comprehensive analysis of 24 chromosomes than traditional FISH. More cases are needed to verify our results and this strategy might be considered in general clinical practice.

  4. Balanced Autosomal Translocations in Two Women Reporting Recurrent Miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam, Brindha; Samuel, Chandra R; Thyagarajan, Santhiya Sathiyavedu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion or loss of fetus prior to 20 weeks of gestation is observed in 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and it affects 1-2% of women. Parental chromosomal rearrangements account for 2-5% of RM. This report describes two couples with a clinical history of RM who were subjected to conventional cytogenetic analysis to ascertain the chromosomal aetiology. Analysis of GTG-banded metaphases ...

  5. Altered segregation pattern and numerical chromosome abnormalities interrelate in spermatozoa from Robertsonian translocation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, Anna; Blanco, Joan; Vidal, Francesca; Sandalinas, Mireia; Garcia-Guixé, Elena; Anton, Ester

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between numerical chromosome abnormalities and certain segregation modes in spermatozoa from Robertsonian translocation carriers. A sequential fluorescence in-situ hybridization protocol based on two successive hybridization rounds was performed on sperm samples from one t(13;22) and ten t(13;14) carriers. Patient inclusion criteria included the presence of a positive interchromosomal effect (ICE). In the first round, numerical abnormalities for chromosomes 15/22, 18, 21, X and Y were analysed. In the second round, the segregation outcome of the rearranged chromosomes was evaluated in the numerically abnormal spermatozoa detected in the first round, as well as in randomly assessed spermatozoa. Aneuploid spermatozoa showed statistical differences in all segregation modes when compared with randomly assessed spermatozoa: alternate (50.7% versus 84.3%), adjacent (36.6% versus 14.6%) and 3:0 (10.2% versus 1%). Diploid/multiple disomic spermatozoa showed differences in alternate (3.7% versus 84.3%) and 3:0 (67.6% versus 1%). We concluded that in Robertsonian translocation carriers that exhibit ICE, numerically abnormal spermatozoa preferentially contain unbalanced segregation products. This might be explained by heterosynapsis acting as a rescue mechanism that would lead to aberrant recombination, which is a predisposing factor for non-disjunction events. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  7. Duplication 4p and deletion 4p (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome) due to complementary gametes from a 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, S S; Corbani, M; Andrade, J A D; Smith, M de A C; Brunoni, D; Melaragno, M I

    2004-08-30

    We present clinical and cytogenetic data on a family with a t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation present in four generations. The balanced translocation resulted in one individual with monosomy 4p and one individual with trisomy 4p, due to 3:1 segregation. The male patient with trisomy 4p was fertile and transmitted the extra chromosome to his daughter. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, B.; Hatchett, J.H.; Gill, B.S.; Mukai, Y.; Sebesta, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) resistance gene derived from 'Balbo' rye and its transfer to hexaploid wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations are described. Crosses between resistant 'Balbo' rye and susceptible 'Suwon 92' wheat and between the F1 amphidiploids and susceptible 'TAM 106' and 'Amigo' wheats produced resistant BC2F3 lines that were identified by C-banding analysis as being 6RL telocentric addition lines. Comparative chromosomal analyses and resistance tests revealed that the resistance gene is located on the 6RL telocentric chromosome. X-irradiated pollen of 6RL addition plants was used to fertilize plants of susceptible wheats 'TAM 106,' 'TAM 101,' and 'Vona.' After several generations of selection for resistance, new sublines were obtained that were homogeneous for resistance. Thirteen of these lines were analyzed by C-banding, and three different wheat-6RL chromosomal translocations (T) were identified. Wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations were 6B, 4B, and 4A. Almost the complete 6RL arm is present in T6BS · 6BL-6RL. Only the distal half of 6RL is present in T4BS · 4BL-6RL, which locates the resistance gene in the distal half of 6RL. Only a very small segment (ca 1.0 μm) of the distal region of 6RL is present in an intercalary translocation (Ti) Ti4AS · 4AL-6RL-4AL. The 6RL segment is inserted in the intercalary region between the centromere of chromosome 4A and the large proximal C-band of 4AL. The break-points of the translocations are outside the region of the centromere, indicating that they were induced by the X-ray treatment. All three translocations are cytologically stable and can be used directly in wheat breeding programs

  9. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ( 60 Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  10. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, F. [Brandon Univ., Manitoba (Canada); Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-03-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ({sup 60}Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  11. Sex chromosome repeats tip the balance towards speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2018-04-06

    Because sex chromosomes, by definition, carry genes that determine sex, mutations that alter their structural and functional stability can have immediate consequences for the individual by reducing fertility, but also for a species by altering the sex ratio. Moreover, the sex-specific segregation patterns of heteromorphic sex chromosomes make them havens for selfish genetic elements that not only create sub-optimal sex ratios, but can also foster sexual antagonism. Compensatory mutations to mitigate antagonism or return sex ratios to a Fisherian optimum can create hybrid incompatibility and establish reproductive barriers leading to species divergence. The destabilizing influence of these selfish elements is often manifest within populations as copy number variants (CNVs) in satellite repeats and transposable elements (TE) or as CNVs involving sex determining genes, or genes essential to fertility and sex chromosome dosage compensation. This review catalogs several examples of well-studied sex chromosome CNVs in Drosophilids and mammals that underlie instances of meiotic drive, hybrid incompatibility and disruptions to sex differentiation and sex chromosome dosage compensation. While it is difficult to pinpoint a direct cause/effect relationship between these sex chromosome CNVs and speciation, it is easy to see how their effects in creating imbalances between the sexes, and the compensatory mutations to restore balance, can lead to lineage splitting and species formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Translocations of 14q32 and deletions of 13q14 are common chromosomal abnormalities in systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christine J; Mazzullo, Helen; Ross, Fiona M; Cheung, Kan L; Gerrard, Gareth; Harewood, Louise; Mehta, Atul; Lachmann, Helen J; Hawkins, Philip N; Orchard, Kim H

    2002-05-01

    Systemic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) is associated with clonal plasma cell dyscrasias that are often subtle and non-proliferating. AL shares numerical chromosomal changes with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Illegitimate translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) at 14q32 and deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13, [del(13q)], commonly occur in MM, MGUS and plasma cell leukaemia. In AL IGH rearrangements have been identified but, to date, there are no reports of del(13q). In this study of 32 patients with AL, 24 with systemic and eight with localized disease, translocations involving IGH and del(13q) were found using dual-colour interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). IGH translocations were observed in 11 patients (37% overall and in 46% with systemic disease), of which nine had the IGH/CCND1 fusion from t(11;14)(q13;q32). Two showed IGH translocations other than the t(11;14) or t(4;14)(p16;q32). In one of these patients a breakpoint within the constant region of IGH between Calpha1 and Calpha2 was indicated. In the second a deletion covering Calpha1 and Calpha2 accompanied the translocation. Ten patients (27% overall and 33% of those with systemic disease) showed del(13q). The gain or loss of IGH and CCND1 signals provided evidence of numerical chromosomal changes in three patients.

  13. 1;17 translocations and other chromosome 17 rearrangements in human primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Laureys, G.; Cheng, N. C.; Willem, P.; Opdenakker, G.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the finding of a t(1;17) in two primary neuroblastomas. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the presence of 1;17 translocations in four out of nine neuroblastoma cell lines. The chromosome 1 short arm breakpoints were determined using region-specific

  14. Absence of t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Matera, Serena; Fago, Lucrezia; Arrabito, Giorgio; Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Libra, Massimo; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to pesticides represents a potential health risk for the general population and for agricultural workers in particular. Some researchers observed that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with risk of non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of pesticides on t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure. Fifty-two workers occupationally exposed to pesticides (fungicides and insecticides) and 52 non-exposed were recruited. The farm workers were on average exposed to pesticides for ~3.7 h a day for 5 years. The frequency of BCL2-IGH t(14;18) translocation in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides was 10% (5 of 52) vs. 8% (4 of 52) in the control group. Overall, these data suggest that no significant association between occupational exposure to pesticides and an increased frequency of the chromosomal translocation BCL2-IGH t(14;18) in farmers was observed. However, further studies with a higher number of subjects exposed to pesticides are necessary to confirm this observation.

  15. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the 5DS-5BS chromosome translocation conditioning soft kernel texture in durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivar ‘Soft Svevo’, a new non-GMO soft durum cultivar with soft kernel texture, was developed through a 5DS(5BS) chromosomal translocation from event. cv. Chinese Spring, and subsequently used to create new soft durum germplasm. The development of Soft Svevo featured the Ph1b-mediated homoeologou...

  16. Evaluating changes in stable chromosomal translocation frequency in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Wang Jianyi; Liu An; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Shively, John E.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Williams, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of any consistent correlation between radioimmunotherapy (RIT) dose and observed hematologic toxicity has made it difficult to validate RIT radiation dose estimates to marrow. Stable chromosomal translocations (SCT) which result after radiation exposure may be a biologic parameter that more closely correlates with RIT radiation dose. Increases in the frequency of SCT are observed after radiation exposure and are highly correlated with absorbed radiation dose. SCT are cumulative after multiple radiation doses and conserved through an extended number of cell divisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increases in SCT frequency were detectable in peripheral lymphocytes after RIT and whether the magnitude of these increases correlated with estimated radiation dose to marrow and whole body. Methods and Materials: Patients entered in a Phase I dose escalation therapy trial each received 1-3 intravenous cycles of the radiolabeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, 90 Y-chimeric T84.66. Five mCi of 111 In-chimeric T84.66 was co-administered for imaging and biodistribution purposes. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the start of therapy and 5-6 weeks after each therapy cycle. Peripheral lymphocytes were harvested after 72 hours of phytohemagglutinin stimulation and metaphase spreads prepared. Spreads were then stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using commercially available chromosome paint probes to chromosomes 3 and 4. Approximately 1000 spreads were evaluated for each chromosome sample. Red marrow radiation doses were estimated using the AAPM algorithm and blood clearance curves. Results: Eighteen patients were studied, each receiving at least one cycle of therapy ranging from 5-22 mCi/m 2 . Three patients received 2 cycles and two patients received 3 cycles of therapy. Cumulative estimated marrow doses ranged from 9.2 to 310 cGy. Increases in SCT frequencies were observed after

  17. [Investigation of chromosomes in varieties and translocation lines of pea Pisum sativum L. by FISH, Ag-NOR, and differential DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Muravenko, O M; Bol'sheva, N L; Amosova, A B; Gostimsckiĭ, S A; Zelenin, A V

    2005-12-01

    The DNA intercalator 9-aminoachridine was used for obtaining high-resolution DAPI patterns of chromosomes of Pisum sativum L. with more than 300 bands per haploid chromosome set. The karyotypes of three pea varieties, Viola, Capital, and Rosa Crown, and two translocation lines, L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)), were examined. Based on the results of DAPI staining, we have identified chromosomes, constructed idiograms, and established breakpoints of chromosome translocations. Lines L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)) were shown to appear as a result of respectively one translocation between chromosomes 2 and 4 and two translocations between chromosomes 2 and 7. All varieties and translocation lines of pea were examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomere repetition probes, 5S and 45S wheat DNA probes. Transcriptional activity of 45S rRNA was detected by Ag-NOR staining. Telomere repetitions were shown to be located only in telomeric chromosome regions. Using high-resolution DAPI staining allowed us to verify localization of 5S genes on pea chromosomes 1, 3, and 5. 45S rDNAs were localized in the secondary constriction regions on the satellite and the satellite thread of chromosome and on the satellite thread and in more proximal satellite heterochromatic region of chromosome 7. The size of 45S rDNA signal on chromosome 7 was larger and its transcriptional activity, higher than the corresponding parameters on chromosome 4 in most of the forms studied. A visual comparison of the results of FISH and Ag-NOR staining of normal and translocated pea chromosomes did not reveal any significant differences between them. The translocations of the satellite chromosomes apparently did not cause significant changes either in the amount of the ribosomal genes or in their transcriptional activity.

  18. Biparental inheritance of chromosome 21 polymorphic markers indicates that some Robertsonian translocations t(21;21) occur postzygotically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, J.L.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Binkert, F. [Univ. of Zurich Medical School, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1994-02-01

    Robertsonian translocations between acrocentric chromosomes are the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements in humans and many other organisms, and several mechanisms for their formation have been proposed. The authors have analyzed highly informative DNA polymorphisms in a family with a nonmosaic de novo Robertsonian translocation 21q;21q, to determine the parental origin of the two 21q arms of the rearranged chromosome. The genotypes indicated a biparental origin, i.e. one 21q was paternal and the other maternal. These results imply that in some cases the formation of the rob (21q;21q) occurs in the zygote or in the first few postzygotic mitotic divisions. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Cloning of the chromosome translocation breakpoint junction of the t(14;19) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeithan, T.W.; Rowley, J.D.; Shows, T.B.; Diaz, M.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' laboratory has reported that t(14;19)(q32;q13.1) is a recurring translocation in the neoplastic cells of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the present study, they have analyzed the leukemic cells from one such patient with probes from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, which is present on band q32 of chromosome 14. Using a probe for the α constant-region gene segments, they detected a rearranged band by Southern blot analysis. This rearranged band was cloned and mapped. A subclone free of repetitive sequences was shown to be from chromosome 19 by analysis of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, confirming that the rearranged band contains the translocation breakpoint junction. This probe may be used to identify a gene on chromosome 19 adjacent to the breakpoint that can contribute to the malignant development of B lymphocytes

  20. Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    rearrangements mediated by intercentromeric recombination have occurred during descent of the 2 lineages from their common ancestor. Taken together, our findings support a model in which the evolution of the bipolar mating system was initiated by an ectopic recombination event mediated by similar repetitive centromeric DNA elements shared between chromosomes. This translocation brought the P/R and HD loci onto the same chromosome, and further chromosomal rearrangements then resulted in the 2 MAT loci becoming physically linked and eventually fusing to form the single contiguous MAT locus that is now extant in the pathogenic Cryptococcus species.

  1. Slit scan flow cytometry of isolated chromosomes following fluorescence hybridization: an approach of online screening for specific chromosomes and chromosome translocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, M.; Dudin, G.; Aten, J. A.; Heilig, R.; Diaz, E.; Cremer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed methods of non radioactive in situ hybridization of chromosomes offer new aspects for chromosome analysis. Fluorescent labelling of hybridized chromosomes or chromosomal subregions allows to facilitate considerably the detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities. For many

  2. Significant Role of Segmental Duplications and SIDD Sites in Chromosomal Translocations of Hematological Malignancies: A Multi-parametric Bioinformatic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Aditi; Ansari, Afzal; Pandya, Medha; Shah, Krupa; Patel, Shanaya; Rawal, Rakesh; Umrania, Valentina

    2016-11-28

    Recurrent non-random chromosomal translocations are hallmark characteristics of leukemogenesis, and however, molecular mechanisms underlying these rearrangements are less explored. The fundamental question is, why and how chromosomes break and reunite so precisely in the genome. Meticulous understanding of mechanism leading to chromosomal rearrangement can be achieved by characterizing breakpoints. To address this hypothesis, a novel multi-parametric computational approach for characterization of major leukemic translocations within and around breakpoint region was performed. To best of our knowledge, this bioinformatic analysis is unique in finding the presence of segmental duplications (SDs) flanking breakpoints of all major leukemic translocation. Breakpoint islands (BpIs) were analyzed for stress-induced duplex destabilization (SIDD) sites along with other complex genomic architecture and physicochemical properties. Our study distinctly emphasizes on the probable correlative role of SDs, SIDD sites and various genomic features in the occurrence of breakpoints. Further, it also highlights potential features which may be playing a crucial role in causing double-strand breaks, leading to translocation.

  3. t(8;14) chromosome translocation of the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Daudi occurred during immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and involved the heavy chain diversity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent molecular analyses of Burkitt lymphomas carrying the t(8;14) chromosome translocation have indicated that a dichotomy exists regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the translocations occur. Most sporadic Burkitt tumors carry translocations that apparently arise due to mistakes in the immunoglobulin isotype-switching process. In contrast, there is evidence that the translocations of most endemic Burkitt lymphomas occur as a consequence of aberrant V-D-J recombination of variable, diversity, and joining gene segments, catalyzed by the recombinase enzymes. This phenomenon was first noted in follicular lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemias of the B-cell lineage and has been described in T-cell malignancies as well. In each of these cases, analysis of the nucleotide sequence at chromosome breakpoints demonstrated the involvement of immunoglobulin heavy chain J/sub H/ or T-cell-receptor α-chain Jα gene segments in the translocation. The authors now have cloned and sequenced both the 8q- and 14q+ translocation breakpoints deriving from the t(8;14) translocation of the endemic Burkitt lymphoma line Daudi. The data show that the translocation resulted from a reciprocal exchange between the D/sub H/ region on chromosome 14 and sequences far 5' of the MYC protooncogene on chromosome 8. Features of the nucleotide sequences surrounding the breakpoint further implicate the V-D-J joining machinery in the genesis of chromosome translocation in endemic Burkitt lymphomas and, more generally, in other lymphoid malignancies as well

  4. Mandatory chromosomal segment balance in aneuploid tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lung Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euploid chromosome balance is vitally important for normal development, but is profoundly changed in many tumors. Is each tumor dependent on its own structurally and numerically changed chromosome complement that has evolved during its development and progression? We have previously shown that normal chromosome 3 transfer into the KH39 renal cell carcinoma line and into the Hone1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma line inhibited their tumorigenicity. The aim of the present study was to distinguish between a qualitative and a quantitative model of this suppression. According to the former, a damaged or deleted tumor suppressor gene would be restored by the transfer of a normal chromosome. If so, suppression would be released only when the corresponding sequences of the exogenous normal chromosome are lost or inactivated. According to the alternative quantitative model, the tumor cell would not tolerate an increased dosage of the relevant gene or segment. If so, either a normal cell derived, or, a tumor derived endogenous segment could be lost. Methods Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization based methods, as well as analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to follow chromosome 3 constitution changes in monochromosomal hybrids. Results In both tumor lines with introduced supernumerary chromosomes 3, the copy number of 3p21 or the entire 3p tended to fall back to the original level during both in vitro and in vivo growth. An exogenous, normal cell derived, or an endogenous, tumor derived, chromosome segment was lost with similar probability. Identification of the lost versus retained segments showed that the intolerance for increased copy number was particularly strong for 3p14-p21, and weaker for other 3p regions. Gains in copy number were, on the other hand, well tolerated in the long arm and particularly the 3q26-q27 region. Conclusion The inability of the cell to tolerate an experimentally imposed gain in 3p14-p21 in

  5. Occupational exposure to pesticides and occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 among farmers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara’a M. Qaqish

    Full Text Available Background: An increased incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL has been reported in farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. In these individuals, an increased prevalence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18(q32;q21, one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL, has been detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This translocation juxtaposes the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus (IGH leading to overexpression of BCL2. This causes an increase in cell survival, paving the way for malignant transformation. Aim of the study: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 and occupational exposure to pesticides among a group of Jordanian farmers. Methods: A total of 192 male subjects including 96 agricultural workers and 96 control subjects participated in this study. BCL2-IGH t(14;18 fusions were detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeting the major breakpoint region (MBR. Results: We found that occupational exposure to pesticides in open-field farming and insecticide used on animals increased the frequency of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18. Farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides and insecticide were 13.5 times more likely to harbor t(14;18. 63.5% (61 of 96 of farmers compared to 11.5% (11 of 96 of controls carried the translocation (odds ratio: 13.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 6.3–28.6. We ruled out the influence of possible confounding factors such as age, duration of sun exposure, alcohol intake, smoking, and use of personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pesticides increased the frequency of chromosomal translocation in the 14q32 region. Accordingly, the presented data agrees with previous suggestions from the literature that pesticides might be involved in the development of NHL through the t(14;18 pathway. Keywords

  6. Mechanism of the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation: structural analysis of both derivative 14 and 18 reciprocal partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshi, A.; Wright, J.J.; Graninger, W.; Seto, M.; Owens, J.; Cossman, J.; Jensen, J.P.; Goldman, P.; Korsmeyer, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of the t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation found in follicular lymphoma, the authors examined the structure of both derivative (der) chromosomal breakpoints as well as their germ-line predecessors. They noted that chromosome segment 18q21 was juxtaposed with immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain gene diversity (D/sub H/) regions on all five der(18) chromosomes they examined, and they confirmed the juncture with immunoglobulin H-chain gene joining (J/sub H/) regions on the der(14) chromosome. However, the t(14;18) was not fully reciprocal in that chromosome 14 DNA between the D/sub H/ and J/sub H/ regions was deleted. Furthermore, extra nucleotides, reminiscent of N segments, were present at the der(14) and possibly der(18) junctions. This indicates that despite the mature B-cell phenotype of follicular lymphoma, the t(14;18) occurs during attempted D/sub H/-J/sub H/ joining, the earliest event in immunoglobulin rearrangement in a pre-B-cell. The detailed analysis of the germ-line 18q21 region indicated that most breakpoints clustered within a 150-base-pair major breakpoint region. A direct repeat duplication of chromosome 18 sequences was discovered at both chromosomal junctures, typical of the repair of a naturally occurring staggered double-stranded DNA break. These results prompt a translocation model with illegitimate pairing of a staggered double-stranded DNA break at 18q21 and an immunoglobulin endonuclease-mediated break at 14q32 and with N-segment addition, repair, and ligation to generate der(14) and der(18) chromosomes

  7. Analysis of chromosome translocation in the residents of Namie Town after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.; Nakata, Akifumi; Miura, Tomisato; Nishimura, Miya; Takamagi, Shizuka; Kasai, Kosuke; Konno, Norio; Yoshida, Ryoko; Sekine, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    The dose estimation by behavior survey of the residents carried out by Fukushima Prefecture after the accident reported that there are no residents who were exposed by over 1 mSv radiation. However, a lot of the parents are worrying about the health condition of their children in future. Our Hirosaki University accepted the request of the local government of this Namie-Town in Fukushima which wants to know whether children were exposed by radiological substances or not and started the inspection about the contamination and exposure level and dose estimation at an accident using chromosomal translocation analysis for 855 out of 3700 children whose age was under 18 years old at the time of accident. In order to estimate radiation dose using chromosome aberration in the accidents, there are four kinds of cytogenetic method; dicentric assay, a translocation assay, the PCC-ring assay and micronucleus test. A dicentric assay is used for the dose estimation in acute and external exposure cases, the chromosomal translocation method for dose assessment in chronic and old exposure and the PCC method for high dose exposure, respectively. In the case of the residents in Namie-Town, since about one year and ten months had already passed after the accident when implementation of this inspection was determined, the chromosomal translocation method was applied for the dose estimation of the initial exposure level. The main purpose of this translocation analysis using their own cells is to take away affairs of the residents including parents and children and also to reduce the uneasiness which is not wiped away by the health check due to a behavioral survey. In this inspection, after the contents and process of this analysis were explained in the Tsushima, Namie-Town temporarily constructed clinic, 3∼4 ml of whole 5 blood were taken from each children whose parents agreed with this analysis. The lymphocytic cells are isolated from the whole blood using CPT (Cell Preparation Tube

  8. ROUTINE DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY EXAMINATIONS AND INCREASED FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOME TRANSLOCATIONS AMONG U. S. RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Bhatti, Parveen; Preston, Dale L.; Doody, Michele Morin; Kampa, Diane; Alexander, Bruce H.; Petibone, Dayton; Yong, Lee C.; Edwards, Alan A.; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. population has nearly one radiographic examination per person per year and concern about cancer risks associated with medical radiation has increased. Radiologic technologists were surveyed to determine whether their personal cumulative exposure to diagnostic x-rays was associated with increased frequencies of chromosome translocations, an established radiation biomarker and possible intermediary suggesting increased cancer risk. Within a large cohort of U. S. radiologic technologists, 150 provided a blood sample for whole chromosome painting and were interviewed about past x-ray examinations. The number and types of examinations reported were converted to a red bone marrow (RBM) dose score with units that approximated 1 mGy. The relationship between dose score and chromosome translocation frequency was assessed using Poisson regression. The estimated mean cumulative RBM radiation dose score was 49 (range 0 – 303). After adjustment for age, translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing RBM dose score with an estimate of 0.004 translocations per 100 cell equivalents per score unit (95% confidence interval 0.002 to 0.007; P < 0.001). Removing extreme values or adjustment for gender, cigarette smoking, occupational radiation dose, allowing practice x-rays while training, work with radioisotopes, and radiotherapy for benign conditions did not affect the estimate. Cumulative radiation exposure from routine x-ray examinations was associated independently with increased chromosome damage, suggesting the possibility of elevated long-term health risks, including cancer. The slope estimate was consistent with expectation based on cytogenetic experience and atomic bomb survivor data. PMID:18974125

  9. Large Clinically Consequential Imbalances Detected at the Breakpoints of Apparently Balanced and Inherited Chromosome Rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    South, Sarah T.; Rector, Lyndsey; Aston, Emily; Rowe, Leslie; Yang, Samuel P.

    2010-01-01

    When a chromosome abnormality is identified in a child with a developmental delay and/or multiple congenital anomalies and the chromosome rearrangement appears balanced, follow-up studies often examine both parents for this rearrangement. If either clinically unaffected parent has a chromosome abnormality with a banding pattern identical to the affected child's study, then it is assumed that the chromosome rearrangement is balanced and directly inherited from the normal carrier parent. It is ...

  10. Searching for genes for cleft lip and/or palate based on breakpoint analysis of a balanced translocation t(9;17)(q32;q12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Junichiro; Félix, Têmis M; Murray, Jeffrey C; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Tanemura, Mitsuyo; Kamamoto, Munefumi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Sonta, Shin-ichi; Ono, Takao

    2009-09-01

    Identification of the breakpoints of disease-associated chromosome rearrangements can provide informative clues to a positional cloning approach for genes responsible for inherited diseases. Recently, we found a three-generation Japanese family segregating balanced chromosome translocation t(9;17)(q32;q12). One of the subjects had cleft lip and palate. We examined whether regions near the breakpoint could be associated with cleft lip and/or palate. We determined the breakpoints involved in the translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and subsequent long-range polymerase chain reaction. In order to study the role of these disrupted regions in nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, we performed mutation analysis and a haplotype-based transmission disequilibrium test using tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the flanking regions of the breakpoints in white and Filipino nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate populations. Sequence analysis demonstrated that two genes, SLC31A1 (solute carrier family 31 member 1) on chromosome 9 and CCL2 (chemokine ligand 2) on chromosome 17, were rearranged with the breaks occurring within their introns. It is interesting that SLC31A1 lies closed to BSPRY (B-box and SPRY domain), which is a candidate for involvement with cleft lip and/or palate. Some of the variants in BSPRY and CCL2 showed significant p values in the cleft lip and/or palate population compared with the control population. There was also statistically significant evidence of transmission distortion for haplotypes on both chromosomes 9 and 17. The data support previous reports that genes on chromosomal regions of 9q and 17q play an important role in facial development.

  11. A cohort of balanced reciprocal translocations associated with dyslexia: identification of two putative candidate genes at DYX1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonincontri, Roberta; Bache, Iben; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders where likely many genes are involved in the pathogenesis. So far six candidate dyslexia genes have been proposed, and two of these were identified by rare chromosomal translocations in affected individuals. By systematic re......-examination of all translocation carriers in Denmark, we have identified 16 different translocations associated with dyslexia. In four families, where the translocation co-segregated with the phenotype, one of the breakpoints concurred (at the cytogenetic level) with either a known dyslexia linkage region--at 15q21...... (DYX1), 2p13 (DYX3) and 1p36 (DYX8)--or an unpublished linkage region at 19q13. As a first exploitation of this unique cohort, we identify three novel candidate dyslexia genes, ZNF280D and TCF12 at 15q21, and PDE7B at 6q23.3, by molecular mapping of the familial translocation with the 15q21 breakpoint....

  12. Household exposure to paint and petroleum solvents, chromosomal translocations, and the risk of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scélo, Ghislaine; Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Selvin, Steve; Month, Stacy; Smith, Martyn T; Buffler, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between home use of solvents and paint and the risk of childhood leukemia. In this case-control study, we examined whether the use of paint and petroleum solvents at home before birth and in early childhood influenced the risk of leukemia in children. We based our analyses on 550 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 100 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and one or two controls per case individually matched for sex, age, Hispanic status, and race. We conducted further analyses by cytogenetic subtype. We used conditional logistic regression techniques to adjust for income. ALL risk was significantly associated with paint exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-2.15], with a higher risk observed when paint was used postnatally, by a person other than the mother, or frequently. The association was restricted to leukemia with translocations between chromosomes 12 and 21 (OR = 4.16; 95% CI, 1.66-10.4). We found no significant association between solvent use and ALL risk overall (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.87-1.51) or for various cytogenetic subtypes, but we observed a significant association in the 2.0- to 5.9-year age group (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07-2.25). In contrast, a significant increased risk for AML was associated with solvent (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.19-5.42) but not with paint exposure (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.32-1.25). The association of ALL risk with paint exposure was strong, consistent with a causal relationship, but further studies are needed to confirm the association of ALL and AML risk with solvent exposure.

  13. Absent endometrium due to balanced translocation [t(4;20] presenting as primary amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche by 16-18 years of age in the presence of well-developed secondary sexual characters. An incidence of 1-3% has been reported in women of reproductive age group. The etiology varies with anatomical, genetic and hormonal factors implicated in the causation of primary amenorrhea. We present a case of absent endometrium due to balanced reciprocal translocation (RCPTR, 46 XX t (4;20(q12;q13.1 as primary amenorrhea.

  14. "Understanding Adam" multiple reciprocal translocations: complex case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Carie E; Lu, Xianglan; Kim, Young Mi; Li, Shibo; Pineda, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case review of a newborn diagnosed with a complex chromosomal rearrangement, as demonstrated through a painted chromosomal analysis. This infant presented with multiple dysmorphology including cutis aplasia, multiple ocular malformations, bilateral cleft lip and palate, and postnatal hydrocephaly. A chromosomal analysis revealed multiple-ways, balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9. This case study provides a unique opportunity to, in retrospect, trace each malformation exploring the pathophysiology, etiology, and correlating origin with chromosomal variation. Careful review of this case, enhanced by the visually augmented representation of each translocation, will increase understanding of chromosomal anomalies and their implications in embryological development and clinical presentation.

  15. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  16. Extra skeletal Soft Tissue Ewing’s Sarcoma with Variant Translocation of Chromosome t (4; 22 (q35; q12-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Nagaraj

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ewing’s sarcomas is a rare primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET which has an annual incidence of 2.9 /million population in USA 1Jeffery Toretsky et al (2008 They are very uncommon in African and Asian population .lt is commonly associated with reciprocal translocation between chromosome 11 and 12 t (11:12 or less frequently the t(21 ;22(q22;ql 2 translocation. It is highly aggressive tumor which is PAS- and CD99 (MIC2-positive relatively few variant translocations have been reported in primary Ewing’s sarcomas (ES. Case Report: We are hereby presenting a case of extra skeletal soft tissue Ewing’s sarcoma with unusual translocation of chromosome t (4, 22 (q35, q12.Patient presented to us in advanced stage with pulmonary metastasis and lower limb neurological deficit.Relatively few variant translocations have been reported in primary Ewing’s sarcomas (ES.To date, 13 variants of the EWS fusion gene have been described in literature. They are extremely rare, representing altogether < 1% of the cases’ 23we are reporting a case of a variant simple translocation of chromosome t (4; 22 (q35;1 2. In our exhaustive literature search we could find only one case of complex translocation which was identified in a dysmorphic 15-year-old girl, t (4:11; 22(q21; q24; q12 reported by Squire Jet al (1993. Conclusion: This type of translocation is extremely rare and has not been reported in the literature so far. Clinical presentation was initial indolent but later at the time patient presented to our institute he had developed pulmonary metastases and paraplegia due to involvement of spine. Our case report will provide new insight about rare translocation types in Ewing’s sarcoma and understand their clinical behavior of Ewing’s sarcoma with such type of translocation. Keywords: Ewings sarcoma, Translocation, Neuroectodermal tumours, Chromosome

  17. X-autosome and X-Y translocations in female carriers: X-chromosome inactivation easily detectable by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report one new case each of an X-autosome translocation (maternally derived, and an X-Y-chromosome translocation. Besides characterizing the involved breakpoints and/or imbalances in detail by molecular cyto-genetics, also skewed X-chromosome inactivation was determined on single cell level using 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU. Thus, we confirmed that the recently suggested EdU approach can be simply adapted for routine diagnostic use. The latter is important, as only by knowing the real pattern of the skewed X-chromosome inactivation, correct interpretation of obtained results and subsequent reliable genetic counseling, can be done.

  18. Hypertelorism and hypospadias associated with a de novo apparently balanced translocation between 8q22.3-23 and 20p13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tar, A. [Buda Children`s Hospital, Budapest (Hungary); Ion, A. [Hopital St. Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Gyoervari, B.; Solyom, J. [Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)] [and others

    1997-01-20

    A de novo apparently balanced translocation involving chromosomes 8 and 20 was found in a 14-year-old boy with minor anomalies, mild skeletal abnormalities and ambiguous external genitalia including perineoscrotal hypospadias, rudimentary fused labioscrotal folds, bilateral cryptorchidism, and small penis. The karyotype was 46,XY, t(8;20)(q22.3-23;p13). No signs of other conditions known to be associated with structural anomalies of either chromosome 8 or 20 were present and incomplete masculinisation of the external genitalia appears to be the main component of the phenotype. Clinical and biological studies showed apparently normal testicular function in utero and after birth. Examinations excluded 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency or a block in any enzymatic steps of testosterone, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthesis. Coding sequences of the sex-determining gene (SRY) and androgen receptor gene (AR) were found to be identical to those of a normal male excluding their role in the cause of the present condition. Since several other reports describe the association of hypospadias and hypertelorism with deletions or translocations involving 8q, we suggest that a locus necessary for male sex differentiation is located at distal 8q. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Rare recombination events generate sequence diversity among balancer chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danny E; Cook, Kevin R; Yeganeh Kazemi, Nazanin; Smith, Clarissa B; Cockrell, Alexandria J; Hawley, R Scott; Bergman, Casey M

    2016-03-08

    Multiply inverted balancer chromosomes that suppress exchange with their homologs are an essential part of the Drosophila melanogaster genetic toolkit. Despite their widespread use, the organization of balancer chromosomes has not been characterized at the molecular level, and the degree of sequence variation among copies of balancer chromosomes is unknown. To map inversion breakpoints and study potential diversity in descendants of a structurally identical balancer chromosome, we sequenced a panel of laboratory stocks containing the most widely used X chromosome balancer, First Multiple 7 (FM7). We mapped the locations of FM7 breakpoints to precise euchromatic coordinates and identified the flanking sequence of breakpoints in heterochromatic regions. Analysis of SNP variation revealed megabase-scale blocks of sequence divergence among currently used FM7 stocks. We present evidence that this divergence arose through rare double-crossover events that replaced a female-sterile allele of the singed gene (sn(X2)) on FM7c with a sequence from balanced chromosomes. We propose that although double-crossover events are rare in individual crosses, many FM7c chromosomes in the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center have lost sn(X2) by this mechanism on a historical timescale. Finally, we characterize the original allele of the Bar gene (B(1)) that is carried on FM7, and validate the hypothesis that the origin and subsequent reversion of the B(1) duplication are mediated by unequal exchange. Our results reject a simple nonrecombining, clonal mode for the laboratory evolution of balancer chromosomes and have implications for how balancer chromosomes should be used in the design and interpretation of genetic experiments in Drosophila.

  20. A complex de novo translocation of chromosomes 4, 6 and 21 in a child with dysmorphic features and unusual hematological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneer, R.S.; Hopcus, D.J.; Sarale, C. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 5 1/2-year-old white male was referred to our institution for evaluation of easy bruising confined to lower extremities since infancy. His family history is not significant with healthy parents and six normal siblings. Physical examination revealed weight and height both in 50th and 75th percentile, respectively. Major findings included macrocephaly with prominent forehead, hypertelorism with inner and outer canthus distances both above 97th percentile, epicanthus folds, normal ears with prominent upper pinnae, thin, sharp nose with pointed tip, neck with pterygium coli appearance and shortened clavicles, short thumbs with hyperconvex nails that curved around tip of fingers, abnormally bowed elbows and knee joints, prominent abdomen with omphalocele and flat feet with hypoplastic nails. He has a speech articulation problem which may be due to high arched palate. Hematological evaluation revealed PT/PTT values in normal range with prolonged bleeding time > 15 minutes. Because of abnormal elbow and knee joints, Mitromycin C Stress test was performed to rule out Fanconi`s anemia (FA). The chromosome breakage frequency was found to be within the normal range for both the patient and the control. Thus, the diagnosis of FA was ruled out. However, cytogenetic analysis revealed a three-way complex translocation between chromosomes 4, 6 and 21 with an apparent balanced carrier male karyotype: 46,XY,t(4;6;21)(4qter{r_arrow}4p16::21q21{r_arrow} 21qter;6qter{r_arrow}6p21.1::4p16{r_arrow}4pter;21pter{r_arrow} 21q21::6p21.1{r_arrow}6pter). Both parents have normal chromosomes.

  1. Balanced reciprocal translocation t(5;13)(q33;q12) and 9q31.1 microduplication in a man suffering from infertility and pollinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelsaar, Ruth; Nelis, Mari; Kurg, Ants; Zilina, Olga; Korrovits, Paul; Rätsep, Ranno; Väli, Maie

    2012-02-01

    We describe the first case of two chromosomal abnormalities, balanced reciprocal translocation t(5;13)(q33;q12.1) and a microduplication in the region 9q31.1, in a man suffering from infertility and pollinosis. In the region 13q12.1 is located the TUBA3C (tubulin, alpha 3c) gene, which plays an important dynamic role in the motility of flagella. This case might support the opinion that haploinsufficiency of the TUBA3C gene could be the cause of sperm immotility and abnormal sperm morphology, resulting in infertility in the patient. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed a novel 9q31.1 microduplication inherited from both parents, which contributes to the genomic instability.

  2. Novel Integrated Lab-on-Chip System for Chromosome Translocations Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Lange, Jacob Moresco; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will focus on the development of a chromosome total analysis system (C-TAS) starting from the design strategy and simulations to the integration into a final monolithic plug and play device. Individual modules which perform the sample preprocessing and analysis tasks like - cell...... isolation, cell culture, cell lysing, chromosome extraction and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization will be presented. How we solved connecting the individual chips and adjusting the microfluidic flows, by using simulations will be discussed....

  3. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass

  4. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  5. Immunoglobulin heavy chain locus chromosomal translocations in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: rare clinical curios or potent genetic drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Martin J S; Akasaka, Takashi; Capasso, Melania; Dusanjh, Palminder; Lee, Yin Fai; Karran, E Loraine; Nagel, Inga; Vater, Inga; Cario, Gunnar; Siebert, Reiner

    2010-02-25

    Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus define common subgroups of B-cell lymphoma but are rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Recent fluorescent in situ hybridization and molecular cloning studies have identified several novel IGH translocations involving genes that play important roles in normal hemopoiesis, including the cytokine receptor genes CRLF2 and EPOR, all members of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein gene family, as well as genes not normally expressed in hemopoietic cells including inhibitor of DNA binding 4. IGH translocation results in deregulated target gene expression because of juxtaposition with IGH transcriptional enhancers. However, many genes targeted by IGH translocations are also more commonly deregulated in BCP-ALL as a consequence of other genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. For example, interstitial genomic deletions also result in deregulated CRLF2 expression, whereas EPOR expression is deregulated as a consequence of the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion. The possible clinical importance of many of the various IGH translocations in BCP-ALL remains to be determined from prospective studies, but CRLF2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite their rarity, IGH chromosomal translocations in BCP-ALL therefore define not only new mechanisms of B-cell transformation but also clinically important subgroups of disease and suggest new targeted therapeutic approaches.

  6. Balanced translocation linked to psychiatric disorder, glutamate, and cortical structure/function

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...

  7. West syndrome associated with a novel chromosomal anomaly; partial trisomy 8P together with partial monosomy 9P, resulting from a familial unbalanced reciprocal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ilknur; Saygı, Semra; Demir, Şenay; Alehan, Fusun; Sahin, Feride Iffet

    2015-01-01

    West syndrome is classified according to the underlying etiology into an acquired West syndrome, a congenital/developmental West syndrome, and West syndrome of unknown etiology. Causes of a congenital/developmental West syndrome are extensive and include chromosomal anomalies. We report on a patient carrying a derivative chromosome originating from the reciprocal unbalanced translocation t (8;9) (p11.2;p22) and presenting with macrocephaly, West syndrome, severe mental motor retardation and hypotonia. As far as we know, this is a new chromosomal anomaly associated with West syndrome.

  8. Rapid Simultaneous Amplification and Detection of the MBR/JH Chromosomal Translocation by Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Sandra D.; King, Thomas C.; Wittwer, Carl T.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and product analysis for the detection of chromosomal translocations, such as the t(14;18), has traditionally been a two-step process. PCR product detection has generally entailed gel electrophoresis and/or hybridization or sequencing for confirmation of assay specificity. Using a microvolume fluorimeter integrated with a thermal cycler and a PCR-compatible double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding fluorescent dye (SYBR Green I), we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous thermal amplification and detection of MBR/JH translocation products by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We analyzed DNA from 30 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders comprising 19 cases of previously documented MBR/JH-positive follicle center lymphoma and 11 reactive lymphadenopathies. The samples were coded and analyzed blindly for the presence of MBR/JH translocations by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We also performed dilutional assays using the MBR/JH-positive cell line SUDHL-6. Multiplex PCR for MBR/JH and β-globin was used to simultaneously assess sample adequacy. All (100%) of the 19 cases previously determined to be MBR/JH positive by conventional PCR analysis showed a characteristic sharp decrease in fluorescence at ∼90°C by melting curve analysis after amplification. Fluorescence melting peaks obtained by plotting the negative derivative of fluorescence over temperature (−dF/dT) versus temperature (T) showed melting temperatures (Tm) at 88.85 ± 1.15°C. In addition, multiplex assays using both MBR/JH and β-globin primers yielded easily distinguishable fluorescence melting peaks at ∼90°C and 81.2°C, respectively. Dilutional assays revealed that fluorescence melting curve analysis was more sensitive than conventional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet transillumination by as much as 100-fold. Simultaneous amplification and fluorescence melting curve analysis is a simple, reliable, and sensitive method

  9. Effect of chromosomal instability on the mutation-selection balance in unicellular populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Itan

    Full Text Available This paper develops a mathematical model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a unicellular, asexually replicating population exhibiting chromosomal instability. Chromosomal instability is a form of genetic instability characterized by the gain or loss of entire chromosomes during cell division. We assume that the cellular genome is divided into several homologous groups of chromosomes, and that a single functional chromosome per homologous group is required for the cell to have the wild-type fitness. If the fitness is unaffected by the total number of chromosomes in the cell, our model is analytically solvable, and yields a mean fitness at mutation-selection balance that is identical to the mean fitness when there is no chromosomal instability. If this assumption is relaxed and the total number of chromosomes in the cell is not allowed to increase without bound, then chromosomal instability leads to a reduction in mean fitness. The results of this paper provide a useful baseline that can inform both future theoretial and experimental studies of chromosomal instability.

  10. Nance-Horan syndrome in females due to a balanced X;1 translocation that disrupts the NHS gene: Familial case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laguna, Laura; Martínez-Herrera, Alejandro; Reyes-de la Rosa, Alejandra Del Pilar; García-Delgado, Constanza; Nieto-Martínez, Karem; Fernández-Ramírez, Fernando; Valderrama-Atayupanqui, Tania Yanet; Morales-Jiménez, Ariadna Berenice; Villa-Morales, Judith; Kofman, Susana; Cervantes, Alicia; Morán-Barroso, Verónica Fabiola

    2018-01-01

    The Nance-Horan syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by congenital cataract, facial features, microcornea, microphthalmia, and dental anomalies; most of the cases are due to NHS gene mutations on Xp22.13. Heterozygous carrier females generally present less severe features, and up to 30% of the affected males have intellectual disability. We describe two patients, mother and daughter, manifesting Nance-Horan syndrome. The cytogenetic and molecular analyses demonstrated a 46,X,t(X;1)(p22.13;q22) karyotype in each of them. No copy-number genomic imbalances were detected by high-density microarray analysis. The mother had a preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome; expression analysis did not detect any mRNA isoform of NHS. This is the first report of Nance-Horan syndrome due to a skewed X chromosome inactivation resulting from a balanced translocation t(X;1) that disrupts the NHS gene expression, with important implications for clinical presentation and genetic counseling.

  11. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) with eight breakpoints involving four chromosomes (1;3;9;14) in an azoospermic male with normal phenotype. Eur J Med Gen 2007;50:133-138. 9. Coco R, Rahn MI, Estanga PG, et al. A constitutional complex chromosome rearrangement involving meiotic arrest ...

  12. Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia in a child with a partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, W F M; Hofstee, Y; Drejer, G F; Beverstock, G C; Oosterwijk, J C

    A child with hypoplasia of the cerebellum and brainstem in association with an unbalanced translocation, resulting in a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and a partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, is described. A balanced translocation was present in his mother and

  13. Do Non-Genomically Encoded Fusion Transcripts Cause Recurrent Chromosomal Translocations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Dingermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We among others have recently demonstrated that normal cells produce “fusion mRNAs”. These fusion mRNAs do not derive from rearranged genomic loci, but rather they are derived from “early-terminated transcripts” (ETTs. Premature transcriptional termination takes place in intronic sequences that belong to “breakpoint cluster regions”. One important property of ETTs is that they exhibit an unsaturated splice donor site. This results in: (1 splicing to “cryptic exons” present in the final intron; (2 Splicing to another transcript of the same gene (intragenic trans-splicing, resulting in “exon repetitions”; (3 splicing to a transcript of another gene (intergenic trans-splicing, leading to “non-genomically encoded fusion transcripts” (NGEFTs. These NGEFTs bear the potential risk to influence DNA repair processes, since they share identical nucleotides with their DNA of origin, and thus, could be used as “guidance RNA” for DNA repair processes. Here, we present experimental data about four other genes. Three of them are associated with hemato-malignancies (ETV6, NUP98 and RUNX1, while one is associated with solid tumors (EWSR1. Our results demonstrate that all genes investigated so far (MLL, AF4, AF9, ENL, ELL, ETV6, NUP98, RUNX1 and EWSR1 display ETTs and produce transpliced mRNA species, indicating that this is a genuine property of translocating genes.

  14. Do Non-Genomically Encoded Fusion Transcripts Cause Recurrent Chromosomal Translocations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarz, Eric; Dingermann, Theo; Marschalek, Rolf, E-mail: Rolf.Marschalek@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology/ZAFES/DCAL, Goethe-University of Frankfurt, Biocenter, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2012-10-18

    We among others have recently demonstrated that normal cells produce “fusion mRNAs”. These fusion mRNAs do not derive from rearranged genomic loci, but rather they are derived from “early-terminated transcripts” (ETTs). Premature transcriptional termination takes place in intronic sequences that belong to “breakpoint cluster regions”. One important property of ETTs is that they exhibit an unsaturated splice donor site. This results in: (1) splicing to “cryptic exons” present in the final intron; (2) Splicing to another transcript of the same gene (intragenic trans-splicing), resulting in “exon repetitions”; (3) splicing to a transcript of another gene (intergenic trans-splicing), leading to “non-genomically encoded fusion transcripts” (NGEFTs). These NGEFTs bear the potential risk to influence DNA repair processes, since they share identical nucleotides with their DNA of origin, and thus, could be used as “guidance RNA” for DNA repair processes. Here, we present experimental data about four other genes. Three of them are associated with hemato-malignancies (ETV6, NUP98 and RUNX1), while one is associated with solid tumors (EWSR1). Our results demonstrate that all genes investigated so far (MLL, AF4, AF9, ENL, ELL, ETV6, NUP98, RUNX1 and EWSR1) display ETTs and produce transpliced mRNA species, indicating that this is a genuine property of translocating genes.

  15. Deletion and translocation of chromosome 11q13 sequences in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesudasan, R.A.; Srivatsan, E.S. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Rahman, R.A. [Clinical Genetics Center, La Mirada, CA (United States); Chandrashekharappa, S. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States); Evans, G.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies on HeLa cell-derived nontumorigenic and tumorigenic hybrids have previously localized the HeLa cell tumor-suppressor gene to the long arm of chromosome 11. Extensive molecular and cytogenetic studies on HeLa cells have shown chromosome band 11q13 to be rearranged in this cell line. To determine whether q13 rearrangement is a nonrandom event in cervical carcinomas, six different human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive (HeLa, SiHa, Caski, C4-I, Me180, and Ms751) and two different HPV-negative (C33A and HT3) cell lines were studied. Long-range restriction mapping using a number of q13-specific probes showed molecular arrangements within 75 kb of INT2 probe in three HPV-positive cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and Caski) and in an HPV-negative cell line (HT3). FISH using an INT2 YAC identified a breakpoint within the sequences spanned by this YAC in two of the cell lines, HeLa and Caski. INT2 cosmid derived from this YAC showed deletion of cosmid sequences in two other cell lines, SiHa and C33A. These two cell lines, however, retained cosmid sequences of Cyclin D1, a probe localized 100 kb proximal to INT2. Deletions being the hallmark of a tumor-suppressor gene, we conclude that the 100-kb interval between the two cosmids might contain sequences of the cervical carcinoma tumor-suppressor gene. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  17. Partial trisomy 2q due to a maternal balanced translocation t(2;22) (q31;p12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, L.S.; Bleiman, M.; Punnett, H.H. [St. Christopher`s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Features consistent among reported patients with 2q duplications due to familial translocations or de novo duplications include pre- and postnatal growth failure, ocular defects such as congenital glaucoma, cardiac defects, micrognathia, urogenital defects, renal defects, connective tissue laxity, neurologic defects, and dermatologic abnormalities. Genotype/phenotype correlations of patients with trisomy 2q due to familial translocations are complicated by the presence of the deletions of the other chromosome involved. We have had the opportunity to observe `pure` trisomy 2q31-qter resulting from adjacent-1 segregation from 46,XX,t(2;22)(q31;p12) in a carrier mother with apparent loss of the 22 NOR region. He was the 2453 gm product of a gestation complicated by gestational diabetes to a 29-year-old G1 P0 mother and a 30-year-old father. At birth, he was noted to have hypotonia, micrognathia, microphthalmia, left cryptorchidism, hypospadias, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth digits, mild hyperextensibility of the joints, dry skin disorder, and bilateral hydronephrosis by ultrasound. He was treated for hypoglycemia in the nursery and had a vesicostomy at two months for vesicoureteral reflux. A hearing test at two months found moderate hearing loss in the right ear and mild to moderate hearing loss in the left ear. At 3 months he had surgery for a PDA and bilateral glaucoma and was treated for periods of hypothermia and type IV renal tubular acidosis. This patient and others with unbalanced translocations involving the NOR region of an acrocentric chromosome allow for genotype/phenotype correlation of the `pure` trisomic region.

  18. Chromosome-level assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler reveals the extent of translocation and inversion polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis; Ding, Jia; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hartwig, Benjamin; Bezdan, Daniela; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Patel, Vipul; Velikkakam James, Geo; Koornneef, Maarten; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Resequencing or reference-based assemblies reveal large parts of the small-scale sequence variation. However, they typically fail to separate such local variation into colinear and rearranged variation, because they usually do not recover the complement of large-scale rearrangements, including transpositions and inversions. Besides the availability of hundreds of genomes of diverse Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, there is so far only one full-length assembled genome: the reference sequence. We have assembled 117 Mb of the A. thaliana Landsberg erecta (Ler) genome into five chromosome-equivalent sequences using a combination of short Illumina reads, long PacBio reads, and linkage information. Whole-genome comparison against the reference sequence revealed 564 transpositions and 47 inversions comprising ∼3.6 Mb, in addition to 4.1 Mb of nonreference sequence, mostly originating from duplications. Although rearranged regions are not different in local divergence from colinear regions, they are drastically depleted for meiotic recombination in heterozygotes. Using a 1.2-Mb inversion as an example, we show that such rearrangement-mediated reduction of meiotic recombination can lead to genetically isolated haplotypes in the worldwide population of A. thaliana. Moreover, we found 105 single-copy genes, which were only present in the reference sequence or the Ler assembly, and 334 single-copy orthologs, which showed an additional copy in only one of the genomes. To our knowledge, this work gives first insights into the degree and type of variation, which will be revealed once complete assemblies will replace resequencing or other reference-dependent methods. PMID:27354520

  19. A patient presenting a 22q13 deletion associated with an apparently balanced translocation t(16;22: an illustrative case in the investigation of patients with low ARSA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Artigalás

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old speechless, mentally deficient male, with low arylsulfatase A (ARSA activity, and presumably, methachromatic leukodystrophy, underwent genetic evaluation. As the clinical picture was not compatible with this diagnosisan ARSA gene and chromosome analysis were performed, showing the presence of a pseudodeficiency ARSA allele and a de novo apparently balanced t(16;22(p11.2;q13 translocation. A deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 encompassing the ARSA gene, as shown by FISH and array-CGH, indicated a 22q13 deletion syndrome. This case illustrates the importance of detailed cytogenetic investigation in patients presenting low arylsulfatase A activity and atypical/unspecific clinical features.

  20. Structural and functional studies of FKHR-PAX3, a reciprocal fusion gene of the t(2;13 chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiande Hu

    Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13 chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development.

  1. A balanced chromosomal translocation disrupting ARHGEF9 is associated with epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    show binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P/PtdIns-3-P), a phosphoinositide with an emerging role in membrane trafficking and signal transduction, rather than phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3/PtdIns-3,4,5-P) as previously suggested in the "membrane activation model" of gephyrin...... clustering. Consistent with this finding, expression of truncated collybistin proteins in cultured neurons interferes with synaptic localization of endogenous gephyrin and GABA(A) receptors. These results suggest that collybistin has a key role in membrane trafficking of gephyrin and selected GABA...

  2. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for X;autosome translocations : lessons from a case of misdiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Echten-Arends, J.; Coonen, E.; Reuters, B.; Suijkerbuijk, R. F.; Dul, E. C.; Land, J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered to couples carrying a reciprocal translocation in an attempt to increase their chance of phenotypically normal offspring. For the selection of embryos that are balanced for the translocation chromosomes, it is critical to use a combination of DNA

  3. Modeling of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma Pax3-Foxo1 chromosome translocation in mouse myoblasts using CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Lagutina

    Full Text Available Many recurrent chromosome translocations in cancer result in the generation of fusion genes that are directly implicated in the tumorigenic process. Precise modeling of the effects of cancer fusion genes in mice has been inaccurate, as constructs of fusion genes often completely or partially lack the correct regulatory sequences. The reciprocal t(2;13(q36.1;q14.1 in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (A-RMS creates a pathognomonic PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene. In vivo mimicking of this translocation in mice is complicated by the fact that Pax3 and Foxo1 are in opposite orientation on their respective chromosomes, precluding formation of a functional Pax3-Foxo1 fusion via a simple translocation. To circumvent this problem, we irreversibly inverted the orientation of a 4.9 Mb syntenic fragment on chromosome 3, encompassing Foxo1, by using Cre-mediated recombination of two pairs of unrelated oppositely oriented LoxP sites situated at the borders of the syntenic region. We tested if spatial proximity of the Pax3 and Foxo1 loci in myoblasts of mice homozygous for the inversion facilitated Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene formation upon induction of targeted CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-induced DNA double strand breaks in Pax3 and Foxo1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization indicated that fore limb myoblasts show a higher frequency of Pax3/Foxo1 co-localization than hind limb myoblasts. Indeed, more fusion genes were generated in fore limb myoblasts via a reciprocal t(1;3, which expressed correctly spliced Pax3-Foxo1 mRNA encoding Pax3-Foxo1 fusion protein. We conclude that locus proximity facilitates chromosome translocation upon induction of DNA double strand breaks. Given that the Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene will contain all the regulatory sequences necessary for precise regulation of its expression, we propose that CRISPR-Cas9 provides a novel means to faithfully model human diseases caused by chromosome translocation in mice.

  4. Characterization of apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements from the developmental genome anatomy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Anne W; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Bosco, Amy F; Brown, Kerry K; Bruns, Gail A P; Donovan, Diana J; Eisenman, Robert; Fan, Yanli; Farra, Chantal G; Ferguson, Heather L; Gusella, James F; Harris, David J; Herrick, Steven R; Kelly, Chantal; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Korf, Bruce R; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Lally, Eric; Leach, Natalia T; Lemyre, Emma; Lewis, Janine; Ligon, Azra H; Lu, Weining; Maas, Richard L; MacDonald, Marcy E; Moore, Steven D P; Peters, Roxanna E; Quade, Bradley J; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Saadi, Irfan; Shen, Yiping; Shendure, Jay; Williamson, Robin E; Morton, Cynthia C

    2008-03-01

    Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements in individuals with major congenital anomalies represent natural experiments of gene disruption and dysregulation. These individuals can be studied to identify novel genes critical in human development and to annotate further the function of known genes. Identification and characterization of these genes is the goal of the Developmental Genome Anatomy Project (DGAP). DGAP is a multidisciplinary effort that leverages the recent advances resulting from the Human Genome Project to increase our understanding of birth defects and the process of human development. Clinically significant phenotypes of individuals enrolled in DGAP are varied and, in most cases, involve multiple organ systems. Study of these individuals' chromosomal rearrangements has resulted in the mapping of 77 breakpoints from 40 chromosomal rearrangements by FISH with BACs and fosmids, array CGH, Southern-blot hybridization, MLPA, RT-PCR, and suppression PCR. Eighteen chromosomal breakpoints have been cloned and sequenced. Unsuspected genomic imbalances and cryptic rearrangements were detected, but less frequently than has been reported previously. Chromosomal rearrangements, both balanced and unbalanced, in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies continue to be a valuable resource for gene discovery and annotation.

  5. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  6. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22(q24.13;q11.21 in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorio Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22 in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN, a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.

  7. Robertsonian translocation in a sex reversal dog (XX, SRY negative) may indicate that the causative mutation for this intersexuality syndrome resides on canine chromosome 23 (CFA23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, M; Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Kociucka, B; Bartz, M; Dzimira, S; Mikolajewska, N

    2011-01-01

    A Bernese mountain dog was subjected for clinical evaluation due to the presence of ambiguous external genitalia (enlarged clitoris). Anatomical and histological studies revealed the presence of one testicle, one ovotestis and a uterus. This dog was classified as a female-to-male sex reversal, with 2 normal X chromosomes and a lack of the Y chromosome-linked genes SRY and ZFY. It is the first case of this syndrome in this breed. Apparently a Robertsonian translocation, rob(5;23), was also identified in this dog and it is again the first case of this type of chromosome abnormality in this breed, as well as the first case of co-occurrence of the sex reversal syndrome along with a centric fusion in the dog. Since on the canine chromosome 23 (CFA23) 3 genes (FOXL2,PISRT1 and CTNNB1) involved in the sex determination process are present, further cytogenetic FISH studies were carried out with the use of BAC probes specific for this chromosome. It was found that a pericentromeric fragment of CFA23 was deleted as a result of the centric fusion. We hypothesize that a cis regulatory sequence for the sex determination genes on CFA23 (e.g. proximally located CTNNB1) is present in the deleted fragment. Thus, a causative mutation responsible for this sex reversal syndrome may reside on CFA23. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Translocações cromossômicas entre trigo e centeio: uma alternativa ao melhoramento Chromosomes translocations between wheat and rye: an alternative to plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Casassola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Translocações são rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais que envolvem segmentos cromossômicos de extensão variada pertencentes a cromossomos homólogos ou não homólogos. Tanto a ocorrência natural quanto a induzida de translocações tem possibilitado um avanço no melhoramento varietal, uma vez que esses segmentos translocados podem carregar genes de resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos. O centeio é uma espécie da famíla Triticeae muito utilizada para transferência de genes para o trigo como, por exemplo, genes de resistência às ferrugens da folha e do colmo e também genes que favorecem o rendimento, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade de grãos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi o de revisar as principais translocações envolvendo o trigo e o centeio, no qual se verificou, a partir dos dados analisados, que as translocações envolvendo os cromossomos 1 e 2 mostraram-se mais vantajosas para o rendimento de grãos em trigo e que as demais foram importantes, principalmente, na transferência de genes de resistência a estresses. Portanto, essa estratégia tem demonstrado efetividade na busca de novos genes que favorecem o cultivo de trigo e sua utilização vem crescendo grandemente nos últimos anos.Translocations are structural chromosomal rearrangements which involve segments with different length belonging to homologous or non homologous chromosomes. Either natural or induced occurrence of translocations have been enabled an improvement in the plant breeding, when these translocated segments carry resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stress. Rye is a grass largely used to transfer genes to wheat such as resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and genes that support the wheat yield, either in grain quantity or in quality. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the main translocations involving wheat and rye, which demonstrated, from the data analyzed, that translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 2 were

  9. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs.

  10. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs

  11. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Multiple translocation of the AVR-Pita effector gene among chromosomes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Chuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation.

  13. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in mouse zygotes by acrylamide treatment of male germ cells and their correlation with dominant lethality and heritable translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F.; Lowe, X.; Wyrobek, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bishop, J. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to investigate the time course of the cytogenetic defects induced by acrylamide (AA) treatment (5 x 50 mg/kg) of male germ cells in first-cleavage zygote metaphases using PAINT/DAPI analysis, and (2) to characterize the correlation between chromosomal aberrations at first cleavage, dominant lethality, and heritable translocations. PAINT/DAPI analysis employs multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization painting plus DAPI staining to detect both stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations at first-cleavage metaphase of the zygote. High levels of chromosomally defective zygotes were detected after mating at all postmeiotic stages (20-190-fold, P < 0.001). Early spermatozoa (6.5 d post-treatment) were the most sensitive, with 76% of the zygotes carrying cytogenetic defects. A significant 10-fold increase was also detected 27.5 d post-treatment, indicating that AA had a cytogenetic effect on meiotic stages. PAINT/DAPI analysis revealed that: (1) AA-induced chromosomal breaks occurred at random, and (2) the frequencies of symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges were similar at all mating days, except 9.5 d after AA treatment, where significantly (P < 0.02) more asymmetrical aberrations were found. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  15. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol; Impact des facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur le taux d'aberrations chromosomiques de type translocations - Partie 1: age, sexe, tabac, alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-04-15

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  16. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  17. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, Michael [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)]. E-mail: mfasullo@ordwayresearch.org; St Amour, Courtney [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States); Zeng Li [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MAT{alpha} inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-{delta}5' and his3-{delta}3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MAT{alpha} genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-{delta}3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent.

  18. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasullo, Michael; St Amour, Courtney; Zeng Li

    2005-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MATα inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-Δ5' and his3-Δ3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MATα genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-Δ3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent

  19. DNA methylation profiling in X;autosome translocations supports a role for L1 repeats in the spread of X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Tannan, Neeta; Brahmachary, Manisha; Garg, Paras; Borel, Christelle; Alnefaie, Randah; Watson, Corey T; Thomas, N Simon; Sharp, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an epigenetic mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in females. Previous studies have suggested that the spread of XCI might be facilitated in part by common repeats such as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs). However, owing to the unusual sequence content of the X and the nonrandom distribution of genes that escape XCI, it has been unclear whether the correlation between repeat elements and XCI is a functional one. To test the hypothesis that the spread of XCI shows sequence specificity, we have analyzed the pattern of XCI in autosomal chromatin by performing DNA methylation profiling in six unbalanced X;autosome translocations. Using promoter hypermethylation as an epigenetic signature of XCI, we have determined the inactivation status of 1050 autosomal genes after translocation onto an inactive derivative X. By performing a comparative sequence analysis of autosomal genes that are either subject to or escape the X inactivation signal, we identified a number of common repetitive elements, including L1 and L2 LINEs, and DNA motifs that are significantly enriched around inactive autosomal genes. We show that these same motifs predominantly map to L1P repeat elements, are significantly enriched on the X chromosome versus the autosomes and also occur at higher densities around X-linked genes that are subject to X inactivation compared with those that escape X inactivation. These results are consistent with a potential causal relationship between DNA sequence features such as L1s and the spread of XCI, lending strong support to Mary Lyon's 'repeat hypothesis'.

  20. Cloacal exstrophy in an infant with 9q34.1-qter deletion resulting from a de novo unbalanced translocation between chromosome 9q and Yq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence; Cusin, Véronica; Khau Van Kien, Philippe; Callier, Patrick; Parker, Keith L; Fellous, Marc; Borgnon, Joséphine; Gounot, Emmanuel; Huet, Frédéric; Sapin, Emmanuel; Mugneret, Francine

    2004-04-30

    Cloacal exstrophy is a rare malformation, belonging to a spectrum of birth defects, which, in order of severity, includes phallic separation with epispadias, pubic diastasis, bladder exstrophy, and cloacal exstrophy. This malformation overlaps the OEIS complex (O = omphalocele, E = bladder exstrophy, I = imperforate anus, S = spinal defects). The etiology of cloacal exstrophy is unknown to date. It may result from either a single defect of early blastogenesis or a defect of mesodermal migration during the primitive streak period. We report an infant with cloacal exstrophy, exomphalos, right kidney agenesis, ambiguous external genitalia, and axial hypotonia. The karyotype showed a de novo unbalanced translocation between the long arm of chromosome 9 and the long arm of chromosome Y resulting in a 9q34.1-qter deletion. Reviewing the literature, we did not find any observation of cloacal exstrophy associated with a structural chromosomal abnormality. The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) gene, included in the deleted region, was a good candidate gene but no pathogenic mutation was found by direct sequencing. We hypothesize that another gene, expressed early in embryogenesis and responsible for cloacal exstrophy, is present in the 9q34.1-qter region. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. An X-linked Myh11-CreERT2 mouse line resulting from Y to X chromosome-translocation of the Cre allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mingmei; Zhou, Junmei; Wang, Fen; Ali, Yasmin H; Chan, Kelvin L; Zou, Fei; Offermanns, Stefan; Jiang, Zhisheng; Jiang, Zhihua

    2017-09-01

    The Myh11-CreER T2 mouse line (Cre + ) has gained increasing application because of its high lineage specificity relative to other Cre drivers targeting smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This Cre allele, however, was initially inserted into the Y chromosome (X/Y Cre+ ), which excluded its application in female mice. Our group established a Cre + colony from male ancestors. Surprisingly, genotype screening identified female carriers that stably transmitted the Cre allele to the following generations. Crossbreeding experiments revealed a pattern of X-linked inheritance for the transgene (k > 1000), indicating that these female carries acquired the Cre allele through a mechanism of Y to X chromosome translocation. Further characterization demonstrated that in hemizygous X/X Cre+ mice Cre activity was restricted to a subset arterial SMCs, with Cre expression in arteries decreased by 50% compared to X/Y Cre+ mice. This mosaicism, however, diminished in homozygous X Cre+ /X Cre+ mice. In a model of aortic aneurysm induced by a SMC-specific Tgfbr1 deletion, the homozygous X Cre+ /X Cre+ Cre driver unmasked the aortic phenotype that is otherwise subclinical when driven by the hemizygous X/X Cre+ Cre line. In conclusion, the Cre allele carried by this female mouse line is located on the X chromosome and subjected to X-inactivation. The homozygous X Cre+ /X Cre+ mice produce uniform Cre activity in arterial SMCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inactivation of the P16INK4/MTS1 gene by a chromosome translocation t(9;14)(p21-22;q11) in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia of B-cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, D; Bernard, O; Della Valle, V; Leblanc, T; Berger, R; Larsen, C J

    1996-02-15

    We have reported previously a preliminary study of a t(9;14)(p21-22; q11) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This translocation had rearranged the TCRA/D locus on chromosome band 14q11 and the locus encoding the tumor suppressor gene P16INK4/MTS1 (P16) on band 9p21 (D. Duro et al., Oncogene, 11: 21-29, 1995). In the present report, the breakpoints were precisely localized on each chromosome partner. On the 14q- derivative, the sequence derived from chromosome 9 was interrupted at 1.0 kb upstream of the first exon of P16, close to a consensus recombination heptamer, CACTGTG. In addition, the chromosome 14 breakpoint was localized at the end of the TCRD2 (delta 2) segment, and 22 residues with unknown origin were present at the translocation junction. On the 9p+ derivative, chromosome 9 sequences were in continuity with those displaced onto chromosome 14, and the 14q11 breakpoint was located within TCRJA29 segment. These features are consistent with aberrant activity of the TCR gene recombinase complex. Although all three coding exons of P16 were displaced onto the chromosome 14q-derivative, no P16 transcript was detected in the leukemic cells. Because the region spanning the P16 exon 1 was not inactivated by methylation and because the other P16 allele was deleted, the implication is that the chromosome breakpoint was likely to disrupt regulatory elements involved in the normal expression of the gene. As a whole, then, our results show that translocations affecting band 9p21 can participate to the inactivation of P16, thus justifying a systematic survey of translocations of the 9p21 band in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  3. Breakpoint mapping and haplotype analysis of translocation t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) in two apparently independent families with vascular phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Tiia Maria; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Pöyhönen, Minna

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of serious congenital anomaly for de novo balanced translocations is estimated to be at least 6%. We identified two apparently independent families with a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) as an outcome of a "Systematic Survey of Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Finns...

  4. No evidence for a paternal interchromosomal effect from analysis of the origin of nondisjunction in Down syndrome patients with concomitant familial chromosome rearrangements.

    OpenAIRE

    Schinzel, A A; Adelsberger, P A; Binkert, F; Basaran, S; Antonarakis, S E

    1992-01-01

    The parental origin of the extra chromosome 21 was determined with DNA polymorphisms in seven families in whom the proband and one of the parents carried an additional chromosome rearrangement (balanced translocation or pericentric inversion) not involving chromosome 21. The balanced rearrangement was inherited from the mother in two families and from the father in five families, whereas the additional chromosome 21 was derived from the mother in all seven families. These findings are not in ...

  5. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs.

  6. Duplication of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C in an obese female with a t(7;22)(q32.1;q11.2) chromosomal translocation and clinical features resembling Coffin-Siris Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Qiu, Jun; Magrane, Gregg; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Zanko, Andrea; Golabi, Mahin; Chehab, Farid F

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the t(7;22)(q32;q11.2) chromosomal translocation in an obese female with coarse features, short stature, developmental delay and a hypoplastic fifth digit. While these clinical features suggest Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS), we excluded a CSS diagnosis by exome sequencing based on the absence of deleterious mutations in six chromatin-remodeling genes recently shown to cause CSS. Thus, molecular characterization of her translocation could delineate genes that underlie other syndromes resembling CSS. Comparative genomic hybridization microarrays revealed on chromosome 7 the duplication of a 434,682 bp region that included the tail end of an uncharacterized gene termed C7orf58 (also called CPED1) and spanned the entire WNT16 and FAM3C genes. Because the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 22 did not disrupt any apparent gene, her disorder was deemed to result from the rearrangement on chromosome 7. Mapping of yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome clones by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosome spreads from this patient showed that the duplicated region and all three genes within it were located on both derivative chromosomes 7 and 22. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of exons and splice junctional regions from C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C revealed the presence of potential splice site and promoter mutations, thereby augmenting the detrimental effect of the duplicated genes. Hence, dysregulation and/or disruptions of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C underlie the phenotype of this patient, serve as candidate genes for other individuals with similar clinical features and could provide insights into the physiological role of the novel gene C7orf58.

  7. Duplication of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C in an obese female with a t(7;22(q32.1;q11.2 chromosomal translocation and clinical features resembling Coffin-Siris Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available We characterized the t(7;22(q32;q11.2 chromosomal translocation in an obese female with coarse features, short stature, developmental delay and a hypoplastic fifth digit. While these clinical features suggest Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS, we excluded a CSS diagnosis by exome sequencing based on the absence of deleterious mutations in six chromatin-remodeling genes recently shown to cause CSS. Thus, molecular characterization of her translocation could delineate genes that underlie other syndromes resembling CSS. Comparative genomic hybridization microarrays revealed on chromosome 7 the duplication of a 434,682 bp region that included the tail end of an uncharacterized gene termed C7orf58 (also called CPED1 and spanned the entire WNT16 and FAM3C genes. Because the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 22 did not disrupt any apparent gene, her disorder was deemed to result from the rearrangement on chromosome 7. Mapping of yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome clones by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosome spreads from this patient showed that the duplicated region and all three genes within it were located on both derivative chromosomes 7 and 22. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of exons and splice junctional regions from C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C revealed the presence of potential splice site and promoter mutations, thereby augmenting the detrimental effect of the duplicated genes. Hence, dysregulation and/or disruptions of C7orf58, WNT16 and FAM3C underlie the phenotype of this patient, serve as candidate genes for other individuals with similar clinical features and could provide insights into the physiological role of the novel gene C7orf58.

  8. Regulation of CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death by interferon-gamma in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(4;11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrie, J; Schuh, W; Keil, A; Bongards, E; Greil, J; Fey, G H; Zunino, S J

    1999-10-01

    The regulatory effects of IFNgamma on CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death were investigated in three high-risk pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines that carry the chromosomal translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23). These leukemias are characteristically refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic treatments operating through the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms leading to increased cell survival and resistance to cell death in these leukemias are largely unknown. Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a potent inhibitor of hematopoiesis, acts in part by upregulating CD95 and sensitizing cells to CD95-induced apoptosis. The t(4;11) lines SEM, RS4;11, and MV4;11 expressed low levels of CD95, but were completely resistant to CD95-mediated death. Addition of IFNgamma markedly upregulated CD95 expression in SEM (8-9-fold), RS4;11 (2-3-fold), and MV4;11 (2-3-fold) lines. However, after treatment with IFNgamma, only an 11% increase in sensitivity to CD95-mediated cell death was observed in SEM cells, whereas RS4;11 and MV4;11 cells remained resistant. Cycloheximide, but not actinomycin D or brefeldin A, increased CD95-specific cell death only in IFNgamma-treated RS4;11 cells by approximately 12%. Abundant levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, known to inhibit CD95-signaling in some cells, were present suggesting a possible role for both molecules in the resistance to CD95-mediated cell death. Resistance of the leukemic blasts to CD95-mediated cell death and the failure of IFNgamma to substantially sensitize the CD95-signaling pathway may contribute to the highly malignant phenotype of pro-B ALL with translocation t(4;11).

  9. Analysis of translocations that involve the NUP98 gene in patients with 11p15 chromosomal rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzev, Yuri N; Martinez-Climent, Jose; Lee, Sanggyu; Chen, Jianjun; Rowley, Janet D

    2004-12-01

    The NUP98 gene has been reported to be fused with at least 15 partner genes in leukemias with 11p15 translocations. We report the results of screening of cases with cytogenetically documented rearrangements of 11p15 and the subsequent identification of involvement of NUP98 and its partner genes. We identified 49 samples from 46 hematology patients with 11p15 (including a few with 11p14) abnormalities, and using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we found that NUP98 was disrupted in 7 cases. With the use of gene-specific FISH probes, in 6 cases, we identified the partner genes, which were PRRX1 (PMX1; in 2 cases), HOXD13, RAP1GDS1, HOXC13, and TOP1. In the 3 cases for which RNA was available, RT-PCR was performed, which confirmed the FISH results and identified the location of the breakpoints in patient cDNA. Our data confirm the previous findings that NUP98 is a recurrent target in various types of leukemia. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Accurate Breakpoint Mapping in Apparently Balanced Translocation Families with Discordant Phenotypes Using Whole Genome Mate-Pair Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristidou, Constantia; Koufaris, Costas; Theodosiou, Athina

    2017-01-01

    -MPS) was applied to map the breakpoints in nine two-way ABT carriers from four families. Translocation breakpoints and patient-specific structural variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Identical sequencing patterns and breakpoints were identified in affected...... pathogenic mutations or unique variants in the affected individuals that could explain the phenotypic differences between carriers of the same translocations. In conclusion, we suggest that NGS-based methods, such as WG-MPS, can be successfully used for detailed mapping of translocation breakpoints, which...... excluded. Future whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing will potentially reveal unidentified mutations in the patients underlying the discordant phenotypes within each family. In addition, larger studies are needed to determine the exact percentage for phenotypic risk in families with ABTs....

  11. Chromosomal rearrangements formed by rrn recombination do not improve replichore balance in host-specific Salmonella enterica serovars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T David Matthews

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ∼2,600 serovars of Salmonella enterica have a broad host range as well as a conserved gene order. In contrast, some Salmonella serovars are host-specific and frequently exhibit large chromosomal rearrangements from recombination between rrn operons. One hypothesis explaining these rearrangements suggests that replichore imbalance introduced from horizontal transfer of pathogenicity islands and prophages drives chromosomal rearrangements in an attempt to improve balance.This hypothesis was directly tested by comparing the naturally-occurring chromosomal arrangement types to the theoretically possible arrangement types, and estimating their replichore balance using a calculator. In addition to previously characterized strains belonging to host-specific serovars, the arrangement types of 22 serovar Gallinarum strains was also determined. Only 48 out of 1,440 possible arrangement types were identified in 212 host-specific strains. While the replichores of most naturally-occurring arrangement types were well-balanced, most theoretical arrangement types had imbalanced replichores. Furthermore, the most common types of rearrangements did not change replichore balance.The results did not support the hypothesis that replichore imbalance causes these rearrangements, and suggest that the rearrangements could be explained by aspects of a host-specific lifestyle.

  12. Constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36.31-p36.13;q11.2-q12.1) in a neuroblastoma patient. Establishment of somatic cell hybrids and identification of PND/A12M2 on chromosome 1 and NF1/SCYA7 on chromosome 17 as breakpoint flanking single copy markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureys, G.; Speleman, F.; Versteeg, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Leroy, J.; Francke, U.; Opdenakker, G.; van Roy, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular studies in neuroblastoma suggest the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at the distal band p36 of human chromosome 1. We described a constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36;q12-q21), involving the critical region 1p36, in a patient with neuroblastoma, and hypothesized

  13. Asperger syndrome in a boy with a balanced de novo translocation: t(17;19)(p13.3;p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-10

    The cause of Asperger syndrome is unknown. It is classified as a form of childhood autism. Familial aggregation in infantile autism has been reported. Asperger syndrome has also been considered as being genetically transmitted and certain of its characteristics have tended to occur in other relatives, especially in the fathers. We describe a 10-year-old boy with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a balanced de novo translocation (t(17;19)9p13.3;p11). His parents are not consanguineous and are healthy, as are his three brothers. 5 refs.

  14. Cloning of the gene encoding the δ subunit of the human T-cell receptor reveals its physical organization within the α-subunit locus and its involvement in chromosome translocations in T-cell malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, M.; Russo, G.; Haluska, F.G.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    By taking advantage of chromosomal walking techniques, the authors have obtained clones that encompass the T-cell receptor (TCR) δ-chain gene. They analyzed clones spanning the entire J α region extending 115 kilobases 5' of the TCR α-chain constant region and have shown that the TCR δ-chain gene is located over 80 kilobases 5' of C α . TCR δ-chain gene is rearranged in the γ/δ-expressing T-cell line Peer and is deleted in α/β-expressing T-cell lines. Sequence analysis of portions of this genomic region demonstrates its identity with previously described cDNA clones corresponding to the C δ and J δ segments. Furthermore, they have analyzed a t(8;14)-(q24;q11) chromosome translocation from a T-cell leukemia and have shown that the J δ segment is rearranged in cells deriving from this tumor and probably directly involved in the translocation. Thus, the newly clones TCR δ chain is implicated in the genesis of chromosome translocations in T-cell malignancies carrying cytogenetic abnormalities of band 14q11

  15. Risk evaluation of carriers with chromosome reciprocal translocation t(7;13)(q34;q13) and concomitant meiotic segregation analyzed by FISH on ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Leśniewicz, Ryszard; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2006-02-01

    We performed the segregation analysis of a relatively large pedigree of t(7;13)(q34;q13) carriers together with the sperm karyotype analysis of the one carrier using a tri-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The risk assessments for unfavorable pregnancy outcomes in a series of 36 pregnancies in eight reciprocal chromosome translocation (RCT) couples of carriers were estimated directly from a pedigree after ascertainment correction. The individual probability rate for unbalanced child was predicted according to Stengel-Rutkowski and co-workers. The unbalanced karyotypes in the form of monosomy 7q34-->qter and trisomy 13q13-->qter were detected among stillborn/early death newborns with holoprosencephaly (HPE), cyclopia and other malformations. Based on clinical description of unkaryotyped stillbirth progeny, it can be assumed that the phenotype distinctions were connected with the unbalanced karyotype from 2:2 segregation (monosomy 7q with trisomy 13q) and 3:1 segregation as interchange trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Probability rates for miscarriages, stillbirth/early death were 12.9 +/- 6% (4/31) and 29 +/- 8.2% (9/31), respectively. The results of the meiotic segregation pattern indicated the rate of unbalanced spermatozoa for about 60%, with the unusual high rate (29.4%) of 3:1 segregant (i.e., 13.4% of the tertiary segregation and 16% of the interchange segregation). Adjacent-1 segregation followed with 23.5% and adjacent-2 followed with 7.2% of analyzed spermatozoa. The high rate of unbalanced gametes in comparison to the number of stillborn/early death and miscarriages detected in pedigree suggests a strong selection against unbalanced chromosomal constitutions during fetal development. It corresponds to a very small probability rate (about 0.3%) of viable unbalanced progeny from 3:1 meiotic segregation predicted for maternal carriers. This knowledge can be used in genetic counseling of families with similar RCT ascertained in a different

  16. Enforced expression of MIR142, a target of chromosome translocation in human B-cell tumors, results in B-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kodai; Enomoto, Yutaka; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Watanuki, Jyuri; Hosoi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Yusuke; Murata, Shogo; Mushino, Toshiki; Tamura, Shinobu; Hanaoka, Nobuyoshi; Dyer, Martin; Siebert, Reiner; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Nakakuma, Hideki; Kitamura, Toshio; Sonoki, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    MicroRNA142 (MIR142) is a target of chromosome translocations and mutations in human B-cell lymphomas. We analyzed an aggressive B-cell lymphoma carrying t(8;17)(q24;q22) and t(6;14)(p21;q32), and sought to explore the role(s) of MIR142 in lymphomagenesis. t(8;17)(q24;q22) involved MYC on 8q24 and pri-MIR142 on 17q22. MYC was activated by a promoter substitution by t(8;17)(q24;q22). t(8;17)(q24;q22) was an additional event after t(6;14) (p21;q32), which caused the over-expression of CCND3. Southern blot analyses revealed that the MIR142 locus was deleted from the affected allele, whereas Northern analyses showed over-expression of MIR142 in tumor cells. Although previous studies reported an over-expression of mutations in MIR142 in B-cell lymphomas, limited information is available on the functions of MIR142 in lymphomagenesis. Therefore, we generated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and transgenic (Eμ/mir142) mice, which showed enforced expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells and B cells, respectively. BMT mice showed decreased numbers of all lineage-positive cells, particularly B cells, in peripheral blood. Eμ/mir142 mice showed decreased numbers of IgM-positive splenocytes, and exhibited altered B-cell phenotypic changes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results suggest that over-expression of MIR142 alters B-cell differentiation, implying multi-step lymphomagenesis together with MYC activation and CCND3 over-expression.

  17. Impairment of F1F0-ATPase, adenine nucleotide translocator and adenylate kinase causes mitochondrial energy deficit in human skin fibroblasts with chromosome 21 trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Daniela; Tullo, Apollonia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F; Merafina, Riccardo S; Scartezzini, Paolo; Marra, Ersilia; Vacca, Rosa A

    2010-10-15

    A central role for mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenesis of DS (Down's syndrome), a multifactorial disorder caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21. To explore whether and how abnormalities in mitochondrial energy metabolism are involved in DS pathogenesis, we investigated the catalytic properties, gene expression and protein levels of certain proteins involved in mitochondrial ATP synthesis, such as F1F0-ATPase, ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) and AK (adenylate kinase), in DS-HSF (human skin fibroblasts with trisomic karyotype), comparing them with euploid fibroblasts. In DS-HSF, we found a strong impairment of mitochondrial ATP synthesis due to a reduction in the catalytic efficiency of each of the investigated proteins. This impairment occurred in spite of unchanged gene expression and an increase in ANT and AK protein content, whereas the amount of ATPase subunits was selectively reduced. Interestingly, exposure of DS-HSF to dibutyryl-cAMP, a permanent derivative of cAMP, stimulated ANT, AK and ATPase activities, whereas H89, a specific PKA (protein kinase A) inhibitor, suppressed this cAMPdependent activation, indicating an involvement of the cAMP/PKA-mediated signalling pathway in the ATPase, ANT and AK deficit. Consistently, DS-HSF showed decreased basal levels of cAMP and reduced PKA activity. Despite the impairment of mitochondrial energy apparatus, no changes in cellular energy status, but increased basal levels of L-lactate, were found in DS-HSF, which partially offset for the mitochondrial energy deficit by increasing glycolysis and mitochondrial mass.These results provide new insight into the molecular basis for mitochondrial dysfunction in DS and might provide a molecular explanation for some clinical features of the syndrome.

  18. The incidence and anatomic site specificity of chromosomal translocations in primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remstein, Ellen D; Dogan, Ahmet; Einerson, Richard R; Paternoster, Sarah F; Fink, Stephanie R; Law, Mark; Dewald, Gordon W; Kurtin, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    Several balanced translocations have been identified in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) but there are few data regarding their frequency in different anatomic sites or the frequency of translocations involving BCL6 or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes (IGK or IGL), particularly in patients from geographic regions other than Europe and Japan. One hundred thirty-three paraffin-embedded North American primary MALT lymphoma specimens from diverse anatomic sites were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for API2-MALT1, IGH-MALT1, IGH-BCL10, IGH-FOXP1, IGH, +/- centromeres 3, 7, 12, and 18, and a subset (n=74) were analyzed using FISH probes for IGK, IGL, and BCL6. Translocations were mutually exclusive and were detected in 26% of cases (17% API2-MALT1, 5% IGH-MALT1, 3% IGH-unknown translocation partner, and 1% IGH-BCL10). Aneuploidy was associated with IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 but only rarely with API2-MALT1. There was striking site specificity, with API2-MALT1 showing a marked predilection for lung and intestine, and IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 occurring almost exclusively in lung. Twenty-three percent of translocation-negative primary MALT lymphomas from diverse sites showed complete/partial trisomy 18. No MALT lymphomas with translocations involving IGK, IGL, BCL6, or FOXP1 were identified. This FISH panel detected cytogenetic abnormalities in half of all MALT lymphomas, and translocations arose preferentially in MALT lymphomas of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Differences in incidence and anatomic site specificity of translocations between North American and non-North American cases may reflect geographic variability of infectious or other etiologic factors.

  19. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  20. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  1. FAMILI AUTOSOME TRANSLACATION (13/14 AT PARENTS WITH TRISOMYC CHILD IN 21-Th. CHROMOSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LAKOVSKI

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a case study about family autosome translocation is presented. On the basis of the evidence of chromosome`s abnormalities at the on parent (it was proved that the father has translocation between acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 or well known as Robertson’s or centric fusion’s it was discovered that predisposition for nondisjunction could be expected. This is precondition for hereditary abnormality or for trisomia`s child to be born. These well-known facts are based on the proven risks for born of the children with trisomia because of the evidences that the bearers of the translocations have not any possibilities for child-bird of healthy descendants, nor descendants with balanced homological translocations, that were proved in our researched case.

  2. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  3. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor α locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor α locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation

  4. Systematic characterisation of disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements by FISH: cytogenetically and genetically anchored YACs identify microdeletions and candidate regions for mental retardation genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, J; Nothwang, H G; van der Maarel, S

    1999-01-01

    Disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements (DBCRs) have been instrumental in the isolation of many disease genes. To facilitate the molecular cytogenetic characterisation of DBCRs, we have generated a set of >1200 non-chimeric, cytogenetically and genetically anchored CEPH YACs...... the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network (MCN), a collaborative effort of, at present, 270 cytogenetic laboratories throughout the world. In this pilot study, we have characterised 10 different MR associated chromosome regions delineating candidate regions for MR. Five of these regions are narrowed to breakpoint...

  5. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  6. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  7. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  8. Altered DNA methylation associated with a translocation linked to major mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; Anderson, Susan M; Duff, Barbara J; Marioni, Riccardo E; Millar, J Kirsty; McCarthy, Shane E; Ryan, Niamh M; Lawrie, Stephen M; Watson, Andrew R; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Thomson, Pippa A; McIntosh, Andrew M; McCombie, W Richard

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a possible role for altered epigenetic modifications, including differential DNA methylation, in susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Here, we investigate blood-based DNA methylation in a large family where a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 11 shows genome-wide significant linkage to psychiatric illness. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled in whole-blood-derived DNA from 41 individuals using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumin...

  9. Next-generation sequencing of flow-sorted wheat chromosome 5D reveals lineage-specific translocations and widespread gene duplications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucas, S. J.; Akpinar, B. A.; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, DEC 9 2014 (2014) ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Wheat genome * Chromosome sorting * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  10. Robertsonian (15q;15q) translocation in a child with Angelman syndrome: Evidence of uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, V.; Schultz, R.A.; Wilson, G.N.; Schultz, R.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-30

    A balanced Robertsonian translocation 45,XY,t(15q15q) was detected in a patient with mental retardation, microcephaly, and hypertonia. Deletion of the 15q11q13 region was unlikely based on fluorescence in situ hybridization studies that revealed hybridization of appropriate DNA probes to both arms of the Robertsonian chromosome. Inheritance of alleles from 13 highly polymorphic DNA markers on chromosome 15 showed paternal uniparental isodisomy. The clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular results are consistent with a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Fissions, fusions, and translocations shaped the karyotype and multiple sex chromosome constitution of the northeast-Asian wood white butterfly, Leptidea amurensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Ohno, M.; Dincă, V.; Watanabe, M.; Sahara, K.; Marec, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2016), s. 457-471 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : karyotype evolution * meiotic pairing * multiple sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12756/full

  12. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  13. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  14. Nonrandom chromosomal changes in human malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1977-01-01

    The role of chromosomal changes in human malignant cells has been the subject of much debate. The observation of nonrandom chromosomal changes has become well recognized in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and more recently in acute myelogenous leukemia. In the present report, data are presented on the sites of duplication of chromosome No. 1 in hematologic disorders. Trisomy for region lq25 to lq32 was observed in every one of 34 patients whose cells showed duplication of some part of chromosome No. 1. Adjacent regions lq21 to lq25, and lq32 to lqter, also were trisomic in the majority of patients. Two patients had deletions, one of lq32 to qter, and the other, of lp32 to pter. The sites of chromosomal breaks leading to trisomy differ from those involved in balanced reciprocal translocations. Some of these sites are sometimes, but not always, vulnerable in constitutional chromosomal abnormalities. The nature of the proliferative advantage conferred on myeloid cells by these chromosomal changes is unknown.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  16. Reciprocal translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by nonhomologous end joining.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xin; Gabriel, Abram

    2004-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations are common in cancer cells, but their creation is poorly understood. We have developed an assay system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study reciprocal translocation formation in the absence of homology. We induce two specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) simultaneously on separate chromosomes with HO endonuclease and analyze the subsequent chromosomal rearrangements among surviving cells. Under these conditions, reciprocal translocations via nonhomologous end joining ...

  17. Angelman Syndrome due to familial translocation: unexpected additional results characterized by Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama-Rebollar, Emiy; Ruiz-Herrera, Adriana; Lieberman-Hernández, Esther; Del Castillo-Ruiz, Victoria; Sánchez-Sandoval, Silvia; Ávila-Flores, Silvia M; Castrillo, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The 15q11q13 region is subject to imprinting and is involved in various structural rearrangements. Less than 1% of Angelman Syndrome patients are due to translocations involving 15q11q13. These translocations can arise de novo or result from the segregation of chromosomes involved in a familial balanced translocation. A 5-year-old Mexican girl presented with developmental delay, minor dysmorphic features and history of exotropia. G-banding chromosome analysis established the diagnosis of Angelman Syndrome resulting from a familial translocation t(10;15) involving the 15q11.2 region. The available family members were studied using banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization, which revealed additional unexpected results: a coincidental and smaller 15q deletion, asymptomatic duplications in 15q11.2 and Xp22.31 regions. This report demonstrates the usefulness of array CGH for a detailed characterization of familial translocations, including the detection of submicroscopic copy number variations, which would otherwise be missed by karyotype analysis alone. Our report also expands two molecularly characterized rare patient cohorts: Angelman Syndrome patients due to familial translocations and patients with 15q11.2 duplications of paternal origin.

  18. Application of molecular cytogenetic techniques to clarify apparently balanced complex chromosomal rearrangements in two patients with an abnormal phenotype: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongen Michel A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR are rare cytogenetic findings that are difficult to karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis partially because of the relative low resolution of this technique. High resolution genotyping is necessary in order to identify cryptic imbalances, for instance near the multiple breakpoints, to explain the abnormal phenotype in these patients. We applied several molecular techniques to elucidate the complexity of the CCRs of two adult patients with abnormal phenotypes. Results Multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH showed that in patient 1 the chromosomes 1, 10, 15 and 18 were involved in the rearrangement whereas for patient 2 the chromosomes 5, 9, 11 and 13 were involved. A 250 k Nsp1 SNP-array analysis uncovered a deletion in chromosome region 10p13 for patient 1, harbouring 17 genes, while patient 2 showed no pathogenic gains or losses. Additional FISH analysis with locus specific BAC-probes was performed, leading to the identification of cryptic interstitial structural rearrangements in both patients. Conclusion Application of M-FISH and SNP-array analysis to apparently balanced CCRs is useful to delineate the complex chromosomal rearrangement in detail. However, it does not always identify cryptic imbalances as an explanation for the abnormal phenotype in patients with a CCR.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a cryptic translocation 4p;18p and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschmidt, N; Zielinski, J; Brude, E; Schäfer, D; Olert, J; Hallermann, C; Coerdt, W; Arnemann, J

    2000-02-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by growth deficiency, mental retardation, a distinctive, 'greek-helmet' facial appearance, microcephaly, ear lobe anomalies, and sacral dimples. We report a family with a balanced chromosomal translocation 4;18(p15.32;p11.21) in the father and an unbalanced translocation resulting in partial monosomy 4 and partial trisomy 18 in one living boy and a prenatally diagnosed male fetus. Both showed abnormalities consistent with WHS and had in addition aplasia of one umbilical artery. Karyotyping of another stillborn fetus revealed a supernumerary derivative chromosome der(18)t(4;18)(p15.32;p11.21) of paternal origin and two normal chromosomes 4. The umbilical cord had three normal vessels. A third stillborn fetus with the same balanced translocation as the father had a single umbilical artery and hygroma colli. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  1. The Use of Double-Monotelodisomics to Identify Translocations in Triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Larsen, J.

    1974-01-01

    By analysing metaphase I of double-monotelodisomic hybrids between two varieties of hexaploid wheat differentiated by reciprocal translocations it is possible to establish reliably the chromosomes involved in each translocation. Also the chromosome parts translocated may be identified. The use...

  2. Breakpoint mapping and haplotype analysis of translocation t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) in two apparently independent families with vascular phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Tiia Maria; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Pöyhönen, Minna

    2018-01-01

    ." In the first family, carriers (n = 6) manifest with learning problems in childhood, and later with unexplained neurological symptoms (chronic headache, balance problems, tremor, fatigue) and cerebral infarctions in their 50s. In the second family, two carriers suffer from tetralogy of Fallot, one from......BACKGROUND: The risk of serious congenital anomaly for de novo balanced translocations is estimated to be at least 6%. We identified two apparently independent families with a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) as an outcome of a "Systematic Survey of Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Finns...

  3. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Weier, Jingly F.; Baumgartner, Aldof; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne, Santiago; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-02-25

    Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13) as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3 - embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  4. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13 as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3--embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  5. A three-generation family with terminal microdeletion involving 5p15.33-32 due to a whole-arm 5;15 chromosomal translocation with a steady phenotype of atypical cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmakky, Amira; Carli, Diana; Lugli, Licia; Torelli, Paola; Guidi, Battista; Falcinelli, Cristina; Fini, Sergio; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Percesepe, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is characterized by cat-like cry, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, speech delay, intellectual disability and slow growth rate, which are present with variable frequency. The typical cri du chat syndrome, due to 5p15.2 deletion, includes severe intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, neonatal hypotonia and pre- and post-natal growth retardation, whereas more distal deletions in 5p15.3 lead to cat-like cry and speech delay and produce the clinical picture of the atypical cri du chat syndrome, with minimal or absent intellectual impairment. In this article we report a three-generation family with an unbalanced whole arm translocation between chromosome 5 and 15 and a microdeletion of 5.5 Mb involving 5p15.33-32. By reporting the smallest terminal deletion of 5p15.3 described so far and by reviewing the literature we discuss the genotype/phenotype correlations of the distal region of the cri du chat syndrome. The previously described critical region for the speech delay may be narrowed down and microcephaly, growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features can be included in the phenotypic expression of the atypical cri du chat syndrome due to 5p15.3 deletions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Genotype/phenotype analysis in a male patient with partial trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q due to maternal reciprocal translocation (4;20): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Hou, Qiaofang; Wang, Hongdan; Wang, Tao; Liao, Shixiu

    2017-11-01

    Translocations are the most frequent structural aberration in the human genome. Carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangement exhibit an increased risk of abortion and/or a chromosomally‑unbalanced child. The present study reported a clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a child who exhibited typical trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q features, including intellectual disability, delayed speech, tall stature, seizures and facial dysmorphism. The karyotype of the proband exhibited 46, XY, add(20) (q13.3). The karyotype of the mother indicated a balanced translocation karyotype: 46, XX, t(4;20) (p15.2;q13.1). The array‑based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis identified partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 4 and partial monosomy of distal 20q in the proband due to maternal balanced reciprocal translocation 4;20. The analysis of genotype/phenotype correlation demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and msh homeobox 1 may be the important genes for 4p duplication, and that potassium voltage‑gated channel subfamily Q member 2, myelin transcription factor 1 and cholinergic receptor nicotinic α4 subunit may be the important genes for 20q deletion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to report an unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 4p and 20q. The present study additionally demonstrated that aCGH analysis is able to reliably detect unbalanced submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations.

  8. Poster #115Y: Two Distinct Phenotypes in 11 Individuals, Demonstrating Alternate Unbalanced Recombinants Derived from a Cryptic Paternal Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 10 and 14

    OpenAIRE

    Eytan, Danny; Gal, Asaf; Wallach, Avner; Kermany, Einat; Haroush, Netta; Marom, Shimon; Asleh, Rabea; Levy, Nina S.; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Levy, Andrew P.; Brenner, Benjamin; Assalia, Ahmed; Vardi, Yoram; Appel, Boaz; Massarwi, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Cancer and thrombosis are the two major disease states in the developed world. While the association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with tumors was described over 150 years ago, clinical and basic research over the past 30 years have broadened our understanding of this association. The interactions of thrombosis and cancer are complex and involve issues related to pathogenic mechanisms, clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment. Pulmonary embolism is a major cause of death in cancer pa...

  9. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  10. A balanced reciprocal translocation case in family with a history of recurrent abortions:46,XY,t(4;13(q31.3;q33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Eras Erdoğan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A couple with recurrent spontaneous abortionshas been referred to cytogenetic laboratory of MedicalBiology and Genetics Department for chromosomalanalysis.Material and methods: For chromosome analysis, peripheralblood culture was performed. The samples werestained by Giemsa Technique (GTG.Results: Twenty metaphase chromosomes were karyotyped,and 46,XY,t(4;13(q31.3-q33 karyotype was identifiedin the case. As a result of the analysis, his wifewas found to have normal karyotype. He had balancedtranslocation between chromosome 4 and 13 breakpointsin bands: der(4 monosomy 4qteràq31.3, trisomy13qà33qter, and der(13 trisomy 4qteràq31.3, monosomy13qà33qter.Conclusions: Although no phenotypically abnormalitieswere found in the male, the habituel abortions werefrequently observed in his wife. We concluded thatthis carrier family might be due to the unbalanced distribution(46,XY/46,XX, monosomy 4qteràq31.3, trisomy13qà33qter or 46,XY/46,XX,der(13 trisomy4qteràq31.3, monosomy 13qà33qter of translocationduring gamete formation and prenatal diagnosis recommendedfor their further pregnancies. J Clin Exp Invest2012; 3(2: 290-292

  11. Structural chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent abortion in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboon, Nagwa E A; Mohamed, Ahmed Ramy; Elsayed, Solaf M; Zaki, Osama K; Elsayed, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in couples who experience recurrent abortion and identify additional factors that may be predictive of abortion, such as parental age and unfavorable obstetric or abnormal semen analysis. The present study examined 125 couples who had experienced recurrent abortion. All subjects provided a detailed personal medical history and ancestral history and underwent a physical examination. Women in the study group underwent biochemical testing and pelvic ultrasound examinations, and men underwent a semen analysis. Among the 125 couples tested, 8 c6uples (6.4%) displayed a balanced translocation, among which 7 (5.6%) showed a reciprocal translocation and 1 (0.8%) showed a Robertsonian translocation. All carriers of these translocations were aged history and a past fetal malformation. All male carriers had a normal semen analysis. Couples who experience ≥2 pregnancy losses of unknown origin should undergo a cytogenetic analysis, and findings showing a chromosomal abnormality in either parent must be followed by genetic counseling.

  12. Balanced into array : genome-wide array analysis in 54 patients with an apparently balanced de novo chromosome rearrangement and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Ilse; Hanemaaijer, Nicolien; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Yntema, Helger; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Verheij, Joke; Green, Andrew; Hordijk, Roel; Reardon, William; de Vries, Bert; Brunner, Han; Bongers, Ernie; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genome-wide array analysis enables detailed screening for cryptic and submicroscopic imbalances of microscopically balanced de novo rearrangements in patients with developmental delay and/or congenital abnormalities. In this report, we added the results of genome-wide array analysis

  13. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  14. Nonrobertsonian translocation t(6;11) is associated with infertility in an oligoazoospermic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Francesco; Mazza, Giuseppa; Puglisi, Domenico; Luppino, Maria Giuseppa; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-07-01

    To analyze an unusual nonrobertsonian translocation t(6;11) found in an infertile, oligoazoospermic, but otherwise apparently healthy man. Case report with review of the scientific literature. Academic research environment. Infertile, oligoazoospermic, but otherwise apparently healthy man. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained for karyotyping, and metaphases were studied by standard GBG, RBG, and CBG banding procedures. Sperm count, morphology, and GBG, RBG, and CBG banding. A karyogram revealed a nonrobertsonian balanced translocation t(6;11) with breakpoints at 6q15 and 11p15, as shown by R-, G-, and C-banding. Physical contact of unpaired autosomal material with sex chromosomes, which leads to spermatogenic arrest, may be one of the factors that accounts for infertility in men with autosomal aberrations.

  15. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications......The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...

  16. Familial cryptic translocation resulting in Angelman syndrome: Implications for imprinting or location of the Angelman gene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, L.W.; Wiley, J.E.; Smith, A.J.W.; Kushnick, T. [East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

  18. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  19. Genetic and physical map of the von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) region on chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagle, M.K.; Parruti, G.; Xu, W.; Solomon, E. (Somatic Cell Genetics Lab., London (England)); Ponder, B.A.J. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))

    1990-09-01

    The von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) locus has been previously assigned to the proximal long arm of chromosome 17, and two NF1 patients have been identified who have constitutional balanced translocations involving 17q11.2. The authors have constructed a cosmid library from a chromosome-mediated gene transfectant, KLT8, that contains approximately 10% of chromosome 17, including 17q11.2. Cosmids isolated from this library have been mapped across a panel of somatic cell hybrids, including the hybrids from the two patients, and have been localized to seven small regions of proximal 17q. They have 5 cosmids that map directly above the two NF1 translocations, and 11 cosmids that map directly below. Of these, 2 cosmids in each region are linked to the disease locus and 3 of these cosmids show no recombination. One distal cosmid, 2B/B35, detects the two NF1 translocations by pulsed-field gel analysis and has been used to produce a long-range restriction map that covers the translocations.

  20. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ... Chromosome 13. Chromosome 14. Intellectual disability. a b s t r a c t. Background: The Robertsonian translocations inherited from parents with a normal ..... expression in lymphocyte of trisomy 21 babies/children: in vivo evaluation.

  1. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  2. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    This comprehensive progress report provides a synopsis of major research accomplishments during the years of 1991-1994, including the technical aspects of the project. The objectives and accomplishments are as follows: 1. Defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation and chemically-induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, t-AML); A. Continued genetic analysis of chromosomes 5 and 7, B. Correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced translocations. 2. Cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML; A. Clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, B. Clone the t(3,21)(q26,q22) breakpoint, C. Determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 3. Compare the breakpoint junctions in patients who have the same translocations in t-AML and AML de novo. 4. Map the scaffold attachment regions in the genes that are involved in balanced translocations in t-AML. Plans for the continuation of present objectives and possible new objectives in consideration of past results are also provided.

  3. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  4. Identification of copy number variations and translocations in cancer cells from Hi-C data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ay, Ferhat

    2017-10-18

    with CNV events for a breast cancer cell line (r=0.89) and capture most of the CNVs we simulate using Avesim. For HiCtrans predictions, we report evidence from the literature for 30 out of 90 translocations for eight of our cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we show that our tools identify and correctly classify relatively understudied rearrangements such as double minutes (DMs) and homogeneously staining regions (HSRs). Considering the inherent limitations of existing techniques for karyotyping (i.e., missing balanced rearrangements and those near repetitive regions), the accurate identification of CNVs and translocations in a cost-effective and high-throughput setting is still a challenge. Our results show that the set of tools we develop effectively utilize moderately sequenced Hi-C libraries (100-300 million reads) to identify known and de novo chromosomal rearrangements/abnormalities in well-established cancer cell lines. With the decrease in required number of cells and the increase in attainable resolution, we believe that our framework will pave the way towards comprehensive mapping of genomic rearrangements in primary cells from cancer patients using Hi-C. CNV calling: https://github.com/ay-lab/HiCnvTranslocation calling: https://github.com/ay-lab/HiCtransHi-C simulation: https://github.com/ay-lab/AveSim. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  6. Reproductive outcome in 3 families with a satellited chromosome 4 with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arn, P H; Younie, L; Russo, S; Zackowski, J L; Mankinen, C; Estabrooks, L

    1995-07-03

    We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious.

  7. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic analyses of four patients with imbalanced translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong Yan; Huang, Jia; Li, Tao; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hong Dan; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Guo, Liang Jie; Guo, Qian Nan; Huang, Fei Fei; Wang, Rui Li; Wang, Ying Tai

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities that result in genomic imbalances are main causes of congenital and developmental anomalies including intellectual disability and multiple congenital malformations. In this report we describe four patients from three families with imbalanced translocations. Only a small percentage of imbalanced translocation individuals can be born to live, most of them were aborted in embryonic period. It is of great significances to precisely analysis the chromosome variation to study the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Four patients showed common clinical manifestations including delayed growth, intellectual disability, language barrier and facial dysmorphisms. In addition to the above features, lower limbs dysplasia and both foot eversion were found in patient 1, brachydactylic hand, cerebellar ataxia and congenital heart defects were also found in patient 4. Conventional karyotype analysis revealed abnormal karyotypes 46, XX, der (6) t (6: 10) (p23; q24), 46, XX, der (20) t (3; 20) (p23; p13) and 46, XX, der (22) t (3; 22) (q27; q13.3) in the four patients, respectively. Array-CGH analyses confirmed 23.6 Mb duplication on 10q25.1-q26.3 and 0.9 Mb deletions on 6p25.3, 19.9 Mb duplication on 3p24.3-p26.3 and 0.25 Mb deletion on 20p13 and 12.5 Mb duplication on 3q27.2-q29 and 1.9 Mb deletions on 22q13.2-q13.33 in the four patients, respectively. Parents with balanced translocation are passed the imbalanced chromosome to patient, and the partial monosomy and partial trisomy lead to multiple congenital malformations of four patients.

  8. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  9. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  10. A de novo chromosomal abnormality in Cri du Chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shunchang C; Luo, Fuwei W; Zhou, Zhiming M; Peng, Yunsheng S; Song, Huiwen W

    2014-07-01

    To find the length and location of the deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5 in one case of Cri du Chat syndrome using oligo array comparative genomic hybridization. Metaphase chromosomes were prepared from peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures using standard cytogenetic protocols. Chromosomal analysis was done in G-banded metaphases. Oligo array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed by the commercially available kits. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed a 23.263 Mb deletion at region 5p14.2-->qter, combined with a duplication of 14.602 Mb in size in the area 12p13.1-->pter. Chromosomal aberrations were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The male neonate with Cri du Chat syndrome had an unbalanced translocation which was inherited from his father who was a balanced carrier with a karyotype 46, XY, t (5; 12) (p14.2; p13.1). This report shows the clinical utility of the oligonucleotide array in the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations, thus improving the molecular diagnosis of Cri du Chat syndrome.

  11. Genetic analysis of γ-ray induced W-translocation strain on Bombyx nori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Akio; Murakami, Akio

    1976-01-01

    In the process of analyzing a γ-ray induced mutant of Bombyx nori oo cyte, new type translocation strains of W chromosomes and No.5 chromosomes were detected. The constitution of their translocated chromosomes was assumed to be Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/v. Owing to such chromosome constitution, it was considered that non-disjunction was induced at meiosis, and Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)/V, Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V were produced besides Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V in the female chromosomes (gene) of the next progeny, while V/V and Z/Z, V + sup(oc)/V were produced besides Z/Z, V/V in male. Death of some male eggs in this translocation strain was also observed. No dissociated individual of translocated chromosomes was segregated in the next progeny of the female moth with Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V chromosome constitution and the marker stock male moth, while a few dissociated individuals appeared in the next progeny of Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V female moth group. This fact seemed to be resulted from the complicated translocated chromosome constitution of the translocation strain. (Kobatake, H.)

  12. Deficiência mental e malformações em criança com translocações cromossomicas 5/13 Mental retardation and malformation in a child with 5/13 chromosome translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriana Moura Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram um caso raro de retardo mental e malformações físicas em paciente com anormalidades cromossômicas. A análise cromossômica do paciente revelou cariótipo aparentemente equilibrado. Entretanto, são consideradas as possibilidades de que nos eventos de quebra e rejunção dos cromossomos, tenha ocorrido perda de alguns genes para 5p e/ou 13q; mutação gênica ou, ainda, efeito de posições dos segmentos cromossômicos rearranjados.An unusual case of mental retardation and physical malformations with chromosome abnormalities in a 9 year old boy is reported. Chromosomal analy- sis showed either breakage and delation from some gens to 5p and/or 13q; genic mutation or, perhaps, efect of position in re-adjusted chromosomic segments.

  13. 40 CFR 798.5460 - Rodent heritable translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manifests as balanced reciprocal translocations in progeny descended from parental males treated with... significance desired. (B) (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment and...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W. Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2006-05-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W; Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  16. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  17. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  18. Very short DNA segments can be detected and handled by the repair machinery during germline chromothriptic chromosome reassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Zuzana; Nazaryan-Petersen, Lusine; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Drabova, Jana; Hancarova, Miroslava; Marikova, Tatana; Novotna, Drahuse; Vlckova, Marketa; Vlckova, Zdenka; Bak, Mads; Zemanova, Zuzana; Tommerup, Niels; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2018-02-06

    Analyses at nucleotide resolution reveal unexpected complexity of seemingly simple and balanced chromosomal rearrangements. Chromothripsis is a rare complex aberration involving local shattering of one or more chromosomes and reassembly of the resulting DNA segments. This can influence gene expression and cause abnormal phenotypes. We studied the structure and mechanism of a seemingly balanced de novo complex rearrangement of four chromosomes in a boy with developmental and growth delay. Microarray analysis revealed two paternal de novo deletions of 0.7 and 2.5 Mb at two of the breakpoints in 1q24.3 and 6q24.1-q24.2, respectively, which could explain most symptoms of the patient. Subsequent whole-genome mate-pair sequencing confirmed the chromothriptic nature of the rearrangement. The four participating chromosomes were broken into 29 segments longer than 1 kb. Sanger sequencing of all breakpoint junctions revealed additional complexity compatible with the involvement of different repair pathways. We observed translocation of a 33 bp long DNA fragment, which may have implications for the definition of the lower size limit of structural variants. Our observations and literature review indicate that even very small fragments from shattered chromosomes can be detected and handled by the repair machinery during germline chromothriptic chromosome reassembly. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Instability of isochromosome 4p in a child with pure trisomy 4p syndrome features and entire 4q-arm translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pota, Pruthvi; Grammatopoulou, Vasiliki; Torti, Erin; Braddock, Stephen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional chromosome instability so far has mainly been associated with ring formation. In addition, isochromosome formation involving the short arm with translocation of the entire long arm is rarely observed. This type of rearrangement has been reported for chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 20. Here, we present the third patient having an isochromosome 4p with 4q translocation, but showing for the first time chromosome instability detected by FISH following chromosome microarray analysis.

  20. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  1. Analysis of 1;17 translocation breakpoints in neuroblastoma: implications for mapping of neuroblastoma genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Laureys, G.; van Gele, M.; Opdenakker, G.; Miura, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and translocations resulting in loss of distal 1p-material are known to occur frequently in advanced neuroblastomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that 17q was most frequently involved in chromosome 1p translocations. A review of the literature shows that 10 of 27 cell

  2. Molecular analysis of DiGeorge Syndrome-related translocation breakpoints in 22q11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffo, C.; Barnoski, B.L.; Emanuel, B.S. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    22q11 demonstrates a high frequency of disease-specific rearrangements. Several of the rearrangements are associated with developmental abnormalities such as DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS), Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS), Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome. DGS and VCFS involve deletions of 22q11.2 resulting from unbalanced translocations or microdeletions. In contrast, CES and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome result from duplications of this region via inter- or intra- chromosomal exchange. Although the molecular mechanism giving rise to these rearrangements has yet to be elucidated, the presence of known 22q11 repetitive elements are likely to be involved. GM5878 is a 46,XY,t(10;22) cell line from a balanced translocation carrier father of an unbalanced DGS patient. GM0980 is a cell line from a patient with features of DGS/VCFS with an unbalanced karyotype. Using FISH cosmids, we have localized these translocation breakpoints near pH160b (D22S66) which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR). To further localize the breakpoint of GM5878, overlapping cosmids spanning this region were used as probes for FISH. Use of additional overlapping cosmids allowed the sublocalization of the breakpoint to a 10kb region. A 4.8 kb BglII fragment predicted to cross the breakpoint was isolated. When this fragment was used as a probe to normal and GM5878 DNA, novel bands were detected in GM5878 DNA digested with EcoRI and BglII. Similar analysis of the GM0980 breakpoint is being pursued. Full molecular characterization of these translocations is in progress using inverse PCR to clone the junctional fragments for sequencing. Detailed analysis of the region may reveal molecular features which make this a rearrangement prone area of the genome and help elucidate its relationship to human cytogenetic disease.

  3. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  4. Nuchal translucency distributions for different chromosomal anomalies in a large unselected population cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    and compared with the normal/no karyotype group. RESULTS: A total of 215 223 singleton pregnancies were included in the cohort; 10548 had a normal karyotype and 1286 had an aberration. Plots of the NT measurements showed that like trisomy 21, 18 and 13 and monosomy X, the distribution for the unbalanced......OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of the fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT) according to type of chromosomal aberration in a large unselected population. METHODS: Data on pregnancies with an NT measurement performed at gestational age 11 + 3 - 13 + 6 weeks from 2008 to 2011 were...... translocations was shifted towards larger NTs. The distributions for the balanced translocations, the uncommon trisomies and the triploidies more closely resembled that of the normal/no karyotype population. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with aneuploidies have NT distributions visually different from normal fetuses...

  5. An unusual cytogenetic rearrangement originating from two different abnormalities in chromosome 6 in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, R R C; Mkrtchyan, H; Amaral, B A S; Liehr, T; de Souza, M T; Ney-Garcia, D R; Santos, N; Marques-Salles, T J; Ribeiro, R C; Figueiredo, A F; Silva, M L M

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is usually associated with a favorable outcome, but about 10% of patients tend to relapse. The genetic hallmark of APL is a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 17, and the PML-RARa gene fusion is found in more than 90% of these cases. Other chromosomal abnormalities are commonly found in APL, but their clinical significance has yet to be determined. Here we report a case of childhood APL that was studied by conventional cytogenetics along with molecular cytogenetic techniques. The patient showed a complex karyotype with an unusual cytogenetic rearrangement originating from two different abnormalities in a single chromosome 6. Our case is an exceptional example of a cryptic cytogenetic anomaly in APL and underscores the importance of detailed genetic characterization. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Familial C/G Translocation in Three Relatives Associated with Severe Mental Retardation, Short Stature, Unusual Dermatoglyphics and Other Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, S.; Hiraoka, K.

    1971-01-01

    Three case studies of patients (relatives) suffering from a chromosomal aberration (translocation between one of the C group chromosomes and one of the G group chromosomes) resulting in severe mental retardation and skin malformations are reported. It was suggested that the anomaly is hereditary in nature (CD)

  7. Centromere structure and function analysis in wheat-rye translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yalin; Su, Handong; Guo, Xianrui; Han, Fangpu

    2017-07-01

    1RS.1BL translocations are centric translocations formed by misdivision and have been used extensively in wheat breeding. However, the role that the centromere plays in the formation of 1RS.1BL translocations is still unclear. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to detect the fine structures of the centromeres in 130 1RS.1BL translocation cultivars. Immuno-FISH, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR and RT-PCR were used to investigate the functions of the hybrid centromeres in 1RS.1BL translocations. New 1R translocations with different centromere structures were created by misdivision and pollen irradiation to elucidate the role that the centromere plays in the formation of 1RS.1BL translocations. We found that all of the 1RS.1BL translocations detected contained hybrid centromeres and that wheat-derived CENH3 bound to both the wheat and rye centromeres in the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosomes. Moreover, a rye centromere-specific retrotransposon was actively transcribed in 1RS.1BL translocations. The frequencies of new 1RS hybrid centromere translocations and group-1 chromosome translocations were higher during 1R misdivision. Our study demonstrates the hybrid nature of the centromere in 1RS.1BL translocations. New 1R translocations with different centromere structures were created to help understand the fusion centromere used for wheat breeding and for use as breeding material for the improvement of wheat. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simulations of Polymer Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-07-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze -- i.e., translocate -- themselves through the pores. DNA, RNA and proteins are such naturally occuring long molecules in a variety of biological processes. Understandably, the process of translocation has been an active topic of current research: not only because it is a cornerstone of many biological processes, but also due to its relevance for practical applications. Translocation is a complicated process in living organisms -- the presence of chaperone molecules, pH, chemical potential gradients, and assisting molecular motors strongly influence its dynamics. Consequently, the translocation process has been empirically studied in great variety in biological literature. Study of translocation as a biophysical process is more recent. Herein, the polymer is simplified to a sequentially connected string of N monomers as it passes through a narrow pore on a membrane. The quantities of interest are the typical time scale for the polymer to leave a confining cell (the ``escape of a polymer from a vesicle'' time scale), and the typical time scale the polymer spends in the pore (the ``dwell'' time scale) as a function of N and other parameters like membrane thickness, membrane adsorption, electrochemical potential gradient, etc. Our research is focused on computer simulations of translocation. Since our main interest is in the scaling properties, we use a highly simplified description of the translocation process. The polymer is described as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and its dynamics consists of single-monomer jumps from one lattice site to another neighboring one. Since we have a very efficient program to simulate such polymer dynamics, which we decribe in Chapter 2, we can perform long

  9. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  10. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Ivánek, Robert; Čapková, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 1431-1437 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA301/06/1334; GA ČR GA301/07/1383 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chromosomal translocations * meiotic X chromosome inactivation * spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  11. Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics. PMID:18253961

  12. Oncogene Translocations and NHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colloboration with several large population-based cohorts to determine whether the prevalence or level of t14;18 is associated with risk of NHL and to investigate the clonal relationship between translocation-bearing cells and subsequent tumors

  13. Reciprocal translocations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): pattern of transmission, detection of multiple interchanges and their independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a diploid crop having 2n = 14 chromosomes. Four different plant types, heterozygous for reciprocal translocation (RT), RT-1, RT-2, RT-3, and RT-4 showing pollen semisterility, were isolated in induced mutant population of three varieties of grass pea. Transmission rate of these 4 translocations was studied in advanced selfed and intercrossed progenies, whereas multiple chromosomal interchanges were detected by the pattern of chromosomal ring formation at meiosis I in the F(1) progeny of RTxRT. RT transmitted at an average of 48.89% in selfed progeny and along with normal plants, RT and translocation homozygotes produced some trisomic plants in the segregation progeny. RT-3 showing maximum frequency (68.20%) of zig-zag or alternate chromosome orientation exhibited highest transmission (55.20%). Presence of a ring of 6 or 2 rings of 4 chromosomes in F(1) double heterozygotes obtained from RTxRT suggested involvement of one common chromosome in translocations of RT-1, RT-2, and RT-4 but a different one in common between RT-2 and RT-3. No common chromosome, however, was shared by RT-3 and RT-4. Thus, 5 out of 7 chromosomes are involved in the present RTs, and one of the translocated chromosomes in RT-1 line was always associated with nucleolar organizing region.

  14. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Analysis of the Ceratitis capitata y chromosome using in situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

    1998-01-01

    In Ceratitis capitata the Y chromosome is responsible for sex-determination. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic analysis of mitotic chromosomes. FISH with the wild-type strain EgyptII and two repetitive DNA probes enabled us to differentiate between the short and the long arm of the Y chromosome and gives a much better resolution than C-banding of mitotic chromosomes. We identified the Y-chromosomal breakpoints in Y-autosome translocations using FISH. Even more complex rearrangements i.e. deletions and insertions in some translocation strains were detected by this method. A strategy for mapping the primary sex determination factor in Ceratitis capitata by FISH is presented. (author)

  16. Chromosome painting in biological dosimetry: Semi-automatic system to score stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J.M.; Vallcorba, I.; Sanchez-Hombre, M.C.; Ferro, M.T.; San Roman Cos-Gayon, C.; Santos, A.; Malpica, N.; Ortiz, C.

    1997-01-01

    From the beginning of the description of the procedure of chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), it was thought its possible application to score induced chromosomal aberrations in radiation exposition. With chromosome painting it is possible to detect changes between chromosomes that has been validated in radiation exposition. Translocation scoring by FISH, contrarily to the unstable dicentrics, mainly detect stable chromosome aberrations that do not disappear, it allows the capability of quantify delayed acute expositions or chronic cumulative expositions. The large number of cells that have to be analyzed for high accuracy, specially when dealing with low radiation doses, makes it almost imperative to use an automatic analysis system. After validate translocation scoring by FISH in our, we have evaluated the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome using different paint probes used, showing that any combination of paint probes can be used to score induced chromosomal aberrations. Our group has developed a FISH analysis that is currently being adapted for translocation scoring analysis. It includes systematic error correction and internal control probes. The performance tests carried out show that 9,000 cells can be analyzed in 10 hr. using a Sparc 4/370. Although with a faster computer, a higher throughput is expected, for large population screening or very low radiation doses, this performance still has to be improved. (author)

  17. Chromosomal geometry in the interface from the frequency of the radiation induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Otero, D.; Di Giorgio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their interaction and illegitimate recombination produces chromosomal aberrations. Stable chromosomal aberrations comprise inter-chromosomal events (translocations) and intra-chromosomal events (inversions). When DSBs induction and interaction is done at random, and the proximity effects are neglected, the expected relation between translocations and inversions is F=86, based on chromosome arm length. The number of translocations and inversions is analyzed by using G-banding in 16 lymphocytes cultures from blood samples acutely irradiated with γ-rays (dose range: 0,5 Gy - 3 Gy). The result obtained was: F=13,5, significantly smaller than F=86. Literature data show similar small F values, but strongly spread. The excess of inversions could be explained by a 'proximity effect', it means that more proximate DSBs have more interaction probability. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a special chromosome arrangement during irradiation and the subsequent interval. We propose a model where individual chromosomes show spherical confinement with some degree of overlapping and DSBs induction proportional to cross section. A DSBs interaction probability function with cut-off length= 1μ is assumed. According to our results, the confinement volume is ≅ 6.4% of the nuclear volume. Nevertheless, we presume that large spread in F data could be due to temporal variation in overlapping and spatial chromosomal confinement. (authors). 14 refs

  18. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  19. Mandibulofacial dysostosis in a patient with a de novo 2;17 translocation that disrupts the HOXD gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David A; Bleyl, Steven B; Maxwell, Teresa; Brothman, Arthur R; South, Sarah T

    2007-05-15

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is the prototypical mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome, but other mandibulofacial dysostosis syndromes have been described. We report an infant with mandibulofacial dysostosis and an apparently balanced de novo 2;17 translocation. She presented with severe lower eyelid colobomas requiring skin grafting, malar and mandibular hypoplasia, bilateral microtia with external auditory canal atreasia, dysplastic ossicles, hearing loss, bilateral choanal stenosis, cleft palate without cleft lip, several oral frenula of the upper lip/gum, and micrognathia requiring tracheostomy. Her limbs were normal. Chromosome analysis at the 600-band level showed a 46,XX,t(2;17)(q24.3;q23) karyotype. Sequencing of the entire TCOF1 coding region did not show evidence of a sequence variation. High-resolution genomic microarray analysis did not identify a cryptic imbalance. FISH mapping refined the breakpoints to 2q31.1 and 17q24.3-25.1 and showed the 2q31.1 breakpoint likely affects the HOXD gene cluster. Several atypical findings and lack of an identifiable TCOF1 mutation suggest that this child has a provisionally unique mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome. The apparently balanced de novo translocation provides candidate loci for atypical and TCOF1 mutation negative cases of TCS. Based on the agreement of our findings with one previous case of mandibulofacial dysostosis with a 2q31.1 transocation, we hypothesize that misexpression of genes in the HOXD gene cluster produced the described phenotype in this patient.

  20. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  1. Clinical correlation between premature ovarian failure and a chromosomal anomaly in a 22-year-old Caucasian woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Edera Domenico

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Premature ovarian failure is defined as the cessation of ovarian activity before the age of 40 years. It is biochemically characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins and high levels of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Case presentation Our patient, a 22-year-old Caucasian woman under evaluation for infertility, had experienced secondary amenorrhea from the age of 18. No positive family history was noted regarding premature menopause. An examination of our patient’s karyotype showed the presence of a reciprocal translocation, apparently balanced, which had the X chromosome long arm (q13 and the 14 chromosome short arm (p12 with consequent karyotype: 46, X, t(X; 14(q13;p12. Conclusions Our study has underlined that karyotyping is one of the fundamental investigations in the evaluation of amenorrhea. It highlighted a genetic etiology, in the form of a chromosomal abnormality, as the causal factor in amenorrhea.

  2. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  3. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae) chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin

    OpenAIRE

    Tomazella, Iara Maluf; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70) has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814), for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes) has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations an...

  4. Dermatoglyphics and Reproductive Risk in a Family with Robertsonian Translocation 14q;21q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgeci, Selim; Kolgeci, Jehona; Azemi, Mehmedali; Daka, Aferdita; Shala-Beqiraj, Ruke; Kurtishi, Ilir; Sopjani, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study is carried out to evaluate the risk of giving birth to children with Down syndrome in a family with Robertsonian translocation 14q;21q, and to find the dermatoglyphic changes present in carriers of this translocation. Methods: Cytogenetics diagnosis has been made according to Moorhead and Seabright method, while the analysis of prints (dermatoglyphics analysis) was made with the Cummins and Midlo method. Results: Cytogenetic diagnosis has been made in a couple who suffered the spontaneous miscarriages and children with Down syndrome. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 14 and 21 (45, XX, der (14; 21) (q10; q10)) was found in a female partner who had four pregnancies, in two of which was found fetus karyotype with trisomy in chromosome 21 and pregnancies were terminated. The outcome of fourth pregnancy was twin birth, one of them with normal karyotype and another with Down syndrome due to Robertsonian translocation inherited by mother side. Specific dermatoglyphics traits are found in the child carrying Down syndrome, whereas several traits of dermatoglyphics characteristic of Down syndrome have been displayed among the silent carriers of Robertsonian translocation 14q;21q. Conclusion: Robertsonian translocation found in female partner was the cause of spontaneous miscarriages, of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome, and of trisomy of chromosome 21 due to translocation in two pregnancies. PMID:26236088

  5. Apparently balanced t(1;7)(q21.3;q34) in an infant with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, E W; Laneri, G; Clemens, M M; Kochmar, S J; Surti, U

    1997-09-05

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by "coarse" facial appearance, hypoplastic or absent nails on the fifth digits, generalized hirsutism with sparse scalp hair, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Due to several reports of affected sibs with or without a mildly affected parent, both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance have been suggested. All previous patients with well-documented Coffin-Siris syndrome are chromosomally normal, and the gene has not been mapped. We report on an infant with typical findings of Coffin-Siris syndrome who also has a de novo apparently balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 7, karyotype 46,XY,t(1;7)(q21.3;q34). The parental chromosomes are normal and none of the relatives have signs of Coffin-Siris syndrome. The breakpoints 1q21.3 and 7q34 are suggested as possible locations for a Coffin-Siris gene.

  6. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  7. Differences and homologies of chromosomal alterations within and between breast cancer cell lines: a clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón-Lagos, Milena; Verdun Di Cantogno, Ludovica; Marchiò, Caterina; Rangel, Nelson; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; Gugliotta, Patrizia; Botta, Cristina; Bussolati, Gianni; Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra R; Pasini, Barbara; Sapino, Anna

    2014-01-23

    The MCF7 (ER+/HER2-), T47D (ER+/HER2-), BT474 (ER+/HER2+) and SKBR3 (ER-/HER2+) breast cancer cell lines are widely used in breast cancer research as paradigms of the luminal and HER2 phenotypes. Although they have been subjected to cytogenetic analysis, their chromosomal abnormalities have not been carefully characterized, and their differential cytogenetic profiles have not yet been established. In addition, techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), microarray-based CGH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have described specific regions of gains, losses and amplifications of these cell lines; however, these techniques cannot detect balanced chromosomal rearrangements (e.g., translocations or inversions) or low frequency mosaicism. A range of 19 to 26 metaphases of the MCF7, T47D, BT474 and SKBR3 cell lines was studied using conventional (G-banding) and molecular cytogenetic techniques (multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, M-FISH). We detected previously unreported chromosomal changes and determined the content and frequency of chromosomal markers. MCF7 and T47D (ER+/HER2-) cells showed a less complex chromosomal make up, with more numerical than structural alterations, compared to BT474 and SKBR3 (HER2+) cells, which harbored the highest frequency of numerical and structural aberrations. Karyotype heterogeneity and clonality were determined by comparing all metaphases within and between the four cell lines by hierarchical clustering. The latter analysis identified five main clusters. One of these clusters was characterized by numerical chromosomal abnormalities common to all cell lines, and the other four clusters encompassed cell-specific chromosomal abnormalities. T47D and BT474 cells shared the most chromosomal abnormalities, some of which were shared with SKBR3 cells. MCF7 cells showed a chromosomal pattern that was markedly different from those of the other cell lines. Our study provides a comprehensive

  8. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 1. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization of porcine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes. AGNIESZKA SADOWSKA LUKASZ PAUKSZTO ANNA NYNCA IZABELA SZCZERBAL KARINA ...

  9. Cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of 25 Chilean patients with a variant Ph translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legues, Maria E; Encina, Andrea; Valenzuela, Mercedes; Palma, Tamara; Undurraga, Maria S

    2011-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which results from a balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, the t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). In 5-10% of the cases, variants of the Ph (vPh) are detected, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11.2. Deletions on the der(9) and der(22) can be detected in approximately 10-15% of CML patients. The frequency of a deletion of the der(9) in vPh CML is variable. Most studies have shown high frequencies (30-45%) in this subgroup. We report the cytogenetic evaluation of 25 vPh cases, which represents 6.8% of the CML cases diagnosed at one institution in 20 years. The breakpoints of the partners of the vPh in our patients agree with those reported previously, except for a novel 18q23. We found a low incidence of deletions of the der(9) (10%) and der(22) (5%) in these patients, contrasting with several reports in the literature. This finding may reflect the extensive spectrum of aberrations in vPh, and the possibility that a considerable group of these aberrations may not affect the genetic stability of 5'ABL1 and 3'BCR. Epidemiologic differences may also exist and could explain our results. These differences would require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive outcome in 3 families with a satellited chromosome 4 with review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arn, P.H.; Younie, L.; Russo, S. [Nemours Children`s Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Variants forms of Philadelphia translocation in two patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, A.; Zamecnikova, A.; Krizan, P.; Karlic, H.; Nowotny, H.

    1996-01-01

    During a 4-year period (December 1990-December 1994), among other diagnoses hundred cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were analyzed in our departments. We focused our attention on two cases with a variant form of Philadelphia translocation. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies were performed to resolve the status of BCR and ABL in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of the two CML patients with complex translocations involving chromosomes, 3, 9, 22 and 9, 12, 22 respectively. In the first case the presence of Ph chromosome was detected cytogenetically, BCR-ABL translocation was detected by Southern hybridization. In the second phase, only the PCR method showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. The second case, with a random variant form of Ph translocation, could be detected using different methods of clinical molecular genetics. (author)

  12. Cloning of BWS-associated chromosomal breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannens, M.; Hoovers, J.; Redeker, E. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-09-01

    The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities and is thought to be subject to {open_quotes}parental imprinting{close_quotes}. There is a striking increased incidence of different types of childhood tumors found in BWS patients of 7.5%. The syndrome is localized to chromosome region 11p15.3-p15.5. A contiguous map of this region of over 10 Mb was constructed and all 25 known genes from this region were localized to this map, including known imprinted genes like IGF2 and H19, or candidate tumor suppressor genes like WEE1, ST5 and rhombotin. In addition, we were able to place the breakpoints of 8 different balanced chromosomal rearrangements, associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, onto this map in two distinct regions that are now known to contain childhood tumor suppressor genes. In one of these BWS clusters (BWSCR1) 5/5 translocation breakpoints could be identified with overlapping cosmids for each breakpoint. A 6.7 kb transcript in all adult tissues tested was identified by several of these cosmids. This transcript was less abundant in fetal tissue. Preliminary results suggest the presence of zinc-finger protein motifs in this gene. This, however, has to be confirmed by sequence analysis. Two breakpoints in the more proximal BWS region (BWSCR2) were associated with clinically distinct BWS phenotypes, of which hemihypertrophy and Wilms` tumor are the most pronounced clinical findings. These breakpoints were found to be overlapped by the same cosmid. In this region, zinc-finger motifs flanking the breakpoints were identified by genomic sequence analysis.

  13. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae) chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazella, Iara Maluf; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-01-01

    The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70) has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814), for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes) has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  14. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maluf Tomazella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70 has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814, for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  15. A Novel Cryptic Three-Way Translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33 with Deletion of Tumor Suppressor Genes in 9p21.3 and 13q14 in a T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb A. K. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia often presents with pure chromosomal resolution; thus, aberrations may not be detected by banding cytogenetics. Here, a case of 26-year-old male diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and a normal karyotype after standard GTG-banding was studied retrospectively in detail by molecular cytogenetic and molecular approaches. Besides fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH were applied. Thus, cryptic chromosomal aberrations not observed before were detected: three chromosomes were involved in a cytogenetically balanced occurring translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33. Besides a translocation t(10;14(q24;q11 was identified, an aberration known to be common in T-ALL. Due to the three-way translocation deletion of tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/INK4A/p16, CDKN2B/INK4B/p15, and MTAP/ARF/p14 in 9p21.3 took place. Additionally RB1 in 13q14 was deleted. This patient, considered to have a normal karyotype after low resolution banding cytogenetics, was treated according to general protocol of anticancer therapy (ALL-BFM 95.

  16. [PCR detection of relevant translocations in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Ramos-Cervantes, María Teresa; Rosel-Pech, Cecilia; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, leukemia represents the most common type of cancer in the population under 15 years old with a high incidence rate when compared with developed countries. The etiology of leukemia may be unknown, however different factors are involve such as chromosomal translocations. The aim of this work is to detect the molecular alterations: TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL minor and E2A-PBX1 in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 91 bone marrow samples were collected from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from january 2012 to march 2013 at the Pediatric Hematology Service, Hospital General "Gaudencio González Garza". Translocations detected (TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL minor and E2A-PBX1) using real time PCR, SYBR Green (Qiagen, Alameda, CA). 91 samples were processed, the detected frequencies for each translocation were: TEL-AML1 (7.21%), E2A-PBX1 (5.15%). The MLL-AF4 and the BCR-ABL minor translocations were not detected in this study. The frequencies shown in this study are consistent with the data shown in the literature, where TEL-AML1 is the most common translocation found in pediatric patients. It is of relevance to mention that E2A-PBX1 is found in a high frequency in developing countries when compared with developed countries.

  17. Characterization of a wheat-Thinopyrum bessarabicum (T2JS-2BS.2BL) translocation line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zengjun; Du, Pei; Qian, Baoli; Zhuang, Lifang; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Jian; Guo, Jie; Feng, Yigao; Pei, Ziyou

    2010-08-01

    Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ or E(b)E(b)) is an important genetic resource for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Development of wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, a novel wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation line T2JS-2BS.2BL, which carries a segment of Th. bessarabicum chromosome arm 2JS was identified and further characterized using sequential chromosome C-banding, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA markers. The translocation breakpoint was mapped within bin C-2BS1-0.53 of chromosome 2B through marker analysis. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) parent and to CS-type lines, the translocation line has more fertile spikes per plant, longer spikes, more grains per spike and higher yield per plant, which suggests that the alien segment carries yield-related genes. However, plants with the translocation are also taller, head later and have lower 1,000-kernel weight than CS or CS-type lines. By using markers specific to the barley photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1, it was determined that the late heading date was conferred by a recessive allele located on the 2JS segment. In addition, four markers specific for the translocated segment were identified, which can be used for marker-aided screening.

  18. Aggressive osteoblastoma: a case report involving a unique chromosomal aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allyson C; Rezeanu, Luminita; Klein, Michael J; Pitt, Michael J; Buecker, Peter; Hersh, Joseph H; Buchino, John J; Siegal, Gene P

    2010-06-01

    Osteoblastomas are rare bone-producing neoplasms that generally occur in the young and can be misdiagnosed as an osteosarcoma if correlation with clinical history, radiology, and histology is not carefully considered or if the several variants of osteoblastoma are not recognized. These variants lie on a morphologic spectrum between conventional osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Aggressive osteoblastoma is one such subtype. As the name implies, the histologic features of aggressive osteoblastoma may appear malignant, and its biologic behavior may separate it from conventional osteoblastoma. We report a case of aggressive osteoblastoma occurring in the femoral diaphysis of a 12-year-old girl; this osetoblastoma was dyssynchronous from the radiologic appearance and a diagnostic challenge. Cytogenetic evaluation of the neoplasm revealed a pseudodiploid clone with a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 4, 7, and 14. Using the premise that cytogenetics might be useful as a diagnostic tool for a more specific classification, we reviewed the literature in order to compare our findings with known chromosomal aberrations.

  19. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yutaka

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G 2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G 2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G 2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G 1 phase. (author)

  20. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations and interphase DNA geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Di Giorgio, M.; Otero, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and their interaction and illegitimate recombination produces chromosome aberrations. Stable chromosome aberrations comprise inter-chromosomal events (translocations) and intra-chromosomal events (inversions). Assuming DSBs induction and interaction is completely random and neglecting proximity effects, the expected ratio of translocations to inversions is F=86, based on chromosome arm lengths. We analyzed the number of translocations and inversions using G-banding, in 16 lymphocyte cultures from blood samples acutely irradiated with γ-rays (dose range: 0.5Gy-3Gy). Our results give F=13.5, significantly smaller than F=86. Literature data show similar small F values but strongly spread. The excess of inversions could be explained by a 'proximity effect', it means that more proximate DSBs have an extra probability of interaction. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a special chromosome arrangement during irradiation and the subsequent interval. We propose a model where individual chromosomes show spherical confinement with some degree of overlapping and DSBs induction proportional to cross section. We assume a DSBs interaction probability function with cut-off length = 1 μ. We propose that large spread in F data could be due to temporal variation in overlapping and spatial chromosome confinement. (author). 14 refs

  1. Further studies on the possible relationship between radiation-induced reciprocal translocations and intrinsic radiosensitivity of human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virsik-Peuckert, P.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Schmidberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    Background and purpose. The aim of the present study was to estimate yields of radiation-induced translocations in surviving cells of several human tumor cell lines and in normal diploid human fibroblasts, and to compare these yields with corresponding intrinsic radiosensitivities determined by standard colony-formation assay. Material and methods. The yields of radiation-induced reciprocal translocations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 were 'painted' with fluorescent hybridization probes for whole chromosomes. Translocation yields and cell survival were determined for different doses up to 6 Gy of 200 kV X-rays. Results. We observed a higher frequency of reciprocal translocations in the radiosensitive cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-436 than in the radioresistant cells CaSki, WiDr, A549 and normal skin fibroblasts. For primary squamous cell carcinoma cells, ZMK-1, an intermediate radiosensitivity and an intermediate translocation yield were observed. The dose-dependence of translocation yields involving chromosomes no. 1 or no. 4 varied in different cell lines: it was linear or linear with a plateau at higher doses. Conclusions. A comparison of the data obtained with chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 in the investigated cell types, indicates that intrinsic radiosensitivity of different tumor cells observed at the survival level, is correlated with different translocation yields, respectively. This correlation was observed for all cell types investigated, independent of the number of copies of the painted chromosome per cell or the radiation dose. However, for low doses (under 1 Gy), the yields of translocations determined for the individual chromosomes seem to be too low for a discrimination between radioresistant or radiosensitive cells

  2. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, C. I. [UNESP; Abril, V. V. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M B [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a mul...

  3. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a boy with t(14q14q) associated with a paternal t(13q14q)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, D.J.; Waye, J.S.; Whelan, D.T. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    An 11-year-old boy was referred for chromosomal analysis because of precocious development and behavioral problems suggestive of the fragile X syndrome. The cytogenetic fragile X studies were normal, but a routine GTG-banded karyotype revealed an abnormal male karyotype with a Robertsonian translocation between the two chromosome 14`s: 46,XY,t(14q14q). Paternal karyotyping revealed another abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,t(13q14q). A brother had the same karyotype as the father; the mother was deceased. In order to determine if the apparently balanced t(14q14q) in the proband might be the cause of the clinical findings, molecular analysis of the origin of the chromosome 14`s was initiated. Southern blotting and hybridization with D4S13 showed that the proband had two copies of one maternal allele which was shared by his brother. The brother`s second allele corresponded to one of the paternal alleles; the proband had no alleles from the father. Analysis of four other VNTRs demonstrated the probability of paternity to be greater than 99%. Thus, the t(14q14q) was most likely composed of two maternal chromosome 14`s. Further characterization of the t(14q14q) by dinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers is in progress to determine whether it has arisen from maternal isodisomy or heterodisomy. Several cases of uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 have been reported recently. Paternal disomy appears to be associated with more severe congenital anomalies and mental retardation, whereas maternal disomy may be associated with premature puberty and minimal intellectual impairment. The origin of the t(14q14q) in the present case may be related to the paternal translocation, as the segregation of the t(13q14q) in meiosis could lead to sperm that are nullisomic for chromosome 14.

  4. Sequence analysis of the breakpoint regions of an X;5 translocation in a female with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, I. van; Holt, S.; Craig, I. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    X;autosome translocations in females with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms responsible for chromosomal rearrangements that occur in the germ line. We describe here a detailed molecular analysis of the translocation breakpoints of an X;autosome reciprocal translocation, t(X;5) (p21;q31.1), in a female with DMD. Cosmid clones that contained the X-chromosome breakpoint region were identified, and subclones that hybridized to the translocation junction fragment in restriction digests of the patient`s DNA were isolated and sequenced. Primers designed from the X-chromosomal sequence were used to obtain the junction fragments on the der(X) and the der(5) by inverse PCR. The resultant clones were also cloned and sequenced, and this information used to isolate the chromosome 5 breakpoint region. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the junction fragments with those of the breakpoint regions on chromosomes X and 5 revealed that the translocation arose by nonhomologous recombination with an imprecise reciprocal exchange. Four and six base pairs of unknown origin are inserted at the exchange points of the der(X) and der(5), respectively, and three nucleotides are deleted from the X-chromosome sequence. Two features were found that may have played a role in the generation of the translocation. These were (1) a repeat motif with an internal homopyrimidine stretch 10 bp upstream from the X-chromosome breakpoint and (2) a 9-bp sequence of 78% homology located near the breakpoints on chromosomes 5 and X. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to screen for fetal neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities, amniocentesis was carried out in 334 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between 1979 and 1987. Two cases (0.6%; 95% confidence limits 0.1-2.2%) of fetal chromosome abnormality were found: one case...... of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non...

  6. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  7. Genome Organization Drives Chromosome Fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andres; Maman, Yaakov; Jung, Seolkyoung; Wong, Nancy; Callen, Elsa; Day, Amanda; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Zhang, Hongliang; Rao, Suhas S P; Huang, Su-Chen; Mckinnon, Peter J; Aplan, Peter D; Pommier, Yves; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Casellas, Rafael; Nussenzweig, André

    2017-07-27

    In this study, we show that evolutionarily conserved chromosome loop anchors bound by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin are vulnerable to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B). Polymorphisms in the genome that redistribute CTCF/cohesin occupancy rewire DNA cleavage sites to novel loop anchors. While transcription- and replication-coupled genomic rearrangements have been well documented, we demonstrate that DSBs formed at loop anchors are largely transcription-, replication-, and cell-type-independent. DSBs are continuously formed throughout interphase, are enriched on both sides of strong topological domain borders, and frequently occur at breakpoint clusters commonly translocated in cancer. Thus, loop anchors serve as fragile sites that generate DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinniss, M J; Kazazian, H H; Stetten, G

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of ring chromosome 21 (r(21)) formation in 13 patients (11 unique r(21)s), consisting of 7 from five families with familial r(21) and 6 with de novo r(21). The copy number of chromosome 21 sequences in the rings of these patients was determined by quantitative dosage......), resulting in deletion of varying amounts of 21q22.1 to 21qter. The data from one individual who had a Down syndrome phenotype were consistent with asymmetric breakage and reunion of 21q sequences from an intermediate isochromosome or Robertsonian translocation chromosome as reported by Wong et al. Another......). The phenotype of patients correlated well with the extent of deletion or duplication of chromosome 21 sequences. These data demonstrate three mechanisms of r(21) formation and show that the phenotype of r(21) patients varies with the extent of chromosome 21 monosomy or trisomy....

  9. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Leach, Natalia T; Lan, Fei; Ullmann, Reinhard; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Kurth, Ingo; Nowka, Anja; Seong, Ihn Sik; Shen, Yiping; Talkowski, Michael E; Ruderfer, Douglas; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Glotzbach, Caron; Ha, Kyungsoo; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Levin, Alex V; Romeike, Bernd F; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Bartsch, Oliver; Elsea, Sarah H; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; MacDonald, Marcy E; Harris, David J; Quade, Bradley J; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Shaffer, Lisa G; Kutsche, Kerstin; Layman, Lawrence C; Tommerup, Niels; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Shi, Yang; Morton, Cynthia C; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Gusella, James F

    2012-07-13

    Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS) is a contiguous gene disorder due to the interstitial deletion of band p11.2 of chromosome 11 and is characterized by multiple exostoses, parietal foramina, intellectual disability (ID), and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Despite the identification of individual genes responsible for multiple exostoses and parietal foramina in PSS, the identity of the gene(s) associated with the ID and CFA phenotypes has remained elusive. Through characterization of independent subjects with balanced translocations and supportive comparative deletion mapping of PSS subjects, we have uncovered evidence that the ID and CFA phenotypes are both caused by haploinsufficiency of a single gene, PHF21A, at 11p11.2. PHF21A encodes a plant homeodomain finger protein whose murine and zebrafish orthologs are both expressed in a manner consistent with a function in neurofacial and craniofacial development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional regulation. Our finding that disruption of PHF21A by translocations in the PSS region is associated with ID adds to the growing list of ID-associated genes that emphasize the critical role of transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling in normal brain development and cognitive function. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  11. Chromosomal evolution in the plant family Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feinan; Tanksley, Steven D

    2010-03-17

    Over the past decades, extensive comparative mapping research has been performed in the plant family Solanaceae. The recent identification of a large set of single-copy conserved orthologous (COSII) markers has greatly accelerated comparative mapping studies among major solanaceous species including tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper and diploid Nicotiana species (as well as tetraploid tobacco). The large amount of comparative data now available for these species provides the opportunity to describe the overall patterns of chromosomal evolution in this important plant family. The results of this investigation are described herein. We combined data from multiple COSII studies, and other comparative mapping studies performed in tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper and diploid Nicotiana species, to deduce the features and outcomes of chromosomal evolution in the Solanaceae over the past 30 million years. This includes estimating the rates and timing of chromosomal changes (inversions and translocations) as well as deducing the age of ancestral progenitor species and predicting their genome configurations. The Solanaceae has experienced chromosomal changes at a modest rate compared with other families and the rates are likely conserved across different lineages of the family. Chromosomal inversions occur at a consistently higher rate than do translocations. Further, we find evidences for non-random positioning of the chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints. This finding is consistent with the similar finding in mammals, where hot spots for chromosomal breakages have apparently played a significant role in shaping genome evolution. Finally, by utilizing multiple genome comparisons we were able to reconstruct the most likely genome configuration for a number of now-extinct progenitor species that gave rise to the extant solanaceous species used in this research. The results from this study provide the first broad overview of chromosomal evolution in the family Solanaceae, and

  12. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2 associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater Howard R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi syndrome (MIM #176270; PWS is caused by lack of the paternally-derived copies, or their expression, of multiple genes in a 4 Mb region on chromosome 15q11.2. Known mechanisms include large deletions, maternal uniparental disomy or mutations involving the imprinting center. De novo balanced reciprocal translocations in 5 reported individuals had breakpoints clustering in SNRPN intron 2 or exon 20/intron 20. To further dissect the PWS phenotype and define the minimal critical region for PWS features, we have studied a 22 year old male with a milder PWS phenotype and a de novo translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2. Methods We used metaphase FISH to narrow the breakpoint region and molecular analyses to map the breakpoints on both chromosomes at the nucleotide level. The expression of genes on chromosome 15 on both sides of the breakpoint was determined by RT-PCR analyses. Results Pertinent clinical features include neonatal hypotonia with feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, short stature, late-onset obesity, learning difficulties, abnormal social behavior and marked tolerance to pain, as well as sticky saliva and narcolepsy. Relative macrocephaly and facial features are not typical for PWS. The translocation breakpoints were identified within SNRPN intron 17 and intron 10 of a spliced non-coding transcript in band 4q27. LINE and SINE sequences at the exchange points may have contributed to the translocation event. By RT-PCR of lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we find that upstream SNURF/SNRPN exons and snoRNAs HBII-437 and HBII-13 are expressed, but the downstream snoRNAs PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438A/B snoRNAs are not. Conclusion As part of the PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNA cluster is highly conserved between human and mice, while no copy of HBII-438 has been found in mouse, we conclude that PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNAs is likely to play a major role in the PWS- phenotype.

  13. Chromosomal duplication strains of Aspergillus nidulans and their instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.L. de; Almeida Okino, L.M. de

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with chromosomal duplication were obtained after gamma irradiation followed by crossing of the translocated strains with normal strains. From 20 analysed colonies, 12 have shown translocations induced by irradiation. Segregants from four of these translocation strains crossed to normal strains have shown to be unstable although presenting normal morphology. Two segregants were genetically analysed. The first one has shown a duplication of part of linkage groups VIII and the second one presented a duplication of a segment of linkage group V. These new duplication strains in A. nidulans open new perspectives of a more detailed study of the instability phenomenon in this fungus. (Author) [pt

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  16. Chromosomal phylogeny of Lagothrix, Brachyteles, and Cacajao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas Péquignot, E; Koiffmann, C P; Dutrillaux, B

    1985-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the karyotypes of two Plathyrrhini species, Cacajao melanocephalus (Pitheciinae) and Brachyteles arachnoides (Atelinae), with those of two previously studied species, Lagothrix lagothrica (Atelinae) and C calvus rubicundus (Pitheciinae), it appears that the two Cacajao species have undergone the same number of chromosome rearrangements since they diverged from their common ancestor and that the karyotype of Brachyteles is ancestral to that of Lagothrix. The chromosomal phylogeny of these four species is proposed. A Y-autosome translocation is present in the karyotypes of the two Cacajao species.

  17. Sequence-Based Analysis of Translocations and Inversions in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Berkman, P.J.; Wei, Y.M.; Rogers, J.; Feuillet, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F.; Eversole, K.; Zheng, Y.L.; Liu, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATIONS * HOMOEOLOGOUS GROUP-4 * EVOLUTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Post-induction residual disease in translocation t(12;21)-positive childhood ALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Jeanette; Madsen, Hans O; Nyvold, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: t(12;21)(p1 3;q22), the most frequent chromosomal translocation found in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), occurs in approximately 25% of B-lineage ALL cases and has been claimed to carry a good prognosis. PROCEDURE: As part of the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology...

  19. A case with laryngeal atresia and partial trisomy 9 due to maternal 9;16 translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, M. J.; de Pater, J.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A newborn with a partial trisomy 9 and a partial trisomy 16q is described. The child died shortly after birth because of laryngeal atresia. The chromosome anomaly was the result of a 3:1 segregation of a maternal translocation t(9;16) (q22;q24). The pertinent literature on both partial trisomy 9 and

  20. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-02-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q.

  1. Most ultraviolet irradiation induced mutations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are chromosomal rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.I.; Rosenbluth, R.E.; Baillie, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this study the utility of 254-nm ultraviolet light (UV) as a magnetic tool in C.elegans is determined. It is demonstrated that irradiation of adult hermaphrodites provides a simple method for the induction of heritable chromosomal rearrangements. A screening protocol was employed that identifies either recessive lethal mutations in the 40 map unit region balanced by the translocation eT1(III;V), or unc-36(III) duplications. Mutations were recovered in 3% of the chromosomes screened after a dose of 120 J/m 2 . This rate resembles that for 1500 R γ-ray-induced mutations selected in a similar manner. The mutations were classified either as lethals [mapping to Linkage Group (LG)III or LGV] or as putative unc-36 duplications. In contrast to the majority of UV-induced mutations analysed in micro-organisms, a large fraction of the C.elegans UV-induced mutations were found to be not simple intragenic lesions, but deficiencies for more than one adjacent gene or more complex events. Preliminary evidence for this conclusion came from the high frequency of mutations that had a dominant effect causing reduced numbers of adult progeny. Subsequently 6 out of 9 analysed LGV mutations were found to be deficiencies. Other specific rearrangements also identified were: one translocation, sT5(II;III), and two unc-36 duplications, sDp8 and sDp9. It was concluded that UV irradiation can easily be used as an additional tool for the analysis of C.elegans chromosomes, and that C.elegans should prove to be a useful organism in which to study the mechanisms whereby UV acts as a mutagen in cells of complex eukaryotes. (author). 46 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Neo-sex chromosomes of Ronderosia bergi: insight into the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, O M; Marti, D A; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-09-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0♂ sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY♂ or neo-X1X2Y♂) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY♂/XX♀ system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation.

  3. Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrunes, Frédéric; Waters, Paul D; Miethke, Pat; Rens, Willem; McMillan, Daniel; Alsop, Amber E; Grützner, Frank; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Warren, Wes; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-borne gene (possibly DMRT1) affects male determination. As the most basal mammal group, the egg-laying monotremes are ideal for determining how the therian XY system evolved. The platypus has an extraordinary sex chromosome complex, in which five X and five Y chromosomes pair in a translocation chain of alternating X and Y chromosomes. We used physical mapping to identify genes on the pairing regions between adjacent X and Y chromosomes. Most significantly, comparative mapping shows that, contrary to earlier reports, there is no homology between the platypus and therian X chromosomes. Orthologs of genes in the conserved region of the human X (including SOX3, the gene from which SRY evolved) all map to platypus chromosome 6, which therefore represents the ancestral autosome from which the therian X and Y pair derived. Rather, the platypus X chromosomes have substantial homology with the bird Z chromosome (including DMRT1) and to segments syntenic with this region in the human genome. Thus, platypus sex chromosomes have strong homology with bird, but not to therian sex chromosomes, implying that the therian X and Y chromosomes (and the SRY gene) evolved from an autosomal pair after the divergence of monotremes only 166 million years ago. Therefore, the therian X and Y are more than 145 million years younger than previously thought.

  4. Dynamics of response to asynapsis and meiotic silencing in spermatocytes from Robertsonian translocation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Naumova

    Full Text Available Failure of homologous synapsis during meiotic prophase triggers transcriptional repression. Asynapsis of the X and Y chromosomes and their consequent silencing is essential for spermatogenesis. However, asynapsis of portions of autosomes in heterozygous translocation carriers may be detrimental for meiotic progression. In fact, a wide range of phenotypic outcomes from meiotic arrest to normal spermatogenesis have been described and the causes of such a variation remain elusive. To better understand the consequences of asynapsis in male carriers of Robertsonian translocations, we focused on the dynamics of recruitment of markers of asynapsis and meiotic silencing at unsynapsed autosomal trivalents in the spermatocytes of Robertsonian translocation carrier mice. Here we report that the enrichment of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1 and histone γH2AX at unsynapsed trivalents declines during the pachytene stage of meiosis and differs from that observed in the sex body. Furthermore, histone variant H3.3S31, which associates with the sex chromosomes in metaphase I/anaphase I spermatocytes, localizes to autosomes in 12% and 31% of nuclei from carriers of one and three translocations, respectively. These data suggest that the proportion of spermatocytes with markers of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC at trivalents depends on both, the stage of meiosis and the number of translocations. This may explain some of the variability in phenotypic outcomes associated with Robertsonian translocations. In addition our data suggest that the dynamics of response to asynapsis in Robertsonian translocations differs from the response to sex chromosomal asynapsis in the male germ line.

  5. Infertile spermatozoa in a human carrier of robertsonian translocation 14;22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Capitani, Serena; Collodel, Giulia; Estenoz, Mariela; Gambera, Laura; Piomboni, Paola

    2002-11-01

    To present the ultrastructural, functional, and chromosomal analyses of spermatozoa from an infertile man with normal phenotype and chromosomal translocation 14;22. Case report. Regional Reference Center for Male Infertility in Siena, Italy. A 36-year-old man with primary infertility for 3 years and his parents. Family history and lymphocytic karyotypes, physical and hormonal assays, and semen analysis. Morphological sperm evaluation was performed by light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy; chromosomal constitution was examined by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The penetration ability of spermatozoa was checked by the hamster test. The spermatozoa of the patient showed unusual ultrastructural defects. The nuclei were large, spheroidal, and generally uncondensed; the acrosomes were frequently absent or reduced; and the axonemes were often devoid of dynein arms or central singlet tubules. These characteristics are related to immaturity. The lymphocytic karyotype revealed a robertsonian translocation 14;22 in the sterile patient and his mother. FISH sperm analysis demonstrated a high frequency of diploidy for the chromosome 18,XY. The hamster penetration test gave negative results. The unusual structural sperm immaturity is associated with the translocation 14;22. This chromosomal anomaly may therefore negatively influence the spermatogenesis; an interchromosomal effect on meiosis segregation is also suggested.

  6. Cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghui; Luo, Yuqin; Qian, Yuli; Xu, Chenming; Jin, Fan

    2011-07-01

    To report the first case of cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for reciprocal translocation. Case report. In vitro fertilization center in a university affiliated hospital. A woman carrying a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was performed, and the woman became pregnant. Successful PGD for reciprocal translocation and diagnosis of Cri du chat syndrome for the baby. A male baby was born at 36 weeks' gestation. However, the baby presented with a high-pitched, cat-like cry. Cytogenetic study revealed a rare case of cri du chat syndrome associated with t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Chromosomal abnormalities, including the rare cru du chat syndrome, may occur after fluorescent in situ hybridization-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to screen for fetal neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities, amniocentesis was carried out in 334 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between 1979 and 1987. Two cases (0.6%; 95% confidence limits 0.1-2.2%) of fetal chromosome abnormality were found: one case...... of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non......-diabetic women with little risk of contracting genetic disorders. The results suggest that maternal IDDM does not increase the risk of fetal chromosome abnormality and consequently screening by amniocentesis for chromosome abnormalities among diabetic women does not seem to be indicated....

  8. Centromere-telomere (12;8p) fusion, telomeric 12q translocation, and i(12p) trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, H; Vásquez, A I; Perea, F J

    1999-02-01

    The concurrence of a short arm isochromosome and a translocation of the entire long arm of the same chromosome to a telomere of another chromosome, implying trisomy for 4p, 5p, 7p, 9p, 10p or 12p, has been described in 13 patients. We have now used fluorescence in situ hybrization (FISH) to better characterize one of these rearrangements in which 12q was translocated to 8pter, whereas 12p was converted into an isochromosome. An alphoid centromere-12 repeat gave a strong signal on the i( 2p) and a weak but distinct signal at the breakpoint junction of the der(8), whereas the pantelomeric probe revealed three clear hybridization sites on the der(8): one at each end and another at the breakpoint junction. These findings suggest that the prime event was a post-fertilization centric fission of chromosome 12 leading to the 12q translocation via a real centromere telomere fusion and the i(12p). Alternatively, the crucial event may have been a centromere telomere recombination. An interstitial telomere has been documented by means of FISH at the breakpoint junction of the sole derivative usually present in 20 constitutional translocations including eight with a jumping behavior. In addition, six other telomeric translocations defined by banding methods, including another case of 12q translocation/i(12p), have also been jumping ones. These telomeric translocations have been de noro events and their proneness to exhibit a jumping behavior appears to be independent of the involved chromosomes, size of the translocated segments, and concomitant abnormalities.

  9. AN INTEGRATED MAP OF HUMAN-CHROMOSOME-13 ALLOWING REGIONAL LOCALIZATION OF GENETIC-MARKERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOY, RF; WIJNGAARD, A; VERLIND, E; SCHEFFER, H; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    37 CA repeats, 5 STSs, 9 ESTs, and 4 genes were mapped to 19 different intervals of chromosome 13 determined by the cytogenetic breakpoints of 19 different cell lines with interstitial deletions or translocations involving various parts of chromosome 13. A framework genetic linkage map was

  10. Cryptic duplication of the distal segment of 22q due to a translocation (21;22): three case reports and a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, I.; Koolen, D.A.; Pas, J. van der; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mieloo, H.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van

    2006-01-01

    Duplications of the proximal segment of chromosome 22q are not uncommon, like Cat-eye syndrome and duplications due to familial (11;22) translocations. However, duplications of the distal long arm of chromosome 22 (22qter) seem to be exceedingly rare. So far, duplications of 22q12 or 22q13 to 22qter

  11. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Lucas, J.N.; Gray, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  12. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, C I; Abril, V V; Duarte, J M B

    2013-09-13

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a multiple sex chromosome system (XY₁Y₂). The synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes showed normal chromosome pairings for all chromosomes, including the autosomal and sex trivalents. The electromicrographs showed homology among B chromosomes since they formed bivalents, but they also appeared as univalents, indicating their anomalous behavior and non-Mendelian segregation. Thus, synaptonemal complex analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the role of B chromosomes and rearrangements during meiosis on the intraspecific chromosomal variation that is observed in the majority of Mazama species.

  13. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. APOSTOLOSKI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches

  14. Structural rearrangements of chromosomes in the domestic chicken: experimental production by X-irradiation of spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooster, W.E.; Fechheimer, N.S.; Jaap, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to produce chicks heterozygous for structural aberrations of chromosomes, 67 hens were inseminated with semen that had been exposed to 1200 R of X-rays. A sample of 204 chicks was hatched and survived. Among these, 18 (8.9%) contained rearrangements comprising 19 translocations and one pericentric inversion. All 10 males and eight females heterozygous for rearrangements were fertile and transmitted these rearrangements to approximately half their hatched progeny. Each of the major chromosomes of the chicken karyotype, except number 6, was involved in one or more of the translocations. The pericentric inversion was of a segment of chromosome number 2. (author)

  15. FAMILI AUTOSOME TRANSLACATION (13/14) AT PARENTS WITH TRISOMYC CHILD IN 21-Th. CHROMOSOME

    OpenAIRE

    A. LAKOVSKI; M. KJAEVA-PEJKOVSKA; B. APOSTOLOVSKI; S. NIKOLOVSKA

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a case study about family autosome translocation is presented. On the basis of the evidence of chromosome`s abnormalities at the on parent (it was proved that the father has translocation between acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 or well known as Robertson’s or centric fusion’s) it was discovered that predisposition for nondisjunction could be expected. This is precondition for hereditary abnormality or for trisomia`s child to be born. These well-known facts are based on the pro...

  16. Application of DNA RFLP procedures in interspecific gene transfer: The Lr19 translocation of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, R.; Marais, G.F.; Marais, A.S.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Janse, B.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-nine lines with deletions in the Lr19 ('Indis') translocated chromosome segment were used to physically map Thinopyrum Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) loci as well as the Sr25 and Sdl loci. The relative distances between marker loci on the translocation were then calculated. The information was then used as an aid to characterize several recombined forms of the translocation. The data confirmed the reported homoeology between the Lr19 segment and chromosome arm 7DL of wheat. Also, it seems that the Lr19 translocation in 'Indis' is very similar to the Lr19 segment in the T4 source and that the former may not derive from Thinopyrum distichum. Near-isogenic lines of the recombined segments were derived and used to study their expression of leaf rust resistance. It became evident that only one potentially useful recombinant was obtained in an earlier attempt to induce allosyndetic pairing between the Lr19 translocation and 7DL of wheat. (author)

  17. [Identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae, Diptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1975-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. Female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (F') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). In order to identify the genetic sex chromosomes of C. rufifacies among its five pairs of long euchromatic chromosomes (nos. 1-5) plus one pair of small heterochromatic ones (no. 6), all chromosomes were marked by reciprocal translocations induced by X-ray treatment of adult males. The inheritance of thirteen different heteroxygous translocations has been analyzed. All of the translocations (eleven) between two of the four longer chromosomes did not show sex-linked inheritance, thus demonstrating the autosomal character of the chromosomes nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. The same is true for the translocation T6 (2/6). Therefore the small heterochromatic chromosome no. 6, corresponding to the morphlogically differentiated six chromosomes within the amphogenic calliphorid species, remains without sex determining function in the monogenic fly. This could be confirmed by the analysis of monosomic (monosomy-6) and trisomic (trisomy-6) individuals, which resulted from meiotic non-disfunction in T6/+ translocation heterozygotes. Contrary to these translocations, the heteroxygous 5/2 translocation (T14) exhibited sex-linked inheritance: There was but a very low frequency (0,76 per cent) of recombinants resulting from crossing-over between F'/f and the translocation breakage point in theylgenic F1 T14/+females. The sex-linked inheritance of T14 was confirmed by the progeny of a thelygenic F1 T14/+ female crossed to a homozygous T14/T14 translocation male.Among the offspring of that F1 T14/+ female, which had received the

  18. Types frequencies and interchromosomal distribution of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in Anophelis messeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshkova, I.N.; Plevako, N.G. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)

    1982-01-01

    A. messeae females impregnated in natural conditions were exposed to x-ray irradiation (1, 2, 3 kR). Chromosomes of cells of salivary glands of larvae F/sub 1/ were analyzed cytologically. Large amount of induced chromosomal aberrations was discovered. Among them paracentric inversions-41.0, pericentral-33.1, translocations-25.2 and one deletion-0.7% all the chromosomal arms of polytene set are involved in the aberrations. Amount of induced breaks are strictly proportional to the length of autosomal arms. A lesser amount of breaks in sex chromosomes is attributed to lethality or decreased survival rate of larvae with aberrations of these chromosomes.

  19. Flow cytogenetics: progress toward chromosomal aberration detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrano, A.V.; Gray, J.W.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Using clonal derivatives of the Chinese hamster M3-1 cell line, we demonstrate the potential of flow systems to karyotype homogeneous aberrations (aberrations which are identical and present in every cell) and to detect heterogeneous aberrations (aberrations which occur randomly in a population and are not identical in every cell). Flow cytometry (FCM) of ethidium bromide stained isolated chromosomes from clone 650A of the M3-1 cells distinguishes nine chromosome types from the fourteen present in the actual karyotype. X-irradiation of this parent 650A clone produced two sub-clones with an altered flow karyotype, that is, their FCM distributions were characterized by the addition of new peaks and alterations in area under existing peaks. From the relative DNA content and area for each peak, as determined by computer analysis, we predicted that each clone had undergone a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes from two peaks. This prediction was confirmed by Giemsa-banding the metaphase cells. Heterogeneous aberrations are reflected in the flow karyotype as an increase in background, that is, an increase in area underlying the chromosome peaks. This increase is dose dependent but, as yet, the sample variability has been too large for quantitative analysis. Flow sorting of the valleys between chromosome peaks produces enriched fractions of aberrant chromosomes for visual analysis. These approaches are potentially applicable to the analysis of chromsomal aberrations induced by environmental contaminants

  20. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  2. Partial trisomy 11q involving chromosome 1 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.; McCorquodale, D.J. [Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 11q was detected in an infant delivered 3-4 weeks prematurely. The phenotype included slanted palpebral fissures, high arched palate, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cardiac defects, all of which occur in the majority of cases with this syndrome. Other features included a column-shaped skull, preauricular pit, single palmar crease, short, broad great toes, flat occiput, unilateral kidney agenesis, and strabismus. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed the presence of extra material on the long arm of chromosome 1. The G-banding pattern of this extra material indicated that it might be derived from chromosome 1 or 11. Chromosomal {open_quotes}paints{close_quotes} showed that it was not chromosome 1 material, but was chromosome 11 material extending from band q21 to qter. Partial trisomy 11q arising from translocation of the 11q material to chromosome 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 17, 21, 22, and X has been reported previously, whereas translocation to chromosome 1 has not. The chromosome to which the 11q material is translocated does not alter the most frequent features of the partial trisomy 11q syndrome, but may influence other less common features.

  3. Molecular sublocalization and characterization of the 11; 22 translocation breakpoint in a malignant rhabdoid tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, I.; Daub, D.; Besnard-Guerin, C.; Cavenee, W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors are extremely aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that tend to be widely metastatic at diagnosis. These tumors were first described as variants of the kidney neoplasm Wilms' tumor, although tumors of similar clinicopathologic features have been cited in a variety of extrarenal sites. Here, the authors have characterized the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p15.5;q11.23) from a retroperitoneal rhabdoid tumor. Somatic cell hybrids with segregated copies of the derivative 11 and derivative 22 chromosomes allowed sublocalization of the chromosome 11 breakpoint to a 1- to 2-Mb region between the proximal marker D11S12 and the distal locus tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Translocation-associated aberrant fragments were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the smallest resulting from BssHII digestion as detected with a probe for TH. These data indicate that the locus or loci disrupted by this genetic abnormality might lie less than 60 kb proximal to this marker and place it in the chromosomal vicinity of genes involved in the etiologies of rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, and the congenital overgrowth disorder, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Analysis of two other tumor-associated loci, EWS1 and NF2, that have been mapped to the general region of 22q11.2 indicated that they were not involved in this translocation breakpoint. Isolation of the genes present at this translocation junction on both chromosomes 11 and 22 may yield important clinicopathologic and genetic markers for this enigmatic tumor as well as other pediatric diseases. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  4. An unusual translocation t(5;21) (q13;q22) in a case of acute myelogenous leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellam, S.P.; da Costa, M.; Gogineni, S.K. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a disease often characterized by consistant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells. When specific abnormalities are detected, a specific disease classification can be established. Often, however, disease presentation is confusing and aberrations are unusual. We report a case presenting with anemia and leukocytosis. Cytological markers were mixed lymphoid/myeloid; however, the majority of markers supported a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis with Q and G banding revealed an unusual t(5;21) translocation. Whole chromosome five-specific (Cambio, England) and whole chromosome 21-specific (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD) painting probes confirmed the involvement of each chromosome and established the breakpoints at band 5q13 and band 21q22. It is very rare for chromosome 5 to be in translocation with chromosome 21 and this appears to be the first time it has been reported with these two breakpoints. Although the translocation is unique, the breakpoints are common in AML: The 5q13 is associated with multiple classifications and the 21q22 is the same breakpoint in the t(8;21), the hallmark of the M2 classification. Thus, molecular cytogenetic techniques were able to support a diagnosis of AML.

  5. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, UnED Angra dos Reis, Angra dos Reis, 23953-030, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  6. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2012-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  7. Dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfang; Wang, Yilin; Luo, Kaifu

    2015-02-28

    Polymer translocation through nanopore has potential technological applications for DNA sequencing, where one challenge problem is to slow down translocation speed. Inspired by experimental findings that kinked nanopores exhibit a large reduction in translocation velocity compared with their straight counterparts, we investigate the dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores in two dimensions under an applied external field. With increasing the tortuosity of an array of nanopores, our analytical results show that the translocation probability decreases. Langevin dynamics simulation results support this prediction and further indicate that with increasing the tortuosity, translocation time shows a slow increase followed by a rapid increase after a critical tortuosity. This behavior demonstrates that kinked nanopores can effectively reduce translocation speed. These results are interpreted by the roles of the tortuosity for decreasing the effective nanopore diameter, increasing effective nanopore length, and greatly increasing the DNA-pore friction.

  8. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies.

  9. Insect sex chromosomes. VI. A presumptive hyperactivation of the male X chromosome in Acheta domesticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S R; Ali, S

    1982-01-01

    The functional status of the X chromosome in Acheta domesticus has been analysed at the whole chromosome level on the basis of (1) 3H-thymidine autoradiography, (2) 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence microscopy (3) in vivo 5-BrdU incorporation and (4) 3H-UdR induced aberrations. The rationale of these techniques in relation to the functional aspect of the X chromosome is that the inactive X chromosome would (1) show asynchrony in DNA synthesis, (2) show differential fluorescence, (3) respond differentially to in vivo 5-BrdU treatment and (4) the active X chromosome would show aberrations when treated with 3H-Uridine. From the results, it appears that the X chromosomes in both male (XO) and female (XX) somatic cells of Acheta are euchromatic (active). Further, the single X in the male is transcriptionally as active as the two X chromosomes in the female. In other words, the single X in the male is hyperactive when compared with the single X in the female. From this it is inferred that the male X chromosome is differentially regulated in order to bring about an equalization of it's gene product(s) to that produced by both Xs in the female. Drosophila melanogaster has a comparable system of dosage compensation. Thus, Acheta is yet another insect showing evidence for an X chromosome regulatory mechanism of dosage compensation. Additionally, it is surmised that sex determination in Acheta is based on an autosomes/X chromosome balance mechanism.

  10. Sequencing and analyzing the t(1;7) reciprocal translocation breakpoints associated with a case of childhood-onset schizophrenia/autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idol, Jacquelyn R; Addington, Anjene M; Long, Robert T; Rapoport, Judith L; Green, Eric D

    2008-04-01

    We characterized a t(1;7)(p22;q21) reciprocal translocation in a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and autism using genome mapping and sequencing methods. Based on genomic maps of human chromosome 7 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies, we delimited the region of 7q21 harboring the translocation breakpoint to a approximately 16-kb interval. A cosmid containing the translocation-associated 1:7 junction on der(1) was isolated and sequenced, revealing the positions on chromosomes 1 and 7, respectively, where the translocation occurred. PCR-based studies enabled the isolation and sequencing of the reciprocal 7:1 junction on der(7). No currently recognized gene on either chromosome appears to be disrupted by the translocation. We further found no evidence for copy-number differences in the genomic regions flanking the translocation junctions in the patient. Our efforts provide sequence-based information about a schizophrenia/autism-associated translocation, and may facilitate future studies investigating the genetic bases of these disorders.

  11. Follicular lymphomas with and without translocation t(14;18) differ in gene expression profiles and genetic alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leich, Ellen; Salaverria, Itziar; Bea, Silvia; Zettl, Andreas; Wright, George; Moreno, Victor; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Chan, Wing-Chung; Braziel, Rita M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Lister, Andrew; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Staudt, Louis M.; Hartmann, Elena M.; Mueller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Campo, Elias; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is genetically characterized by the presence of the t(14; 18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation in approximately 90% of cases. In contrast to FL carrying the t(14; 18), their t(14; 18)-negative counterparts are less well studied about their immunohistochemical, genetic,

  12. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  13. Interstitial deletion 1p as a result of a de novo reciprocal 1p;2p translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P H

    1985-01-01

    A 5-month-old female patient with psychomotor retardation and minor dysmorphisms is described. Cytogenetic analysis using high-resolution banding technique revealed an interstitial deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 1 (p21----p22.2) resulting from a de novo translocation t(1;2)(p22;p25)....

  14. How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetzner, Frank; Ashley, Terry; Rowell, David M; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2006-04-01

    The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).

  15. Co-segregation of Freiberg's infraction with a familial translocation t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a child with cri du chat syndrome and brachydactyly type A1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Marta; Panasiuk, Barbara; Dębiec-Rychter, Maria; Iwanowski, Piotr Sebastian; Łebkowska, Urszula; Nowakowska, Beata; Marcinkowska, Anna; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Midro, Alina T

    2015-02-01

    The identification of chromosomal breakpoints in association with human abnormal phenotypes can enable elucidation of gene function. We report on epiphyseal aseptic necrosis of the lesser head of the second metatarsal bone, known as Freiberg's infraction (FI), in two female carriers of the apparently balanced t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a 16-year-old girl with cri-du-chat syndrome and unusual skeletal features in association with an unbalanced translocation der(5) t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2). Mapping of the chromosome breakpoints using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) narrowed them to the coding sequence of ADAMTS12 on chromosome 5p13.3 and SDK1 on 7p22.2. In addition, several skeletal abnormalities classified as brachydactyly type A1B (BDA1B) were present in the proband and in both carriers of t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2), suggesting a potential role of ADAMTS12 in the development of the BDA1B observed in this family.

  16. A cryptic translocation leading to NUP98-PHF23 fusion in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Chromosome translocations leading to gene fusions have emerged as important oncogenic drivers of various types of malignancies. Detection and characterization of these fusion genes not only help diagnosis and management of specific malignancies, but also contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis and pathogenesis of these diseases. NUP98 gene encodes a 98 kDa nucleoporin, which is a component of the nuclear pore complex that mediates transport of mRNA and proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Due to its participation in translocations leading to the formation of fusion with at least 29 different partner genes, NUP98 is considered one of the most promiscuous fusion genes in hematologic malignancies. We discuss our identification and characterization of a NUP98-PHF23 fusion from a cryptic translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-10-31

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids.

  18. Chromosomal distribution patterns of the (AC)10microsatellite and other repetitive sequences, and their use in chromosome rearrangement analysis of species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; Montes, Alexander; Ferrer, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions. New large chromosome rearrangements were detected in two polyploid species: an intergenomic translocation involving chromosomes 17AL and 21DS in Avena sativa 'Araceli' and another involving chromosomes 4CL and 21DS in the analyzed cultivars of Avena byzantina. The latter 4CL-21DS intergenomic translocation differentiates clearly between A. sativa and A. byzantina. Searches for common hybridization patterns on the chromosomes of different species revealed chromosome 10A of Avena magna and 21D of hexaploid oats to be very similar in terms of the distribution of 45S and Am1 sequences. This suggests a common origin for these chromosomes and supports a CCDD rather than an AACC genomic designation for this species.

  19. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Yoong Lim

    Full Text Available Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species.Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation.These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years

  20. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  1. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  2. FtsK translocation on DNA stops at XerCD-dif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James E; Sivanathan, Viknesh; Sherratt, David J; Arciszewska, Lidia K

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsK is a powerful, fast, double-stranded DNA translocase, which can strip proteins from DNA. FtsK acts in the late stages of chromosome segregation by facilitating sister chromosome unlinking at the division septum. KOPS-guided DNA translocation directs FtsK towards dif, located within the replication terminus region, ter, where FtsK activates XerCD site-specific recombination. Here we show that FtsK translocation stops specifically at XerCD-dif, thereby preventing removal of XerCD from dif and allowing activation of chromosome unlinking by recombination. Stoppage of translocation at XerCD-dif is accompanied by a reduction in FtsK ATPase and is not associated with FtsK dissociation from DNA. Specific stoppage at recombinase-DNA complexes does not require the FtsKgamma regulatory subdomain, which interacts with XerD, and is not dependent on either recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage activity, or the formation of synaptic complexes.

  3. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  4. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  5. Nanowire-nanopore transistor sensor for DNA detection during translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Xiong, Qihua; Fang, Ying; Qing, Quan; Lieber, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Nanopore sequencing, as a promising low cost, high throughput sequencing technique, has been proposed more than a decade ago. Due to the incompatibility between small ionic current signal and fast translocation speed and the technical difficulties on large scale integration of nanopore for direct ionic current sequencing, alternative methods rely on integrated DNA sensors have been proposed, such as using capacitive coupling or tunnelling current etc. But none of them have been experimentally demonstrated yet. Here we show that for the first time an amplified sensor signal has been experimentally recorded from a nanowire-nanopore field effect transistor sensor during DNA translocation. Independent multi-channel recording was also demonstrated for the first time. Our results suggest that the signal is from highly localized potential change caused by DNA translocation in none-balanced buffer condition. Given this method may produce larger signal for smaller nanopores, we hope our experiment can be a starting point for a new generation of nanopore sequencing devices with larger signal, higher bandwidth and large-scale multiplexing capability and finally realize the ultimate goal of low cost high throughput sequencing.

  6. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This document lists the major accomplishments funded by DOE in the period of January 1989 through June 1991. Specific topics covered include: studies of chromosome translocations in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) de novo; correlation of karyotype and therapeutic response; the relationship of specific chromosomal abnormalities to a patient's occupational history; definition of regions on chromosome 5 involved in leukemogenesis; the influence of pervious chemotherapy on leukemogenesis; identification of genes at or near breakpoints involved in leukemia and lymphoma; identification of the critical rearrangement in the 9;11 translocation; molecular analysis of translocations involving 11q23; identification of other genes (like RAS) involved in leukemogenesis; development of fluorescence in situ hybridization as a cytogenetic tool; and examination of an unequivocal case of radiation induced preleukemia. 26 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gué, Michaël; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Boudier, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia) and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL), considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static 'contact first' model). The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic 'breakage first' model). Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4) and a less frequent partner gene (ENL), should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value < 0.0001). According to the static 'contact first' model of the translocation mechanism, a minimal distance between loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) compared to t(4;11)(q21;q23). However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static 'contact first' model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic 'breakage first' model offers an attractive alternative explanation

  8. Stabilization of dicentric translocations through secondary rearrangements mediated by multiple mechanisms in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pennaneach

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs observed in S. cerevisiae mutants with increased rates of accumulating GCRs include predicted dicentric GCRs such as translocations, chromosome fusions and isoduplications. These GCRs resemble the genome rearrangements found as mutations underlying inherited diseases as well as in the karyotypes of many cancers exhibiting ongoing genome instabilityThe structures of predicted dicentric GCRs were analyzed using multiple strategies including array-comparative genomic hybridization, pulse field gel electrophoresis, PCR amplification of predicted breakpoints and sequencing. The dicentric GCRs were found to be unstable and to have undergone secondary rearrangements to produce stable monocentric GCRs. The types of secondary rearrangements observed included: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ-dependent intramolecular deletion of centromeres; chromosome breakage followed by NHEJ-mediated circularization or broken-end fusion to another chromosome telomere; and homologous recombination (HR-dependent non-reciprocal translocations apparently mediated by break-induced replication. A number of these GCRs appeared to have undergone multiple bridge-fusion-breakage cycles. We also observed examples of chromosomes with extensive ongoing end decay in mec1 tlc1 mutants, suggesting that Mec1 protects chromosome ends from degradation and contributes to telomere maintenance by HR.HR between repeated sequences resulting in secondary rearrangements was the most prevalent pathway for resolution of dicentric GCRs regardless of the structure of the initial dicentric GCR, although at least three other resolution mechanisms were observed. The resolution of dicentric GCRs to stable rearranged chromosomes could in part account for the complex karyotypes seen in some cancers.

  9. A 45 X male patient with 7q distal deletion and rearrangement with SRY gene translocation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, S; Okten, A; Karaguzel, G; Ikbal, M; Aslan, Y

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a male newborn with multiple congenital anomalies who also has an extremely rare form of testicular disorder of sex development (DSD). His karyotype was 45X, without any mosaicism. SRY gene was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and rearranged on distal part of the 7th chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. SRY, normally located on the Y chromosome, is the most important gene that plays a role in the development of male sex. SRY gen may be translocated onto another chromosome, mostly X chromosome in the XX testicular DSD. On the other hand very few cases of 45 X testicular DSD were published to date. Other clinical manifestations of our patient were compatible with distal 7 q deletion syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of 45 X testicular DSD with SRY gene rearranged on the 7th autosomal chromosome.

  10. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  11. The CT-Element of The C-Myc Gene Does Not Predispose to Chromosomal Breakpoints in Burkitt'S Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Weber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromosomal translocations are causally related to the development of many tumors. In Burkitt's lymphoma, abnormalities involving the c-myc gene are essential. The CT-element of the c-myc promoter adopts non-B-conformation in vivo and in vitro, and therefore provides a potential fragile site. Methods: We have developed a LM-PCR-based approach to test if chromosomal breakpoints indeed cluster in this region. Results: Amplifying both, wild-type as well as the translocated c-myc gene by LM-PCR, it was shown that chromosomal breakpoints did not cluster within the CT-element. Conclusions: Therefore, the CT-element is not especially susceptible to the formation of breakpoints leading to chromosomal translocations in Burkitt's lymphoma.

  12. A correlative study on the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van

    1976-01-01

    A series of investigations on the correlation between the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mouse and rhesus monkey is described. In the mouse the induction of reciprocal translocations in bone-marrow cells was compared with that in spermatogonia (as scored in the descending spermatocytes). In the rhesus monkey frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in spermatogonia and peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied. Furthermore the effect of multigeneration irradiation (69 generations with 200 rads X-rays) on the sensitivity for translocation induction in spermatogonia of male mice was studied. Frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and chromosomal deletions in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of 5 different types of mice were determined following in vitro irradiation with doses of 100 and/or 200 rad X-rays. To obtain more insight into the processes underlying translocation induction in spermatogonia of the mouse, fractionation experiments were conducted

  13. Chromosome-wide mechanisms to decouple gene expression from gene dose during sex-chromosome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Bayly S; Anderson, Erika; Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Bian, Qian; Jorgensen, Erik; Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromosome number impair fitness by disrupting the balance of gene expression. Here we analyze mechanisms to compensate for changes in gene dose that accompanied the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Using single-copy transgenes integrated throughout the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, we show that expression of all X-linked transgenes is balanced between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. However, proximity of a dosage compensation complex (DCC) binding site (rex site) is neither necessary to repress X-linked transgenes nor sufficient to repress transgenes on autosomes. Thus, X is broadly permissive for dosage compensation, and the DCC acts via a chromosome-wide mechanism to balance transcription between sexes. In contrast, no analogous X-chromosome-wide mechanism balances transcription between X and autosomes: expression of compensated hermaphrodite X-linked transgenes is half that of autosomal transgenes. Furthermore, our results argue against an X-chromosome dosage compensation model contingent upon rex-directed positioning of X relative to the nuclear periphery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17365.001 PMID:27572259

  14. Rad51 inhibits translocation formation by non-conservative homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn M Manthey

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are a primary biological response to ionizing radiation (IR exposure, and are likely to result from the inappropriate repair of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs that are created. An abundance of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes provides ample opportunity for such breaks to be repaired by homologous recombination (HR between non-allelic repeats. Interestingly, in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae the central strand exchange protein, Rad51 that is required for DSB repair by gene conversion between unlinked repeats that conserves genomic structure also suppresses translocation formation by several HR mechanisms. In particular, Rad51 suppresses translocation formation by single-strand annealing (SSA, perhaps the most efficient mechanism for translocation formation by HR in both yeast and mammalian cells. Further, the enhanced translocation formation that emerges in the absence of Rad51 displays a distinct pattern of genetic control, suggesting that this occurs by a separate mechanism. Since hypomorphic mutations in RAD51 in mammalian cells also reduce DSB repair by conservative gene conversion and stimulate non-conservative repair by SSA, this mechanism may also operate in humans and, perhaps contribute to the genome instability that propels the development of cancer.

  15. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  16. Regulation of translocated c-myc genes transfected into plasmacytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, S.; Harvey, R.; Showe, L.; Croce, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have transfected two translocated c-myc oncogene clones, derived from two human lymphomas carrying the t(8;14) chromosome translocation, into mouse plasmacytoma cells to study the regulation of their expression. In one case, the transfected clone contained the two coding exons of the c-myc oncogene translocated to an immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch region; in the other case, the two coding exons were translocated 5' of the enhancer element located between the heavy-chain joining region (J/sub H/) and the switch region S/sub μ/. Nuclease S1 protection experiments indicate that only the c-myc translocated 5' of the enhancer element is transcribed in the plasmacytoma cells. Thus, 5'-truncation of the c-myc gene per se does not lead to c-myc deregulation. Further, since the level of c-myc transcripts in the parental human lymphoma cells was 3- to 4-fold higher than in the transfectants, it seems likely that additional elements within the heavy-chain locus may play a role in the enhancement of c-myc gene transcription in lymphoma cells

  17. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  18. Periarrest intestinal bacterial translocation and resuscitation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Scheetz, Marc H; Gulati, Anil; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-02-01

    During the periarrest period, intestinal ischemia may result in barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation, which has clear mechanistic links to inflammation and cascade stimulation, especially in patients who are treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Despite optimal management, periarrest bacterial translocation may worsen the outcome of cardiac arrest victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by us...

  20. De novo unbalanced translocations in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome might be the reciprocal product of inv dup(15s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rossi

    Full Text Available The 15q11-q13 region is characterized by high instability, caused by the presence of several paralogous segmental duplications. Although most mechanisms dealing with cryptic deletions and amplifications have been at least partly characterized, little is known about the rare translocations involving this region. We characterized at the molecular level five unbalanced translocations, including a jumping one, having most of 15q transposed to the end of another chromosome, whereas the der(15(pter->q11-q13 was missing. Imbalances were associated either with Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome. Array-CGH demonstrated the absence of any copy number changes in the recipient chromosome in three cases, while one carried a cryptic terminal deletion and another a large terminal deletion, already diagnosed by classical cytogenetics. We cloned the breakpoint junctions in two cases, whereas cloning was impaired by complex regional genomic architecture and mosaicism in the others. Our results strongly indicate that some of our translocations originated through a prezygotic/postzygotic two-hit mechanism starting with the formation of an acentric 15qter->q1::q1->qter representing the reciprocal product of the inv dup(15 supernumerary marker chromosome. An embryo with such an acentric chromosome plus a normal chromosome 15 inherited from the other parent could survive only if partial trisomy 15 rescue would occur through elimination of part of the acentric chromosome, stabilization of the remaining portion with telomere capture, and formation of a derivative chromosome. All these events likely do not happen concurrently in a single cell but are rather the result of successive stabilization attempts occurring in different cells of which only the fittest will finally survive. Accordingly, jumping translocations might represent successful rescue attempts in different cells rather than transfer of the same 15q portion to different chromosomes. We also hypothesize that

  1. Myeloid translocation genes differentially regulate colorectal cancer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Bradley, Amber M.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Short, Sarah P.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Naik, Rishi D.; Bilotta, Anthony J.; Washington, Mary K.; Revetta, Frank L.; Smith, Jesse J.; Chen, Xi; Wilson, Keith T.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs), originally identified as chromosomal translocations in acute myelogenous leukemia, are transcriptional corepressors that regulate hematopoietic stem cell programs. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that MTGs were mutated in epithelial malignancy and suggested that loss of function might promote tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of MTGR1 and MTG16 in the mouse has revealed unexpected and unique roles within the intestinal epithelium. Mtgr1−/− mice have progressive depletion of all intestinal secretory cells, and Mtg16−/− mice have a decrease in goblet cells. Furthermore, both Mtgr1−/− and Mtg16−/− mice have increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. We thus hypothesized that loss of MTGR1 or MTG16 would modify Apc1638/+-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. Mtgr1−/− mice, but not Mtg16−/− mice, had a 10-fold increase in tumor multiplicity. This was associated with more advanced dysplasia, including progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and augmented intratumoral proliferation. Analysis of ChIP-seq datasets for MTGR1 and MTG16 targets indicated that MTGR1 can regulate Wnt and Notch signaling. In support of this, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis revealed that both Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were hyperactive in Mtgr1−/− tumors. Furthermore, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) samples MTGR1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein level. Overall our data indicates that MTGR1 has a context dependent effect on intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:27270437

  2. Gamma-rays induced reciprocal translocations in Nigella damascena L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Aditi; Datta, Animesh K.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma irradiations (5 kR, 10 kR and 20 kR) of Nigella damascena L. (cultivated variety Miss Jekyl) seeds (with moisture content 13.33%) induced 3 translocation heterozygotes (P-I from 5 kR, P-38 from 5 kR and P- 73 from 20 kR). These exhibited the formation of either a ring or a chain of 4 chromosomes in 30.7% to 68.1% meiocytes. Predominance of rings or equal proportion of rings and chains occurred in translocation heterozygotes P-38 and in P-I and P-73 respectively. The rings showed preponderance of adjacent orientation and the chains demonstrated frequent alternate orientation. Though pollen fertility was 16.5%, 24.8% and 17.1% in P-I, P-38 and P-73 respectively, frequency of viable pollen grains was nil in P-38 and P-73 and it was 5.2% in P-I. Seed sterility was complete in P-38 and P-73 but P-I yielded 2.11% filled seeds per capsule on selfing and 2.56% seeds/capsule on cross pollination. (author)

  3. Chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of immunologically classified mitotic cells in hematologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Marianne; Knuutila, Sakari; Popp, Susanne; Emmerich, Patricia; Cremer, Thomas; Parlier, Valerie; Jotterand Bellomo, Martine; Ruutu, Tapani

    1992-01-01

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization was performed with library DNA from sorted human chromosomes 8, 9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 on immunologically stained bone marrow cells of four patients with a hematologic neoplasm, including two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8, one patient with promyelocytic leukemia bearing the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q11-12), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In all patients, the resu...

  4. The effect of wheat-rye translocation 1BL.1RS in a different quality genetic background on biological traits in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 139 varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., predominantly Serbian winter wheat varieties originated in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, has been examined for presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. Two genotype groups consisted of varieties possessing and lacking the translocation have been compared. Stem rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew as well as, winter hardiness were studied. The influence of 1BL/1RS translocation was also studied in a light of wheat seed storage protein (glutenin and gliadin genetic background composition. Genotypes having the translocation appeared to be more tolerant to stem rust, and leaf rust, but more susceptible to powdery mildew. These effects were slightly modified depending on the examined genetic background, but the effect of the rye 1RS translocated chromosome arm was the main cause for the observed differences.

  5. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    and tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant....... Sequencing of the R751 transconjugants confirmed these findings and showed that the translocation of streptomycin and ampicillin cassettes was associated with the precise excision of dhfrIIc and orfD cassettes. Furthermore, the translocation of multiple determinants occurred by at least two mechanisms, one...

  6. Abnormalities of human chromosome 13 and in vitro radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nove, J.; Little, J.B.; Nichols, W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro X-ray sensitivity of 19 fibroblast strains derived from patients bearing a deletion, trisomy, inversion, or translocation of all or part of chromosome 13 were determined with a clonogenic survival assay. The results were compared with data from similar experiments involving strains from normal controls and from individuals trisomic for 3 other autosomes. The results suggest the involvement of this chromosome with hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of X-irradiation. Experiments involving the partial monosomies and trisomies seem to implicate a locus on 13q14. (orig.)

  7. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other human chromosomes. The presence of abnormal chromosomal number described in general as aneuploidy, here trisomy, is observed in certain other syndromes too. Trisomies of chromosome 18, 13,22,8,9 and X are known. Children with these 'numerical' anomalies have severe and complex malformations. Mental ...

  8. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  9. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric

  10. Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability

  11. Heterogeneity of chromosome 22 breakpoint in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, J.; Griffin, C.A.; Ar-Rushdi, A.

    1986-01-01

    In chronic myelogenous leukemias (CML) with the t(9;22)(q34;q11) chromosome translocation the breakpoints on chromosome 22 occur within a 5.8-kilobase segment of DNA referred to as breakpoint cluster region (bcr). The same cytogenetically indinstinguishable translocation occurs in approximately 10% of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL). In this study the authors have investigated the chromosome breakpoints in several cases of ALL carrying the t(9;22) translocation. In three of five cases of ALL they found that the bcr region was not involved in the chromosome rearrangement and that the 22q11 chromosome breakpoints were proximal (5') to the bcr region at band 22q11. In addition, they observed normal size bcr and c-alb transcripts in an ALL cell line carrying the t(9;22) translocation. They conclude, therefore, that if c-alb is inappropriately expressed in ALL cells without bcr rearrangements, the genetic mechanism of activation must be different from that reported for CML

  12. Painting of fourth and chromosome-wide regulation of the 4th chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Bernhardsson, Carolina; Larsson, Jan

    2007-05-02

    Drosophila melanogaster exhibits two expression-regulating systems that target whole, specific chromosomes: the dosage compensation system whereby the male-specific lethal complex doubles transcription of genes on the male X-chromosome and the chromosome 4-specific protein Painting of fourth, POF. POF is the first example of an autosome-specific protein and its presence raises the question of the universality of chromosome-specific regulation. Here we show that POF and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are involved in the global regulation of the 4th chromosome. Contrary to previous conclusions, Pof is not essential for survival of diplo-4th karyotype flies. However, Pof is essential for survival of haplo-4th individuals and expression of chromosome 4 genes in diplo-4th individuals is decreased in the absence of Pof. Mapping of POF using chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that it binds within genes. Furthermore, we show that POF binding is dependent on heterochromatin and that POF and HP1 bind interdependently to the 4th chromosome. We propose a balancing mechanism involving POF and HP1 that provides a feedback system for fine-tuning expression status of genes on the 4th chromosome.

  13. Chromosomal phylogeny of Vampyressine bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) with description of two new sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Benathar, Thayse Cristine Melo; Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2016-06-04

    The subtribe Vampyressina (sensu Baker et al. 2003) encompasses approximately 43 species and seven genera and is a recent and diversified group of New World leaf-nosed bats specialized in fruit eating. The systematics of this group continues to be debated mainly because of the lack of congruence between topologies generated by molecular and morphological data. We analyzed seven species of all genera of vampyressine bats by multidirectional chromosome painting, using whole-chromosome-painting probes from Carollia brevicauda and Phyllostomus hastatus. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using shared discrete chromosomal segments as characters and the Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) software package, using Desmodontinae as outgroup. We also used the Tree Analysis Using New Technology (TNT) software. The result showed a well-supported phylogeny congruent with molecular topologies regarding the sister taxa relationship of Vampyressa and Mesophylla genera, as well as the close relationship between the genus Chiroderma and Vampyriscus. Our results supported the hypothesis that all genera of this subtribe have compound sex chromosome systems that originated from an X-autosome translocation, an ancestral condition observed in the Stenodermatinae. Additional rearrangements occurred independently in the genus Vampyressa and Mesophylla yielding the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system. This work presents additional data supporting the hypothesis based on molecular studies regarding the polyphyly of the genus Vampyressa and its sister relationship to Mesophylla.

  14. Exclusion of Linkage to the CDL1 Gene Region on Chromosome 3q26.3 in Some Familial Cases of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Ian D.; Tonkin, Emma; Smith, Melanie; Devoto, Marcella; Bottani, Armand; Simpson, Claire; Hofreiter, Mary; Abraham, Vinod; Jukofsky, Lori; Conti, Brian P.; Strachan, Tom; Jackson, Laird

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a complex developmental disorder consisting of characteristic facial features, limb abnormalities, hirsutism, ophthalmologic involvement, gastroesophageal dysfunction, hearing loss, as well as growth and neuro-developmental retardation. Most cases of CdLS appear to be sporadic. Familial cases are rare and indicate autosomal dominant inheritance. Several individuals with CdLS have been reported with chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting candidate genomic regions within which the causative gene(s) may lie. A CdLS gene location (CDL1) has been assigned to 3q26.3 based on phenotypic overlap with the duplication 3q syndrome (critical region 3q26.2-q27) and the report of a CdLS individual with a balanced de novo t(3;17)(q26.3;q23.1). It has been postulated that a gene within the dup3q critical region results in the CdLS when deleted or mutated. We have performed a linkage analysis to the minimal critical region for the dup3q syndrome (that encompasses the translocation breakpoint) on chromosome 3q in 10 rare familial cases of CdLS. Nineteen markers spanning a region of approximately 40 Mb (37 cM) were used. Results of a multipoint linkage analysis demonstrated total lod-scores that were negative across the chromosome 3q26-q27 region. In 4/10 families, lod-scores were less than −2 in the 2 cM region encompassing the translocation, while in the remaining 6/10 families, lod-scores could not exclude linkage to this region. These studies indicate that in some multicase families, the disease gene does not map to the CDL1 region at 3q26.3. PMID:11391654

  15. A balanced t(5;17 (p15;q22-23 in chondroblastoma: frequency of the re-arrangement and analysis of the candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijers-Koster Pauline

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroblastoma is a benign cartilaginous tumour of bone that predominantly affects the epiphysis of long bones in young males. No recurrent chromosomal re-arrangements have so far been observed. Methods: We identified an index case with a balanced translocation by Combined Binary Ratio-Fluorescent in situ Hybridisation (COBRA-FISH karyotyping followed by breakpoint FISH mapping and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH. Candidate region re-arrangement and candidate gene expression were subsequently investigated by interphase FISH and immunohistochemistry in another 14 cases. Results A balanced t(5;17(p15;q22-23 was identified. In the index case, interphase FISH showed that the translocation was present only in mononucleated cells and was absent in the characteristic multinucleated giant cells. The t(5;17 translocation was not observed in the other cases studied. The breakpoint in 5p15 occurred close to the steroid reductase 5α1 (SRD5A1 gene. Expression of the protein was found in all cases tested. Similar expression was found for the sex steroid signalling-related molecules oestrogen receptor alpha and aromatase, while androgen receptors were only found in isolated cells in a few cases. The breakpoint in 17q22-23 was upstream of the carbonic anhydrase × (CA10 gene region and possibly involved gene-regulatory elements, which was indicated by the lack of CA10 protein expression in the index case. All other cases showed variable levels of CA10 expression, with low expression in three cases. Conclusion We report a novel t(5;17(p15;q22-23 translocation in chondroblastoma without involvement of any of the two chromosomal regions in other cases studied. Our results indicate that the characteristic multinucleated giant cells in chondroblastoma do not have the same clonal origin as the mononuclear population, as they do not harbour the same translocation. We therefore hypothesise that they might be either reactive or

  16. De novo unbalanced translocation (4p duplication/8p deletion) in a patient with autism, OCD, and overgrowth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Angela; Pinto, Dalila; Najjar, Fedra; Guter, Stephen J; Macmillan, Carol; Cook, Edwin H

    2017-06-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. (2011) Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. (2010) Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al. (2002) Circulation 102: 432-437]. Deletions of 4p16 have been associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome while 4p16 duplications have been associated with an overgrowth syndrome and mild to moderate mental retardation [Partington et al. (1997) Journal of Medical Genetics 34: 719-728]. The 8p23.3 region contains the autism candidate gene DLGAP2, which can contribute to autism when disrupted [Marshall et al. (2008) The American Journal of Human Genetics 82: 477-488] . There has been a case report of a family with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), prominent obsessional behavior, and overgrowth in patients with der (8) t (4;8) p (16;23) [Partington et al. (1997)]. This is an independent report of a male patient with autism, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and an overgrowth syndrome, whose de novo unbalanced translocation der (8) t (4;8) p (16.1→ter; 23.1→ter) was initially missed by routine cytogenetics but detected with SNP microarray, allowing higher resolution of translocation breakpoints. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC) decreases the proportion of chromosomally unbalanced spermatozoa in chromosomal rearrangement carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Alexandre; Balet, Richard; Dorna, Maud; Hyon, Capucine; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Joyé, Nicole; Portnoï, Marie-France; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Can the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa in chromosomal rearrangement carriers be decreased through the use of discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC)? DGC significantly decreases the proportion of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa in chromosomal rearrangement carriers. Chromosomal rearrangement carriers present with a certain proportion of unbalanced gametes, which can lead to miscarriages or malformations in the offspring. There is presently no known way to select the balanced spermatozoa and use them for IVF. The proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa after DGC was compared with that before DGC in 21 patients with a chromosomal rearrangement. At least 500 spermatozoa were analysed per observation. Twenty-one male patients with a chromosomal rearrangement were included in this prospective study. They initially consulted for infertility, recurrent miscarriages or a history of abnormal pregnancy. The samples were split into two, with one part undergoing DGC and the other being immediately fixed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to establish the chromosome segregation pattern of each spermatozoon. DGC significantly decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa in all but 1 of the 21 chromosomal rearrangement carriers (P < 0.05). Although DGC reduces the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa in ejaculates from patients with chromosome rearrangements this elimination is only partial and some abnormal spermatozoa remain. Means to exclude these spermatozoa to ensure that only balanced ones are used in IVF remain to be discovered. The motility and morphology of the sperm before and after DGC were not measured. Used in IVF or intrauterine insemination, DGC could decrease the chance that a man carrying a chromosomal rearrangement will father an abnormal fetus.

  18. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  19. Chromosomal investigations in patients with mental retardation and/or congenital malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Santos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the chromosomal constitution of patients with mental retardation and/or congenital malformations in order to determine genetic causes for such disturbances. The GTG and CBG banding patterns were studied using phytohemagglutinin M-stimulated lymphocytes cultured from peripheral blood. Among 98 individuals with mental retardation and/or congenital malformations who were analyzed there were 12 cases of Down's syndrome, two of Edward's syndrome, one of Patau's syndrome, five of Turner's syndrome, two of Klinefelter's syndrome, one of "cri-du-chat" syndrome, one case of a balanced translocation between chromosomes 13 and 14, one case of a derivative chromosome and one of a marker chromosome. We found abnormal chromosomes in 26% of the patients, 82% of which were numerical abnormalities, with the remaining 18% being structural variants. We conclude that patients with mental retardation and/or congenital malformations should be routinely karyotyped.Neste estudo investigamos a organização cromossômica de pacientes com retardo mental e/ou malformações congênitas, visando a avaliação de causas genéticas associadas a estes distúrbios. Os padrões de bandas GTG e CBG foram estudados a partir da cultura de linfócitos de sangue periférico, estimulados por fitohemaglutinina M. Dentre os 98 indivíduos portadores de retardo mental e/ou malformações congênitas analisados, diagnosticamos as seguintes síndromes: 12 casos de Down, dois de Edwards, um de Patau, cinco de Turner, dois de Klinefelter, um de "cri-du-chat", e um caso de translocação balanceada entre os cromossomos 13 e 14, um caso de cromossomo derivado e um outro de cromossomo marcador. Encontramos anomalias cromossômicas em 26% dos pacientes, das quais 82% eram alterações numéricas e o restante (18% representou rearranjos estruturais. Este percentual significativo enfatiza o uso da cariotipagem de rotina em pacientes com retardo mental e/ou malformações congênitas.

  20. Familial X/Y Translocation Encompassing ARSE in Two Moroccan Siblings with Sensorineural Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasdl, Saadia; Smaili, Wiam; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Hassani, Amale; Sbiti, Aziza; Agadr, Aomar; Sanlaville, Damien; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2017-01-01

    Unbalanced translocations involving X and Y chromosomes are rare and associated with a contiguous gene syndrome. The clinical phenotype is heterogeneous including mainly short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability. Here, we report 2 brothers with peculiar gestalt, short stature, and hearing loss, who harbor an X/Y translocation. Physical examination, brainstem acoustic potential evaluation, bone age, hormonal assessment, and X-ray investigations were performed. Because of their dysmorphic features, karyotyping, FISH, and aCGH were carried out. The probands had short stature, hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, normal intelligence as well as slight radial and ulnar bowing with brachytelephalangy. R-banding identified a derivative X chromosome with an abnormally expanded short arm. The mother was detected as a carrier of the same aberrant X chromosome. aCGH disclosed a 3.1-Mb distal deletion of chromosome region Xp22.33pter. This interval encompasses several genes, especially the short stature homeobox (SHOX) and arylsulfatase (ARSE) genes. The final karyotype of the probands was: 46,Y,der(X),t(X;Y)(p22;q12).ish der(X)(DXYS129-,DXYS153-)mat.arr[hg19] Xp22.33(61091_2689408)×1mat,Xp22.33(2701273_3258404)×0mat,Yq11.222q12 (21412851_59310245)×2. Herein, we describe a Moroccan family with a maternally inherited X/Y translocation and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlations according to the deleted genes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Angelman syndrome associated with an inversion of chromosome 15q11.2q24.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, V.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Lalande, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) most frequently results from large ({ge}5 Mb) de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13. The deletions are exclusively of maternal origin, and a few cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have been reported. The latter finding indicates that AS is caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to the imprinted 15q11-q13 region. Failure to inherit a paternal 15q11-q13 contribution results in the clinically distinct disorder of Prader-Willi syndrome. Cases of AS resulting from translocations or pericentric inversions have been observed to be associated with deletions, and there have been no confirmed reports of balanced rearrangements in AS. We report the first such case involving a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint located {approximately}25 kb proximal to the reference marker D15S10. This inversion has been inherited from a phenotypically normal mother. No deletion is evident by molecular analysis in this case, by use of cloned fragments mapped to within {approximately}1 kb of the inversion breakpoint. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the relationship between the inversion and the AS phenotype. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Rapid detection of chromosome rearrangement in medical diagnostic X-ray workers by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and study on dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiquan; Sun Yuanming; Li Jin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Biological doses were estimated for medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: Chromosome rearrangements in X-ray workers were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with composite whole chromosome paintings number 4 and number 7. Results: The frequency of translocation in medical diagnostic X-ray workers was much higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The biological doses to individual X-ray workers were calculated by their translocation frequency. The translocation frequencies of both FISH and G-banding were in good agreement. Conclusion: The biological doses to X-ray workers are estimated by FISH first when their dosimetry records are not documented

  3. Karyotype evolution in Rhinolophus bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) illuminated by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers.

  4. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  5. Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Mateo, M.A.; Duarte, C.M.; Maas, Y.E.M.; Terrados, J.; Gacia, E.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical (Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii) and 3 temperate (Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii) seagrass species

  6. Verification by the FISH translocation assay of historic doses to Mayak workers from external gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Darroudi, Firouz [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands); College of North Atlantic, Department of Health Science, Centre for Human Safety and Environmental Research, Doha (Qatar); Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Moquet, Jayne E.; Lloyd, David C.; Hone, Pat A.; Edwards, Alan A. [Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Fomina, Janna [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to apply the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay in combination with chromosome painting of peripheral blood lymphocytes for retrospective biological dosimetry of Mayak nuclear power plant workers exposed chronically to external gamma radiation. These data were compared with physical dose estimates based on monitoring with badge dosimeters throughout each person's working life. Chromosome translocation yields for 94 workers of the Mayak production association were measured in three laboratories: Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Leiden University Medical Center and the former Health Protection Agency of the UK (hereinafter Public Health England). The results of the study demonstrated that the FISH-based translocation assay in workers with prolonged (chronic) occupational gamma-ray exposure was a reliable biological dosimeter even many years after radiation exposure. Cytogenetic estimates of red bone marrow doses from external gamma rays were reasonably consistent with dose measurements based on film badge readings successfully validated in dosimetry system ''Doses-2005'' by FISH, within the bounds of the associated uncertainties. (orig.)

  7. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Zimmer

    Full Text Available Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity.

  8. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Adrien; Durand, Cécile; Loira, Nicolás; Durrens, Pascal; Sherman, David James; Marullo, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI) involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity.

  9. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) spanning the synovial sarcoma-specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, B; Berger, W; Sinke, R J; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Gilgenkrantz, S; Geraghty, M T; Valle, D; Monaco, A P; Lehrach, H; Ropers, H H

    A somatic cell hybrid containing the synovial sarcoma-associated t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) derivative (der(X)) chromosome was used to characterize the translocation breakpoint region on the X chromosome. By using Southern hybridization of DNA from this der(X) hybrid in conjunction with Xp-region specific

  10. Unraveling the Dynamics of Ribosome Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Tsai, Albert; O’Leary, Seán E.; Petrov, Alexey; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation is one of the key events in translation, requiring large-scale conformational changes in the ribosome, movements of two transfer RNAs (tRNAs) across a distance of more than 20 Å, and the coupled movement of the messenger RNA (mRNA) by one codon, completing one cycle of peptide-chain elongation. Translocation is catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G in bacteria), which hydrolyzes GTP in the process. However, how the conformational rearrangements of the ribosome actually drive the movements of the tRNAs and how EF-G GTP hydrolysis plays a role in this process are still unclear. Fluorescence methods, both single-molecule and bulk, have provided a dynamic view of translocation, allowing us to follow the different conformational changes of the ribosome in real-time. The application of electron microscopy has revealed new conformational intermediates during translocation and important structural rearrangements in the ribosome that drive tRNA movement, while computational approaches have added quantitative views of the translational pathway. These recent advances shed light on the process of translocation, providing insight on how to resolve the different descriptions of translocation in the current literature. PMID:23142574

  11. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  12. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Schmälter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11 exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X and a short chromosome T(X;11 and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11 which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11 nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”. PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”. There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11 and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001.

  13. FtsK translocation permits discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournes, Florian; Crozat, Estelles; Pages, Carine; Tardin, Catherine; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, François; Rousseau, Philippe

    2016-07-12

    In bacteria, the FtsK/Xer/dif (chromosome dimer resolution site) system is essential for faithful vertical genetic transmission, ensuring the resolution of chromosome dimers during their segregation to daughter cells. This system is also targeted by mobile genetic elements that integrate into chromosomal dif sites. A central question is thus how Xer/dif recombination is tuned to both act in chromosome segregation and stably maintain mobile elements. To explore this question, we focused on pathogenic Neisseria species harboring a genomic island in their dif sites. We show that the FtsK DNA translocase acts differentially at the recombination sites flanking the genomic island. It stops at one Xer/dif complex, activating recombination, but it does not stop on the other site, thus dismantling it. FtsK translocation thus permits cis discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex.

  14. New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... [Traut W. 2010 New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome differentiation: sex determination in Megaselia. J. Genet. 89,. 307–313]. Introduction. Sex-chromosome ..... age group III-Y chromosomes were successful while in well- aerated population cages, linkage group I-Y chromosomes.

  15. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  16. A rare case of chronic myeloid leukemia with secondary chromosomal changes including partial trisomy 17q21 to 17qter and partial monosomy of 16p13.3

    OpenAIRE

    Al Achkar, Walid; Wafa, Abdulsamad; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Moassass, Faten; Liehr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in almost all cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Around 5-10% of these patients show complex translocations involving other chromosomes in addition to and/or besides chromosomes 9 and 22. As nowadays most CML cases are treated with Imatinib, variant rearrangements have in general no specific prognostic significance, though events of therapy resistance remain to be studied. Results Here we report a Ph chromosome ...

  17. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  18. Chimeric negative regulation of p14ARF and TBX1 by a t(9;22) translocation associated with melanoma, deafness and DNA repair deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohui; Anzick, Sarah L.; Khan, Sikandar G.; Ueda, Takahiro; Stone, Gary; DiGiovanna, John J.; Tamura, Deborah; Wattendorf, Daniel; Busch, David; Brewer, Carmen C.; Zalewski, Christopher; Butman, John A; Griffith, Andrew J.; Meltzer, Paul; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the most frequent interstitial deletion syndrome. We characterized a novel balanced t(9;22)(p21;q11.2) translocation in a patient with melanoma, DNA repair deficiency, and features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) including deafness and malformed inner ears. Using chromosome sorting we located the 9p21 breakpoint in CDKN2A intron 1. This resulted in under-expression of the tumor suppressor p14ARF; the reduced DNA repair was corrected by transfection with p14ARF. UV-type p14ARF mutations in his melanoma implicated p14ARF in its pathogenesis. The 22q11.2 breakpoint was located in a palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR22). We identified a new gene, FAM230A that contains PATRR22 within an intron. The 22q11.2 breakpoint was located 800 kb centromeric to TBX1, which is required for inner ear development. TBX1 expression was greatly reduced. The translocation resulted in a chimeric transcript encoding portions of p14ARF and FAM230A. Inhibition of chimeric p14ARF-FAM230A expression increased p14ARF and TBX1 expression and improved DNA repair. Expression of the chimera in normal cells produced dominant negative inhibition of p14ARF. Similar chimeric mRNAs may mediate haploinsufficiency in DGS or dominant negative inhibition of other genes such as those involved in melanoma. PMID:23661601

  19. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-10-13

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  20. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  1. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  2. Post-translocational adaptation drives evolution through genetic selection and transcriptional shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Valentina; Sims, Jason; West, Nicole; Colombin, Martina; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2017-05-01

    Adaptation by natural selection might improve the fitness of an organism and its probability to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions. Decoding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution is one of the great challenges to deal with. To this purpose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been largely investigated because of its short division time, excellent aneuploidy tolerance and the availability of the complete sequence of its genome with a thorough genome database. In the past, we developed a system, named bridge-induced translocation, to trigger specific, non-reciprocal translocations, exploiting the endogenous recombination system of budding yeast. This technique allows users to generate a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and increased phenotypic variation. In this work, we demonstrate that ad hoc chromosomal translocations might induce adaptation, fostering selection of thermo-tolerant yeast strains with improved phenotypic fitness. This "yeast eugenomics" correlates with a shift to enhanced expression of genes involved in stress response, heat shock as well as carbohydrate metabolism. We propose that the bridge-induced translocation is a suitable approach to generate adapted, physiologically boosted strains for biotechnological applications.

  3. Non-homologous chromosome synapsis during mouse meiosis : consequences for male fertility and survival of progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.H.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the mouse, heterozygosity for several reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations is associated with impairment of chromosome synapsis and suppression of crossover formation in segments near the points of exchange during prophase of meiosis. This thesis describes the analysis of the consequences

  4. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  5. Lack of Bcl-2 expression in follicular lymphoma may be caused by mutations in the BCL2 gene or by absence of the t(14;18) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraders, M; de Jong, D; Kluin, P; Groenen, PC; van Krieken, H

    Follicular lymphoma (FL), except grade 3B, is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), which results in over-expression of the Bcl-2 protein. Ten per-cent of all FLs, however, do not show Bcl-2 protein expression with standard immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal Bcl-2

  6. Translocations involving 8q24 in Burkitt lymphoma and other malignant lymphomas : a historical review of cytogenetics in the light of todays knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. G.; Siebert, R.; Kluin, P. M.; Baudis, M.

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a characteristic clinical presentation, morphology, immunophenotype and primary chromosomal aberration, that is, the translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) or its variants. However, diagnostic dilemmas may arise in daily practice due to overlap of BL with subsets of other

  7. Contrasting origin of B chromosomes in two cervids (Siberian roe deer and grey brocket deer) unravelled by chromosome-specific DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makunin, Alexey I; Kichigin, Ilya G; Larkin, Denis M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Proskuryakova, Anastasiya A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina N; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Trifonov, Vladimir A

    2016-08-11

    B chromosomes are dispensable and variable karyotypic elements found in some species of animals, plants and fungi. They often originate from duplications and translocations of host genomic regions or result from hybridization. In most species, little is known about their DNA content. Here we perform high-throughput sequencing and analysis of B chromosomes of roe deer and brocket deer, the only representatives of Cetartiodactyla known to have B chromosomes. In this study we developed an approach to identify genomic regions present on chromosomes by high-throughput sequencing of DNA generated from flow-sorted chromosomes using degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR. Application of this method on small cattle autosomes revealed a previously described KIT gene region translocation associated with colour sidedness. Implementing this approach to B chromosomes from two cervid species, Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira), revealed dramatically different genetic content: roe deer B chromosomes consisted of two duplicated genomic regions (a total of 1.42-1.98 Mbp) involving three genes, while grey brocket deer B chromosomes contained 26 duplicated regions (a total of 8.28-9.31 Mbp) with 34 complete and 21 partial genes, including KIT and RET protooncogenes, previously found on supernumerary chromosomes in canids. Sequence variation analysis of roe deer B chromosomes revealed a high frequency of mutations and increased heterozygosity due to either amplification within B chromosomes or divergence between different Bs. In contrast, grey brocket deer B chromosomes were found to be more homogeneous and resembled autosomes in patterns of sequence variation. Similar tendencies were observed in repetitive DNA composition. Our data demonstrate independent origins of B chromosomes in the grey brocket and roe deer. We hypothesize that the B chromosomes of these two cervid species represent different stages of B chromosome sequences evolution

  8. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  9. Nup98-Homeodomain Fusions Interact with Endogenous Nup98 during Interphase and Localize to Kinetochores and Chromosome Arms during Mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Songli; Powers, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the Nup98 gene are implicated in leukemias, especially acute myelogenous leukemia. These translocations generate chimeric fusion proteins, all of which have in common the N-terminal half of Nup98, which contains the nucleoporin FG/GLFG repeat motifs. The homeodomain group of Nup98 fusion proteins retain the C-terminus of a homeodomain transcription factor, including the homeobox responsible for DNA binding. Current models for Nup98 leukemogenesis invoke ab...

  10. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswathy,Radha; Natarajan,A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Fanconi anemia (FA) patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy)-induced chromosome aberrations (CA). The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in ...

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and environmental exposures in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.M.; Keating, M.J.; Trujillo, J.M.; Labarthe, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are present in bone marrow of approximately 50% of newly diagnostic acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL) patients, but their etiologic significance, if any, is unclear. The frequency of environmental exposures, gathered by questionnaire from patients or relatives, was compared in 127 newly diagnosed ANLL patients with marrow abnormalities (AA) and 109 ANLL patients with cytogenetically normal marrow. These represented 73% of de novo patients treated at M. D. Anderson Hospital between 1976 and 1983. AA patients were more likely than NN patients to: report cytotoxic treatment for prior medical conditions, smoke cigarettes, drink alcoholic beverages, and work at occupations with possible exposure to mutagens. No statistically significant associations between aneuploidy and use of other tobacco, avocational exposure to chemicals or exposure to animals were present. Associations between specific abnormalities and prior cytotoxic therapy (deletion of chromosome 7), smoking (extra chromosome 8, inversion chromosome 16), and occupation at the time of diagnosis (translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21) were noted. No association between occupational exposure to benzene or ionizing radiation and the 6 most common chromosomal abnormalities in ANLL patients were noted, although these agents are known to be leukemogenic. Problems with interpreting the above associations, including the high nonresponse rate, a high proportion of surrogate respondents, and the large number of significance tests that were performed, are discussed. These results are consistent with those from previously reported series, and suggest that tumor-specific markers may be present for some exposures in this disease

  12. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-12-31

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  13. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In each of our cells there is about 6 feet long DNA packed. Into 46 units called chromosomes. Chromosome: is a long thread of DNA wrapped around proteins. ... application of. Mendel's 'gene' concept to a human trait was' by the physician A. Garrod. He described the genetic disease alkaptonuria as an alteration In specific.

  14. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Know Your Chromosomes Hybrid Cells and Human Chromosomes. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 41-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These pieces of DNA which are clusters of several genes are called linkages groups or chromosomes. Therefore chromosomes are nothing but long. Cen. DNA. A,denin~ .... and as precursors for other biomolecules like hormones, purines and pyrimidines. ... in the history of science, Garrod's contributions to human genet-.

  16. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  17. Translocation of the papillomavirus L2/vDNA complex across the limiting membrane requires the onset of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Christine M; Bronnimann, Matthew P; Manson, Ariana R; Li, Shuaizhi; Chapman, Janice A; Suarez-Berumen, Marcela; Williamson, Tatum R; Molugu, Sudheer K; Bernal, Ricardo A; Campos, Samuel K

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2 protein acts as a chaperone to ensure that the viral genome (vDNA) traffics from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and eventually the nucleus, where HPV replication occurs. En route to the nucleus, the L2/vDNA complex must translocate across limiting intracellular membranes. The details of this critical process remain poorly characterized. We have developed a system based on subcellular compartmentalization of the enzyme BirA and its cognate substrate to detect membrane translocation of L2-BirA from incoming virions. We find that L2 translocation requires transport to the TGN and is strictly dependent on entry into mitosis, coinciding with mitotic entry in synchronized cells. Cell cycle arrest causes retention of L2/vDNA at the TGN; only release and progression past G2/M enables translocation across the limiting membrane and subsequent infection. Microscopy of EdU-labeled vDNA reveals a rapid and dramatic shift in vDNA localization during early mitosis. At late G2/early prophase vDNA egresses from the TGN to a pericentriolar location, accumulating there through prometaphase where it begins to associate with condensed chromosomes. By metaphase and throughout anaphase the vDNA is seen bound to the mitotic chromosomes, ensuring distribution into both daughter nuclei. Mutations in a newly defined chromatin binding region of L2 potently blocked translocation, suggesting that translocation is dependent on chromatin binding during prometaphase. This represents the first time a virus has been shown to functionally couple the penetration of limiting membranes to cellular mitosis, explaining in part the tropism of HPV for mitotic basal keratinocytes.

  18. Translocation of the papillomavirus L2/vDNA complex across the limiting membrane requires the onset of mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Calton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 L2 protein acts as a chaperone to ensure that the viral genome (vDNA traffics from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN and eventually the nucleus, where HPV replication occurs. En route to the nucleus, the L2/vDNA complex must translocate across limiting intracellular membranes. The details of this critical process remain poorly characterized. We have developed a system based on subcellular compartmentalization of the enzyme BirA and its cognate substrate to detect membrane translocation of L2-BirA from incoming virions. We find that L2 translocation requires transport to the TGN and is strictly dependent on entry into mitosis, coinciding with mitotic entry in synchronized cells. Cell cycle arrest causes retention of L2/vDNA at the TGN; only release and progression past G2/M enables translocation across the limiting membrane and subsequent infection. Microscopy of EdU-labeled vDNA reveals a rapid and dramatic shift in vDNA localization during early mitosis. At late G2/early prophase vDNA egresses from the TGN to a pericentriolar location, accumulating there through prometaphase where it begins to associate with condensed chromosomes. By metaphase and throughout anaphase the vDNA is seen bound to the mitotic chromosomes, ensuring distribution into both daughter nuclei. Mutations in a newly defined chromatin binding region of L2 potently blocked translocation, suggesting that translocation is dependent on chromatin binding during prometaphase. This represents the first time a virus has been shown to functionally couple the penetration of limiting membranes to cellular mitosis, explaining in part the tropism of HPV for mitotic basal keratinocytes.

  19. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  20. Familial insertion (3;5)(q25.3;q22.1q31.3) with deletion or duplication of chromosome region 5q22.1-5q31.3 in ten unbalanced carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, Y.H.; Engelen, J.J.M.; Govaerts, L.C.P.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Loneus, W.H.; Lent-Albrechts, J.C. van; Blij-Philipsen, M. van der; Hamers, A.J.H.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the clinical and cytogenetic data of a large family with an unbalanced insertion translocation (3;5)(q25.3;q22.1q31.3). Analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes demonstrated that unbalanced inheritance of a parental insertion translocation caused either a partial deletion or duplication 5q in

  1. SMC Progressively Aligns Chromosomal Arms in Caulobacter crescentus but Is Antagonized by Convergent Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngat T. Tran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC complex plays an important role in chromosome organization and segregation in most living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the long axis of the cell. However, the mechanism of SMC-mediated alignment of chromosomal arms remains elusive. Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. We provide evidence that SMC likely tethers the parS-proximal regions of the chromosomal arms together, promoting arm alignment. Furthermore, we show that highly transcribed genes near parS that are oriented against SMC translocation disrupt arm alignment, suggesting that head-on transcription interferes with SMC translocation. Our results demonstrate a tight interdependence of bacterial chromosome organization and global patterns of transcription.

  2. Chromosome painting analysis of X-ray-induced aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hayashi, M.; Yamazaki, N.; Sofuni, T.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements in human lymphocytes induced by X-rays (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gray) were analyzed using chromosome painting. DNA probes for human chromosomes 1, 3 or 4 alone, and a combination of 1 and 4, were used for analysis. The frequency of cells with rearrangements, i.e. reciprocal translocations, dicentrics, insertions, tricentrics and fragments, involving chromosome 4 increased with dose in both 48 and 72 h cultures. The number of translocations per cell also increased with dose at 48 and 72 h. Dicentrics increased with dose in 48 h but not in 72 h cultures. The estimated genomic frequency of aberrations per cell was comparable with results in banded cells. No difference was shown on the detection efficiency of chromosome rearrangements among the various DNA probes used. Since this technique does not necessarily require well-spread metaphases for analysis, it is possible to increase the number of analyzable metaphases compared with the banding technique. Chromosome painting is a simpler, more objective and practical method for detecting chromosome rearrangements than conventional banding analyses. (Author)

  3. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  4. The human Y chromosome: a masculine chromosome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Michiel J.; Repping, Sjoerd

    2006-01-01

    Once considered to be a genetic wasteland of no scientific interest beyond sex determination, the human Y chromosome has made a significant comeback in the past few decades and is currently implicated in multiple diseases, including spermatogenic failure - absent or very low levels of sperm

  5. Ploidy influences cellular responses to gross chromosomal rearrangements in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine Sophie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs such as aneuploidy are key factors in genome evolution as well as being common features of human cancer. Their role in tumour initiation and progression has not yet been completely elucidated and the effects of additional chromosomes in cancer cells are still unknown. Most previous studies in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for cancer cells have been carried out in the haploid context. To obtain new insights on the role of ploidy, the cellular effects of GCRs were compared between the haploid and diploid contexts. Results A total number of 21 haploid and diploid S. cerevisiae strains carrying various types of GCRs (aneuploidies, nonreciprocal translocations, segmental duplications and deletions were studied with a view to determining the effects of ploidy on the cellular responses. Differences in colony and cell morphology as well as in the growth rates were observed between mutant and parental strains. These results suggest that cells are impaired physiologically in both contexts. We also investigated the variation in genomic expression in all the mutants. We observed that gene expression was significantly altered. The data obtained here clearly show that genes involved in energy metabolism, especially in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, are up-regulated in all these mutants. However, the genes involved in the composition of the ribosome or in RNA processing are down-regulated in diploids but up-regulated in haploids. Over-expression of genes involved in the regulation of the proteasome was found to occur only in haploid mutants. Conclusion The present comparisons between the cellular responses of strains carrying GCRs in different ploidy contexts bring to light two main findings. First, GCRs induce a general stress response in all studied mutants, regardless of their ploidy. Secondly, the ploidy context plays a crucial role in maintaining the stoichiometric balance

  6. Streptococcus pyogenes translocates across an epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a β-hemolytic organism responsible for a wide variety of human diseases that commonly occur as self-limiting purulent diseases of the pharynx and skin. Although the occurrence of invasive infections by S. pyogenes is rare, mortality rates remain high even with progressive medical therapy. As a prerequisite for causing the severe invasive disease, S. pyogenes must invade underlying sterile tissues by translocating across the epithelial barrier. In this study, streptolysin S and SpeB were identified as the novel factors that facilitate bacterial translocation via degradation of intercellular junctions. Furthermore, we found that S. pyogenes exploits host plasminogen for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. Here, I would like to show our study on bacterial translocation across the epithelial barrier through paracellular route.

  7. A de novo balanced t(2;6)(p15;p22.3) in a patient with West Syndrome disrupts a lnc-RNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeweyer, G.; Aa, N. van der; Ceulemans, B.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Rooms, L.; Kooy, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    In a male patient with West Syndrome we identified a perfectly balanced, de novo balanced translocation 46,XY,t(2;6)(p15;p22.3). No known protein coding genes were disrupted by the translocation and positional effects on nearby genes were excluded by expression studies. A putative long non-coding

  8. Segregation of a paternal insertional translocation results in partial 4q monosomy or 4q trisomy in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegmann, K.M.; Spikes, A.S.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Shaffer, L.G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-01-02

    A genetics evaluation was requested for a 6-week-old infant with multiple congenital malformations including mild craniofacial anomalies, truncal hypotonia, hypospadias, and a ventriculoseptal defect. Blood obtained for chromosome analysis revealed an abnormal chromosome 4. Paternal chromosome analysis showed a 46,XY, inv ins (3;4)(p21.32;q25q21.2), inv(4)(p15.3q21.2) karyotype. Therefore, the proband`s chromosome 4 was the unbalanced product of this insertional translocation from the father resulting in partial monosomy 4q. Additionally, the derivative 4 had a pericentric inversion which was also seen in the father`s chromosome 4. During genetic counseling, the proband`s 2-year-old brother was evaluated. He was not felt to be abnormal in appearance, but was described as having impulsive behavior. Chromosome analysis on this child revealed 46, XY, der(3) inv ins(3;4)(p21.32;q25q21.2)pat. This karyotype results in partial trisomy 4q. FISH using two-color {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} probes for chromosomes 3 and 4 confirmed the G-banded interpretation in this family. The segregation seen in this family resulted in both reciprocal products being observed in the two children, with partial 4q monosomy showing multiple congenital anomalies, and partial 4q trisomy showing very few phenotypic abnormalities. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  9. A case of an atypically large proximal 15q deletion as cause for Prader-Willi syndrome arising from a de novo unbalanced translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Scott E; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Walters-Sen, Lauren; Reshmi, Shalini C; Astbury, Caroline; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Atkin, Joan

    2013-09-01

    We describe an 11 month old female with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) resulting from an atypically large deletion of proximal 15q due to a de novo 3;15 unbalanced translocation. The 10.6 Mb deletion extends from the chromosome 15 short arm and is not situated in a region previously reported as a common distal breakpoint for unbalanced translocations. There was no deletion of the reciprocal chromosome 3q subtelomeric region detected by either chromosomal microarray or FISH. The patient has hypotonia, failure to thrive, and typical dysmorphic facial features for PWS. The patient also has profound global developmental delay consistent with an expanded, more severe, phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Introgression of Chromosome 3Ns from Psathyrostachys huashanica into Wheat Specifying Resistance to Stripe Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Yi; Fedak, George; Cao, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiqin; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Xu, Lili; Zheng, Youliang; Zhou, Yonghong

    2011-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust is a destructive disease in the cool and humid wheat-growing areas of the world. Finding diverse sources of stripe rust resistance is critical for increasing genetic diversity of resistance for wheat breeding programs. Stripe rust resistance was identified in the alien species Psathyrostachys huashanica, and a wheat- P. huashanica amphiploid line (PHW-SA) with stripe rust resistance was reported previously. In this study, a P. huashanica 3Ns monosomic addition line (PW11) with superior resistance to stripe rust was developed, which was derived from the cross between PHW-SA and wheat J-11. We evaluated the alien introgressions PW11-2, PW11-5 and PW11-8 which were derived from line PW11 for reaction to new Pst race CYR32, and used molecular and cytogenetic tools to characterize these lines. The introgressions were remarkably resistant to CYR32, suggesting that the resistance to stripe rust of the introgressions thus was controlled by gene(s) located on P. huashanica chromosome 3Ns. All derived lines were cytologically stable in term of meiotic chromosome behavior. Two 3Ns chromosomes of P. huashanica were detected in the disomic addition line PW11-2. Chromosomes 1B of substitution line PW11-5 had been replaced by a pair of P. huashanica 3Ns chromosomes. In PW11-8, a small terminal segment from P. huashanica chromosome arm 3NsS was translocated to the terminal region of wheat chromosomes 3BL. Thus, this translocated chromosome is designated T3BL-3NsS. These conclusions were further confirmed by SSR analyses. Two 3Ns-specific markers Xgwm181 and Xgwm161 will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. These introgressions, which had significant characteristics of resistance to stripe rust, could be utilized as novel germplasms for wheat breeding. PMID:21760909

  11. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  12. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA: review of 1982 consecutive cases in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, T K; Cheung, S W; Lo, P S S; Pursley, A N; Chan, M K; Jiang, F; Zhang, H; Wang, W; Jong, L F J; Yuen, O K C; Chan, H Y C; Chan, W S K; Choy, K W

    2014-03-01

    To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA at a single center. The NIPT result and pregnancy outcome of 1982 consecutive cases were reviewed. NIPT was based on low coverage (0.1×) whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. All subjects were contacted for pregnancy and fetal outcome. Of the 1982 NIPT tests, a repeat blood sample was required in 23 (1.16%). In one case, a conclusive report could not be issued, probably because of an abnormal vanished twin fetus. NIPT was positive for common trisomies in 29 cases (23 were trisomy 21, four were trisomy 18 and two were trisomy 13); all were confirmed by prenatal karyotyping (specificity=100%). In addition, 11 cases were positive for sex-chromosomal abnormalities (SCA), and nine cases were positive for other aneuploidies or deletion/duplication. Fourteen of these 20 subjects agreed to undergo further investigations, and the abnormality was found to be of fetal origin in seven, confined placental mosaicism (CPM) in four, of maternal origin in two and not confirmed in one. Overall, 85.7% of the NIPT-suspected SCA were of fetal origin, and 66.7% of the other abnormalities were caused by CPM. Two of the six cases suspected or confirmed to have CPM were complicated by early-onset growth restriction requiring delivery before 34 weeks. Fetal outcome of the NIPT-negative cases was ascertained in 1645 (85.15%). Three chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by NIPT, including one case each of a balanced translocation, unbalanced translocation and triploidy. There were no known false negatives involving the common trisomies (sensitivity=100%). Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA was highly accurate in detecting common trisomies. It also enabled the detection of other aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities with high positive predictive value. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  13. A new 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation transfers stem rust resistance gene Sr59 into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon; Rouse, Matthew N; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Danilova, Tatiana; Friebe, Bernd; Steffenson, Brian J; Johansson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    A new stem rust resistance gene Sr59 from Secale cereale was introgressed into wheat as a 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation. Emerging new races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), from Africa threaten global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. To broaden the resistance spectrum of wheat to these widely virulent African races, additional resistance genes must be identified from all possible gene pools. From the screening of a collection of wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome substitution lines developed at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, we described the line 'SLU238' 2R (2D) as possessing resistance to many races of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, including the widely virulent race TTKSK (isolate synonym Ug99) from Africa. The breakage-fusion mechanism of univalent chromosomes was used to produce a new Robertsonian translocation: T2DS·2RL. Molecular marker analysis and stem rust seedling assays at multiple generations confirmed that the stem rust resistance from 'SLU238' is present on the rye chromosome arm 2RL. Line TA5094 (#101) was derived from 'SLU238' and was found to be homozygous for the T2DS·2RL translocation. The stem rust resistance gene on chromosome 2RL arm was designated as Sr59. Although introgressions of rye chromosome arms into wheat have most often been facilitated by irradiation, this study highlights the utility of the breakage-fusion mechanism for rye chromatin introgression. Sr59 provides an additional asset for wheat improvement to mitigate yield losses caused by stem rust.

  14. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  15. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  16. Effects of caffeine upon material repair systems involved in the rejoining of x-ray-induced chromosome breaks in the paternal genome of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in which ring-X/B/sup s/Yy + males were x-irradiated and mated with females which had been fed on either 1.0% caffeine in 10% sucrose, 0.2% caffeine in 10% sucrose, or on 10% sucrose alone. F1 progeny were scored for dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses, while in the F2 generation the frequency of translocations was monitored. In line with previous reports it was found that at a concentration of 0.2% caffeine the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses were increased while the frequency of translocations was depressed. At the higher concentration of 1.0% caffeine the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses were depressed. With respect to translocations, while the formation of translocations between autosomes was enhanced in the presence of 1.0% caffeine, the frequency of translocations between the Y and the autosomes was depressed relative to sucrose controls. The proposal is made that at high effective concentrations, caffeine promotes the rejoining of breaks induced in sperm, supported by evidence of an enhancement in the frequency of autosomal translocations in the 1.0% caffeine series and consistent with the depression in the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses in the 1.0% series as compared to sucrose controls

  17. Translocation (6;15(q12;q15: A Novel Mutation in a Patient with Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba F. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS present with loss or gain of chromosomal material and less commonly show translocations as a sole abnormality. In addition, certain translocations are more commonly seen in MDS than others, but to our knowledge, the presence of t(6;15 has not been reported in MDS, specifically therapy-related MDS (t-MDS cases. Patients with t-MDS, a group of heterogeneous stem cell related disorders resulting as a latent complication of cytotoxic and/or radiation therapy, generally tend to have a poorer prognosis than de novo MDS. We present a unique case of a patient who initially presented with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with a normal karyotype and FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. The patient was successfully treated with chemotherapy and an autologous bone marrow transplant but subsequently developed a new FLT3-ITD negative t-MDS with a unique translocation, t(6;15(q12;q15, three years after transplant. To our knowledge, this unique sole translocation has never been reported in MDS or t-MDS and given her successful response to treatment and remission, presence of this translocation may have some prognostic value.

  18. Cross-species chromosome painting in bats from Madagascar: the contribution of Myzopodidae to revealing ancestral syntenies in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.

  19. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  20. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  1. Case Report: Extrauterine Translocated Contraceptive Device: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common presenting symptom was inability to feel the device's string (in three patients). Four of the patients presented within one month of the insertion. Three of the five translocated intraperitoneal devices were recovered by laparotomy and the forth by laparoscopy. The fifth patient, pregnant, defaulted with the ...

  2. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  3. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalties with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between specific chromosome abnormalties and various epilepsies was investigated by a study of 76 patients’ records obtained by questionnaires distributed to members of Kyoto Multi-institutional Study Group of Pediatric Neurology.

  6. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...... who want it, is discussed. Screening for chromosome disease in all pregnancies is not without problems, but may be reasonable in some localities....

  7. Use of radiation to transfer alien chromosome segments to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can accomplish the transfer of genetic information from species so distantly related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) that their chromosomes pair very little, if at all, with those of wheat, even in the absence of the homoeologous-pairing suppressor Ph1. In a successful transfer, the alien segment must almost always replace a homoeologous wheat segment, but radiation induces translocations largely at random; therefore automatic selection in favor of desirable translocations must be provided if the size of the project is to be kept within reasonable limits. Pollen selection will occur if seeds or plants monosomic for both an alien chromosome and one of its wheat homoeologues are irradiated. Making the plants also deficient for Ph1 may increase the number of suitable transfers. High-frequency occurrence of the desired alien character in M2 head-rows from plants grown from irradiated seed can identify favorable transfers with little cytological work. Irradiation of plants shortly before meiosis, using them to pollinate ditelosomics or double ditelosomics for the wheat arm or chromosome concerned, and cytologically examining offspring which have the alien character can not only identify the desirable transfers, but also reveal the lengths of the alien segments involved

  8. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Cotias-de-Oliveira,Ana Lúcia Pires; Assis,José Geraldo Aquino de; Bellintani,Moema Cortizo; Andrade,Jorge Clarêncio Souza; Guedes,Maria Lenise Silva

    2000-01-01

    The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. u...

  9. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...

  10. Performance of chromosomal microarray for patients with intellectual disabilities/developmental delay, autism, and multiple congenital anomalies in a Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Wilson Wai Sing; Lo, Ivan Fai Man; Lam, Stephen Tak Sum; Wang, Chi Chiu; Luk, Ho Ming; Leung, Tak Yeung; Choy, Kwong Wai

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is currently the first-tier genetic test for patients with idiopathic neuropsychiatric diseases in many countries. Its improved diagnostic yield over karyotyping and other molecular testing facilitates the identification of the underlying causes of neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study, we applied oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization as the molecular genetic test in a Chinese cohort of children with DD/ID, autism or MCA. CMA identified 7 clinically significant microduplications and 17 microdeletions in 19.0% (20/105) patients, with size of aberrant regions ranging from 11 kb to 10.7 Mb. Fourteen of the pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) detected corresponded to well known microdeletion or microduplication syndromes. Four overlapped with critical regions of recently identified genomic syndromes. We also identified a rare de novo 2.3 Mb deletion at 8p21.3-21.2 as a pathogenic submicroscopic CNV. We also identified two novel CNVs, one at Xq28 and the other at 12q21.31-q21.33, in two patients (1.9%) with unclear clinical significance. Overall, the detection rate of CMA is comparable to figures previously reported for accurately detect submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances and pathogenic CNVs except mosaicism, balanced translocation and inversion. This study provided further evidence of an increased diagnostic yield of CMA and supported its use as a first line diagnostic tool for Chinese individuals with DD/ID, ASD, and MCA.

  11. Activation of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Maduro (Cheryl)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn mammals, males are the heterogametic sex having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome whereas females have two X chromosomes. Despite originating from an ancient homologous autosomal pair, the X and Y chromosome now differ greatly in size and gene content after ~180 MY of evolution.

  12. A molecular deletion of distal chromosome 4p in two families with a satellited chromosome 4 lacking the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, L L; Lamb, A N; Kirkman, H N; Callanan, N P; Rao, K W

    1992-11-01

    We report two families with a satellited chromosome 4 short arm (4ps). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cites several reports of satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes, which presumably result from a translocation with an acrocentric chromosome. This is the first report of 4ps chromosomes. Our families are remarkable in that both unaffected and affected individuals carry the 4ps chromosome. The phenotypes observed in affected individuals, although dissimilar, were sufficient to encourage a search for a deletion of chromosome 4p. By Southern blot analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, a deletion of material mapping approximately 150 kb from chromosome 4pter was discovered. This deletion is notable because it does not result in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and can result in an apparently normal phenotype. We speculate that homology between subterminal repeat sequences on 4p and sequences on the acrocentric short arms may explain the origin of the rearrangement and that position effect may play a role in the expression of the abnormal phenotype.

  13. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  14. Multiple sex chromosome system in penguins (Pygoscelis, Spheniscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunski, Ricardo José; Cañedo, Andrés Delgado; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Ledesma, Mario Angel; Coria, Nestor; Montalti, Diego; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga

    2017-01-01

    Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined. P. antarcticus has 2n = 92, P. papua 2n = 94 and P. adeliae exhibited 2n = 96 in males and 2n = 95 in females. The difference of diploid number in P. adeliae was identified as a multiple sex chromosome system where males have Z1Z1Z2Z2 and females Z1Z2W. The C-banding showed the presence of a heterochromatic block in the long arm of W chromosome and Z2 was almost entirely heterochromatic. The probable origin of a multiple system in P. adeliae was a translocation involving the W chromosome and the chromosome ancestral to Z2. The comparison made possible the identification of a high karyotype homology in Sphenisciformes which can be seen in the conservation of macrochromosomes and in the Z chromosome. The karyotypic divergences in Pygoscelis are restricted to the number of microchromosomes and W, which proved to be highly variable in size and morphology. The data presented in this work corroborate molecular phylogenetic proposals, supporting the monophyletic origin of penguins and intraspecific relations.

  15. Heterogeneity of genomic fusion of BCR and ABL in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, C.M.; Carrino, J.J.; Dickler, M.N.; Leibowitz, D.; Smith, S.D.; Westbrook, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two molecular forms, those with and those without rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region on chromosome 22. The molecular abnormality in the former group is similar to that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. To characterize the abnormality in the breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged form, the authors have mapped a 9; 22 translocation from the Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B13 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and have cloned the DNA at the translocation junctions. They demonstrate a BCR-ABL fusion gene on the Philadelphia chromosome. The exons from ABL are the same. Analysis of leukemic cells from four other patients with breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed a rearrangement on chromosome 22 close to the breakpoint in SUP-B13 in only one patient. These data indicate that breakpoints do not cluster tightly in this region but are scattered, possibly in a large intron. Given the large size of BCR and the heterogeneity in breakpoint location, detection of BCR rearrangement by standard Southern blot analysis is difficult. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should allow detection at the DNA level in every patient and thus will permit clinical correlation of the breakpoint location with prognosis

  16. Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity.

  17. Impact of various parameters in detecting chromosomal aberrations by FISH to describe radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, U.; Mueller, E.; Grabenbauer, G.; Sauer, R.; Distel, L.; Kuechler, A.; Liehr, T.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations is regarded as the ''gold standard'' for classifying individual radiosensitivity. A variety of different parameters can be used. The crucial question, however, is to explore which parameter is suited best to describe the differences between patients with increased radiosensitivity and healthy individuals. Patients and methods: in this study, five patients with severe radiation-induced late effects of at least grade 3, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and eleven healthy individuals were examined retrospectively. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with 0.7 Gy and 2.0 Gy prior to cultivation and stained by means of three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The detailed analysis was focused on the number of breaks per metaphase, on breaks from complex chromosomal rearrangements per metaphase, as well as on the percentage of translocations, dicentric chromosomes, breaks, and excess acentric fragments - each in comparison with the total number of mitoses analyzed. Results: using the number of breaks from complex chromosomal rearrangements after 2.0 Gy, radiosensitive patients as endpoint were clearly to be distinguished (p = 0.001) from healthy individuals. Translocations (p = 0.001) as well as breaks per metaphase (p = 0.002) were also suitable indicators for detecting differences between patients and healthy individuals. The parameters ''percentage of dicentric chromosomes'', ''breaks'', and ''excess acentric fragments'' in comparison to the total number of mitoses analyzed could neither serve as meaningful nor as significant criteria, since they showed a strong interindividual variability. Conclusion: to detect a difference in chromosomal aberrations between healthy and radiosensitive individuals, the parameters ''frequency of breaks per metaphase'', ''complex chromosomal rearrangements'', and ''translocations'' are most

  18. A rare prenatal case with two de novo inversions and a translocation: 48, XX,t(9;12)(q32;p24.3), inv(11)(p15.1q25), inv(13)(q12.q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, B.; Balaban, L.; Eldred, C. [Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ultrasound examination of a para 1, gravida 2, 26 y.o. showed severe hydrocephalus and polyhydramnios. Amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype with a 9;12 translocation, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11, and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 13. Parental chromosome studies were normal. The mother was not on medication prior to her pregnancy and there was no known exposure to radiation. Delivery was at 34 weeks gestation. The phenotype consisted of micrognathia, low set ears, hypertelorism, and hydrodcephaly. Review of the literature revealed a single report with multiple de novo aberrations consisting of a 6;14 translocation and a deleted 7. This was diagnosed in the child of a woman with systemic lupus erythematous treated with azathioprine. These types of abnormalities have been known to be induced by chemical and radiation exposure. High resolution banding combined with molecular studies presently improve our ability to detect subtle structural aberrations.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic definition of a translocation t(X;15) associated with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Veronica; Ghirri, Paolo; Bicocchi, Maria Patrizia; Simi, Paolo; Valetto, Angelo

    2010-08-01

    To characterize the breakpoints of a t(X;15) found in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF). Case report. Molecular and cytogenetics unit in a university-affiliated hospital. A 19-year-old infertile woman presenting with a normal female phenotype but primary amenorrhea. Molecular cytogenetic analyses and genetic counseling. Translocation t(X;15) defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Chromosome and FISH analysis revealed 46,XX, t(X;15)(Xq22.1;p11); the active X was translocated and had been inherited from her mother. Detailed molecular characterization by FISH showed that the NXF5 (nuclear RNA export factor 5) gene was contained in the clone spanning the breakpoint on the X chromosome. The NXF5 gene is an appealing candidate for POF because it shows functional homology with the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene. Further analyses of its expression as well as mutation screening in other POF patients will help to elucidate its role. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder can profoundly affect daily activities and cause psychological and emotional hardship. What are the symptoms of ... that help with balance but are destroyed by aging, medications, infections, or trauma can someday be regrown ...

  1. Molecular diagnostic of the philadelphia chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Rudin, M.; Cuenca Berger, P.; Gutierrez Espeleta, G.; Jimenez Cruz, G.; Montero Umana, C.; Vazquez Castillo, L.; Ramon Ortiz, M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance that has to confirm the presence or absence of the chromosome Philadelphia in the diagnostic and follow up of the patient affected with chronic myeloid leukemia and other leukemia. It is considered necessary to implement the molecular diagnostic in Costa Rica. They studied 32 patient affected by Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, 7 by other Myeloproliferative Chronic Disorders and 2 by Myelodysplastic Syndrome. It utilized the sound Trans probe-1 (Oncogene Science, Inc), which was marked with radioactivity ( 32 P) or chemiluminescence (digoxigenin). Of the 32 cases affected by L mc, in 28 it was possible to carry out the molecular analysis detecting the characteristic translocation of the chromosome Philadelphia among the Mbcr/c-ABL genes in 21 (75%) of the patients, in 7 (25%) the rearrangement was not found. In seven of the nine affected by other sufferings it was possible to obtain results, 3 that turned out to be positive for the rearrangement among Mbcr/c-ABL and 4 normal. In all the cases, they obtained results marking the sound with radioactivity. However, they tested the marks with digoxigenin in seven of the patients, as an methodological alternative for the laboratories that lacks the requirements to work with radiation. The results obtained were identical. (S. Grainger) [es

  2. Severe hemophilia A in a female by cryptic translocation: Order and orientation of factor VIII within Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; McGinniss, M.J.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Axelman, J.; Stasiowski, B.A.; Youssoufian, H.; Kearns, W.G.; Chung, A.; Pearson, P.L.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Muneer, R.S. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report studies of a female with severe hemophilia A resulting from a complex de novo translocation of chromosomes X and 17 (46,X,t(X; 17)). Somatic cell hybrids containing the normal X, the der(X), or the der(17) were analyzed for coagulation factor VIII (F8C) sequences using Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction. The normal X, always late replicating, contains a normal F8C gene, whereas the der(X) has no F8C sequences. The der(17) chromosome containing Xq24-Xq28 carries a functional G6PD locus and a deleted F8C allele that lacks exons 1--15. Also, it lacks the DXYS64-X locus, situated between the F8C locus and the Xq telomere. These results indicate that a cryptic breakpoint within Xq28 deleted the 5[prime] end of F8C, but left the more proximal G6PD locus intact on the der(17)chromosome. As the deleted segment includes the 5[prime] half of F8C as well as the subtelomeric DXYS64 locus, F8C must be oriented on the chromosome with its 5[prime] region closest to the telomere. Therefore, the order of these loci is Xcen-G6PD-3[prime]F8C-5[prime]F8C-DXYS64-Xqtel. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids has elucidated the true nature of the F8C mutation in the pro-band, revealing a more complex rearrangement (three chromosomes involved) than that expected from cytogenetic analysis, chromosome painting, and Southern blots. A 900-kb segment within Xq28 has been translocated to another autosome. Hemophilia A in this heterozygous female is due to the decapitation of the F8C gene on the der(17) and inactivation of the intact allele on the normal X. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Selection at the Y chromosome of the African Buffalo driven by rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Getz, W.M.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Selection coefficients at the mammalian Y chromosome typically do not deviate strongly from neutrality. Here we show that strong balancing selection, maintaining intermediate frequencies of DNA sequence variants, acts on the Y chromosome in two populations of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

  4. A yeast artificial chromosome contig that spans the RB1-D13S31 interval on human chromosome 13 and encompasses the frequently deleted region in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorn, L; Roberts, T; Verlind, E; Kooy, RF; Cowell, JK

    1995-01-01

    Abnormalities involving chromosome 13 have been reported as the only cytogenetic change in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL). Deletions are the most common cytogenetic abnormality and always involve 13q14, but when translocations are seen, the consistent breakpoint is always in 13q14. It is

  5. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35 S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35 S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO 4 2- -S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO 4 2- -S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO 2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35 S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35 S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  6. A rare case of chronic myeloid leukemia with secondary chromosomal changes including partial trisomy 17q21 to 17qter and partial monosomy of 16p13.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Achkar, Walid; Wafa, Abdulsamad; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Moassass, Faten; Liehr, Thomas

    2010-03-16

    The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in almost all cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Around 5-10% of these patients show complex translocations involving other chromosomes in addition to and/or besides chromosomes 9 and 22. As nowadays most CML cases are treated with Imatinib, variant rearrangements have in general no specific prognostic significance, though events of therapy resistance remain to be studied. Here we report a Ph chromosome positive patient with hematological typical chronic phase CML. Untypically, an unbalanced complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 16 and 17 leading to a deletion of 16pter and partial trisomy of 17q21 to 17qter, was identified besides a trisomy 8 and an additional Ph chromosome in a part of malignant cells. Here a novel and cytogenetically unique case of a Ph chromosome positive CML clinically in chronic phase is reported, having complex secondary chromosomal aberrations. Thus, CML patients with complex chromosomal changes are nonetheless treatable by Imatinib.

  7. mFISH analysis of chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to mixed radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnik, Natalia V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Scherthan, Harry [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology Affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We performed a study on the presence of chromosome aberrations in a cohort of plutonium workers of the Mayak production association (PA) with a mean age of 73.3 ± 7.2 years to see whether by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) translocation analysis can discriminate individuals who underwent occupational exposure with internal and/or external exposure to ionizing radiation 40 years ago. All Mayak PA workers were occupationally exposed to chronic internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium-239 and/or to external gamma-rays. First, we obtained the translocation yield in control individuals by mFISH to chromosome spreads of age-matched individuals and obtained background values that are similar to previously published values of an international study (Sigurdson et al. in Mutat Res 652:112-121, 2008). Workers who had absorbed a total dose of >0.5 Gy external gamma-rays to the red bone marrow (RBM) displayed a significantly higher frequency of stable chromosome aberrations relative to a group of workers exposed to <0.5 Gy gamma-rays total absorbed RBM dose. Thus, the translocation frequency may be considered to be a biological marker of external radiation exposure even years after the exposure. In a group of workers who were internally exposed and had incorporated plutonium-239 at a body burden >1.48 kBq, mFISH revealed a considerable number of cells with complex chromosomal rearrangements. Linear associations were observed for translocation yield with the absorbed RBM dose from external gamma-rays as well as for complex chromosomal rearrangements with the plutonium-239 body burden. (orig.)

  8. Erroneous class switching and false VDJ recombination: molecular dissection of t(8;14)/MYC-IGH translocations in Burkitt-type lymphoblastic leukemia/B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Thomas; Molkentin, Mara; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Thiel, Eckhard; Reinhardt, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The chromosomal translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) with juxtaposition of MYC to enhancer elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the genetic hallmark of the majority of Burkitt lymphoma and a subset of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Around 3% of adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients show this aberration. Flow cytometry mostly reveals a "mature B-ALL" or "Burkitt-type" ALL immunophenotype. Using long-distance PCR for t(8;14)/MYC-IGH fusion, we investigated bone marrow, peripheral blood and a few other samples with suspected Burkitt-ALL or mature B-ALL and identified 133 MYC-IGH-positive cases. The location of the chromosomal breaks in the IGH joining and the 8 different switch regions was determined using a set of long-distance PCRs. The chromosomal breakpoints with the adjacent MYC regions on 8q24 were characterized by direct sequencing in 49 cases. The distribution of chromosomal breaks among the IGH joining and switch regions was the following: JH 23.3%, M 21.8%, G1 15.0%, G2 7.5%, G3 3.8%, G4 4.5%, A1 12.8%, A2 3.8%, E 7.5%. Two breakpoint clusters near MYC were delineated. There was no clear correlation between the degree of somatic hypermutation and the chromosomal break locations. Epstein Barr virus was detected in 5 cases (4%). This detailed and extensive molecular analysis illustrates the molecular complexity of the MYC-IGH translocations and the detected distribution of breakpoints provides additional evidence that this translocation results from failed switch and VDJ recombinations. This study may serve as a model for the analysis of other IGH translocations in B-cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuhui; Yuan, Jingya; Wang, Zhangjun; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhixi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Qi, Zengjun; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Wang, Xiu-E

    2014-08-20

    Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicolor-FISH applied to resolve complex chromosomal changes in a case of T-ALL (FAB L2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkrtchyan, H.; Glaser, M.; Gross, M.; Wedding, U.; Hoeffken, K.; Liehr, T.; Aroutiounian, R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a patient with a clinically diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with partial unrecorded complex translocation events especially involving chromosomes 5,9 and 18. At the GTG-band level the karyotype was abnormal in 20% of the analyzed cells. The complex karyotype was studied in

  11. The human thyroglobulin gene: a polymorphic marker localized distal to C-MYC on chromosome 8 band q24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, F.; Bikker, H.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Melsert, R.; Pearson, P. L.; de Vijlder, J. J.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The human thyroglobulin (Tg) gene is localized to chromosome 8 and regionally to band q24 as shown independently by both in situ hybridization techniques and Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of hybrids derived from a Burkitt lymphoma, with a translocation

  12. The effect of X-irradiation on the fertility and the induction of meiotic chromosome rearrangements in mice and their first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkovic, N.; Pecevski, J.; Maric, N.; Radivojevic, D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of whole-body and local irradiation with a dose of 600 X-rays on the induction of chromosomal translocations in Diakinesis-Metaphase I of meiosis in treated and F 1 males and their fertility have been examined. Our results showed the high percentage of mortality in whole-body irradiated mice. The percentage of fertility was 25% in whole-body, and 93,7% in locally irradiated males. The testis weight was also reduced. The percentage of chromosomal translocations in Diakinesis-Metaphase I of meiosis was greater after whole-body than after local irradiation. In F 1 males both types of irradiation induced chromosomal translocations. (orig.) [de

  13. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, M A; Kale, I T; Cöl, C; Tekeli, A; Tanik, A; Köksoy, C

    1999-01-01

    Significant bacterial translocation was demonstrated following experimental biliary obstruction, however very little is known about the importance and the prevalence of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundice patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the concept of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundiced patients and its clinical importance. Twenty-one patients requiring laparotomy for obstructive jaundice (group I) and thirty patients operated on electively mainly for chronic cholecystitis (group II) were studied. Peritoneal swab, mesenteric lymph node, portal venous blood, liver wedge biopsy and bile were sampled for culture immediately after opening the peritoneum. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were taken pre- and post-operatively from all patients. Post-operatively, patients were monitored for infectious complications. The mean serum bilirubin concentration, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in jaundiced patients before therapeutic intervention were significantly higher than in control patients. Five patients demonstrated bacterial translocation in group I (24%), whereas only one did so in group II (3.5%, p jaundice significantly promotes bacterial translocation in humans, however, its clinical importance has yet to be defined.

  14. Polytene chromosome analysis in relation to genetic sex separation in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerremans, P.; Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    The development of stable genetic sexing strains in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is hampered by the presence of low levels of male recombination. Such recombination may be reduced by minimizing the distance between the translocation breakpoint and the translocated 'sexing' allele. Cytogenetic analysis of mitotic/meiotic and polytene chromosomes could provide information on the selection of such potentially stable genetic sexing strains. Translocation breakpoints in two genetic sexing strains in the medfly, based on a white female/brown male pupal colour dimorphism, have been determined. Preliminary results are described and the advantages and limitations of polytene chromosome analysis for the isolation of stable genetic sexing strains of the medfly are discussed. (author). 31 refs

  15. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  16. Diversity of breakpoints of variant Philadelphia chromosomes in chronic myeloid leukemia in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome or t(9;22(q34.1;q11.2, resulting in the break-point cluster regionAbelson tyrosine kinase fusion gene, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein. The Philadelphia chromosome is detected by karyotyping in around 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but 5-10% may have variant types. Variant Philadelphia chromosomes are characterized by the involvement of another chromosome in addition to chromosome 9 or 22. It can be a simple type of variant when one other chromosome is involved, or complex, in which two or more chromosomes take part in the translocation. Few studies have reported the incidence of variant Philadelphia chromosomes or the breakpoints involved among Brazilian chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Objective: The aim of this report is to describe the diversity of the variant Philadelphia chromosomes found and highlight some interesting breakpoint candidates for further studies. Methods: the Cytogenetics Section Database was searched for all cases with diagnoses of chronic myeloid leukemia during a 12-year period and all the variant Philadelphia chromosomes were listed. Results: Fifty (5.17% cases out of 1071 Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia were variants. The most frequently involved chromosome was 17, followed by chromosomes: 1, 20, 6, 11, 2, 10, 12 and 15. Conclusion: Among all the breakpoints seen in this survey, six had previously been described: 11p15, 14q32, 15q11.2, 16p13.1, 17p13 and 17q21. The fact that some regions get more fre- quently involved in such rare rearrangements calls attention to possible predisposition that should be further studied. Nevertheless, the pathological implication of these variants remains unclear.

  17. Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.T.; Mikami, Atsushi; Paschal, B.M. [Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, Shrewsbury, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    Dyneins are multisubunit mechanochemical enzymes capable of interacting with microtubules to generate force. Axonemal dyneins produce the motive force for ciliary and flagellar beating by inducing sliding between adjacent microtubules within the axoneme. Cytoplasmic dyneins translocate membranous organelles and chromosomes toward the minus ends of cytoplasmic microtubules. Dynactin is an accessory complex implicated in tethering cytoplasmic dynein to membranous organelles and mitotic kinetochores. In the studies described here, we have identified a number of new dynein genes and determined their mouse chromosomal locations by interspecific backcross analysis. We have also mapped several dynein and dynactin genes cloned previously. Our studies provide the first comprehensive attempt to map dynein and dynactin genes in mammals and provide a basis for the further analysis of dynein function in development and disease. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  1. Cat-eye syndrome with different marker chromosomes in a mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, P S; Lubinsky, M S; Smith, S D; Golden, E; Sanger, W G; Duncan, A M

    1987-03-01

    Except for atypical eye findings in the daughter, a mother and daughter with bisatellited marker chromosomes had abnormalities consistent with cat-eye syndrome. The mother's marker chromosome (mar number 1) is derived from one 22 and another acrocentric, possibly also a 22; the daughter's marker (mar number 2) may be an iso-dicentric, inv-dup (22) derivative of mar number 1. The mother has a tertiary trisomy translocation chromosome composed of at least one and perhaps two copies of 22pter----q11.2, whereas the daughter clearly has a secondary trisomy 22pter----q11.2 isochromosome, confirming this region as a cause of cat-eye syndrome. Results of hybridization using a unique sequence probe localized to 22q11 are consistent with the interpretation that both ends of both marker chromosomes are derived from 22.

  2. Chromosome sites play dual roles to establish homologous synapsisduring meiosis in C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Amy J.; Phillips, Carolyn M.; Bhalla, Needhi; Weiser,Pinky; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-06-05

    required for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomesduring meiosisin C. elegans. We find that these sites play two distinctroles that contribute to proper segregation. Chromosomes lacking PCsusually fail to synapse and also lack a synapsis-independentstabilization activity. The presence of a PC on justone copy of achromosome pair promotes synapsis but does not supportsynapsis-independent pairing stabilization, indicating that thesefunctions are separable. Once initiated, synapsis is highly processive,even between non homologous chromosomes of disparate lengths, elucidatinghow translocations suppress meiotic recombination in C. elegans. Thesefindings suggest a multistep pathway for chromosome synapsis in which PCsimpart selectivity and efficiency through a kinetic proofreadingmechanism. We speculate that concentration of these activities at oneregion per chromosome may have co-evolved with the loss of a pointcentromere to safeguard karyotype stability.

  3. Descriptive evaluation of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes due to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina III, F.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Vinoya, P.C.; Panlaque, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    To induce and evaluate the effect of radiation among Filipinos, frequencies and types of ν-ray induced chromosome aberrations were studied with peripheral lymphocytes from 19 donors. Peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 0 Gray, 500 mGy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 3 Gy and 4 Gy. Irradiated blood samples were cultured by the same standard technique as that commonly used for human blood lymphocytes. Our observations showed that irradiation causes chromosomal aberration similar to effects observed in Caucasians. Our study confirm that irradiation causes an increase of the chromosome aberrations types normally found in the control (gaps, chromatid breaks and chromosome fragments) and can induce aberrations which are rarely observed in non-exposed individual (deletions, translocations, polycentrics, rings, and despiralizations). (author)

  4. Alterations of chromosome 11q13 in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, N.C.; Zimonjic, D.B. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In cervical cancer, evidence for the existence of a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 11 has been generated from studies with somatic cell hybrids, chromosome microcell transfer, or deletion analysis of DNA markers. As suggested by somatic cell hybrids analysis, chromosome 11 harbors at least three distinctive tumor-suppressor genes, two on the short arm and one on the long arm. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 16 markers, 10 of which were microsatellite-based, placed the region of a putative tumor-suppressor gene to 11q22-24. Recently, 11q13 was assigned as another possible site on the basis of molecular rearrangements, deletions, and translocations, nonrandomly involving this region in four of eight cervical carcinoma cell lines. Abnormal chromosomes 11 were found in HeLa, SiHa, and Caski lines and in C33A, a human papilloma virus-negative cell line. 18 refs.

  5. Chromosomal Rainbows detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H.; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2010-08-19

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'-end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners. We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabase-pair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding

  6. Chromosome-level assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler reveals the extent of translocation and inversion polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapata, Luis; Ding, Jia; Willing, Eva Maria; Hartwig, Benjamin; Bezdan, Daniela; Jiao, Wen Biao; Patel, Vipul; James, Geo Velikkakam; Koornneef, Maarten; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Resequencing or reference-based assemblies reveal large parts of the small-scale sequence variation. However, they typically fail to separate such local variation into colinear and rearranged variation, because they usually do not recover the complement of large-scale rearrangements, including

  7. A familial case of renal cell carcinoma and a t(2;3) chromosome translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, MI; van der Meyden, PM; Bodmer, D; Eleveld, M; van der Looij, E; Brunner, H; Smits, A; Smeets, D; van Kessel, AG

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes of members of a family with inherited renal cell cancer. Four family members in three generations developed multiple/bilateral renal cell carcinomas of the clear cell type. In one additional case a bladder carcinoma was diagnosed. In

  8. The Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  9. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Know Your Chromosomes The Strong Holds of Family Trees. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 30-38 ... Author Affiliations. Vani Brahmachari1. Developmental Biology and Genetics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  10. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-01-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  12. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Know Your Chromosomes The Strong Holds of Family Trees. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 30-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Localization of preferential sites of rearrangement within the BCR gene in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, C.T.; Shah, N.P.; Ogden, S.; Willman, C.; McConnell, T.; Crist, W.; Carroll, A.; Witte, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been linked to a hybrid BCR/ABL protein product that differs from that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This implies that the molecular structures of the two chromosomal translocations also differ. Localization of translocation breakpoints in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL has been impeded due to the only partial characterization of the BCR locus. The authors have isolated the entire 130-kilobase BCR genomic locus from a human cosmid library. They have demonstrated that these breakpoints are all located at the 3' end of the intron around an unusual restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by deletion of a 1-kilobase fragment containing Alu family reiterated sequences. This clustering is unexpected in light of previous theories of rearrangement in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia that would have predicted a random dispersion of breakpoints in the first intron in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL. The proximity of the translocation breakpoints to this constitutive deletion may indicate shared mechanisms of rearrangement or that such polymorphisms mark areas of the genome prone to recombination

  14. Engineering the Controlled Assembly of Filamentous Injectisomes in E. coli K-12 for Protein Translocation into Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Gallego, David; Álvarez, Beatriz; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2015-09-18

    Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems (T3SS) assemble large needle-like protein complexes in the bacterial envelope, called injectisomes, for translocation of protein effectors into host cells. The application of these "molecular syringes" for the injection of proteins into mammalian cells is hindered by their structural and genomic complexity, requiring multiple polypeptides encoded along with effectors in various transcriptional units (TUs) with intricate regulation. In this work, we have rationally designed the controlled expression of the filamentous injectisomes found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in the nonpathogenic strain E. coli K-12. All structural components of EPEC injectisomes, encoded in a genomic island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were engineered in five TUs (eLEEs) excluding effectors, promoters and transcriptional regulators. These eLEEs were placed under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter Ptac and integrated into specific chromosomal sites of E. coli K-12 using a marker-less strategy. The resulting strain, named synthetic injector E. coli (SIEC), assembles filamentous injectisomes similar to those in EPEC. SIEC injectisomes form pores in the host plasma membrane and are able to translocate T3-substrate proteins (e.g., translocated intimin receptor, Tir) into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells reproducing the phenotypes of intimate attachment and polymerization of actin-pedestals elicited by EPEC bacteria. Hence, SIEC strain allows the controlled expression of functional filamentous injectisomes for efficient translocation of proteins with T3S-signals into mammalian cells.

  15. Fusion of the NUP98 gene with the LEDGF/p52 gene defines a recurrent acute myeloid leukemia translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mario

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NUP98 gene is involved in multiple rearrangements in haematological malignancy. The leukemic cells in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML patient with a t(9;11(p22;p15 were recently shown to have a fusion between the NUP98 gene and the LEDGF gene but it was not demonstrated that this fusion was recurrent in other leukaemia patients with the same translocation. Results We used RT-PCR to analyse the leukemic cells from an AML patient who presented with a cytogenetically identical translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. A NUP98-LEDGF fusion transcript was observed and confirmed by sequencing. The reciprocal transcript was also observed. The fusion transcript was not detectable during remission and recurred at relapse. The breakpoints in the NUP98 and LEDGF genes were different to those previously reported. The NUP98 breakpoint occurs in the intron between exons 8 and 9. It is the most 5' breakpoint reported in a translocation involving the NUP98 gene. All of the LEDGF gene is included in the fusion except for exon 1 which codes for the first 24 amino terminal amino acids. Conclusions Our results show that fusion of the NUP98 and LEDGF genes is a new recurrent translocation in AML.

  16. FISH analysis of translocations induced by chronic exposure to Sr radioisotopes: second set of analysis of the Techa River Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozilova, Alexandra V; Shagina, Natalia B; Degteva, Marina O; Moquet, Jayne; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Darroudi, Firouz

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis of stable translocations was performed for 26 residents living along the Techa River (Russia), who were predominantly (95%) exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes ((89)Sr and (90)Sr) resulting in exposure of their red bone marrow (RBM). Analysis was conducted at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Public Health England and Leiden University Medical Center. Each laboratory scored 1000 cells per donor, which resulted in ∼1000 genome equivalents (GE) per donor. The age-dependent spontaneous level of translocations for each donor was evaluated on the basis of data published by Sigurdson et al. (International study of factors affecting human chromosome. Mutat. Res. 2008;652: :112-121). Reconstruction of doses was performed with the 'Techa River Dosimetry System' developed in 2009. In the studied donors, the range of individual cumulated RBM dose was from 0.3 to 3.7 Gy. Analysis of the yield of stable translocations dependent on the individual RBM dose from (89,90)Sr showed a linear dose-response relationship of 0.007 ± 0.002 translocation/GE cell/Gy (R = 0.61, p = 0.001). This set of results was in a good agreement with the previous data reported for 18 donors by Vozilova et al. (Preliminary FISH-based assessment of external dose for residents exposed on the Techa River. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. ROS1 expression and translocations in non-small-cell lung cancer: clinicopathological analysis of 1478 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Dienemann, Hendrik; Goeppert, Benjamin; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Schnabel, Philipp A; Schirmacher, Peter; Penzel, Roland; Weichert, Wilko

    2014-08-01

    Molecular characterization of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has revealed multiple druggable mutations for targeted therapies. Recently, chromosomal rearrangements involving c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) were identified, and patients seem to benefit from crizotinib treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC with ROS1 expression and translocation. We screened 1478 NSCLCs with a ROS1-specific antibody, and tested positive cases with FISH. All positive cases were analysed for associated clinicopathological characteristics, including survival and molecular tumour composition. Sixty-eight cases (4.6%) showed ROS1 immunoreactivity, and ROS1 translocations were confirmed in nine cases (0.6%). ROS1 expression was predominantly found in female adenocarcinoma patients, in patients with low T stages, and in association with TTF1 and napsin expression, and certain histomorphological adenocarcinoma patterns (lepidic, acinar, and solid). ROS1 translocations occurred in conjunction with other driver mutations (EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF). ROS1 expression was found to be a stage-independent predictor of favourable survival. ROS1 translocations are rare events in resected NSCLCs from Caucasian patients. Immunohistochemical screening for ROS1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, including female sex, early tumour stages, adenocarcinomas with TTF1 and/or napsin expression, and a distinct histomorphological growth pattern, strongly facilitate case enrichment. Molecularly driven multistep concepts might not be optimal for case selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A High-Density Genetic Map of Wild Emmer Wheat from the Karaca Dağ Region Provides New Evidence on the Structure and Evolution of Wheat Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Jorgensen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is a progenitor of all cultivated wheat grown today. It has been hypothesized that emmer was domesticated in the Karaca Dağ region in southeastern Turkey. A total of 445 recombinant inbred lines of T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. ‘Langdon’ x wild emmer accession PI 428082 from this region was developed and genotyped with the Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphism Infinium assay. A genetic map comprising 2,650 segregating markers was constructed. The order of the segregating markers and an additional 8,264 co-segregating markers in the Aegilops tauschii reference genome sequence was used to compare synteny of the tetraploid wheat with the Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum. These comparisons revealed the presence of 15 structural chromosome rearrangements, in addition to the already known 4A-5A-7B rearrangements. The most common type was an intra-chromosomal translocation in which the translocated segment was short and was translocated only a short distance along the chromosome. A large reciprocal translocation, one small non-reciprocal translocation, and three large and one small paracentric inversions were also discovered. The use of inversions for a phylogeny reconstruction in the Triticum–Aegilops alliance was illustrated. The genetic map was inconsistent with the current model of evolution of the rearranged chromosomes 4A-5A-7B. Genetic diversity in the rearranged chromosome 4A showed that the rearrangements might have been contemporary with wild emmer speciation. A selective sweep was found in the centromeric region of chromosome 4A in Karaca Dağ wild emmer but not in 4A of T. aestivum. The absence of diversity from a large portion of chromosome 4A of wild emmer, believed to be ancestral to all domesticated wheat, is puzzling.

  19. Chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of immunologically classified mitotic cells in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, M; Popp, S; Parlier, V; Emmerich, P; Bellomo, M J; Ruutu, T; Cremer, T; Knuutila, S

    1992-03-01

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization was performed with library DNA from sorted human chromosomes 8, 9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 on immunologically stained bone marrow cells of four patients with a hematologic neoplasm, including two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8, one patient with promyelocytic leukemia bearing the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q11-12), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In all patients, the results of conventional karyotype analysis could be confirmed by one- or two-color CISS hybridization using the appropriate chromosome-specific libraries. Our results show that CISS hybridization can detect both numerical and structural chromosome changes in immunologically classified cells with high specificity and reliability. The fact that chromosome spreads of very poor quality can now be included in such analyses is a decisive advantage of this approach. In addition, the suitability of this approach for interphase cytogenetics is discussed.

  20. Clinical and molecular characterization of a transmitted reciprocal translocation t(1;12(p32.1;q21.3 in a family co-segregating with mental retardation, language delay, and microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kuang-Lun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome translocation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders provides an opportunity to identify new disease-associated genes and gain new insight into their function. During chromosome analysis, we identified a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1p and 12q, t(1; 12(p32.1; q21.3, co-segregating with microcephaly, language delay, and severe psychomotor retardation in a mother and her two affected boys. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, long-range PCR, and direct sequencing were used to map the breakpoints on chromosomes 1p and 12q. A reporter gene assay was conducted in human neuroblastoma (SKNSH and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell lines to assess the functional implication of the fusion sequences between chromosomes 12 and 1. Results We determined both breakpoints at the nucleotide level. Neither breakpoint disrupted any known gene directly. The breakpoint on chromosome 1p was located amid a gene-poor region of ~ 1.1 Mb, while the breakpoint on chromosome 12q was located ~ 3.4 kb downstream of the ALX1 gene, a homeobox gene. In the reporter gene assay, we discovered that the fusion sequences construct between chromosomes 12 and 1 had a ~ 1.5 to 2-fold increased reporter gene activity compared with the corresponding normal chromosome 12 sequences construct. Conclusion Our findings imply that the translocation may enhance the expression of the ALX1 gene via the position effect and result in the clinical symptoms of this family. Our findings may also expand the clinical phenotype spectrum of ALX1-related human diseases as loss of the ALX1 function was recently reported to result in abnormal craniofacial development.

  1. Gain of chromosome 4qter and loss of 5pter: an unusual case with features of cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Frenny; Gohel, Naresh; Liehr, Thomas; Akinde, Olakanmi; Desai, Manisha; Adeteye, Olawaleye; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present a case with an unusual chromosomal rearrangement in a child with a predominant phenotype of high-pitched crying showing deletion encompassing CTNND2 due to an unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 4 and 5. This rearrangement led to a duplication of ~35 Mb in 4qter which replaced 18 Mb genetic materials in 5pter. Even though, in this patient, there was no clinically obvious modification to the classical phenotypes of CdCS, and the influence of the 4q-duplication cannot be completely excluded in this case. However, the region 4q34.1-34.3 was previously reported as a region not leading to phenotypic changes if present in three copies, an observation which could possibly be supported by this case. Conclusion. This study showed that in a patient with an unbalanced translocation resulting in 5p deletion, the presence of partial trisomy of chromosome 4q could be clinically insignificant.

  2. Variant translocation of the bcl-2 gene to immunoglobulin λ light chain gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, M.; Cossman, J.; Longo, D.; Croce, C.M.; Tsujimoto, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The bcl-2 gene has been identified as a gene directly involved in the consistent chromosome translocation t(14;18), which is found in ∼ 90% of human follicular lymphoma cases, and is a prime candidate for the oncogene playing a crucial role in follicular lymphomagenesis. In this paper, the authors describe a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia showing the juxtaposition of the bcl-2 gene on chromosome 18 to immunoglobulin λ light chain (Igλ) gene on chromosome 22 in a head-to-head configuration. Sequencing analysis of the joining site of the bcl-2 gene and Igλ gene has shown that the breakpoint is within the 5' flanking region of the bcl-2 gene and about 2.2 kilobases 5' to the joining segment of Igλ locus in a germ-line configuration. The extranucleotide, commonly appearing at the joining site of the t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH locus, is absent from the joining site of bcl-2 and Igλ. The lack of extranucleotide suggests that the juxtaposition of the bcl-2 and Igλ genes occurred during physiological rearrangement of the Igλ gene since it has been shown that the rearrangement of the Igλ locus is not accompanied by extranucleotides

  3. Characterization of a new 4BS.7HL wheat–barley translocation line using GISH, FISH, and SSR markers and its effect on the β-glucan content of wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cseh, A.; Kruppa, K.; Molnár, I.; Rakszegi, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Molnár-Láng, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 10 (2011), s. 795-804 ISSN 0831-2796 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : wheat –barley chromosome translocation * β-d-glucan * centromere Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2011

  4. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, Akio

    1992-01-01

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  5. Sorting of chromosomes on FACSAria(TM) SORP for the preparation of painting probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Yan; Wu, Hou-Nan; Fang, Liang; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Li; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Mei-Li; Huang, Yue

    2016-09-01

    High purity chromosome sorting can be performed on instruments such as MoFlo MLS and BD influx, which are stream-in-air sorters equipped with water-cooled high power lasers. The FACSAria is a true fixed alignment, low laser powered instrument with a quartz flow cell gel-coupled to the collection optics. However, whether high purity mouse and human chromosomes can be obtained by sorting on the BD FACSAria(TM) Special Order Research Product (FACSAria SORP) remains to be determined. Here, we report that the high resolution flow karyotype of mouse lymphocytes and normal male human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) can be obtained on the FACSAria SORP using laser power settings of 50 mW for 355 nm and 20 mW for 444 nm excitation. Furthermore, the use of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed that chromosome paints prepared from the sorted chromosomes demonstrated high purity and signal specificity. Notably, human chromosome 12 was separated from the chromosome 9-12 cluster in the flow karyotype, and its identity was confirmed using FISH in trisomy 12 human ES cell lines B2-C7 and B2-B8. In addition, multicolor FISH (mFISH) with human chromosome painting probes to 13,18, 21, and sex chromosomes X and Y showed high signal specificity in hPBMCs. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that high resolution flow karyotype can be obtained using FACSAria SORP. Moreover, a FISH analysis confirmed high purity of the sorted chromosomes. Additionally, in contrast to centromeric satellite probes, chromosome painting probes with high specificity are more suitable for detection of chromosome aberrations, such as deletions and translocations, in prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.

  7. MicroRNA-125b-1 and BLID upregulation resulting from a novel IGH translocation in childhood B-Cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassano, Elisa; Acquila, Maura; Tavella, Elisa; Micalizzi, Concetta; Panarello, Claudio; Morerio, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus are common abnormalities in mature B-cell neoplasms. Recent findings have also revealed their significant role in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. As a rule, IGH translocations generate transcriptional activation of the oncogene localized in the proximity of the breakpoint. In this study, we describe a pediatric case of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia showing microRNA-125b-1 (MIR125B1) and BLID gene overexpression, resulting from a novel t(11;14)(q24.1;q32) translocation involving IGH. This is the first report describing the upregulation of a microRNA due to its juxtaposition to protein-coding gene regulatory elements and the overexpression of two neighboring genes as a consequence of transcriptional enhancers localized in the vicinity of the IGH gene.

  8. Bridge-Induced Translocation between NUP145 and TOP2 Yeast Genes Models the Genetic Fusion between the Human Orthologs Associated With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tosato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation. In this work, thanks to a complex pop-out methodology of the marker used for the selection of translocants, we succeeded by BIT technology to precisely reproduce in yeast the peculiar chromosome translocation that has been associated with AML, characterized by the fusion between the human genes NUP98 and TOP2B. To shed light on the origin of the DNA fragility within NUP98, an extensive analysis of the curvature, bending, thermostability, and B-Z transition aptitude of the breakpoint region of NUP98 and of its yeast ortholog NUP145 has been performed. On this basis, a DNA cassette carrying homologous tails to the two genes was amplified by PCR and allowed the targeted fusion between NUP145 and TOP2, leading to reproduce the chimeric transcript in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. The resulting translocated yeast obtained through BIT appears characterized by abnormal spherical bodies of nearly 500 nm of diameter, absence of external membrane and defined cytoplasmic localization. Since Nup98 is a well-known regulator of the post-transcriptional modification of P53 target genes, and P53 mutations are occasionally reported in AML, this translocant yeast strain can be used as a model to test the constitutive expression of human P53. Although the abnormal phenotype of the translocant yeast was never rescued by its expression, an exogenous P53 was recognized to confer increased vitality to the translocants, in

  9. Healthy Baby Born to a Robertsonian Translocation Carrier following Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Pukszta, Sebastian; Ochman, Karolina; Cybulska, Celina; Liss, Joanna; Pastuszek, Ewa; Zabielska, Judyta; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is well established method for treatment of genetic problems associated with infertility. Moreover, PGD with next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide new possibilities for diagnosis and new parameters for evaluation in, for example, aneuploidy screening. The aim of the study was to report the successful pregnancy outcome following PGD with NGS as the method for 24 chromosome aneuploidy screening in the case of Robertsonian translocation. Day 3 embryos s...

  10. APC/C Dysfunction Limits Excessive Cancer Chromosomal Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansregret, Laurent; López-García, Carlos; Koch, André; McGranahan, Nicholas; Chao, William Chong Hang; Barry, David J.; Rowan, Andrew; Instrell, Rachael; Horswell, Stuart; Way, Michael; Howell, Michael; Singleton, Martin R.; Medema, René H.; Nurse, Paul; Petronczki, Mark; Swanton, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Intercellular heterogeneity, exacerbated by chromosomal instability (CIN), fosters tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. However, extreme CIN correlates with improved cancer outcome, suggesting that karyotypic diversity required to adapt to selection pressures might be balanced in tumors against the risk of excessive instability. Here, we used a functional genomics screen, genome editing, and pharmacologic approaches to identify CIN-survival factors in diploid cells. We find partial anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) dysfunction lengthens mitosis, suppresses pharmacologically induced chromosome segregation errors, and reduces naturally occurring lagging chromosomes in cancer cell lines or following tetraploidization. APC/C impairment caused adaptation to MPS1 inhibitors, revealing a likely resistance mechanism to therapies targeting the spindle assembly checkpoint. Finally, CRISPR-mediated introduction of cancer somatic mutations in the APC/C subunit cancer driver gene CDC27 reduces chromosome segregation errors, whereas reversal of an APC/C subunit nonsense mutation increases CIN. Subtle variations in mitotic duration, determined by APC/C activity, influence the extent of CIN, allowing cancer cells to dynamically optimize fitness during tumor evolution. Significance We report a mechanism whereby cancers balance the evolutionary advantages associated with CIN against the fitness costs caused by excessive genome instability, providing insight into the consequence of CDC27 APC/C subunit driver mutations in cancer. Lengthening of mitosis through APC/C modulation may be a common mechanism of resistance to cancer therapeutics that increase chromosome segregation errors. PMID:28069571

  11. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes was used to analyze mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads of Avena sativa cv 'Sun II' monosomic lines, and of A. byzantina cv 'Kanota' monosomic lines from spontaneous haploids. The probes used were A. strigosa pAs120a (a repetitive sequence abundant in A-genome chromatin), A. murphyi pAm1 (a repetitive sequence abundant in C-genome chromatin), A. strigosa pITS (internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) and the wheat rDNA probes pTa71 (nucleolus organizer region or NOR) and pTa794 (5S). Simultaneous and sequential FISH employing pairs of these probes allowed the identification and genome assignation of all chromosomes. FISH mapping using mitotic and meiotic metaphases facilitated the genomic and chromosomal identification of the monosome in each line. Of the 17 'Sun II' lines analyzed, 13 distinct monosomic lines were found, corresponding to four monosomes of the A-genome, five of the C-genome and four of the D-genome. In addition, 12 distinct monosomic lines were detected among the 20 'Kanota' lines examined, corresponding to six monosomes of the A-genome, three of the C-genome and three of the D-genome. The results show that 19 chromosomes out of 21 of the complement are represented by monosomes between the two genetic backgrounds. The identity of the remaining chromosomes can be deduced either from one intergenomic translocation detected on both 'Sun II' and 'Kanota' lines, or from the single reciprocal, intergenomic translocation detected among the 'Sun II' lines. These results permit a new system to be proposed for numbering the 21 chromosome pairs of the hexaploid oat complement. Accordingly, the A-genome contains chromosomes 8A, 11A, 13A, 15A, 16A, 17A and 19A; the C-genome contains chromosomes 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C and 7C; and the D-genome consists of chromosomes 9D, 10D, 12D, 14D, 18D, 20D and 21D. Moreover, the FISH patterns of 16 chromosomes in 'Sun II' and 15 in 'Kanota' suggest that these

  12. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  13. The chromosome cycle of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA undergoes replication, condensation-decondensation and segregation, sequentially, in some fixed order. Other conditions, like sister-chromatid cohesion (SCC), may span several chromosomal events. One set of these chromosomal transactions within a single cell cycle constitutes the “chromosome cycle”. For many years it was generally assumed that the prokaryotic chromosome cycle follows major phases of the eukaryotic one: -replication-condensation-segregation-(cell division)-decondensation-, with SCC of unspecified length. Eventually it became evident that, in contrast to the strictly consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes, all stages of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle run concurrently. Thus, prokaryotes practice “progressive” chromosome segregation separated from replication by a brief SCC, and all three transactions move along the chromosome at the same fast rate. In other words, in addition to replication forks, there are “segregation forks” in prokaryotic chromosomes. Moreover, the bulk of prokaryotic DNA outside the replication-segregation transition stays compacted. I consider possible origins of this concurrent replication-segregation and outline the “nucleoid administration” system that organizes the dynamic part of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle. PMID:23962352