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Sample records for bal british anti-lewisite

  1. A computational study of detoxification of lewisite warfare agents by British anti-lewisite: catalytic effects of water and ammonia on reaction mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Chandan; Pakhira, Srimanta; Sen, Kaushik; Das, Abhijit K

    2013-04-25

    trans-2-Chlorovinyldichloroarsine (lewisite, L agent, Lew-I) acts as a blistering agents. British anti-lewisite (BAL, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) has long been used as an L-agent antidote. The main reaction channels for the detoxification proceed via breaking of As-Cl bonds and formation of As-S bonds, producing stable, nontoxic ring product [(2-methyl-1,3,2-dithiarsolan-4-yl)methanol]. M06-2X/GENECP calculations have been carried out to establish the enhanced rate of detoxification mechanism in the presence of NH3 and H2O catalysts in both gas and solvent phases, which has been modeled by use of the polarized continuum model (PCM). In addition, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis have been performed to characterize the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the transition states. Transition-state theory (TST) calculation establishes that the rates of NH3-catalyzed (2.88 × 10(-11) s(-1)) and H2O-catalyzed (2.42 × 10(-11) s(-1)) reactions are reasonably faster than the uncatalyzed detoxification (5.44 × 10(-13) s(-1)). The results obtained by these techniques give new insight into the mechanism of the detoxification process, identification and thermodynamic characterization of the relevant stationary species, the proposal of alternative paths on modeled potential energy surfaces for uncatalyzed reaction, and the rationalization of the mechanistic role played by catalysts and solvents. PMID:23540856

  2. Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: The potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Stephen Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    A case of left bundle branch block and a dilated, nonhypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver as an ‘energy tonic’ is described. The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E. This is the first case of gold and silver cardiomyopathy in humans, and highlights the risks of these colloidal metal ‘health supplements’.

  3. The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for mor...

  4. Deli Bal Zehirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVU?, Umut Yücel; I?IK, Bünyamin; TEK?N, O?uz

    2010-01-01

    Deli Bal Zehirlenmesi, grayanotoksin içeren özellikle Ericaceae ve Sapindaceae ailesinin çiçek ve yaprakla-rında bulunan rhododendron polen ve nektarlarından üretilmiş balın tüketilmesi sonucu görülen bir zehirlenme türüdür. Genellikle orta ya? ve üzeri insanlar, alternatif tedavi yöntemi olarak bal tüketmektedir. Türkiye’de özellikle Karadeniz ve Güneydo?u Anadolu bölgelerinde, ayrıca Japonya, Nepal, Brezilya, Kuzey Amerika ve Avrupa’nın çe?itli bölgelerinde de Deli Bal Zehirlenm...

  5. Through BAL Quasars Brightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George

    2003-01-01

    We report on an observation of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1115+080 performed with the XMM-Newton observatory. Spectral analysis reveals the second case of a relativistic X-ray-absorbing outflow in a BAL quasar. The first case was revealed in a recent observation of APM 08279+5255 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. As in the case of APM 08279+5255, the observed flux of PG 1115+080 is greatly magnified by gravitational lensing. The relatively high redshift (z=1.72) of the quasar places the redshifted energies of resonant absorption features in a sensitive portion of the XMM- Newton spectral response. The spectrum indicates the presence of complex low-energy absorption in the 0.2-0.6 keV observed energy band and high-energy absorption in the 2-5 keV observed energy band. The high-energy absorption is best modeled by two Gaussian absorption lines with rest-frame energies of 7.4 and 9.5 keV. Assuming that these two lines axe produced by resonant absorption due to Fe XXV, we infer that the X-ray absorbers are outflowing with velocities of approx. 0.10c and approx. 0.34c respectively. We have detected significant variability of the energies and widths of the X-ray BALs in PG 1115+080 and APM 08279+5255 over timescales of 19 and 1.8 weeks (proper time), respectively. The BAL variability observed from APM 08279+5255 supports our earlier conclusion that these absorbers are most likely launched at relatively small radii of less than 10(exp 16)(Mbh/M8)(sup 1/2) cm. A comparison of the ionization properties and column densities of the low-energy and high-energy absorbers indicates that these absorbers are likely distinct; however, higher spectral resolution is needed to confirm this result. Finally, we comment on prospects for constraining the kinematic and ionization properties of these X-ray BALs with the next generation of X-ray observatories.

  6. Le bal du loup

    CERN Document Server

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  7. Bal Tashchit : the Jewish prohibition against needless destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bal tashchit is possibly the most important religious principle directly relating to the relationship between man and his environment. This thesis attempts to answer three basic questions: 1) what exactly is bal tashchit? 2) How might a principle of bal tashchit be applied to current environmental p

  8. How the BAL quasars are quiet

    OpenAIRE

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    All properties of the quasars known by the author (quietness of the BAL quasars, Lyman forest, iron in the high-z quasars...) are explained supposing that the kernel of the quasar is surrounded by a halo containing an accretion disk and magnetic satellites (no dark matter or fast jet, no variation of the fine structure constant, no strange source of iron...). The key is taking into account the coherent light-matter interactions.

  9. XMM observations of BAL Quasars with polar outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JunXian; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Dong, Xiaobo; Wang, Huiyuan

    2008-01-01

    We have selected a sample of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars which show significant radio variations, indicating the presence of polar BAL outflows. We obtained snapshot XMM observations of four polar BAL QSOs, to check whether strong X-ray absorption, one of the most prominent characteristics of most BAL QSOs, also exist in polar outflows. Two of the sources are detected in X-ray. Spectral fittings show that they are X-ray normal with no intrinsic X-ray absorption, suggesting the X-ray s...

  10. Balıklarda melanomakrofaj merkezleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Erdem Dönmez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Balıklarda doğal bağışıklık sistemi; fiziksel, hücresel ve humoral faktörler ile plazma ve diğer vücut sıvılarında çözünebilen hücresel ve humoral reseptör moleküllerinden oluşmaktadır. Hücresel faktörler fagositik hücreler olan monosit/makrofajlar, nötrofil granülositler ve memelilerdeki NK (natural killer cell hücrelerine eşdeğer görülen sitotoksik hücreleri içermektedir.  Bu hücreler arasında yer alan makrofajlar, balıklarda ve diğer omurgalılarda doğal bağışıklığın indikatör hücreleri olup fagositoz yeteneğine de sahip olduklarından, yangı sonrası onarım, doku yenilenmesi ve yaşlı hücrelerin ortadan kaldırılması gibi işlevlere sahiptirler. Melanomakrofaj merkezleri ise pigmentli olmaları nedeniyle histolojik incelemelerde makrofajlardan ayırt edilebilmekte ve aynı zamanda poikiloterm omurgalıların pek çok organında yaygın olarak gözlemlenebilmektedirler. Bu merkezler; makrofaj yığınları, makrofaj birikim odakları ve pigment nodülleri gibi isimlerle tanımlanmış olup heteroterm omurgalıların dokularındaki özgün hücreler olarak kabul edilmektedirler. Bu derlemede söz konusu yapıların balıklarda ait oldukları sistem, ilişkide oldukları hücre ve birimler ile işlevleri hakkında bilgi verilmeye çalışılmıştır.

  11. Toward a Complete Picture of Quasar Outflows: from BALs to mini-BALs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Emily; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disk outflows are important for galaxy evolution and an integral part of the quasar phenomenon, but they remain poorly understood. In order to construct a more complete picture of the quasar phenomenon, we need to understand the full range of different types of quasar outflows and how they correlate with one another. We examine seven SDSS quasars with CIV 1548,1551 Å outflow lines that span a range from strong BALs to weak mini-BALs. They have moderate redshifts (1.68 based spectra obtained at the MDM and Kitt Peak observatories to measure a variety of ions across the rest UV wavelength range. Our preliminary analysis shows OVI is present and stronger than CIV in all seven quasars. In one case, we detect an OVI mini-BAL with no accompanying CIV, requiring a highly-ionized outflow. In the strongest BAL quasar, we detect resolved PV doublet absorption that requires PV optical depths > 3 and in outflow gas with a line-of-sight covering fraction of only 0.27. Thus, the total column density in this outflow component might exceed N_H > 1023 cm-2 which has important consequences for the outflow kinetic energies and feedback. The multi-epoch CIV data reveal CIV outflow variability in all seven quasars; four become weaker, one becomes stronger, and two become both stronger and weaker over the different epochs. This variability happens across time scales of ~1-12 years in the quasar rest frames which is consistent with outflow locations close to the central quasar engines. We use these and other results to constrain the ionization, column density, and location of the absorbers with the broader goals of understanding accretion physics, the integrated structure of quasar outflows, and the impact a quasar has on its host galaxy.

  12. Concepto de armas de fuego y balística

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenero Gil del Avalle, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Se aborda el concepto de balística forense.Así como las ramas fundamentales en que se divide la ciencia balística: interna, externa, de efectos y comparativa o identificativa. El arma de fuego y su clasificación. Se explica en que consiste los troqueles de las armas, el calibre del arma y de la bala.La cartucheria, el estudio de los componentes del cartucho. Nomenclatura de los cartuchos. Finalmente se aborda la balística externa, trayectoria y distancia de un disparo. Universidad de Málag...

  13. Balık Beslemede Biyoteknolojik Uygulamalar

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule Baylan; Gamze Mazı; Sedat Gündoğdu

    2014-01-01

    Yetiştiriciliği yapılan türlerin ekonomik, kaliteli, hızlı ve az kayıpla yetiştirilebilmeleri ve pazara sunulmaları için önemli çalışmalar gerçekleştirilmektedir. Yetiştiricilikte üretimin %30-60 gibi önemli bir kısmını tutan yem ve yem maddelerinin geliştirilmesi konusunda birçok araştırma yapılmaktadır. Dolayısıyla su ürünleri yetiştiriciliğinde, alternatif yem maddelerine karşı ilgi gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Bu bağlamda balık hastalıklarının etkili bir şekilde kontrolü ve bulaşmanın önlenm...

  14. Effective Business Value of Bal Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly difficult to ignore the importance of business value of information system. Over the past few years researchers have high lightened the need of information system in business field. More over individuals, organizations and countries are investing considerably in information system. It is widely observed that IS investment enable firms to achieve competitive advantage and enhance core competencies to improve their performance and gain more profit. As a result Effective Business Value of Bal Information System (EBVBIS is at the heart of our consideration in this research paper. This paper seeks to address the following questions. What is meant by business value of information system? How can we measure business value of information system? What is the importance of information system in new e- business era? It has been widely observed that with the passage of time as the quick changes are taking place in information system the above questions are gaining importance in the field of business. As the deliberation lies in proper selection of technology and its proper utilization to enhance the performance of a business in education sector.

  15. Kit Caníbal: sesiones de debate

    OpenAIRE

    Amorós Sánchez, Marta; Arias, Ana; Castro, Sinclair; Fernández Prieto, Lorena; García González, Sandra; González García, Elisa; Iru, Yiju; Lara Icaza, Garazi; Lecue Francia, Noelia; Leguina, Patricia; Martínez Vélez, Francisco; Navero, Víctor; Nieves, Gustavo; Núñez, Mario; Pardo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Contiene: Caníbales. Capítulo 1. Un(x) caníbal siempre necesita del otrx. Capítulo 2. Cuestiones que todx caníbal se plantea antes de irse a dormir: Define Kit Caníbal: ¿Por qué crees que es importante que existan espacios dentro de la universidad que den cabida a iniciativas como esta? ¿Cómo relacionas esta actividad con tu actividad académica? ¿Qué sentido tiene esto dentro de la institución? ¿Qué te llevas? Kit de imágenes. KIT CANÍBAL. Sesiones de debate son encuentros semanales a...

  16. Optical variability properties of mini-BAL and NAL quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Takashi; Misawa, Toru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Koyamada, Suzuka; Takahashi, Kazuma; Wada, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    While narrow absorption lines (NALs) are relatively stable, broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BAL systems usually show violent time variability within a few years via a mechanism that is not yet understood. In this study, we examine the variable ionization state (VIS) scenario as a plausible mechanism, as previously suspected. Over three years, we performed photometric monitoring observations of four mini-BAL and five NAL quasars at zem ˜ 2.0-3.1 using the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt Telescope in u, g, and i bands. We also performed spectroscopic monitoring observation of one of our mini-BAL quasars (HS 1603+3820) using the 188 cm Okayama Telescope over the same period as the photometric observations. Our main results are as follows: (1) Structure function (SF) analysis revealed that the quasar UV flux variability over three years was not large enough to support the VIS scenario, unless the ionization condition of outflow gas is very low. (2) There was no crucial difference between the SFs of mini-BAL and NAL quasars. (3) The variability of the mini-BAL and quasar light curves was weakly synchronized with a small time delay for HS 1603+3820. These results suggest that the VIS scenario may need additional mechanisms such as variable shielding by X-ray warm absorbers.

  17. Investigating the radio-loud phase of BAL quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Pedani, M; Benn, C R; Mack, K -H; Holt, J; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2014-01-01

    Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) are present in the spectra of ~20% of quasars (QSOs), indicating the presence of fast outflows (up to 0.2c) intercepting the observer's line of sight. Radio-Loud (RL) BAL QSOs are even more rare, being four times less common than Radio-Quiet (RQ) BAL QSOs. The reason for that is still not clear, leaving open questions about the nature of the BAL-producing outflows and their connection with the radio jet. We explored the spectroscopic characteristics of RL and RQ BAL QSOs, aiming at finding a possible explanation for the rarity of the former. We identified two samples of genuine BAL QSOs from SDSS optical spectra, one RL and one RQ, in a suitable redshift interval (2.5< z <3.5) that allowed us to observe the Mg II and H$\\beta$ emission lines in the adjacent Near-Infrared (NIR) band. We collected NIR spectra of the two samples using the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, Canary Islands). Using relations known in the literature, we could estimate black hole mass, broad line re...

  18. Optical variability properties of mini-BAL and NAL quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Takashi; Misawa, Toru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Koyamada, Suzuka; Takahashi, Kazuma; Wada, Hisashi

    2016-05-01

    While narrow absorption lines (NALs) are relatively stable, broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BAL systems usually show violent time variability within a few years via a mechanism that is not yet understood. In this study, we examine the variable ionization state (VIS) scenario as a plausible mechanism, as previously suspected. Over three years, we performed photometric monitoring observations of four mini-BAL and five NAL quasars at zem ˜ 2.0-3.1 using the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt Telescope in u, g, and i bands. We also performed spectroscopic monitoring observation of one of our mini-BAL quasars (HS 1603+3820) using the 188 cm Okayama Telescope over the same period as the photometric observations. Our main results are as follows: (1) Structure function (SF) analysis revealed that the quasar UV flux variability over three years was not large enough to support the VIS scenario, unless the ionization condition of outflow gas is very low. (2) There was no crucial difference between the SFs of mini-BAL and NAL quasars. (3) The variability of the mini-BAL and quasar light curves was weakly synchronized with a small time delay for HS 1603+3820. These results suggest that the VIS scenario may need additional mechanisms such as variable shielding by X-ray warm absorbers.

  19. BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: The Eddington Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to ~10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-σ relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  20. BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew, E-mail: kastytis.zubovas@ftmc.lt [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-20

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to {approx}10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-{sigma} relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  1. BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to ∼10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-σ relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  2. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  3. Optical Variability Properties of Mini-BAL and NAL Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Takashi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Koyamada, Suzuka; Takahashi, Kazuma; Wada, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    While narrow absorption lines (NALs) are relatively stable, broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BAL systems usually show violent time variability within a few years via a mechanism that is not yet understood. In this study, we examine variable ionization state (VIS) scenario as a plausible mechanism, as previously suspected. Over three years, we performed photometric monitoring observations of four mini-BAL and five NAL quasars at $z_{\\rm em}$ $\\sim$ 2.0 - 3.1 using the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt Telescope in $u$, $g$, and $i$-bands. We also performed spectroscopic monitoring observation of one of our mini-BAL quasar (HS1603+3820) using the 188-cm Okayama Telescope over the same period as the photometric observations. Our main results are as follows: (1) Structure function (SF) analysis revealed that the quasar UV flux variability over three years was not large enough to support the VIS scenario, unless the ionization condition of outflow gas is very low. (2) There was no crucial difference between the SFs of min...

  4. (18)F-FDG PET patterns and BAL cell profiles in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, R.G.; Grutters, J.C.; Velzen-Blad, H. van; Bosch, J.M. van den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Verzijlbergen, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET can both demonstrate sarcoid activity. To assess whether metabolic activity imaged by (18)F-FDG PET represents signs of disease activity as reflected by BAL, (18)F-FDG PET patterns were compared with BAL cell profiles

  5. X-RAY INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF MINI-BAL QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the ultraviolet and X-ray properties of 256 radio-quiet Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars (QSOs) observed in X-rays with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton in order to study the relationship between QSOs with broad C IV absorption lines (BALs; width >2000 km s-1) and those with C IV mini-BALs (here defined to have widths of 1000-2000 km s-1). Our sample includes 42 BAL and 48 mini-BAL QSOs. The relative X-ray brightness and hard spectral slopes of the mini-BAL population are, on average, intermediate between those of BAL and non-BAL QSOs, as might be expected if narrower and broader absorption line outflows are physically related. However, a significant population of mini-BALs has outflow velocities higher than would be expected for BAL QSOs of the same relative X-ray brightness. Consistently strong X-ray absorption is apparently not required to accelerate at least some mini-BALs to high outflow velocities. Assuming the mini-BAL features are correctly attributed to intrinsic C IV absorption, we suggest that their observed properties may be explained if mini-BALs are 'seeds' that can be accelerated to form BALs when sufficient X-ray shielding is present. We also examine several QSOs with broad C IV absorption that have been recently reported to be unusually X-ray bright. Such cases are frequently mini-BAL QSOs, which, as a population, are generally brighter in X-rays than BAL QSOs. Pointed XMM-Newton observations also suggest that these sources (or unresolved neighbors) may have been previously observed in a high-flux state.

  6. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  7. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage

  8. Gene duplication and hypermutation of the pathogen Resistance gene SNC1 in the Arabidopsis bal variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hankuil; Richards, Eric J

    2009-12-01

    The bal defect in the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia strain was spontaneously generated in an inbred ddm1 (decrease in DNA methylation 1) mutant background in which various genetic and epigenetic alterations accumulate. The bal variant displays short stature and curled leaves due to the constitutive activation of defense signaling. These bal phenotypes are metastable and phenotypic suppression is evident in more than one-third of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated bal M(1) plants. The semidominant bal allele maps to the RPP5 (recognition of Peronospora parasitica 5) locus, which includes a cluster of disease Resistance (R) genes, many of which show an increase in steady-state expression levels in the bal variant. Here, we report that activation of RPP5 locus R genes and dwarfing in the bal variant are caused by a 55-kb duplication within the RPP5 locus. Although many RPP5 locus R genes are duplicated in the bal variant, the duplication of SNC1 alone is necessary and sufficient for the phenotypic changes in the bal variant. Missense mutations in the SNC1 gene were identified in all three phenotypically suppressed EMS-treated bal lines investigated, indicating that the high-frequency phenotypic instability induced by EMS treatment is caused by a genetic mechanism. We propose that the high degree of variation in SNC1-related sequences among Arabidopsis natural accessions follows the two-step mechanism observed in the bal variant: gene duplication followed by hypermutation. PMID:19797048

  9. BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: the Eddington connection

    CERN Document Server

    Zubovas, Kastytis

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby AGN, and the slower and less ionized winds of BAL QSOs. The primary difference is the mass loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed towards the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to $\\sim 10-50$ times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly-ionized winds. In contrast BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently-discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest tha...

  10. Constraining FeLoBAL outflows from absorption line variability

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, S M; Hamann, F W; Capellupo, D M; Gallagher, S C; Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    FeLoBALs are a rare class of quasar outflows with low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs), large column densities, and potentially large kinetic energies that might be important for `feedback' to galaxy evolution. In order to probe the physical properties of these outflows, we conducted a multiple-epoch, absorption line variability study of 12 FeLoBAL quasars spanning a redshift range between 0.7 and 1.9 over rest frame time-scales of approximately 10 d to 7.6 yr. We detect absorption line variability with greater than 8 sigma confidence in 3 out of the 12 sources in our sample over time-scales of 0.6 to 7.6 yr. Variable wavelength intervals are associated with ground and excited state Fe II multiplets, the Mg II 2796, 2803 doublet, Mg I 2852, and excited state Ni II multiplets. The observed variability along with evidence of saturation in the absorption lines favors transverse motions of gas across the line of sight (LOS) as the preferred scenario, and allows us to constrain the outflow distance from th...

  11. Balık ve Balık Ürünlerinde Biyojen Aminler ve Önemi

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBAY DOĞU, Sena; SARIÇOBAN, Cemalettin

    2015-01-01

    ÖZET: Biyojen aminler, gıdalarda bulunan serbest amino asitlerin dekarboksilasyonu sonucunda oluşan bileşiklerdir. Histamin, kadaverin, putresin, tiramin, spermin ve spermidin gıdalarda sıklıkla bulunan biyojen aminlerdir. Özellikle balık ve balık ürünleri, biyojen aminlerin oluşumu açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu gibi ürünlerde biyojen aminler  mikrobiyal dekarboksilaz aktivite ile hızla oluşmaktadır. Yetersiz hijyen, kontaminasyon, hammaddenin mikrobiyal yükü ve sıcaklık gibi faktörle...

  12. A SCUBA-2 survey of FeLoBAL QSOs. Are FeLoBALs in a `transition phase' between ULIRGs and QSOs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violino, Giulio; Coppin, Kristen E. K.; Stevens, Jason A.; Farrah, Duncan; Geach, James E.; Alexander, Dave M.; Hickox, Ryan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-04-01

    It is thought that a class of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, characterized by Fe absorption features in their UV spectra (called `FeLoBALs'), could mark a transition stage between the end of an obscured starburst event and a youthful QSO beginning to shed its dust cocoon, where Fe has been injected into the interstellar medium by the starburst. To test this hypothesis, we have undertaken deep Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) 850 μm observations of a sample of 17 FeLoBAL QSOs with 0.89 ≤ z ≤ 2.78 and -23.31 ≤ MB ≤ -28.50 to directly detect an excess in the thermal emission of the dust which would probe enhanced star formation activity. We find that FeLoBALs are not luminous sources in the sub-mm, none of them are individually detected at 850 μm, nor as a population through stacking (Fs = 1.14 ± 0.58 mJy). Statistical and survival analyses reveal that FeLoBALs have sub-mm properties consistent with BAL and non-BAL QSOs with matched redshifts and magnitudes. An Spectral Energy Distribution fitting analysis shows that the far-infrared emission is dominated by active galactic nuclei activity, and a starburst component is required only in 6/17 sources of our sample; moreover the integrated total luminosity of 16/17 sources is L ≥ 1012 L⊙, high enough to classify FeLoBALs as infrared luminous. In conclusion, we do not find any evidence in support of FeLoBAL QSOs being a transition population between an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and an unobscured QSO; in particular, FeLoBALs are not characterized by a cold starburst which would support this hypothesis.

  13. Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars as a class of low luminosity AGNs

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Ceglowski, M.; Roskowinski, C.; Gawronski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption lines seen in some quasars prove the existence of ionized plasma outflows from the accretion disk. Outflows together with powerful jets are important feedback processes. Understanding physics behind BAL outflows might be a key to comprehend Galaxy Evolution as a whole. First radio-loud BAL quasar was discovered in 1997 and this discovery has opened new possibilities for studies of the BAL phenomena, this time on the basis of radio emission. However, information about the radi...

  14. BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: the Eddington connection

    OpenAIRE

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby AGN, and the slower and less ionized winds of BAL QSOs. The primary difference is the mass loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed towards the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to $\\sim 10-50$...

  15. Inner radio structure of compact BAL quasar 1045+352

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The first multifrequency radio observations of the very compact BAL quasar, 1045+352, were made using MERLIN and the VLBA in a snapshot mode. However, its unusual radio structure was still very difficult to interpret, indicating a scenario of intermittent activity or a jet precession. Here, we present some of a new full-track radio observations of 1045+352 made with the EVN+MERLIN at 5 GHz. The new more sensitive high-resolution observations made possible to trace the connection between the arcsecond structure and the radio core, and showed the presence of strong interactions between the jet and the medium of the host galaxy.

  16. Aníbal Ponce: el rol del intelectual humanista

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende recuperar la tradición socialista latinoamericana que pone en primer plano la cuestión ética, aquella que ha destacado a José Ingenieros y a Ernesto Guevara, pero relegado en gran medida a Aníbal Ponce. Por esta razón, se iniciará el ensayo con una breve reseña de los giros del pensamiento ponceano para luego adentrarnos en su visión del humanismo, considerado menos una corriente filosófica que una forma de vida. Entonces nos ajustaremos a la lógica de una de sus obras c...

  17. A SCUBA-2 survey of FeLoBAL QSOs: Are FeLoBALs in a `transition phase' between ULIRGs and QSOs?

    CERN Document Server

    Violino, Giulio; Stevens, Jason A; Farrah, Duncan; Geach, James E; Alexander, Dave M; Hickox, Ryan; Smith, Daniel J B; Wardlow, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a class of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, characterised by Fe absorption features in their UV spectra (called `FeLoBALs'), could mark a transition stage between the end of an obscured starburst event and a youthful QSO beginning to shed its dust cocoon, where Fe has been injected into the interstellar medium by the starburst. To test this hypothesis we have undertaken deep SCUBA-2 850 $\\mu$m observations of a sample of 17 FeLoBAL QSOs with 0.89 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 2.78 and -23.31 $\\leq$ M$_{B}$ $\\leq$-28.50 to directly detect an excess in the thermal emission of the dust which would probe enhanced star-formation activity. We find that FeLoBALs are not luminous sources in the submillimetre, none of them are individually detected at 850 $\\mu$m, nor as a population through stacking ($F_{s}=1.14\\pm0.58$ mJy). Statistical and survival analyses reveal that FeLoBALs have sub-mm properties consistent with BAL and non-BAL QSOs with matched redshifts and magnitudes. An SED fitting analysis shows that ...

  18. Unusual high-redshift radio BAL quasar 1624+3758

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, C R; Holt, J; Vigotti, M; González-Serrano, J I; Mack, K H; Perley, R A

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of the most radio-luminous BAL quasar known, 1624+3758, at redshift z = 3.377. The quasar has several unusual properties: (1) The FeII UV191 1787-A emission line is very prominent. (2) The BAL trough (BALnicity index 2990 km/s) is detached by 21000 km/s and extends to velocity v = -29000 km/s. There are additional intrinsic absorbers at -1900 and -2800 km/s. (3) The radio rotation measure of the quasar, 18350 rad/m^2, is the second-highest known. The radio luminosity is P(1.4GHz) = 4.3 x 10^27 W/Hz (H0 = 50 km/s/Mpc, q0 = 0.5), radio loudness R* = 260. The radio source is compact (<~ 2.8 kpc) and the radio spectrum is GHz-peaked, consistent with it being relatively young. The width of the CIV emission line, in conjunction with the total optical luminosity, implies black-hole mass ~ 10^9 M(sun), L/L(Eddington) ~ 2. The high Eddington ratio, and the radio-loudness, place this quasar in one corner of Boroson's (2002) 2-component scheme for the classification of AGN, implying a very hig...

  19. Broadband nuclear emission in two radio-loud BAL quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Janiuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray weakness of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars in comparison to non-BAL objects is possibly caused by the absorption of X-ray emission by the shielding material near the equatorial plane. On the other hand, the radio-loud BALQSOs are more X-ray loud than the radio-quiet ones. This suggests that part of the X-ray emission may arise from the radio jet. To investigate this possibility, we modelled the nuclear spectra of two radio-loud BALQSOs. We focus on the emission from the very centres of these two objects. The source of emission was approximated by a single, homogeneous component that produces synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. The simplicity of the model allowed us to estimate the basic physical parameters of the emitting regions, using a universal analytic approach. Such methods have already been used in blazars. For the first time we propose this solution for quasars. In addition, we modelled the radiation spectra of the accretion disk and its corona to compare them with the jets'...

  20. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could be...

  1. The Nature of LoBAL QSOs: I. SEDs and mid-infrared spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarova, Mariana S; Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained Spitzer IRS spectra and MIPS 24, 70, and 160 micron photometry for a volume-limited sample of 22 SDSS-selected Low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) at 0.5 10^12*L_sun). We estimate star formation rates (SFRs) corrected for the AGN contribution to the FIR flux and find that LoBALs have comparable levels of star formation activity to non-LoBALs when considering the entire samples. However, the SFRs of the IR-luminous LoBALs are 80% higher than those of their counterparts in the control sample. The median contribution of star formation to the total far-infrared flux in LoBALs and in non-LoBALs is estimated to be 40-50%, in agreement with previous results for PG QSOs. Overall, our results show that there is no strong evidence from the mid- and far-IR properties that LoBALs are drawn from a different parent population than non-LoBALs.

  2. Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars as a class of low luminosity AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Roskowinski, C; Gawronski, M

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption lines seen in some quasars prove the existence of ionized plasma outflows from the accretion disk. Outflows together with powerful jets are important feedback processes. Understanding physics behind BAL outflows might be a key to comprehend Galaxy Evolution as a whole. First radio-loud BAL quasar was discovered in 1997 and this discovery has opened new possibilities for studies of the BAL phenomena, this time on the basis of radio emission. However, information about the radio structures, orientation and age of BAL quasars is still very limited due to weak radio emission and small sizes of these objects. Our high-resolution radio survey of a sample of BAL quasars aims to increase our knowledge about these objects. In this article, we present some conclusions arising from our research.

  3. Limpeza de elementos municiais em balística forense

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana Raquel Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem por objetivo a implementação de novos métodos de limpeza de elementos municiais de modo a substituir os métodos usados na Especialidade Forense de Balística do Laboratório de Polícia Científica da Polícia Judiciária. Estes métodos pretendem remover os três tipos de degradação/contaminação mais comuns na prática pericial do laboratório: gesso, corrosão e sangue. Os resultados obtidos no decorrer do trabalho foram avaliados de acordo com critérios pr...

  4. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  5. Broad absorption line quasars have the same cool dust emission as quasars without BALs

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Grimes, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of a sub-millimeter survey of SDSS broad CIV absorption line quasars is discussed. It is found that the sub-millimeter flux distribution of BAL quasars is similar to that of non-BAL quasars. This is consistent with the idea that all quasars contain broad absorption line regions, but only a fraction of them are visible along our line-of-sight. The observations are inconsistent with BAL quasars being observed at a special evolutionary epoch co-inciding with a high star-formation rat...

  6. Executive Enhance Business Value of BAL Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become gradually more complex to give more attention to the importance of business value of information system in the early hours of time. Above the past few days researchers have high lightened the requirement of information system in business field. Almost every organization and industry like electronics, textile, computer, health, education etc is investing appreciably in information system. It is generally observed that IS savings facilitate firms to achieve competitive benefit and enhance central part competencies to improve their performance and increase further wages. As a result Executive Enhance Business Value of BAL Information System (EEBVBIS is at the heart of our deliberation in this research paper. This paper seeks to address the following questions. What is the role of business value in information system? How can we analyze business value of information system (IS? What is the consequence of information system in new e-commerce era? It has been generally observed that with the passage of time as the quick changes are taking place in information system the above questions are gaining importance in the field of business. The deliberation in proper selection of technology and its proper utilization to improve the performance of a business in Hospital System provide help to achieve the business value. We also covered some aspects of Hospital System using statistical study. We focus the Information System which plays an important role in Hospital System (Private and Public Hospital System.

  7. Aníbal Ponce: el trabajo del pensamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Arpini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aníbal Norberto Ponce (1898-1938 vivió una época de profundas contradicciones y transformaciones, en su propio país, Argentina, y en el mundo. La mayor parte de su obra está compuesta por ensayos de interpretación histórica, social y cultural. Una problemática resulta recurrente en sus textos: se trata de la reflexión acerca de la figura del intelectual y de su función en la sociedad. En este estudio nos preguntamos: ¿cómo, a través de sus discursos, Ponce construye y reconstruye la imagen del intelectual y de su función en la sociedad? ¿En qué consiste, desde su perspectiva, el trabajo del pensamiento? ¿Cuáles son las condiciones, las relaciones de poder, las luchas dentro del campo intelectual en las que surge la reflexión ponceana acerca de la función social de la actividad teórica? Intentamos algunas respuestas a partir de las obras en las que Ponce trabaja la problemática de manera explícita o implícita

  8. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  9. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, CRP, leukocytes and BAL neutrophils for pulmonary complications in the immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Stolz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory biomarkers and BAL differential cell count for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in severe immunosuppressed patients. One-hundred and seven consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected pulmonary infection were included in this study. Assessment included history, clinical examination, chest image studies, CRP, procalcitonin (ProCT, leukocyte counts, and BAL results. Patients were classified as having proven, possible, and non-bacterial infection.

  10. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu; Coşkun Cüce; Fuat Erel; Mehmet Köse; Mehmet Arslan; Abdurrahman Said Bodur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A t...

  11. Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet BAL Quasars: A Detailed Ultraviolet Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Rochais, Thomas B; Myers, Adam D; Brotherton, Michael S; Runnoe, Jessie C; Hall, Shannon W

    2014-01-01

    Studies of radio-loud (RL) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars indicate that popular orientation-based BAL models fail to account for all observations. Are these results extendable to radio-quiet (RQ) BAL quasars? Comparisons of RL and RQ BAL quasars show that many of their properties are quite similar. Here we extend these analyses to the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectral properties, using a sample of 73 RL and 473 RQ BAL quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each RQ quasar is individually matched to a RL quasar in both redshift (over the range $1.5 < z < 3.5$) and continuum luminosity. We compare several continuum, emission line, and absorption line properties, as well as physical properties derived from these measurements. Most properties in the samples are statistically identical, though we find slight differences in the velocity structure of the BALs that cause apparent differences in CIV emission line properties. Differences in the velocities may indicate an interaction bet...

  12. FeLoBAL Outflow Variability Constraints from Multi-Year Observations

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, Sean M; Hamann, Frederick W; Capellupo, Daniel M; Gallagher, Sarah C; Brandt, William N

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties and dynamical behavior of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) outflows are crucial themes in understanding the connections between galactic centers and their hosts. FeLoBALs (identified with the presence of low-ionization Fe II BALs) are a peculiar class of quasar outflows that constitute approximately 1% of the BAL population. With their large column densities and apparent outflow kinetic luminosities, FeLoBALs appear to be exceptionally powerful and are strong candidates for feedback in galaxy evolution. We conducted variability studies of 12 FeLoBAL quasars with emission redshifts between 0.69 and 1.93, spanning both weekly and multi-year timescales in the quasar's rest frame. We detected absorption-line variability from low-ionization species (Fe II, Mg II) in four of our objects, with which we established a representative upper limit for the distance of the absorber from the supermassive black hole (SMBH) to be approximately 20 parsecs. Our goals are to understand the mechanisms producing...

  13. Serum and BAL cytokine and antioxidant enzyme levels at different stages of pneumoconiosis in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulker, O.C.; Yucesoy, B.; Demir, O.; Tekin, I.O.; Karakaya, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Toxicology

    2008-12-15

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational pulmonary disease that occurs by chronic inhalation of coal dust. CWP is divided into two stages depending on the extent of the disease, as simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In the present study, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine (interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)) and antioxidant enzymes levels, their relation with the disease severity, and whether they can be considered as biological markers were investigated. Serum and BAL levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were higher in SP and PMF patient groups compared with that in active and retired miner groups. Serum and BAL IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels were also found to be higher in patients with PMF compared with the SP group. BAL superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels and serum SOD level were increased in both patient groups compared with the control group. In addition, mean serum and BAL TGF-beta levels were found to be increased in patients with SP compared with PMF group. Based on these results, BAL and serum cytokine and antioxidant enzymes levels were evaluated and discussed as potential biomarkers for different stages of CWP.

  14. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  15. British Gas business opportunities overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the joint British Gas Department of Trade and Industry Seminar cover overseas exploration and production and development projects; an overview of gas transmission, distribution and supply; and power generation. Details of the Oil and Gas Projects and Supplies Office, Projects Export Promotion Division, the Export Credits Guarantee Department, and British Gas Offices Worldwide are given in the Appendix. (UK)

  16. Proteção Balística do Soldado de Infantaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João,

    2015-01-01

    O presente Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada está subordinado ao tema “Proteção Balística do Soldado de Infantaria”. Como objetivo geral pretende-se desenvolver uma base de conhecimento militar, no âmbito dos materiais e dos elementos de proteção balística ligeiros, no que concerne às suas especificações, características e requisitos técnicos. A evolução dos elementos de proteção balística e das blindagens está fortemente relacionada com a evoluç...

  17. THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICALLY BRIGHTEST MINI-BAL QUASARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars (mi ≤ 17.5 and z ≥ 1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows that the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index (Γ ∼ 1.9) and level of intrinsic absorption (NH ∼21 cm-2) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with Δαox). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between Δαox and UV absorption properties are confirmed for a sample of 56 sources combining mini-BAL and BAL quasars with high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame UV spectra, which generally supports models in which X-ray absorption is important in enabling driving of the UV absorption-line wind. We also propose alternative parameterizations of the UV absorption properties of mini-BAL and BAL quasars, which may better describe the broad absorption troughs in some respects.

  18. In vitro evaluation of BAL9141, a novel parenteral cephalosporin active against oxacillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mutnick, Alan H; Biedenbach, Douglas J

    2002-12-01

    Community-acquired and nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens continue to increase in prevalence and have become a serious problem in many parts of the world. BAL9141 is a member of the class of parenteral pyrrolidinone-3-ylidenemethyl cephalosporins, and has a broad spectrum of activity. In the current study, BAL9141 was tested against a large number (n = 2263) of recent isolates from various international surveillance programmes including 1097 Gram-positive strains. Susceptibility to (S) and activity of (mg/L) to BAL9141, based on proposed breakpoints (MIC50/MIC90/% S) were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (0.5/0.5/100%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (1/2/100%), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (0.12/0.25/100%), methicillin-resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) (1/2/100%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (32/>32/22%), Haemophilus influenzae (0.06/0.06/100%), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.06/0.5/100%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0.03/0.06/100%) and Neisseria meningitidis (98%) were also higher than to CRO (86%) and LVX (96%). BAL9141 demonstrated excellent activity against most species of wild-type enteric bacilli, with > or = 95% of isolates being susceptible; however, only modest activity was observed for BAL9141 against non-fermentative Gram-negative species and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. BAL9141 demonstrated excellent activity against many tested pathogens displaying various resistance phenotypes, and should be particularly valuable in the treatment of MRSA as well as for drug-resistant streptococci, while maintaining a spectrum resembling a 'third-generation' cephalosporin against other clinically important species. PMID:12461013

  19. Balık ve balık ürünlerinde biyojen aminlerin varlığı

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Pınar Oğuzhan; Kırım, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Biyojen aminler hayvan, bitki ve mikroorganizmaların normal metabolizmasında rol alan düşük molekül ağırlıklı organik bazlardır. Genellikle serbest aminoasitlerin mikrobiyal enzimlerle dekarboksilasyonu sonucu oluşmaktadır. Bu bileşikler, insan ve hayvanlarda toksik etkiye sahip olabilmektedirler. Biyojen aminler, olgunlaştırma veya fermantasyon işlemleri ile üretilen çeşitli gıdalarda ve içeceklerde bulunmaktadır. Biyojen amin içeren gıdalar arasında balık ve balık ürünleri, et ü...

  20. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  1. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  2. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  3. Sputum and BAL Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein D levels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, P; Loukides, S; Kostikas, K; Papatheodorou, G; Papaporfyriou, A; Hillas, G; Vamvakaris, I; Triggidou, R; Katafigiotis, P; Kokkini, A; Papiris, S; Koulouris, N; Bakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is associated with Th2 modulation. Surfactant protein D (SPD) plays an important role in surfactant homeostasis and eosinophil chemotaxis. We measured CC16 and SPD in sputum supernatants of 84 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy controls. In 22 asthmatics, we additionally measured CC16 and SPD levels in BAL and assessed smooth muscle area (SMA), reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, and epithelial detachment (ED) in bronchial biopsies. Induced sputum CC16 and SPD were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma (SRA) compared to mild-moderate and healthy controls. BAL CC16 and SPD levels were also higher in SRA compared to mild-moderate asthma. CC16 BAL levels correlated with ED, while SPD BAL levels correlated with SMA and RBM. Severity represented a significant covariate for these associations. CC16 and SPD levels are upregulated in SRA and correlate with remodeling indices, suggesting a possible role of these biomarkers in the remodeling process. PMID:25728058

  4. Anxiety and depression in COPD patients and correlation with sputum and BAL cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Anxiety and depression are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The degree of lung function may not explain anxiety and depression. The aim of our study was to assess the psychological aspects of COPD, to test the BODE index (a composite score of body mass, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise capacity, and to evaluate the association between atypical cytologic findings of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and the pyschological components of the disease. Methods COPD was classsified according to the GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 in 60 stable patients. The BODE index was calculated for grading COPD. The Hospital anxiety and depression (HAD scale was used to appraise the anxiety and depression symptoms. Cytologic examination of sputum and BAL samples were performed in each patient. The cytologic findings were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe atypia. Results The overall prevalance of anxiety and depression symptoms was 41.7% and 46.7% respectively. The prevalance of these symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages and correlated well with the severity of atypical BAL cytology results (p Conclusions We conclude that the BODE index is superior to GOLD stratification for explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in COPD. BAL cytologic findings, which reflect the distal parenchymal lung structure, correlated significantly with the presence of the anxiety and depression symptoms.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc...... of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining....

  6. Las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil, Juan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The payroll of the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus is here published for the fisrt time, signed by Admiral himself. A commentary is also furnished.

    Se publican por primera vez, con comentario, las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón, firmadas por el propio almirante.

  7. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar; Kazemi, Sohrab; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment. PMID:24888360

  8. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  9. The X-Ray Properties of the Optically Brightest Mini-BAL Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jianfeng; Comins, M L; Gibson, Robert R; Shemmer, Ohad; Garmire, Gordon P; Schneider, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars ($m_{i}$~$\\le$~17.5 and $z$~$\\ge$~1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-BALs present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index ($\\Gamma\\approx1.9$) and level of intrinsic absorption ($N_H \\lesssim 8\\times 10^{21} \\ {\\rm cm}^{-2}$) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with $\\Delta\\alpha_{\\rm ox}$). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between $\\Delta\\alpha_{\\rm ox}$ and UV absorption properties are confirmed for ...

  10. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  11. Balın Bileşimi ve Bala Yapılan Hileler

    OpenAIRE

    Hışıl, Yaşar; Börekçioğlu, Neriman

    1986-01-01

    Früktoz ve glukoz bal karbonhidratlarının %85-90’ını oluşturur. Bunların dışında çok çeşitli diğer şekerler de bulunmaktadır. Balda ayrıca vücudun ihtiyaç duyduğu organik asitler, aminoasitler, aroma maddeleri, mineral maddeler, enzimler, vitaminler de bulunmaktadır. Bala genellikle şeker şurubu tağşişleri yapılmaktadır. Bu derlemede balın bileşimi üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar ve bala yapılan hileler değerlendirilmiştir.

  12. BAL: A library for the brute-force analysis of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the functionality and usage of BAL, a C/C++ library with a Python front-end for the brute-force analysis of continuous-time dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). BAL provides an easy-to-use wrapper for the efficient numerical integration of ODEs and, by detecting intersections of the trajectory with appropriate Poincaré sections, allows to classify the asymptotic trajectory of a dynamical system for bifurcation analysis. Some examples of application are discussed, concerning two-dimensional bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents and finite-time Lyapunov exponents, basins of attraction, simulation of switching ODE systems, and integration with AUTO, a software package for continuation analysis.

  13. Una epistemología otra: el proyecto de Aníbal Quijano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Germana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se argumenta sobre la relevancia del proyecto intelectual, moral y político de Aníbal Quijano. El eje central de sus reflexiones sobre Perú y América Latina es la descolonización de las estructuras de poder, perspectiva que considera como el punto de partida para la efectiva democratización de la sociedad.

  14. Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Marguet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogeneous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases. PMID:20625676

  15. Tiempos cruzados en Balún Canán de Rosario Castellanos

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic Karic, Pol

    2014-01-01

    Los protagonistas de Balún Canán de Rosario Castellanos personifican diferentes tiempos. Matilde intenta invertir el movimiento del tiempo, su flujo es el enemigo que ella trata de dominar. Ernesto mira hacia su pasado y se esfuerza por enterrarlo y moverse tan prestamente como sea posible hacia el futuro. La nana, contrariamente a los otros dos personajes, permanece indiferente al pasado y al futuro. El presente es su casa que no desea cambiar.

  16. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  17. American English vs. British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  18. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  19. BRITISH ARMY COMMISIONS BY PURCHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Dick Usher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I have before me a copy of a letter dated 12 May, 1814, written by certain Lieutenant-Colonel William Fuller of the King's Dragoon Guards to a British Lord, in which is advised that a commission for His Lordship's son would cost £735. Further on in this article I shall state the prices as they were at the time of the' Crimean War. Only recently did I read a book by a very well-known British author who claims that the British army of the 1850's was small, and that the Crimean War was to prove that it was shockingly organised, but he speaks only well of the navy of that period. I ask that my readers please bear in mind that in earlier days there was no such rank as second-lieutenant nor sub-lieutenant in the British army. The most junior commissioned rank in the infantry was that of ensign. In the cavalry, it was cornet until 1871, when it became sub-lieutenant.

  20. Mycological Microscopic and Culture Examination of 400 Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Geramishoar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of invasive opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past decades especially in immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis (IA has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. As bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples are generally useful specimens in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, this study was designed to evaluate the incidence of fungal elements in at-risk patients by direct microscopy and culture of BAL samples.Methods: In a 16-month period, 400 BAL samples were obtained from several groups of different patients with pulmonary and respiratory disorders and examined by using both direct microscopy and culture.Results: Of the 400 samples, 16 (4% were positive direct examination with branching septate hyphae and 46 (11.5% were positive culture: 25 (54% Aspergillus flavus, 6 (13% A. fumigatus, 5 (10.9% A. niger, 1 (2.2% A. terreus, 3 (6.5% Penicillium spp. and 6 (13% mixed A. flavus/A. niger. A. flavus was the most common cause of Aspergillus infection or colonization. Bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients were the most susceptible group to fungal infection and/or colonization.Conclusion: Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus was the most common isolate in both infections and colonization in Iran. More studies are needed to clarify the epidemiological aspect of aspergillosis in Iran.

  1. Insurance revolution within British gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooke, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    With the transformation of the British gas industry from a manufacturing to a distribution role, British Gas Corp. questioned the whole function of insurance within the industry and arrived at a new approach of extended self-insurance. The basic questions posed were whether British Gas really needed insurance protection, what size of loss it could absorb within its own financial resources, and what catastrophic losses might occur that should be covered by insurance. In the past, each area board determined its own insurance requirements and obtained the best coverage available for its needs. With the formation of British Gas, however, insurance was investigated on an industry-wide basis by an insurance committee in which each region was represented by its insurance officer. This enabled the industry to negotiate from a position of strength in what would be a bulk purchase and permit the most flexible coverage to be obtained at the most economic cost. The committee proposed a system that made the figure of $3.6 million (pounds 2 million) the main criterion for self-insurance; risks not considered as having a real potential for a loss exceeding this figure would be borne uninsured. Where such potential existed, only amounts above this figure would be insured. The actual program that was eventually adopted cancelled the employer's liability insurance, retained third-party insurance for claims over $3.6 million, retained full-coverage fire insurance, reduced engineering coverage to an inspection service only, retained motor and personal accident insurance for further consideration, and cancelled all other forms of insurance. To implement this program of greater self-insurance, British Gas strengthened the claims-handling expertise within the regions and has incorporated greater risk management techniques to reduce or eliminate risks with loss-making potential.

  2. Discovery of a z=0.65 Post-Starburst BAL Quasar in the DES Supernova Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mudd, Dale; Tie, Suk Sien; Lidman, Chris; McMahon, Richard; Banerji, Manda; Davis, Tamara; Peterson, Bradley; Sharp, Rob; Childress, Michael; Lewis, Geraint; Tucker, Brad; Yuan, Fang; Abbot, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Levy, Aurelien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, A Camero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Carretero, Jorge; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, Thomas; Eifler, Tim; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Glazebrook, Karl; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hinton, Samuel; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolav; Macaulay, Edward; Maia, M A G; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Plazas, Andres; Riel, Kevin; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basillio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Uddin, Sved; Walker, Alistair; Zhang, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a z=0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad FeII (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  3. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  4. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH PATHOGENICITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Tamai; Sérgio Batista Alves; Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  5. Variable X-Ray Absorption in the Mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Chartas, G.; Dadina, M.; Eracleous, M.; Ponti, G.; Proga, D.; Tombesi, F.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. X-ray studies of AGN with powerful nuclear winds are important to constrain the physics of the inner accretion/ejection flow around SMBH, and to understand the impact of such winds on the AGN environment. Aims. Our main scientific goal is to constrain the properties of a variable outflowing absorber that is thought to be launched near the SMBH of the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041 using a multi-epoch observational campaign performed with XMM-Newton. Methods. We performed temporally resolved X-ray spectroscopy and simultaneous UV and X-ray photometry on the most complete set of observations and on the deepest X-ray exposure of a mini-BAL QSO to date. Results. We found complex X-ray spectral variability on time scales of both months and hours, best reproduced by means of variable massive ionized absorbers along the line of sight. As a consequence, the observed optical-to-X-ray spectral index is found to be variable with time. In the highest signal-to-noise observation we detected highly ionized X-ray absorbing material outflowing much faster (u(sub X) approx. 16 500 km/s) than the UV absorbing one (u(sub uv) approx. 5,000 km/s). This highly ionized absorber is found to be variable on very short (a few kiloseconds) time scales. Conclusions. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with line driven accretion disk winds scenarios. Our observations have opened the time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis field for mini-BAL QSOs; only with future deep studies will we be able to map the dynamics of the inner flow and understand the physics of AGN winds and their impact on the environment.

  6. Determining Balıkesir’s Energy Potential Using a Regression Analysis Computer Program

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Yüksel; Ergun Ateş

    2014-01-01

    Solar power and wind energy are used concurrently during specific periods, while at other times only the more efficient is used, and hybrid systems make this possible. When establishing a hybrid system, the extent to which these two energy sources support each other needs to be taken into account. This paper is a study of the effects of wind speed, insolation levels, and the meteorological parameters of temperature and humidity on the energy potential in Balıkesir, in the Marmara region of Tu...

  7. ORIGIN OF THE COMPLEX RADIO STRUCTURE IN BAL QSO 1045+352

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new, more sensitive, high-resolution radio observations of a compact broad absorption line (BAL) quasar, 1045+352, made with the EVN+MERLIN at 5 GHz. These observations allowed us to trace the connection between the arcsecond structure and the radio core of the quasar. The radio morphology of 1045+352 is dominated by a knotty jet showing several bends. We discuss possible scenarios that could explain such a complex morphology: galaxy merger, accretion disk instability, precession of the jet, and jet-cloud interactions. It is possible that we are witnessing an ongoing jet precession in this source due to internal instabilities within the jet flow; however, a dense environment detected in the submillimeter band and an outflowing material suggested by the X-ray absorption could strongly interact with the jet. It is difficult to establish the orientation between the jet axis and the observer in 1045+352 because of the complex structure. Nevertheless, taking into account the most recent inner radio structure, we conclude that the radio jet is oriented close to the line of sight, which can mean that the opening angle of the accretion disk wind can be large in this source. We also suggest that there is no direct correlation between the jet-observer orientation and the possibility of observing BALs.

  8. Dispositivo para la Hemorragia puerperal (balón hemostático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarroel Paredes Lady Ibeth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia postparto es un importante contribuyente a la morbilidad materna y sigue siendo la principal causa de mortalidad materna a nivel mundial; en la mayoría de los casos aparece en forma espontanea inmediata a la ocurrencia del parto, y el porcentaje mayor se refiere a la hipotonía uterina, que es rebelde a la aplicación de medidas convencionales como el masaje uterino, oxitócicos, prostaglandinas etc.Las pautas para el manejo de la hemorragia postparto implican medidas graduales desde enfoques farmacológicos hasta los quirúrgicos. El método de taponamiento uterino utilizando “balones hemostáticos” se ha añadido recientemente al arsenal de tratamiento de la hemorragia postparto. Hay varios balones disponibles, incluyendo el Balón de Bakri, Foley,Sengstaken-Blakemore, Rusch, entre otros. Este artículo estudia estas tecnologías de taponamiento uterino en el tratamientode la hemorragia postparto y especialmente el método del Balón intrauterino aplicado en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi como una alternativa más ante esta complicación.

  9. The X-Ray Properties of the Optically Brightest Mini-BAL Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Comins, M. L.; Gibson, Robert R.; Shemmer, Ohad; Garmire, Gordon P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars ($m_{i}$~$\\le$~17.5 and $z$~$\\ge$~1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-BALs present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power...

  10. Framing Madame B: Quotation and Indistinction in Mieke Bal and Michelle Williams Gamaker’s Video Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Filipczak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The article engages with the video installation Madame B by Mieke Bal and Michelle Williams Gamaker. The work was premiered in the city of Łódź in Poland (between 6 Dec. 2013 and 9 Feb. 2014). The author makes use of the exhibition brochure by two artists published by the Museum of Modern Art, and the recording of a seminar held by Bal and Williams Gamaker after launching their work. The article focuses on the innovative audiovisual interpretation of Flaubert’s famous novel. Basing the argume...

  11. Leukaemia near british nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excess of childhood leukaemia has been seen near some British nuclear installations, especially near the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The same result was found in a more general study including a large number of nuclear sites. Similar studies made in USA, Canada and France have been negative. Moreover, epidemiological studies made in England have discovered other childhood leukaemia clusters in areas far from nuclear facilities, and especially near potential sites of nuclear installations. Several explanations are suggested but no definite conclusion is yet possible. Doses from radioactive releases seem to be too low to account for the additional deaths from leukaemia by environmental contamination. A virus activation, which might be associated with population influx into rural isolated areas, has been considered. The hypothesis of genetic mutation induced by ionising radiation in the fathers of children with leukaemia has been made because a higher risk of leukaemia was observed for children of fathers employed at Sellafield. No firm conclusion is possible considering the small number of observed cases and the lack of excess leukaemias in the offspring of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The possibility of internal contamination, chemicals or even radon is discussed as other causes. Studies in progress might allow to find an answer to the problem of leukaemia in the vicinity of British nuclear installations

  12. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  13. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  14. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  15. The ortho backbone amide linker (o-BAL) is an easily prepared and highly acid-labile handle for solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Brask, Jesper; Christensen, J.B.;

    2002-01-01

    , followed by purification through steam distillation, Cleavage studies of Leu-enkephalin anchored to either o-BAL or p-BAL handles revealed that both handles were surprisingly acid-labile and released the peptide with dilute TFA (5% and even 1% TFA in CH2Cl2). This useful property allowed the synthesis of...

  16. 14 Juillet 1944. Bal tragique à la Santé : 34 morts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carlier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AvertissementCet article est extrait d’une étude plus ample (chronologiquement portant sur l’histoire de la prison de la Santé pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il a commencé d’être écrit au printemps 2005 – Je m’interrogeais alors sur son titre. « Bal tragique à la Santé » me vint à l’esprit. Le lecteur informé le rapprochera de celui qui valut à L’Hebdo Hara-Kiri d’être rebaptisé Charlie Hebdo, J’avais pensé d’abord à « 14 juillet tragique à la Santé : 34 morts ». D’autres y avaient song...

  17. Christophe Apprill, Tango. Le couple, le bal et la scène

    OpenAIRE

    Célérier, Laure

    2011-01-01

    « On chuchote qu'il se danse les yeux dans les yeux, qu'il est né dans les bas-fonds et les bordels de Buenos Aires, » on murmure que « le tango est une danse de macho, qu'il est un désir horizontal exprimé à la verticale », écrit Christophe Apprill, sociologue autant que danseur, dans l'introduction de son ouvrage Tango - le couple, le bal et la scène, paru aux Editions Autrement en 2008. L'aura mystérieuse entourant la danse argentine du tango suscite d'innombrables légendes et mythologies....

  18. 14 Juillet 1944. Bal tragique à la Santé : 34 morts

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Carlier

    2012-01-01

    AvertissementCet article est extrait d’une étude plus ample (chronologiquement) portant sur l’histoire de la prison de la Santé pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il a commencé d’être écrit au printemps 2005 – Je m’interrogeais alors sur son titre. « Bal tragique à la Santé » me vint à l’esprit. Le lecteur informé le rapprochera de celui qui valut à L’Hebdo Hara-Kiri d’être rebaptisé Charlie Hebdo, J’avais pensé d’abord à « 14 juillet tragique à la Santé : 34 morts ». D’autres y avaient song...

  19. Vanishing Absorption and Blueshifted Emission in FeLoBAL Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, Patrick B; Galati, Natalee; Rogerson, Jesse; Ameri, Abtin

    2016-01-01

    We study the dramatic decrease in iron absorption strength in the iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar SDSS J084133.15+200525.8. We report on the continued weakening of absorption in the prototype of this class of variable broad absorption line quasar, FBQS J140806.2+305448. We also report a third example of this class, SDSS J123103.70+392903.6; unlike the other two examples, it has undergone an increase in observed continuum brightness (at 3000~\\AA\\ rest-frame) as well as a decrease in iron absorption strength. These changes could be caused by absorber transverse motion or by ionization variability. We note that the \\mgii\\ and UV \\feii\\ lines in several FeLoBAL quasars are blueshifted by thousands of \\kms\\ relative to the \\Hb\\ emission line peak. We suggest that such emission arises in the outflowing winds normally seen only in absorption.

  20. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai Marco Antonio; Alves Sérgio Batista; Neves Pedro Janeiro

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  1. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  2. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A total of 1096 students were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.4±2.2 years. The regular smoking prevalence rate was 25.5%, occasional smoking rate was 9.5%, alcohol consumption rate was 28.0%, and drug abuse rate was 5.0%. The mean age for attempting to smoke was 16.6±2.2 years. The leading causes of smoking were curiosity, spiritual space, affection, and to comply with friends. According to the Fagerström questionnaire, the level of nicotine dependence was low in 53.0% of the participants, moderate in 8.7%, and high in 28.4%. The average smoking prevalence rate was 23.6% in first-grade students, whereas it was 44.8% in last-grade students. The factors that influence smoking were as follows: being in the last grade, mother, siblings, and friends who smoke, higher allowance, use of alcohol and drugs. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among males. Conclusion: Last-grade students had a higher smoking prevalence rate than the first-grade students. Family, social environment, and smoking behavior of friends have an influence on smoking. All risk factors, including past history and university period, should be considered together in tobacco control.

  3. Morphogenesis of the demyelinating lesions in Baló's concentric sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Helmut; Barz, Ulrich; Schreiber, Almut

    2016-06-01

    In tissues with elastic properties, an edema causes a raised tissue pressure and therefore a diminished blood flow. The authors assume that an increased tissue pressure due to local and/or relapsing edema may be the cause for incomplete necrosis (e.g. demyelinated lesions) or seldom complete necrosis in the brain. Newly forming demyelinating lesions seldom show small tissue bands with normal appearing myelin sheaths in the immediate vicinity of precursor lesions (Baló type of MS). The small myelinated bands are the result of a "protected zone" on the edge of previous demyelinated lesions. The authors explain this protected zone with two arguments. Firstly, the resorptive granulation tissue of more or less older lesions is relatively rich in capillaries. These capillaries may act as an energy reservoir that can nourish not only the plaque, but also a narrow adjacent myelinated tissue band by diffusion, even if the capillary blood flow in this tissue band is limited due to the greater tissue pressure of a new developing lesion in the neighborhood. Secondly, another protective mechanism may act simultaneously: older or more sclerosed lesions and small adherent bands of myelinated tissue with them may swell less in cases of an edema than in normal tissue. The hardening of the older lesions is caused by proliferated fiber-forming astrocytes in the sense of scarring. In an area with an increased tissue pressure, the capillaries are less compressed in a sclerosed lesion than in regions of normal grey and white matter. In addition, the adherent myelinated tissue band closest to the edge of a hardened plaque is better protected against swelling and compression than the further away tissue. Theoretically, this protection zone is comparable with protected blood vessels in the Haversian canals or the medullary spaces of bones. Both theses of protecting mechanisms at the edges of demyelinated lesions support the assumption of a hypoxic causation principle of demyelinating

  4. The British foreign exchange reserves puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Hüfner, Felix P.

    2000-01-01

    The British foreign exchange reserves decreased by 40 percent during the period August 1996-December 1999 although the Pound Sterling is considered a floating exchange rate since it left the EMS in 1992. Since changes in the level of foreign exchange reserves are usually taken as indicators for foreign exchange interventions in the economic literature we investigate the case of the British reserves in detail. While the Pound Sterling has appreciated strongly against the Deutsche Mark in this ...

  5. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  6. Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    1996-01-01

    There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...

  7. The British Empire and the Muslim world

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Francis

    2001-01-01

    By the 1920s the British Empire embraced substantially more than half the Muslim peoples of the world. For much of the twentieth century Britain was the greatest influence over their development. Imperial security in large part dictated which territories of former Muslim empires or petty Muslim states the British came to rule. Imperial interests in combination with those of rival empires and local forces dictated precisely, and sometimes not so precisely, where the boundaries of new states we...

  8. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-01-01

    In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003), with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001), this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and...

  9. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  10. Some Differences Between British And American English

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Ellemina

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya ini berjudul “Some Differences Between British and American English”. Kertas karya ini memaparkan secara singkat tentang perbedaan antara British and American English baik dalam speling, grammar, maupun vocabulary sehingga akan diketahui secara jelas perbedaan diantara keduanya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan membaca beberapa buku bahasa Inggris sebagai bahan referensi yang dapat mendukung topik. Dari pemaparan diatas ada beberapa hasi...

  11. Entry Modes for British MNCs into China

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    China has undergone massive economic reforms and institutional changes over the last 3 decades. Increasingly liberalized government regulations and the opening up of the Chinese market have attracted British MNCs to enter into this ‘dream market’. This paper seeks to primarily explore the factors that affect the entry mode selection of British MNCs. It will also seek to investigate how the current institutional environment affects entry mode selection. This paper uses a case study method to a...

  12. Bridging gold in electron-deficient Al2Au(n)(0/-) and BAlAu(n)(0/-) (n = 1-3) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Bing-Tao; Lu, Zhang-Hui; Li, Si-Dian

    2013-06-20

    The geometrical and electronic structures of the electron-deficient dialuminum aurides Al2Aun(0/-) and hybrid boron-aluminum aurides BAlAun(0/-) (n = 1-3) are systematically investigated based on the density and wave function theories. Ab initio theoretical evidence strongly suggests that bridging gold atoms exist in the ground states of C2v Al2Au(-) ((3)B1), C2v Al2Au ((2)B1), C2v Al2Au2(-) ((2)A1), C2v Al2Au2 ((1)A1), Cs Al2Au3(-) ((1)A'), and D3h Al2Au3 ((2)A1), which prove to possess an Al-Au-Al τ bond. For BAlAun(0/-) (n = 1-3) mixed clusters, bridging B-Au-Al units only exist in Cs BAlAu3(-) ((1)A') and Cs BAlAu3 ((2)A'), whereas Cs BAlAu(-) ((3)A''), Cs BAlAu ((2)A''), Cs BAlAu2(-) ((2)A'), and Cs BAlAu2 ((1)A') do not possess a bridging gold, as demonstrated by the fact that B-Al and B-Au exhibit significantly stronger electronic interaction than Al-Au in the same clusters. Orbital analyses indicate that Au 6s contributes approximately 98%-99% to the Au-based orbital in these Al-Au-Al/B-Au-Al interactions, whereas Au 5d contributes 1%-2%. The adiabatic and vertical detachment energies of Al2Aun(-) (n = 1-3) are calculated to facilitate future experimental characterizations. The results obtained in this work establish an interesting τ bonding model (Al-Au-Al/B-Au-Al) for electron-deficient systems in which Au 6s plays a major factor. PMID:23718624

  13. Hambre divina: la máquina de guerra caníbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Whitehead

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo identifica una relación histórica y sistémica entre el ejercicio del poder político y una “máquina de guerra caníbal” que se apropia de formas y conceptos propios del ámbito de la brujería y de la relación con lo divino. Se propone que la violencia material y simbólica ha sido el eje de todos los intercambios sociales de la modernidad, en la que se despliega un aparato de muerte y sufrimiento justificado en el progreso, la libertad y el mercado capitalista, bajo una lógica que evoca el sacrificio a los dioses y que sacraliza el orden liberal democrático. A partir del proceso de colonización del Nuevo Mundo, el lucro de la guerra y la ambición por explotar la exuberante riqueza del territorio amerindio hicieron que el hombre blanco caníbal (una figura común en los imaginarios no-occidentales desatara esa máquina de guerra que devora personas y recursos para alimentar al Estado colonial. En la contemporaneidad, el uso de altas tecnologías envuelve a las acciones bélicas con un halo de misterio que hace mímesis de los imaginarios de la magia y la hechicería, lo cual supone la propagación deliberada de una mística que genera miedo y caos social y que conviene a los intereses militares. Después de cinco siglos de coalición entre el poder político y la violencia, pareciera que la máquina de guerra caníbal no se ha saciado y reclama cada vez más sangre en nombre de la libertad y el progreso.

  14. Proceedings of the Franco-British Marine Energies Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this French-British seminar on Marine Energies. Content: 1 - Session I - Wave and Tidal, Prospects and Policy: Introduction (Pierre David); Wave and Tidal Resources - the scale of the opportunity (Benoit Dal Ferro); UK Policy and European Programmes (Gary Shanahan); French Policy on New and Renewable Energies (Jean-Louis Bal); Marine Energies and French Policy (Jacques Ruer, Vincent de Laleu); New Paths Towards Sustainable Energy (Dominique Dupard); 2 - Session II - Centres of Excellence in Research, Testing and Infrastructure: Introduction (George Smith, Eric Vandenbroucke); R and D - Universities and Companies in the UK (Abubakr Bahaj); METRI, A European infrastructure for research and testing on hydrodynamic behaviour of structure and ages of materials in marine environments (Yone Le Guen); 1/10 Scale Wave Tank Testing (Andrew Mill); Full Scale Testing (Neil Kermode); Long Term Monitoring (Alan Taylor); Experimental Methods and Numerical Simulation (Jean Marc Rousset); Modelling (Jerome Brossard, Rob Rawlinson Smith); Mediterranean Testing Centres (Guy Facon); 3 - Session III - Practitioners and Business Development - Wave Energy: Introduction (Alain Clement, Max Carcas, Aurelien Babarit, Marie Ruellan, David Langston, Nigel Crow, Guillaume Dreau, Bill Cooper, Chris Jenner); 4 - Session IV - Practitioners and Business Development - Current Energy: Introduction (Cyrille Abonnel, Peter Fraenkel, Herve Majastre, Didier Imbault, Jean Philippe Pagot, Chris Huxley-Reynard, Fiona Auty, Gareth Hughes, David Adrian, Michael Starling); 5 - Session V - Economics and Financing of Wave and Marine Energy Conversion: Introduction (Delphine Eyraud, Gilles Cochevelou); Role of French Cluster (Francis Vallat); Funding Panorama (Gianni Operto); The Technologist's Experience (Max Carcas); The Utility's Perspective (Jon Boston); French Methods and Policies for Development (Thierry Chrupek

  15. Intoxicación por metales Metal poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los metales están entre los tóxicos más antiguos conocidos por el hombre. En el industrializado mundo actual las fuentes de exposición a metales son ubicuas tanto en el campo laboral como a partir de agua, los alimentos o el ambiente contaminados. Su toxicidad está caracterizada por el elemento metálico en cuestión pero se ve modificada por el tipo de compuesto, orgánico o inorgánico y sus características de hidro o liposolubilidad, que determina su toxicocinética y por tanto sus posibilidad de alcanzar sus dianas. Las biomoléculas más afectadas por los metales son las proteínas con actividad enzimática por lo que su patología es multisistema. Los principales sistemas afectados son el gastrointestinal, neurológico central y periférico, hemático y renal. Algunos de los compuestos metálicos son carcinógenos. Los metales se benefician de un tratamiento condicionado por su reactividad química. Pueden ser inactivados y eliminados mediante la administración de substancias quelantes que producen con ellos moléculas complejas, atóxicas y excretables. Los principales agentes quelantes son: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite o dimercaprol, DMPS (ácido 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanosulfonico y DMSA (ácido meso-2,3-dimercatosuccínico o Succimer, EDTA, Penicilamina (ß,ß-dimetilcisteína y Desferoxamina. Se exponen a continuación las características toxicocinéticas, mecanismo de acción, clínica y tratamiento de alguno de los metales y metaloides más relevantes: plomo, mercurio y arsénico.Metals are amongst the oldest toxic substances known to man. In today’s industrialized world the sources of exposure to metals are ubiquitous both in the field of work and from polluted water, foodstuffs and the environment. Their toxicity is characterized by the metallic element in question, but this is modified by the type of compound, whether organic or inorganic, and its characteristics of hydrosolubility and liposolubility, which determines its

  16. Blindagens cerâmicas para aplicações balísticas: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. da Silva; D. Stainer; H. A. Al-Qureshi; D. Hotza

    2014-01-01

    A combinação de propriedades físicas e mecânicas qualificam as cerâmicas para aplicações em sistemas de proteção balística. Materiais cerâmicos normalmente formam a primeira camada de um sistema de blindagem mista, recebendo o impacto inicial do projétil, e dissipando grande parte da energia cinética ao fragmentar o projétil. Os principais materiais cerâmicos para blindagem balística são a alumina, o carbeto de silício e o carbeto de boro. Novas técnicas de processamento de materiais cerâmico...

  17. Determining Balıkesir’s Energy Potential Using a Regression Analysis Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power and wind energy are used concurrently during specific periods, while at other times only the more efficient is used, and hybrid systems make this possible. When establishing a hybrid system, the extent to which these two energy sources support each other needs to be taken into account. This paper is a study of the effects of wind speed, insolation levels, and the meteorological parameters of temperature and humidity on the energy potential in Balıkesir, in the Marmara region of Turkey. The relationship between the parameters was studied using a multiple linear regression method. Using a designed-for-purpose computer program, two different regression equations were derived, with wind speed being the dependent variable in the first and insolation levels in the second. The regression equations yielded accurate results. The computer program allowed for the rapid calculation of different acceptance rates. The results of the statistical analysis proved the reliability of the equations. An estimate of identified meteorological parameters and unknown parameters could be produced with a specified precision by using the regression analysis method. The regression equations also worked for the evaluation of energy potential.

  18. Optical and spectroscopic properties of Eu2O3 doped CaBAl glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, G. H. A.; Dias, J. D. M.; Lodi, T. A.; Barboza, M. J.; Pedrochi, F.; Steimacher, A.

    2016-04-01

    Eu2O3 doped CaBAL glasses (x Eu2O3) - (25-x) CaO - (50) B2O3 - (15) Al2O3 - (10) CaF2 (x = 0, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 wt%) were prepared by using conventional melt-quenching and studied by means of density measurements, refractive index, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetime. The results are discussed in terms of Eu2O3 content. The incorporation of Eu2O3 leads to an increase in the electronic polarizability and the refractive index. A linear increase with Eu2O3 content was observed in the optical absorption coefficient at 394 nm. The luminescence spectra present typical Eu3+ emission and do not present quenching up to 10 wt%. The luminescence ratio R/O I(5D0 → 7F2)/I(5D0 → 7F1) presents an increase with Eu2O3 doping; it indicates a reduction in local symmetry around the Eu3+ ions. The CIE 1931 diagram presents a red shift and an increase of color purity with Eu2O3 addition. The luminescence as a function of temperature shows an increase of 25% in the luminescence intensity for the Eu0.5 sample, at 592 nm. The radiative lifetime at 614 nm shows an exponential decay due to the reduction of the interionic distance Eu3+ - Eu3+ and the increase of the ion-ion interaction.

  19. The Host Galaxies of LoBAL QSOs at Low z: A Perspective from HST UVIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Wyatt Alan; Lazarova, Mariana; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    We present GALFIT models of a complete optically-selected volume-limited sample of Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) in the redshift range 0.5-0.6 observed with HST WFC3 UVIS F475W. We investigate the morphologies in the rest frame u which map the younger stellar populations. In addition, we present statistics on the number of neighborhood galaxies within 150 kpc and possible trends between clustering and host galaxy properties. This sample of LoBALs is selected from QSOs characterized by their extreme blue-shifted absorption in the Mg II line—which is a signature of high velocity winds towards the observer. Only ~1-3% of optically selected QSOs are LoBALs. Their low fraction could be explained by their orientation or by a short period of outflow manifest in all QSOs during their lifetime. We aim to better understand the possibility of the evolutionary model by studying their morphologies in detail. Previous work on this sample, from images with F125W filter (rest frame i), shows that at least 60% of these objects exhibit signs of recent merger activity. We complement those results with our results from the UVIS observations and neighborhood clustering statistics.

  20. Blindagens cerâmicas para aplicações balísticas: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A combinação de propriedades físicas e mecânicas qualificam as cerâmicas para aplicações em sistemas de proteção balística. Materiais cerâmicos normalmente formam a primeira camada de um sistema de blindagem mista, recebendo o impacto inicial do projétil, e dissipando grande parte da energia cinética ao fragmentar o projétil. Os principais materiais cerâmicos para blindagem balística são a alumina, o carbeto de silício e o carbeto de boro. Novas técnicas de processamento de materiais cerâmicos além do modelamento do mecanismo de fratura sob alto impacto energético são áreas que têm sido amplamente investigadas. Desenvolvimentos em particular na área de compósitos de matriz cerâmica, reforçados com fibras ou com base na transformação por tenacificação abrem novas perspectivas de uso e de melhor desempenho de sistemas de proteção balística a base de materiais cerâmicos.

  1. Aplicaci??n de fluorocromos para el estudio de la viabilidad de las Bacterias ??cido L??cticas (BAL) presentes en productos l??cteos

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO Y.; Hern??ndez, M.; Collado, M. C.; Herna??ndez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Se estudi?? la viabilidad de las Bacterias ??cido L??cticas (BAL) procedentes de diversas leches fermentadas de origen comercial, almacenadas en refrigeraci??n a 4??C. Las bacterias viables y cultivables fueron enumeradas en los medios TPY (Bifidobacterias), MRS (Lactobacilos) y M17 (Estreptococos). Los recuentos totales (viables y muertas) se llevaron a cabo mediante el uso del sistema comercial LIVE/DEAD?? Bac LightTM VIABILITY. La viabilidad de las BAL fue estudiada antes y des...

  2. Heavy metal induced oxidative stress & its possible reversal by chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Mittal, Megha; Mehta, Ashish

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to heavy metals is a common phenomenon due to their environmental pervasiveness. Metal intoxication particularly neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity is widely known. This review summarizes our current understanding about the mechanism by which metalloids or heavy metals (particularly arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury) induce their toxic effects. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The toxic manifestations of these metals are caused primarily due to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis which is termed as oxidative stress. Besides these metals have high affinity for thiol groups containing enzymes and proteins, which are responsible for normal cellular defense mechanism. Long term exposure to these metals could lead to apoptosis. Signaling components affected by metals include growth factor receptors, G-proteins, MAP kinases and transcription factors. Chelation therapy with chelating agents like calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA), British Anti Lewisite (BAL), sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) etc., is considered to be the best known treatment against metal poisoning. Despite many years of research we are still far away from effective treatment against toxicity caused due to exposure to heavy metals/metalloids. The treatment with these chelating agents is compromised with number of serious side-effects. Studies show that supplementation of antioxidants along-with a chelating agent prove to be a better treatment regimen than monotherapy with chelating agents. This review attempts a comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on heavy metal poisoning particularly the role of oxidative stress/free radicals in the toxic manifestation, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with chelating agents and a

  3. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  4. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  5. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  6. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  7. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Алексеевич Есипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13

  8. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...... of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  9. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  10. Pacto poético e Internet: el caso de Cristóbal "Tobi" Kanashiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Granados

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pacto poético alude, obviamente, al concepto de “pacto autobiográfico” acuñado por Philippe Lejeune. Internet, al medio por el cual se ha difundido esta experiencia poético-autobiográfica centrada en poemas y entrevistas concedidos por un tal Cristóbal “Tobi” Kanashiro. Y, por último, propiamente el caso de este sujeto o agente inventado, entre alumnos y profesor, en el marco de un curso denominado “Literatura”, para la Facultad de Arte de la PUC del Perú (semestre académico I, marzo-julio, 2010. El presente ensayo, más que ahondar o debatir los problemas teóricos inherentes a la autobiografía -al que este tipo de experiencia invita, sobre todo, en cuanto aquello de la identidad real del autor-, trata más bien de establecer o poner en paralelo los requisitos del pacto autobiográfico con -y esta es la hipótesis que intentaremos demostrar- las exigencias propias, asimismo, a una recepción productiva o eficaz en el campo de la poesía. Relación entre productor y lector, esta última, a la que vamos denominando “acto poético”. Productores de Kanashiro que dialécticamente fuimos, además, lectores de primera mano. El presente trabajo, por lo tanto, utilizará como fuente fundamental de análisis los testimonios de los alumnos involucrados en dicha experiencia.

  11. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  12. British advice for the Dutch natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief impression is given of the Netherlands Energy Congress, which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in December 1999. Many speakers were British which compared the liberalization process of the Dutch natural gas market with the British experiences

  13. British or American English? A Survey on Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Svanhildur Sif Halldórsdóttir 1985

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to determine whether Icelanders use more British English or American English in their speech. British English is taught in most compulsory and secondary schools in Iceland but most English input comes from the United States. The research shows that males are more likely to use British English in their speech than females. They are also better at determining whether a sentence is written in British English or American English. The research indicates that older partici...

  14. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  15. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  16. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  17. An American on a British Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大川

    2004-01-01

    A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-

  18. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. In addition, it participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. This report notes that the most significant development in 2000 was the sharp increase in the continental market price for natural gas, and in the winter spot price spikes in the west from southern British Columbia to California. As a result, the Commission had to approve large rate increases for BC gas customers. These high prices had a marked impact on cost of living and operating costs. In British Columbia, electricity rates are based on the cost of generation, transmission and distribution. Electricity rates have been, and will continue to be frozen for B.C. Hydro customers until October 2001. The Commission has instituted transmission access principles and tariffs for B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power to make it possible for these utilities to participate in regional electricity markets. The report also noted that the movement toward increased competition and deregulation of electricity markets in British Columbia has lost momentum, given the experiences in California and Alberta. tabs., figs

  19. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  20. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  1. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  2. A very British spectacle? : critical reception of the fantasy genre within contemporary British cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...

  3. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, A; Khanam, S.; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...

  4. Urinary Concentrations and Antibacterial Activity of BAL30072, a Novel Siderophore Monosulfactam, against Uropathogens after Intravenous Administration in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Marion; Blenk, Holger; Naber, Kurt G; Wagenlehner, Florian M E

    2016-06-01

    This annex study to a phase 1 study aimed to correlate urinary concentrations and bactericidal titers (UBTs) of BAL30072, a novel siderophore monosulfactam, in healthy subjects in order to evaluate which dosage of BAL30072 should be investigated in a clinical study on complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Three cohorts of a total of 19 healthy male subjects were included in the add-on study and received the following BAL30072 dosages. The 1st cohort received 1 g once a day (q.d.) intravenously (i.v.) (1 h) on day 1 and 1 g thrice daily (t.i.d.) on day 2, the 2nd cohort received 2 g q.d. i.v. (1 h) on day 1 and 2 g t.i.d. on day 2, and the 3rd cohort received 1 g q.d. i.v. (4-h infusion) on day 8. Urine was collected up to 24 h after drug administration. UBTs were determined for seven Escherichia coli isolates (three wild type [WT], CTX-M-15, TEM-3, TEM-5, NDM-1), two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (WT, KPC), one Proteus mirabilis isolate (WT), and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (WT, VIM-1 plus AmpC). Urine drug concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The median urinary excretions of BAL30072 ranged between 38% and 46% (3 cohorts). The median UBTs after i.v. administration of 1 or 2 g q.d. and after 1 or 2 g t.i.d. showed positive UBTs for 24 h after the lowest dosage (1 g q.d.) for 5 of 7 of the Enterobacteriaceae strains and after the higher dosage of 2 g administered i.v. t.i.d. for all strains tested. After i.v. infusion of 1 g over 4 h, positive UBTs were demonstrated for three E. coli strains for up to 12 h, for the K. pneumoniae (KPC) strain for up to 8 h, and for the P. aeruginosa (VIM-1 plus AmpC) strain for up to only 4 h. The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the E. coli (NDM-1) strain and the K. pneumoniae (WT) strain correlated well between broth and urine but did not correlate well for the two P. aeruginosa strains. BAL30072 exhibits positive UBTs for 24 h even after a dosage of 1

  5. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  6. Inflammatory cells and activation markers in BAL during acute rejection and infection in lung transplant recipients: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, G C; Kjellström, C; Ryd, W; Scherstén, H; Nilsson, F; Mårtensson, G; Andersson, B A

    1997-08-01

    Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a clinical problem, since it decreases graft survival and predisposes the patient to chronic rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). In an earlier study, we had indications that eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) from activated eosinophils and hyaluronan (HYA) from fibroblasts were associated with acute pulmonary rejection. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether molecules from activated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could serve as clinically useful diagnostic markers for acute rejection. BAL fluid from 138 bronchoscopies performed in 10 single lung, four bilateral lung and five heart-lung transplant recipients were analysed. Nine patients were studied for a period of more than 1 yr (mean 13.4 months) after surgery. Differential cell counts were made from the BAL fluid. ECP, myeloperoxidase (MPO), HYA and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were used as indirect markers for activation and attraction of eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts, respectively. Fifty four episodes of acute rejection were diagnosed. Two patients developed OB. Nine episodes of bacterial infection, 13 episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis, three of Pneumocystis carinii infection and one of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection were diagnosed. The mean levels of ECP, MPO, HYA and IL-8 were all higher during rejection episodes, but differences were not statistically significant compared to no rejection, when the confounding factors of time, concomitant infection, and repeated measures in the same individual had been accounted for. We could not confirm that measurements of eosinophil cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, hyaluronan and interleukin-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid can be used as diagnostic markers for acute rejection in the postoperative follow-up of lung transplant recipients. PMID:9272913

  7. Persistent high BAL fluid granulocyte activation marker levels as early indicators of bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, G C; Andersson, B A; Kjellström, C; Martensson, G; Nilsson, F N; Ryd, W; Scherstén, H

    1999-11-01

    The major cause of mortality in the long-term in lung transplant recipients is chronic rejection. This is a fibroproliferative process in the small airways leading to obliterative bronchiolitis and progressive loss of lung function, both constituting the clinical entity bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Granulocyte activation has been implicated as one factor behind BOS. Granulocyte markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were prospectively and longitudinally studied in order to identify possible association with BOS. BAL fluid from 266 bronchoscopy procedures performed in twelve single lung, eight bilateral lung and five heart/lung transplant recipients were analysed. The majority (19 of 25) were studied for a period of 2 yrs after surgery. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were used as indirect markers of activation and attraction of granulocytes. Five patients developed BOS. Ninety-eight episodes of acute rejection, nine of bacterial infection, 19 of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, nine of Pneumocystis carinii infection, two of aspergillus infection and two of respiratory syncytial virus infection were diagnosed. BOS patients had significantly higher mean levels of MPO, ECP and IL-8 compared to patients without BOS, irrespective of acute rejection status. Over time, the five patients with BOS had significantly elevated BAL fluid levels of MPO and ECP as well as neutrophil percentages, and in four patients this increase preceded the clinical diagnosis of BOS by several months. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil percentage as well as levels of the granulocyte activation markers myeloperoxidase and eosinophil cationic protein appear to be early signs of development of BOS in lung transplant recipients. PMID:10596701

  8. Bartomeu Robert i Yarz??bal (1842-1902). Medicina i comprom??s c??vic

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Ballester, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    La present tesi doctoral estudia la biografia del metge i dirigent catalanista Bartomeu Robert Yarz??bal.Figura destacada de la Catalunya de finals del segle XIX i comen??aments del XX, el doctor Robert va ser considerat com un dels metges m??s prestigiosos de la seva ??poca i com un excel??lent professor universitari. Cal destacar, tamb??, el seu paper com a renovador de les infrastructures hospitalaries i docents catalanes.Tanmateix, si per alguna ra?? ha passat a la posteritat el doctor Ro...

  9. Estructura territorial del turismo en San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es revelar la estructura territorial del turismo en la ciudad de San Cristóbal de Las Casas, en el estado de Chiapas, México. La investigación se compone de dos secciones: la primera esboza la base natural, histórica y social que soporta el crecimiento turístico en el área en estudio; la segunda identifica los elementos en torno a los que se organiza el turismo en el territorio: los recursos y servicios turísticos, los canales espaciales de circulaci...

  10. El aporte de Aníbal Ponce a la crítica del humanismo moderno

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Llorente

    2013-01-01

    En Humanismo burgués y humanismo proletario, publicado por primera vez en 1938, Aníbal Ponce examina dos concepciones contrapuestas del humanismo. Entre los muchos méritos del estudio de Ponce se pueden destacar tres en particular. En primer lugar, el análisis de Ponce pone de manifiesto que el humanismo del Renacimiento (“humanismo burgués”) no sólo se ha prestado a usos ideológicos, sino que surgió por primera vez precisamente en la forma de una ideología. En segundo lugar, pone de manifies...

  11. Sobre la recepción de la obra piagetiana en Argentina: el caso de Aníbal Ponce

    OpenAIRE

    Tau, Ramiro; Yacuzzi, Luciana; Ribeiro, Ana

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo se propone revisar algunas vías de recepción de la obra piagetiana en Argentina, principalmente a partir de la figura de un actor clave y representativo de una generación de nuestro país: Aníbal Norberto Ponce. Partimos de la hipótesis que afirma que en Argentina, la obra de la Escuela de Ginebra ha sido recepcionada principalmente con un doble interés convalidante. Por una parte, el de la fundamentación teórica que las hipótesis piagetianas aportaron a la pedagogía nueva; por o...

  12. Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.%Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyu LUO; Yecheng DENG; Yongmei LIAO; Ruiyu LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the relationship between biological characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and pathogenicity to Bombyx rnori L, with the aim to provide scientific basis for the control of white muscardine in Bombyx mori L. [Method] The strains isolated and purified from the 6 Beauveria bassiana biocontrol agents from all over the country and the 3 white muscardine silkworms collected from Guangxi provincial silkworm rearing areas were identified by the morphological observation and molecular biology technology. The pathogenicity of B. bassaina to silkworms was determined, and the biological characteristics such as growth diameter, sporulation and the extracellular protease activity of the different B. bassiana strains were compared. [Result] The isolated 9 strains were all B. bassaina (Bals.) Vuillemin, and all strains had high pathogenicity to silkworm, but with different pathogenicities. The growth diameter, sporulation and extracellular protease activity of different B. bassiana strains were also different, and showed correlation with the patheogenicity to silkworms. [Conclusion] B. bassiana spores production amount and exocellular protease activity had significant positive correlation with their pathogenicity to silkworm.

  13. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  14. Detection and qualitative identification of mineral fibers and particles in alveolar macrophages of BAL fluid by SEM and EDXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, F; Iavarone, M; Skrimpas, S; Mazzarella, G; Sanduzzi, A

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic dust inhalation diseases represent one of the most important chapters in respiratory medicine because of their diagnostic, therapeutic, legal, ecological and social implications. While, in fact, toxic substances inhalation may be easily related to particular occupations, it is more difficult to recognize the potential damage represented by occasional and fortuitous exposition due to pollution of one's living environment. The aim of this study was to suggest a useful investigative method for detecting the presence of mineral substances (dusts and fibers) in the lung in pulmonary fibrosis of uncertain origin. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and semi-quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDXA) on broncholaveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum samples of 10 patients, all males, aged 41-66 years, smokers, affected by interstitial lung disease. Two subjects had a negative professional anamnesis while the other 8 declared a potential exposition to inorganic toxic dusts: 2 subjects were involved in the production of asbestos-containing building materials, 2 were miners, 1 a ceramic worker, and 3 insulating materials handlers. Data are reported on the detection of asbestos bodies, vitreous fibers and silica content of alveolar macrophages in BAL fluid. PMID:12619383

  15. A near-solar metallicity damped Lyman-alpha system toward the BAL quasar Tol 1037-2703

    CERN Document Server

    Srianand, R

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) outflow in the spectrum of Tol 1037-2703 with three main BALs at 36000, 25300 and 22300~\\kms outflow velocities. Although the overall flow is dominated by high ionization lines like and C IV, the gas of highest velocity shows absorption from Mg I, Mg II and Fe II. Covering factor arguments suggest that the absorbing complexes are physically associated with the QSO and have transverse dimensions smaller than that of the UV continuum emitting region (r<0.1 pc). We show that the C IV absorption at \\zabs=2.082 has a covering factor $\\sim$ 0.86 and the absorption profile has varied over the last four years. The detection of absorption from excited fine structure levels of C II and Si II in narrow components embedded in the C IV trough reveals large density inhomogeneities. IR pumping is the most likely excitation process. The \\zabs=2.139 system is a damped system with log N(H I) ~ 19.7. The weakness of the metal lines together with the high quality of the...

  16. Terkos Gölü'ndeki Bazı Balıklarda (Cyprinidae) Piscicola geometra L., 1761 Enfestasyonun Mevsimsel Dağılımı

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRTAŞ, Murat; Şenel, Ünal

    2012-01-01

    ÖZET : Bu çalışma Eylül 2009 - Ağustos 2010 tarihleri arasında Terkos Gölü'nde yaşayan Cyprinidae famiyasına ait (Abramis brama L., 1758, Cyprinus carpio L., 1758, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, L., 1758, ve Tinca tinca L., 1758) bazı balıklarda görülen Piscicola geometra L., 1761 faunasının mevsimsel olarak dağılışını incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince 161 A. brama, 132 C. carpio, 166 S. erythrophthalmus ve 165 T. tinca olmak üzere toplam 624 balık örneği incelenmiştir. Balıkla...

  17. Digital preservation at the British Library

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyard, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the comprehensive coverage, recording and preservation of the UK national published output is one of the British Library’s key responsibilities. A significant proportion of the Library’s cultural heritage collections will be in digital formats and require long term access, so the Library has to be at the forefront of national and international efforts to develop digital preservation. The Library is addressing digital preservation by establishing policy, negotiating and legally obtain...

  18. Care credits in the British pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...

  19. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    D.R. Seip; D.B. Cichowski

    1996-01-01

    The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces) populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus). Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitat...

  20. Nostalgia versus Feminism in British Costume Drama

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Sibel ÇELİK

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the phenomenon of (mainly British) costume drama during the last twenty-five years and the theoretical debate surrounding the socalled 'heritage' film. Critics of the 1980s and 1990s saw in the heritage film an attempt to exploit the nostalgic and conservative appeal of the historical costume drama in order to support the Thatcherite political project of redefining and reorientating national identity. Yet the costume drama, with its independently-minded heroines and its sh...

  1. The Differences between British and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进

    2012-01-01

    English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.

  2. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  3. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  4. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  5. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  6. The parliamentary representation of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...

  7. British interests in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ellerby, Clive Richard.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the circumstances which influenced the policy of the British Government towards the decolonization of the Falklands from 1945 to 1989. A comprehensive approach to the subject enabled an examination of the inter-relationship between the various forces which defined the nature of the dilemma. The themes included economic development, the form of landownership in the Colony, Falkland polit...

  8. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  9. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  10. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  11. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  12. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Service International Research Unit, Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  13. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  14. Balão Térmico para Ablação Endometrial: Resultados Preliminares Endometrial Ablation Using a Thermal Balloon: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Viscomi; João Alfredo Martins; Marilice Pastore; Rogério Dias; Laurival DeLuca

    2000-01-01

    Objetivos: os autores mostram a experiência preliminar com o uso do balão térmico para ablação do endométrio em pacientes com queixas de menorragia. Pacientes e Métodos: foram submetidas a este procedimento 20 pacientes. Após exame pélvico completo e ultra-sonografia endovaginal, todas as pacientes foram submetidas à histeroscopia diagnóstica com biópsia de endométrio para excluir causas de malignidade. Das 20 pacientes que se submeteram ao tratamento com balão térmico, 16 foram submetidas em...

  15. Efficient near diffraction limited blue light source by sum-frequency mixing of a BAL and a solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and slow axis of the diode, respectively. The BAL output beam is single-passed through a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal placed in an intra-cavity beam waist of a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 laser, resulting in 100 mW of sum-frequency generated blue output power. This corresponds to a power conversion...... efficiency of 15%. The near diffraction limited blue output beam is measured to have an M-2 of 1.2 and 1.7 in the directions corresponding to the fast and slow axis of the BAL diode, respectively....

  16. Configuraciones nómadas en la poesía de María Victoria Reyzábal

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe Ugalde, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    En este estudio se utiliza el nomadismo, formulado por Gilles Deleuze y Felix Guattari, Rosi Braidotti y Pierre Joris, para indagar la trayectoria poética de María Victoria Reyzábal (Madrid, 1944). Ser nómada es desentenderse del centro y abandonar el deseo unidireccional del dominio. Por una parte, Reyzábal denuncia el contexto socio-histórico circundante en que predomina una estructura jerárquica excluyente, destructora del ser íntimo y del bien colectivo y, por otra, deambula por ...

  17. Uso del “balón con cuchillas” para la ampliación de una comunicación interauricular restrictiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Spillmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de una comunicación interauricular no restrictiva es obligatoria para mantener un gasto cardíaco adecuado o para lograr una mezcla de sangre aceptable en algunos pacientes portadores de cardiopatías congénitas complejas.Describimos un paciente en quien luego de un intento fallido de dilatación estática con balón de una comunicación interauricular restrictiva se utilizó un balón con cuchillas con éxito para su ampliación.

  18. Percepción sobre el control prenatal de las gestantes adolescentes en la E.S.E San Cristóbal, Bogotá 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Palacios, Andrea del Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar la percepción que tienen las gestantes adolescentes con relación al control prenatal, en el Hospital San Cristóbal de Bogotá. Diseño metodológico: Estudio cualitativo, exploratorio, con enfoque hermenéutico, realizado mediante la técnica de análisis de contenido a las entrevistas semi-estructuradas de 12 gestantes adolescentes que asisten al control prenatal en la Empresa Social del Estado San Cristóbal de la ciudad de Bogotá, 2012. Resultados: Del análisis emergieron 5 c...

  19. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  20. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  1. Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  2. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Joshi; Dylan Kneale

    2008-01-01

    This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of pos...

  3. The Present Perfect and Preterite in British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Dea Žetko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our article is to present the selected results of the research which was conducted for the purpose of our master’s thesis. We focused on the transfer of the functions of the present perfect into the domain of the preterite in informal British and American English. We put together a British and an American corpus and analysed the differences and similarities between British and American English in this transfer. We examined some factors that may influence this transfer either ...

  4. Sistema dinâmico combinado para balística/absorção de ondas de choque

    OpenAIRE

    Loura, Amélia Raquel Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Propõe-se neste trabalho apresentar uma solução para acomodar a onda de pressão que resulta da rápida libertação de energia armazenada em gás (ar) comprimido, num canhão balístico. Esta solução é necessária para garantir a segurança do utilizador e das infra-estruturas circundantes. A solução adoptada consiste num acréscimo de volume ao canhão, conferido por um reservatório sob pressão que se designou por reservatório de expansão são. Foram abordados fundamentos termodinâmic...

  5. Aquisição e Processamento de Imagens de Microscopia em Balística Forense

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Tiago Miguel Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    As novas tecnologias aplicadas ao processamento de imagem e reconhecimento de padrões têm sido alvo de um grande progresso nas últimas décadas. A sua aplicação é transversal a diversas áreas da ciência, nomeadamente a área da balística forense. O estudo de evidências (invólucros e projeteis) encontradas numa cena de crime, recorrendo a técnicas de processamento e análise de imagem, é pertinente pelo facto de, aquando do disparo, as armas de fogo imprimirem marcas únicas nos invólucros e projé...

  6. Lesões típicas e seus epônimos em balística forense

    OpenAIRE

    Durão, C.; Salles Machado, MP

    2015-01-01

    Os epônimos são parte da história da Medicina e representam, sobretudo, uma homenagem aos pioneiros na descrição de um sinal, doença, técnica, manobra ou estrutura anatômica. Este trabalho tem como objetivo revisar a literatura médico-legal clássica e apresentar epônimos referentes aos resultados mais significativos da balística terminal. Os epônimos podem facilitar a comunicação entre os peritos, encurtando a descrição, mas não deve ser utilizado em relatórios que irão ser lido por leigos, u...

  7. Making sense of British newspaper campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...

  8. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  9. Battleships and British Society, 1920-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    This article will explore the image of the Royal Navy’s battleships in British society between 1920 and 1960. Although much of what follows might be said to apply to Royal Navy as a whole, particularly ‘glamorous’ vessels such as aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers, it is the contention of this piece that the Royal Navy’s battleships by virtue of their sheer size and power captured the public imagination more than any other type of warship. The study of the image of the battleship in p...

  10. A history of British Assemblies of God

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, William K.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...

  11. Twenty New Records for Turkish Freshwater Algal Flora from Çaygören and Ikizcetepeler Reservoirs (Balıkesir, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Sevindik, Tuğba Ongun; Çelik, Kemal; Gönülol, Arif

    2011-01-01

    Twenty new records for freshwater algal flora of Turkey were determined in the study conducted from February 2007 to January 2009 in Ikizcetepeler and Çaygören Reservoirs, Balıkesir, Turkey. Among these new records, 4 were Bacillariophyta, 7 were Chlorophyta, 3 were Streptophyta, 1 was Cryptophyta, 3 were Dinophyta, 1 was Euglenophyta and 1 was Heterokontophyta.

  12. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  13. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  14. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  15. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate.

  16. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  17. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  18. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  19. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  20. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  1. Utilidade do Ultrassom intracardíaco no isolamento de veias pulmonares usando cateter-balão a laser Utilidad del ultrasonido intracardíaco en el aislamiento de venas pulmonares usando catéter-balón láser Utility of intracardiac ultrasound imaging to guide pulmonary vein ablation using laser balloon catheter

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Leite; Wilber Su; Johnson, Susan B.; Mark Milton; Benhur Henz; Alvaro Sarabanda; Santos, Simone N.; Packer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: O isolamento das veias pulmonares (IVP) tem sido usado como endpoint para a ablação da fibrilação atrial (FA) com cateter balão. OBJETIVO: Determinar a utilidade do ultrassom intracardíaco (USIC) para guiar o IVP, usando cateter balão a laser. MÉTODOS: 59 VP foram ablacionadas em 27 cães. Imagens de Doppler foram usadas para identificar os vazamentos do fluxo sanguíneo entre a VP e o balão. Após cada liberação de energia, o cateter de mapeamento circular foi reposicionado para ver...

  2. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  3. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    Britain's race for Africa continues to draw significant scholarly interest. Traditionally, studies have focused on well-documented figures such as explorers, missionaries and capitalists. Working against the trend, this is the first book to concentrate solely on the role of engineers. It analyses...... the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen...... reconstructs the networks and activities of Britain's engineers while focusing on London as a centre of imperial expansion. By treating Britain and the empire as an interconnected zone heanalyses the ways in whichideas , people and technologies circulated during the critical period....

  4. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  5. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  6. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  9. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  10. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  11. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  12. British vs American English : Pronunciation in the EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Today English is a world language; it is spoken by millions both as first and second language almost all over the world. The varieties best known to Swedish pupils are the varieties British and American English. Another variety of English, which is spoken by both native and non-native speakers, is a mixture of British English and American English called Mid-Atlantic English. As long as the English language has been a part of the Swedish curriculum, the leading variety taught has been British ...

  13. GURKHA IN THE BRITISH ARMY : A HISTORICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL KUMAR POKHAREL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of Gorkhali men's recruit in the British Army is about two centuries long. Its history can be traced from the time of colonial India. When Anglo-Nepal war was took place in 1814-16 British surprised by seeing their fighting capacities. During the course of two great wars Gorkhali proved them as a warrior races and it was followed by in the Falkland war too. So, this article is written in the periphery of recruitment of Gorkhali people in to the British army and it gives its historical knowledge to the readers in some extent.

  14. BAL PHOSPHORUS ABUNDANCE AND EVIDENCE FOR IMMENSE IONIC COLUMN DENSITIES IN QUASAR OUTFLOWS: VLT/X-SHOOTER OBSERVATIONS OF QUASAR SDSS J1512+1119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow in quasar SDSS J1512+1119. In particular, we focus our attention on a kinematic component in which we identify P V and S IV/S IV* absorption troughs. The shape of the unblended phosphorus doublet troughs and the three S IV/S IV* troughs allow us to obtain reliable column density measurements for these two ions. Photoionization modeling using these column densities and those of He I* constrain the abundance of phosphorus to the range of 0.5-4 times the solar value. The total column density, ionization parameter, and metallicity inferred from the P V and S IV column densities lead to large optical depth values for the common transition observed in BAL outflows. We show that the true C IV optical depth is ∼1000 times greater in the core of the absorption profile than the value deduced from its apparent optical depth.

  15. Diseño de una linea de producción de vinagres balsámicos de Pedro Ximénez y derivados

    OpenAIRE

    Tirve Valencia, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    En el presente Proyecto Fin de Carrera se diseñará una línea de producción de Vinagre Balsámico de Pedro Ximénez ecológico y derivados, como la crema balsámica. La creciente demanda local y mundial de este tipo de productos de alto valor añadido, unido a los excedentes de producción de vinos que se está dando en los últimos años en la comarca del Jerez, hacen que la diversificación hacia este tipo de productos sea una alternativa a tener en cuenta. La elaboración del vina...

  16. Sudak (Stizostedion lucioperca L., 1758) Balığının Gastrointestinal Kanalının Histokimyasal Yapısı

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENOL, Nurgül; Eren, Ülker; Çınar, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    Özet: Bu çalışmada sudak (Stizostedion lucioperca) balığının mide ve bağırsak bölgelerinin histokimyasal yapısının belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Sudakların mide (kardiya, fundus, pilorus) ile ilk, orta ve son bağırsaklarından doku örnekleri alınıp, gastrointestinal mukosubstans özelliklerinin belirlenmesi için histokimyasal boyama yöntemleri uygulandı. Uygulanan histokimyasal boyama yöntemlerinin, sudak balığının çalışılan tüm bölgelerinde reaksiyon verdiği saptandı. Asidik mukosubstansın mid...

  17. On the Covering Fraction Variability in an EUV Mini-BAL Outflow from PG 1206+459

    CERN Document Server

    Muzahid, Sowgat; Charlton, Jane; Eracleous, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first detection of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) absorption variability in the NeVIII 770,780 mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL) in the spectrum of the quasar (QSO) PG 1206+459. The observed equivalent width (EW) of the NeVIII doublet show a ~4 sigma variation over a timescale of 2.8 months in the QSO's rest-frame. Both members of the NeVIII doublet exhibit non-black saturation, indicating partial coverage of the continuum source. An increase in the NeVIII covering fraction from f_c = 0.59\\pm0.05 to 0.72\\pm0.03 is observed over the same period. The NeVIII profiles are too highly saturated to be susceptible to changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas. In fact, we do not observe any significant variation in the EW and/or column density after correcting the spectra for partial coverage. We, thus, propose transverse motions of the absorbing gas being the cause of the observed variability. Using a simple model of a transiting cloud we estimate a transverse speed of ~1800 km/s. For Keple...

  18. Juan Cristóbal Gundlach’s collections of Puerto Rican birds with special regard to types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Frahnert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Juan Cristóbal Gundlach (1810–1896 conducted, while a resident of Cuba, two expeditions to Puerto Rico in 1873 and 1875–6, where he explored the southwestern, western, and northeastern regions of this island. Gundlach made representative collections of the island’s fauna, which formed the nucleus of the first natural history museums in Puerto Rico. When the natural history museums closed, only a few specimens were passed to other institutions, including foreign museums. None of Gundlach’s and few of his contemporaries’ specimens have survived in Puerto Rico. We located 191 bird specimens (43 species collected there by Gundlach, all of which are in foreign institutions, especially Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Here we list all located specimens and include data associated with them. Six new species were described out of the Gundlach collections from Puerto Rico, three of which are still taxonomically recognized today. Information about the types of those taxa is given.

  19. Bal, Süt ve Yumurta Filmlerinin Erikson’un Psikososyal Gelişim Kuramı Açısından Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Morsünbül, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and significance: Psychology and cinema try to focus on human behaviors although they have different characteristics. They are fields that benefit from each other. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development is one of the most important approaches to explain life-span development. Eight stages were defined in the Theory of Psychosocial Development. Individuals experience crises in each stage and they have to solve these crises. The purpose of this study is to analyze the Bal (Honey),...

  20. Regionalisation of Nitrogen Balances with the CAPRI Model (RegNiBal): Pilot project in support of the Eurostat Working Group on Agri-Environmental Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    OZBEK FETHI SABAN; Leip, Adrian; WEISS FRANZ; CARMONA GARCIA GEMA; ALTOBELLI Filiberto; GRASSART Laurence; HOFMEIER Maximilian; KUKUCKA Miroslav; PALLOTTI Annalisa; PATAY Agnes; THUEN Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The report presents the results of the pilot project “Regionalisation of Gross Nitrogen Balances with the CAPRI model” (RegNiBal), which was carried out by Joint Research Centre in cooperation with Eurostat and delegates from the volunteering countries (France, Germany, Hungary and Italy). The objective of the pilot project was to evaluate the differences between national Eurostat/OECD Gross Nitrogen Balances (GNB) and the GNB calculated using the CAPRI model, with the overall goal of using t...

  1. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  2. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  3. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  4. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278. ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. The Ethical Perspective of British and American Preservice Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of responses from 38 U.S. and 27 British preservice teachers on the Ethics Position Questionnaire indicated that both groups had high idealism. U.S. teachers had lower relativism scores. (SK)

  6. Analysis of the British Commercial Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Memanova, Tamilyam

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on the economic evaluation of the British commercial real estate market and feasibility study of London’s inner-city office development. Thereby, synthesis of specialized literature and market researches, quantitative analysis of real estate indicators and study of financial viability of 20 Fenchurch Street project were implemented. Based on economic analysis, it was deduced that British commercial real estate markets are steadily recovering from recession start...

  7. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  8. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Lucy; Papacosta Olia; Whincup Peter; Haines Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were mea...

  9. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  10. British anarchism 1881-1914: reality and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Shpayer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...

  11. On Grammatical Differences between Daily British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhang; Zhaofeng Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The grammatical differences between daily British English and American English are mainly in terms of the usage of prepositions, auxiliary verbs, articles, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, and tense and subjunctive mood. These differences exert influence on English learning and interpersonal communication. This paper tries to illustrate the differences of grammar between British and American daily English based on the authors’ teaching experience and learning experience in the UK. By compari...

  12. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  13. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  14. Making of British India fictions, 1772-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...

  15. Remnants of Empire? British media reporting on Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the various ways in which the British media, and the broadsheets The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph in particular, have framed and represented events in Zimbabwe since 2000. It argues that representations of the situation in Zimbabwe have been largely struggles over meanings and definitions of the ‘crisis’ in the country. The extensive media coverage of Zimbabwe in the British media generated a significant amount of debate and this article demonstrates h...

  16. A nestbox trial for British marsh tits Poecile palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, Richard K.; Hinsley, Shelley A.

    2014-01-01

    Two experimental nestbox trials were attempted, which aimed to maximise uptake by Marsh Tits in British woodland. Nestboxes which more closely approximated the dimensions of natural cavities were used more frequently than standard nestboxes, but the overall uptake was low. We conclude that nestboxes are an inefficient method of monitoring Marsh Tits, at least in the British context, and researchers should concentrate efforts on locating and monitoring natural nest sites.

  17. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  18. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  19. Climate change and health in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document described the models that scientists use to investigate the links between climate change and health. It then reviewed the evidence for possible impacts of climate change on human health. Most models conceptualize that climate change will affect the health of British Columbians directly through physical and biological pathways, and indirectly through complex socio-economic and environmental pathways. The direct physical and biological pathways will be the easiest to investigate, monitor and attribute to climate change, while the indirect socio-economic pathways will be more complex to investigate but will have the most impact. This document also provided guidance for a program of research and policy directions to better predict future impacts of climate change on health in BC and to enhance adaptation to these changes. The document suggested that basic research is needed to develop a made in BC model and infrastructure for climate change and health investigations. Currently, rural and remote forestry-dependent and Aboriginal communities in mountain pine infected zones are particularly vulnerable. However, it was concluded that although there is strong evidence for shifts in climate in BC, no direct evidence exists on the impact of climate change on human health in BC. refs., tabs., figs

  20. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  1. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  2. Appendix XXIX: Succession management in British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts

  3. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  4. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  5. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  6. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  7. The outlook for the natural gas industry in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During most of the 1980s, the natural gas industry in British Columbia languished. In 1980, a total of 218 natural gas wells were drilled in the portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin lying in northeastern British Columbia. By 1983, this number had fallen to only 19. In fact, the average number of gas wells drilled in British Columbia in the nine years following 1980 was only 48 per year. Yearly production during most of the 1980s was also far below levels seen in the previous decade. The outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry was developed making use of the analytical framework provided in the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model. Using the NARG model enables one to investigate flows of British Columbia natural gas to various markets as a component of the overall North American natural gas market. This paper reviews the appropriate background necessary to familiarize the reader with the natural gas industry in British Columbia and, following a brief description of the NARG model, provides preliminary results from the current research effort

  8. Introduction : from the British Tertiary into the future - modern perspectives on the British Palaeogene and North Atlantic Igneous provinces.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...

  9. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  10. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  11. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and

  12. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  13. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  14. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  15. Balão Térmico para Ablação Endometrial: Resultados Preliminares Endometrial Ablation Using a Thermal Balloon: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viscomi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: os autores mostram a experiência preliminar com o uso do balão térmico para ablação do endométrio em pacientes com queixas de menorragia. Pacientes e Métodos: foram submetidas a este procedimento 20 pacientes. Após exame pélvico completo e ultra-sonografia endovaginal, todas as pacientes foram submetidas à histeroscopia diagnóstica com biópsia de endométrio para excluir causas de malignidade. Das 20 pacientes que se submeteram ao tratamento com balão térmico, 16 foram submetidas em regime ambulatorial com anestesia local. O procedimento teve duração de 8 minutos e 30 segundos. Resultados: duas das 20 pacientes mostraram-se insatisfeitas, mantendo o quadro hemorrágico inalterado, e 18 pacientes referiram melhora da sintomatologia. Não houve complicações do procedimento. Conclusões: o uso do balão térmico para ablação endometrial mostrou-se seguro e eficaz para o tratamento da menorragia de causa benigna.Purpose: to evaluate thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: twenty patients were submitted to endometrial ablation using the thermal balloon device, between June 1996 and June 1997. Local anesthesia was used in 16 patients. The device was introduced into the uterine cavity. The duration of the procedure was 8 minutes and 30 seconds. Results: two patients (10% did not show improvement of the symptons. Eighteen patients (90% referred improvement of symptoms. There was no complication during and after the procedure. Conclusions: The thermal balloon seems to be safe and efficient in the management of menorrhagia.

  16. Baléares

    OpenAIRE

    Barceló, M.

    2013-01-01

    L’île de Majorque fut conquise en 209/902-903 par ῾Iṣām al Khawlānī sous l’émirat de l’omeyyade ῾Abd Allāh de Cordoue. Nous ignorons quand les autres îles de l’archipel furent occupées. Plusieurs Khawlānī furent wālī aux Iles jusqu’en 350/960-961 moment où ῾Abd al Raḥmān al-Nāṣir nomma à ce poste son mawla Muwaffaq. Aucun chronique, aucun texte géographique ne permet de savoir s’il y eut des migrations dans les îles dès après la conquête, venant de la Péninle ou du Maghreb. L’analyse toponymi...

  17. Determination of impact of urbanization on agricultural land and wetland land use in Balçovas' delta by remote sensing and GIS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Mustafa; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Kurucu, Yusuf; Altinbas, Unal; Esetlili, M Tolga; Gulgun, Bahriye

    2007-08-01

    Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of greet attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, deltas, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the Balçova Delta, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1957 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1957, 1976 and 1995 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2005, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Through this study, which aimed to reveal the characteristics of the areas of land already lost as well as the types of land use in the Balçova delta and to determine geographically the remaining areas in need of protection, local authorities were provided with the required data support. Balçova consists of flat and fertile wetland with mainly citrus-fruit orchards and flower-producing green houses. The marsh and lagoon system situated in the coastal areas of the delta provides a habitat for wild life, in particular birds. In the Balçova Delta, which provides feeding and resting for migratory birds, freshwater sources are of vital importance for fauna and flora. The settlement area, which in 1957 was 182 ha, increased 11-fold up to the year 2005 when it reached 2,141 ha. On the other hand, great losses were determined in farming land, olive groves, forest and in the marsh and lagoon system. This unsystematic and rapid urbanization occurring in the study region is not only causing the loss of important agricultural land and wetland, but also lasting water and soil pollution. PMID:17180418

  18. Surexploitation des ressources et dégradation de l’environnement face à la croissance touristique des Baléares ?

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Si les activités touristiques sont d’une grande importance pour les îles Baléares, elles influencent l’environnement, souvent négativement. Or, un environnement préservé exerce une grande attraction envers le touriste. Comment, dès lors, conserver un attrait touristique important, en respectant l’environnement et en préservant les ressources ? Comment peut-on, en la matière, obtenir un développement soutenable ? Les ressources et besoins en eau, l’impact des déchets liquides et solides résult...

  19. Subalternidad, hegemonía y resistencia en Balún Canán y Oficio de tinieblas de Rosario Castellanos

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstracto En esta tesis se ha estudiado la representación literaria del conflicto entre indígenas y ladinos en las novelas Balún Canán (1957) y Oficio de tinieblas (1962) escritas por la autora mexicana Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974). Las dos tramas o historias de estas novelas tienen como referente la Reforma Agraria (1936-1940) en la región de Chiapas en México. El objetivo central del trabajo fue analizar las novelas a la luz de los conceptos hegemonía, subalternidad, otredad, resiste...

  20. Factores asociados a complicaciones en enteroscopia de doble balón en una unidad de referencia : datos para la seguridad del paciente

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Delgado, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La enteroscopia de doble balón (EDB) es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y terapéutica endoscópica en el intestino delgado (ID) que no es accesible a la endoscopia convencional. Desde la aparición de la técnica en 2001 hasta la actualidad muchos aspectos en cuanto a seguridad y complicaciones han sido evaluados, describiéndose una tasa de complicaciones discretamente mayores que las derivadas de la endoscopia convencional situándose entre el 0,9-1,7%, llamó la atenc...

  1. The share of renewable energies in electricity generation - Interview wit= h Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the Renewable Energies Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this interview, Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the French Renewable Energies Association (SER), expresses his viewpoint concerning the French and European energy policies and in particular concerning the share of renewable energy sources in the 2020 prospects. Different aspects of these policies are debated: the impact of the development of renewable energies on power generation and electricity prices, the French policy of photovoltaic energy development, the problem of electricity storage, the development of solar projects in the Mediterranean area, and the employment in France in relation with the renewable energy industries. (J.S.)

  2. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....... interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...

  3. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  4. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  5. Love attitudes of white South African and British university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, C R

    1992-10-01

    The Munro-Adams Love Attitude Scale was administered to 133 randomly chosen final-year undergraduate White South African and British university students in this examination of their attitudes toward love, courtship, and marriage in relation to the observation that, although South African tertiary educational institutions exist within the authoritarian and restrictive culture of apartheid, they nevertheless are modeled on the British educational system, which has its roots deeply embedded within a politically democratic context. Results indicated that the South African sample's endorsement of the love attitude items was weaker, except for those pertaining to the power of love, than that of their British counterparts. In addition, the South African scores were lower than those previously reported in other similar cross-cultural research, and there was a differential ranking of the three love styles by the male and female subjects. PMID:1453693

  6. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  7. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifian MD

    2009-01-01

    change and convulsion. Because of his blood pressure which was 160/120 he was referred and admitted to the Pediatric Nephrology department. On arrival, for his hypotonia and the pink  discoloration of his fingers a diagnosis of Acrodynia (Pink disease was considered; his history showed that he has played with a ball of mercury, taken from a laboratory. He and his 2 siblings received British Anti Lewisite(BAL and D-penicillamin; at follow-up all symptoms had gradually disappeared and they are well now.Keywords:Mercury poisoning, Children, Renal complications, Hypertensive encephalopathy

  8. The British cycling economy: 'gross cycling product' report

    OpenAIRE

    Grous, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We believe this is the first-ever attempt to chart the full extent of cycling’s contribution to the British economy. Previous studies have focused on particular sectors such as the bicycle retail trade, but never before has a study been conducted into the true ‘Gross Cycling Product’ (GCP) of UK plc – from bike sales to improved health. The GCP report was conceived by Sky and British Cycling and has been made a reality through the London School of Economics. We commissioned the report, t...

  9. Expanding School Choice through Open Enrolment: Lessons from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Friesen; Benjamin Cerf Harris; Simon Woodcock

    2015-01-01

    Is expanding the scope for parents to choose among competing schools an effective policy lever for improving the quality of education? What lessons can we take from British Columbia’s experience with greater school choice? In 2002, British Columbia implemented a new policy that makes it easier for parents to opt out of their neighbourhood school. Along with the province’s rich administrative and test score data, the introduction of this “open enrolment” policy provides a rare opportunity to e...

  10. Colonial film: moving images of the British Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2010 I was employed as a postdoctoral researcher on the AHRC-funded project, Colonial Film: Moving Images of the British Empire. The primary outcome of this project was a database detailing the colonial films held by BFI, the Imperial War Museum and the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum. Many of these films are not widely known, and the project provided the first thorough documentation of these materials. I was employed to write 95 1,000-word essays about selected films ...

  11. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  12. Towards Space Tourism - The Challenge for British Space Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    In recent years it has become increasingly widely accepted, including within NASA, that the largest commercial opportunity in space is the development of passenger space travel, or `space tourism'. However, to date, the British government has provided no support whatever for work in this field. In 2000 the parliamentary Trade and Industry Select Committee criticized this unsatisfactory situation, but their comments have been disregarded to date. This paper reviews the current situation and discusses measures that must be implemented in order for British taxpayers to obtain the greatest economic benefit from the government's space expenditure.

  13. Britannia still rules the waves. Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes to British English and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan

    2015-01-01

    This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...

  14. An Evaluation of Structured Abstracts in Journals Published by the British Psychological Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, James; Benjamin, Michele

    1998-01-01

    Background. In 1997 four journals published by the British Psychological Society - the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, the British Journal of Educational Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Legal and Criminological Psychology - began publishing structured abstracts. Aims. The aim of the studies reported here was to assess the effectiveness of these structured abstracts by comparing them with original versions written in a traditional, unstructured, format. Meth...

  15. The problem of the Hungarian borders and minorities in British foreign political thought, 1938-41

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, András

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyses the British official attitudes and the gradual change of British policy towards Hungary and Hungarian revisionism in the period from the Anschluss in March 1938 to December 1941, when the British government declared war on Hungary. The primary focus of this thesis lies in the impact of Hungary`s territorial claims on British policy towards Hungary and Central Europe and upon the criteria Britain judged the territorial gains of Hungary between 1938 and 1941. This work is t...

  16. Um “Pas de Deux” da Estratégia com a Arte: as Práticas do Grupo Corpo de Balé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Viana Saraiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to understand the organizational strategies used by the ballet company Grupo Corpo, based in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is based upon the premise that such practices are configured (in this organization’s daily management practices. In order to achieve the proposed objective, four questions considered to be recursive in this field were used as guidelines: (a What is strategy? (b Who is the strategist? (c What do strategists do? (d What can explain an analysis of strategists and their actions? As methodological support, an ethnography was conducted. In addition, the Grounded Theory procedure was used to develop the proposal of bringing about a substantial concept of strategy. A situational analysis was also done (Clarke, 2005 and at the end of the study, three organizational spheres within the Corpo de Balé group: its Ballet Group sphere, its Citizen sphere, and its Dance School sphere. The practices and relationships constructed between these and the subjects that actually included them in the organization under study were also identified. Thus, a relational scheme was established, involving the observed practices and the individual and collective actors. Based on the analysis of the relational scheme a strategy concept was elaborated for the Corpo de Balé group.

  17. İran bal arıları (Apis mellifera meda)’nın varroa paraziti (Varroa destructor)’ne karşı korunma yeteneğinin değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    NAJI KHOEI, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Varroa destructor, bal arılarının (Apis mellifera L.) en önemli parazitlerinden biridir. Bu araştırmada İran bal arılarının (Apis mellifera meda) Varroa destructor'e karşı direnç özelliklerini araştırmak amacıyla, İran'ın Doğu Azerbaycan ilinin 5 farklı ilçesinden materyal olarak 60 bal arısı kolonisi ile Tebriz Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi’nde deneme kurulmuştur. Çalışmada; tıma...

  18. Are British Higher Educational Concerns Different from European Higher Educational Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangset, Marte

    2008-01-01

    British universities are known among the other Bologna countries not to have adjusted fully to the new common three-tier degree structure. Is it the case that British higher educational concerns are different from Continental concerns? A study of recent developments in two British graduate schools of history shows that a three-tier study structure…

  19. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  20. Famous Chinese Porcelain and British Queen’s Wedding Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 China Jingdezhen International Ceramics Fair in October drew a large crowd of visitors from around the world to the capital of porcelain to admire the beautiful displays from various countries.Among them,a 12-member British delegation from the Bath & North East Somerset Council headed by Councilor Francine Haeberling had an additional special reason for their visit.

  1. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  2. Individual risk. A compilation of recent British data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of data is presented on individual risk obtained from recent British population and mortality statistics. Risk data presented include: risk of death, as a function of age, due to several important natural causes and due to accidents and violence; risk of death as a function of location of accident; and risk of death from various accidental causes. (author)

  3. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these deposi

  4. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  5. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  6. [British Columbia Hydro] annual report 1997--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services over 1.3 million customers in a area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  8. Modern Traditions? British Muslim Women and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fauzia

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed British Muslim women of South Asian origin regarding their motivations for entering higher education. Women increasingly viewed higher education as a necessary asset for maintaining and gaining social prestige. Motivations included parental encouragement, independence, and personal satisfaction. Respondents continually negotiated and…

  9. Are the British Really Bad at Learning Foreign Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, James; Meara, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examined the foreign-language-learning abilities of 14- to 15-year olds in Britain, Germany, and Greece. Comparison of results from tests of students' foreign vocabulary knowledge indicated that British students had only one-third to one-half of the foreign language vocabulary knowledge of Greek and German students. They also spent less time…

  10. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show that...

  11. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  12. Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

  13. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  14. Organising for Continuing Vocational Education in British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A study of continuing vocational education in British universities found a variety of organizational approaches and assumptions that continuing education should be mainstreamed and self-financing. Essential elements include leader commitment, specialized units, clear academic identity, and continuous reflective review. (SK)

  15. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  16. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  17. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial data and…

  18. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As three Ph.D.…

  19. Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction(Mirna Cicioni & Nicoletta Di Ciolla (eds, Differences, Deceits and Desires. Murder and Mayhem in Italian Crime Fiction, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008, 228 p., ISBN 978-0-87413-051-5by Nicoletta Vallorani

  20. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  1. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

  2. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  3. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  4. Modernised Learning: An Emerging Lifelong Agenda by British Trade Unions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Keith P.

    2001-01-01

    British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  5. Oswaldo Costa, Antropofagia, y la crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui, Carlos A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oswaldo Costa was a key member of the Brazilian modernist Antropofagia (Anthropophagy movement of the late 1920s, yet he has been largely forgotten by critics and marginalized from national cultural history. Costa articulated —as no other member of the movement did, including his famous leader Oswald de Andrade— an Antropofagia intellectually engaged in what we call a cannibal critique of colonial modernity and Occidentalism. Costa’s Antropofagia cannibalized the historical archive, reading against the grain of a triumphant Western imperial history. Throughout his contributions to the Revista de Antropofagia, he questioned Brazil’s cultural allegiance to Europe, pointed out the existence of asynchronous temporalities within Brazil, and defied Eurocentric notions of civilization and progress that ideologically structure Brazilian nationalism in the ninetieth and twentieth centuries. He also enacted an anthropophagous re-reading of Brazilian historiography against its celebration of colonialism and proposed the necessity of a cultural decolonization. This article analyzes Costa’s principal contributions to Antropofagia and rescues his hitherto overlooked countercolonial thought from the oblivion of collective forgetting. Moreover, it examines Costa’s significant view of Brazilian modernity as a perfidious armistice with other barbarous temporalities, and of the Westernization of Brazil as a deceptive appearance that hides ever-present colonial antagonisms.Oswaldo Costa fue un miembro fundamental del movimiento modernista Antropofagia de finales de la década de 1920. Pese al olvido crítico de su obra y a su exclusión de la historia cultural brasileña, Costa articuló —como acaso ningún otro miembro del movimiento, incluyendo a su famoso líder Oswald de Andrade— una Antropofagia-otra, intelectualmente trabada en lo que denominamos una crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial y del Occidentalismo. A diferencia de la mayor

  6. Utilidade do Ultrassom intracardíaco no isolamento de veias pulmonares usando cateter-balão a laser Utilidad del ultrasonido intracardíaco en el aislamiento de venas pulmonares usando catéter-balón láser Utility of intracardiac ultrasound imaging to guide pulmonary vein ablation using laser balloon catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O isolamento das veias pulmonares (IVP tem sido usado como endpoint para a ablação da fibrilação atrial (FA com cateter balão. OBJETIVO: Determinar a utilidade do ultrassom intracardíaco (USIC para guiar o IVP, usando cateter balão a laser. MÉTODOS: 59 VP foram ablacionadas em 27 cães. Imagens de Doppler foram usadas para identificar os vazamentos do fluxo sanguíneo entre a VP e o balão. Após cada liberação de energia, o cateter de mapeamento circular foi reposicionado para verificar se o isolamento tinha sido obtido. A posição de vazamento foi então correlacionada com a posição do gap no estudo patológico. A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e nove VP foram submetidas à ablação. O tempo médio de energia liberada foi de 279±177 seg., o diâmetro médio do balão era de 23±3 mm, e o comprimento médio do balão era 25±4 mm. O isolamento completo foi obtido em 38/59 (64%, e foi significantemente mais comum sem vazamento: [30/38 (79% versus 8/23 (35%, pFUNDAMENTO: Se usó el aislamiento de las venas pulmonares (AVP como endpoint para la ablación de la fibrilación atrial (FA con catéter-balón. OBJETIVO: Determinar la utilidad del ultrasonido intracardíaco (USIC para guiar el AVP, usando catéter-balón láser. MÉTODOS: Se ablacionaron 59 VP en 27 perros. Se usaron imágenes de Doppler para identificar los derrames del flujo sanguíneo entre la VP y el balón. Tras cada liberación de energía, se reposicionó el catéter de mapeamiento circular para verificar si se obtuvo el aislamiento. Se correlaccionó, entonces, la posición del derrame con la posición del gap en el estudio patológico. Se realizó el análisis de regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Se sometieron 59 VP a la ablación. El tiempo promedio de energía liberada fue de 279±177 seg., el diámetro promedio del balón era de 23±3 mm, y la largura promedio del balón era 25±4 mm

  7. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal., and biological effects on the CAM-assay: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Dadandi, Mehmet Y; Paper, Dietrich H; Franz, Gerhard; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2003-01-01

    Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. of the Lamiaceae family growing in central, east and southeast Anatolia is an endemic species for Turkey. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts by hydro distillation was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the oil were found as beta-caryophyllene (24.2%), germacrene D (22.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.2%), among 49 identified compounds, representing 94.5% of the total essential oil. The overall biological activity of the essential oil (100 microg/pellet) was tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the fertilized hen's egg in order to examine the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. None of the tests showed pronounced activity, toxicity or irritation at the tested concentration. PMID:14713159

  9. BAL phosphorus abundance and evidence for immense ionic column densities in quasar outflows: VLT X-Shooter observations of quasar SDSS J1512+1119

    CERN Document Server

    Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Benn, Chris; Chamberlain, Carter

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic analysis of the broad absorption line outflow in quasar SDSS J1512+1119. In particular, we focus our attention on a kinematic component in which we identify PV and SIV/SIV* absorption troughs. The shape of the unblended phosphorus doublet troughs and the three SIV/SIV* troughs allow us to obtain reliable column density measurements for these two ions. Photoionization modelling using these column densities and those of HeI* constrain the abundance of phosphorus to the range of 0.5-4 times the solar value. The total column density, ionization parameter and metalicity inferred from the PV and SIV column densities leads to large optical depth values for the common transition observed in BAL outflows. We show that the true CIV optical depth, is about 1000 times greater in the core of the absorption profile than the value deduced from its apparent optical depth.

  10. Et ve Balıklarda Tazelik İndikatörü Olarak Nanobiyosensörlerin Geliştirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Mindivanli, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, et ve balık tazelik ölçümlerinde kullanılmak üzere amperometri esaslı bir elektrokimyasal enzim nanobiyosensörü geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Önce %99,9 saflıktaki 2cm’lik altın (Au) tel kral suyu (aqua regia) (3HCl+HNO3) içerisinde çözdürüldü. Ardından [AuCl4]-(aq) çözeltisi C6H5O7.2H2O.3Na (tri sodyum sitrat dihidrat) tuzuyla indirgenerek ~50 nm boyutunda Au nanopartikülleri elde edildi. Bu tozlar grafit kalem ucu çalışma elektrotuna (PGE) kaplanmadan önce iletken kompozit bir...

  11. Compactação Dinâmica de Materiais Cerâmicos para Protecção Balística

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, João Filipe Costa

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como principal objectivo a criação e optimização de uma configuração para compactação dinâmica, de sistemas à base de carboneto de boro (B4C). A particularidade da nova configuração face à já existente, é o facto de as amostras obtidas serem para a realização de testes balísticos, tendo desta forma dimensões mínimas (∅=50×6mm). A fase de optimização da configuração decorreu ao longo de um total de 9 ensaios, sendo que posteriormente, foram realizados mais 3 ensaios com si...

  12. Violencia, anticoncepción y embarazo no deseado. Mujeres indígenas en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Georgina Rivas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es parte de una investigación cualitativa que se realizó en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México. Con base en entrevistas a mujeres indígenas inmigrantes, se hacen evidentes la influencia del entorno de marginación social así como el abuso de poder de los varones en el origen del embarazo no deseado. La sobrevaloración de los saberes masculinos, la expectativa de formar una unión como mandato social y como estrategia de sobrevivencia, así como la violencia que sufren las mujeres a lo largo de su ciclo de vida, condicionan su aceptación de relaciones sexuales con escasa protección anticonceptiva.

  13. Tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis mediante dilatación con balón de papila. Estudio clínico y funcional manométrico.

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros Reig, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN En la actualidad no existe un consenso en el tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis. Durante los últimos años, el avance de las técnicas mínimamente invasivas como la cirugía laparoscópica y la radiología intervencionista ha hecho que sean varias las opciones terapéuticas en el manejo de esta patología. Entre las opciones posibles se encuentra la dilatación con balón de la papila de Vater y el empuje de los cálculos a duodeno. Esta técnica puede ser aplicada a través diferentes abordaj...

  14. El lenguaje contrapuntístico de Francisco de Peñalosa y Cristóbal de Morales a través de sus motetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Macías Peraza, Rigoberto

    2013-01-01

    La presente Tesis se hizo con la intención de realizar un estudio del lenguaje contrapuntístico de la música del pasado desde la doble visión de la teoría y la práctica, un enfoque que hasta la fecha no ha sido muy empleado. Para lograr esta tarea ha sido necesario delimitar nuestro objeto de estudio en un contexto espacial y temporal muy concreto. Por ello hemos optado por realizar una aproximación al análisis del repertorio musical de los motetes de Francisco de Peñalosa y Cristóbal de Mora...

  15. Historia del balonmano. Los vínculos del balón uruguayo con el feldhandball alemán. [Handball history. The links between uruguayan balon and german feldhandball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suburú Cambre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El feldhandball alemán y Karl Schelenz conforman sin duda, parte fundamental de la historia del balonmano mundial. En el Río de la Plata a partir de 1918, otro deporte - el Balón uruguayo -comenzaba un camino propio muy lejos de la realidad europea, el cual años después lo uniría indefectiblemente al deporte germano.   Este artículo pretende presentar el análisis del relacionamiento de estos dos deportes, creados tan lejos geográficamente y tan cerca - para los uruguayos - en una historia común. Palabras clave: Historia del balonmano, Balón uruguayo,  Handball de Campo alemán.Abstract The German feldhandball and Karl Schelenz are undoubtedly a fundamental part of handball's world history.  Since 1918 in the River Platea area, and distant from the European reality, another sport - the Uruguayan Balón - began its own way, which eventually years later linked it to the German sport.  This article is meant to introduce the analysis of the relationship between these two sports with a history in common, which were created so faraway geographically, yet so close for the Uruguayan people. Key words:  handball history, Uruguayan Balón, German Fieldhandball

  16. La mejor gestión es aquella que mejora la calidad de vida de la gente : Entrevista al contador Aníbal Florencio Randazzo, Ministro de Interior y Transporte de la Nación

    OpenAIRE

    Revista Institucional de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    2014-01-01

    Entrevistamos al cr. Aníbal Florencio Randazzo, actual Ministro del Interior y Transporte de la Nación, quien nos cuenta los aportes que la universidad y en este caso, la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, han realizado en conjunto con el ministerio.

  17. British Columbia electricity export policy: Long-term firm exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy statement on long-term firm electricity exports from British Columbia is presented, combining the recommendations of the British Columbia Energy Council with provincial objectives and input from interested parties. The general objective of the policy is to maximize net provincial benefits, defined to include financial and non-financial impacts, without negative effects on the province's energy security. Matters considered in the policy include the types of generating resources and transmission facilities permitted, the marketing of the exports, the entities allowed to engage in exports, review of export sales agreements, terms and conditions of export, and the requirement for social and environmental reviews. A background paper is included which provides the reasons for the policy direction on long-term firm electricity exports as well as more detailed information on some aspects of the policy

  18. History of British infrared astronomy since the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)

  19. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  20. Medicare financing and redistribution in british columbia, 1992 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2007-05-01

    Equity in healthcare in British Columbia is defined as the provision of services based on need rather than ability to pay and a separation of contributions to financing from the use of services. Physician and hospital services in Canada are financed mainly through general tax revenues, and there is a perception that this financing is progressive. This paper uses Gini coefficients, concentration indexes and Kakwani indexes of progressivity to assess the progressivity of medicare financing in British Columbia in 1992 and 2002. It also measures the overall redistributive effect of medicare services, considering both contributions to financing and use of hospital and physician services. The conclusion is that medicare does redistribute across income groups, but this redistribution is the result solely of the positive correlation between health status and income; financing is nearly proportionate across income groups, but use is higher among lower-income groups. Informed public debate requires a better understanding of these concepts of equity. PMID:19305738

  1. British Columbia marine oil spill response plan. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope and structure of British Columbia's involvement in response to a major oil spill was defined in this document. Emergency preparedness and response management in the case of an oil spill in British Columbia is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. The Incident Command Post is a marine oil spill response plan that focuses on a response at the spill site. This marine oil spill response plan was designed to be operated concurrently and in cooperation with the plans in place by other responding jurisdictions and companies. The plan discusses: provincial response strategy; incident notification, escalation and support; response organization; checklist of individual duties; ministry roles and services; and provincial support. 27 refs., 6 figs

  2. Overview of the British Columbia oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and financial highlights from British Columbia's oil and gas sector are presented. British Columbia accounts for 12 per cent of total natural gas production in Canada, making it the second largest producer of natural gas in the country. Energy consumption in Canada and the United States increased by 22 percent and 26 per cent respectively between 1986 and 1996, with a marked shift in energy source patterns away from petroleum and coal toward natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Trends in B.C. over the past decade indicate marked increases in both exploration and production in the natural gas industry, contributing a total of $1.27 billion to the provincial GDP in 1996. The combined upstream and downstream petroleum industry employs about 37,500 people - 14,500 directly, and another 23,00 indirectly. Annual capital expenditures in the industry are about $1.7 billion. tabs., figs

  3. British Society for Immunology: vaccines and mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E

    2001-03-01

    The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384

  4. Lexicografía chilena finisecular. "Voces usadas en Chile" de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900) (Chilean fin-de-siècle lexicography. "Voces usadas en Chile" by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900))

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Alfero Wolff; José Joaquín Atria Lemaitre; Enrique Sologuren Insua

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio corresponde al análisis metalexicográfico del diccionario "Voces usadas en Chile", publicado en 1900 por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes. La investigación tiene por objetivo conocer y establecer el estado de la lexicografía practicada en Chile a fines del siglo XIX. La metodología básica de este estudio se centra en la aplicación sistemática de la plantilla de análisis metalexicográfico de Matus (1995a), que pretende describir, analizar y valorar críticamente los repertorios lex...

  5. Tracing the outflow of a z = 0.334 FeLoBAL: New constraints from low-ionization absorbers in FBQS J1151+3822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Laboratory, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We show for the first time that FBQS J1151+3822 is an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar (FeLoBAL QSO), the second-brightest and second-closest known example of this class. He I* and Fe II together act as an effective analytical tool, allowing us to obtain useful kinematic constraints from photoionization models of the outflow without needing to assume any particular acceleration model. The main outflow's log ionization parameter is –1.5, the log hydrogen density (cm{sup –3}) 5.5-8, the log hydrogen column density (cm{sup –2}) 21.7-21.9, the absorption radius 7.2-127 pc, and the kinetic luminosity is 0.16%-4.5% of the bolometric luminosity. We obtain line-of-sight covering fractions of ∼0.25 for strong Fe II, ∼0.5 for He I*, and ∼0.6 for Mg II. Narrower and shallower absorption lines from weaker Fe II and Mn II with an outflow velocity of ∼3400 km s{sup –1} have appeared between 2005 and 2011, suggesting that dense cores may have condensed inside the main outflow. Consideration of the literature might suggest that the FBQS J1151+3822 outflow is a member of a rare and distinct subclass of FeLoBALs with high densities and correspondingly small absorption radii. We find, however, that such outflows are not necessarily a distinct subclass, and that their apparent rarity could be a symptom of selection bias in studies using density-sensitive lines.

  6. Eugenol Katkılı Aynalı Sazan Balığı Köftelerinin Raf Ömrünün Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pelin CAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, aynalı sazan balığından (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 elde edilen kıymaya çeşitli katkı maddeleri ilave edilerek balık köftesi yapılmıştır. Köfteler biri kontrol (grup A olmak üzere, diğerlerine %0.5 (grup B ve %1(grup C oranlarında eugenol ilave edilerek üç gruba ayrılmıştır. Muhafaza süresi boyunca meydana gelen mikrobiyolojik, kimyasal ve duyusal değişimler incelenmiştir. Mikrobiyolojik analiz sonuçlarına göre A grubu B ve C grubuyla karşılaştırıldığında değerler yüksek bulunmuştur (P<0.05. İstatistiksel olarak C grubu örneklerinde enterobakteriler, maya, küf ve mezofil aerob bakteri sayısı daha düşük bulunmuştur (P<0.05. TVB-N ve TBA değerleri üç grupta muhafaza süresi boyunca yükselmiştir. Duyusal değerlendirmede, C grubu örnekleri düşük puan almıştır. Sonuç olarak, yüksek konsantrasyon içeren grup (C grubu, mikrobiyolojik ve kimyasal olarak iyi kalitede olmasına rağmen duyusal değerlendirme sonuçlarına göre tüketilmesi uygun değildir.

  7. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  8. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  9. The British Library Big Data Experiment: Experimental Interfaces, Experimental Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, J. W.; Terras, M. M.; Mohamedally, D.; Weyrich, T.; Alborzpour, S.; Stelios, G.; Stavrou, N.; Wong, W

    2015-01-01

    Many digital humanities–taught programmes aim to engage undergraduate and postgraduate humanists with computational methods and practices (Hirsch, 2012; Cohen and Scheinfeldt, 2013). It is relatively rare, however, to routinely engage computer scientists with the needs, methods, and worldview of historians, literature scholars, librarians, and related researchers (Spiro, 2012). This poster describes an ongoing collaboration between British Library Digital Research and the UCL Department of Co...

  10. How British Columbia school district superintendents manage data

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Gerald Edward

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Education has been collecting demographic and academic performance information on every student in grades Kindergarten-12 since 1992. The amount of data held by the Ministry and now available for use is considerable: between 50 and 500 data elements have been collected from each of more than 500,000 students annually for the last 15 years. Most school districts also collect additional data on the performance of their students. School District Superintendents, ...

  11. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  12. The blended accountability regime of British Columbia land trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Scholars maintain that public service activities of non-profit organizations require carefully constructed accountability mechanisms to ensure the public interest is upheld. I interviewed decision makers at public-service-oriented non-profit land trusts in British Columbia, and examined the constitutions and missions of these organizations, to investigate accountability experiences and attitudes in practice; I compared this practical perspective with accountability theory in the literature on...

  13. James Mill's 'History of British India' in its intellectual context

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeng-Guo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis argues that James Mill's History of British India is, on the one hand, intellectually linked to the Scottish Enlightenment, while, on the other hand, moves beyond that intellectual tradition in the post-French Revolution age. This thesis makes three central claims. First, it argues that in reacting to Montesqueiu's idea of oriental society, the contributors to the Scottish Enlightenment used ideas of moral philosophy, philosophical history and political economy in o...

  14. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 5th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Sixsmith, Andrew; Adams, Raymond G.; Sinden, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This fifth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2006 census and supplemental sources. Like the first four editions of the Fact Book, this edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; the mari...

  15. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Gutman, Gloria M.; Adams, Raymond G.; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito

    2006-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2001 census and supplemental sources. Like the first three editions of the Fact Book, the fourth edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; ...

  16. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  17. Gender violence news in British and American press

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspa...

  18. The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Gretchen Christine

    2013-01-01

    To more fully understand nineteenth-century literary production, literary scholars must consider periodical editing as more than biographical footnotes to the lives of famous Victorian authors or secondary details in a text’s publishing history. In The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors, I seek to render more visible the work of the periodical editor, positing this figure as pivotal to the nineteenth-century literary scene. A single metanarrative of the ed...

  19. Restorative justice in British Columbia's youth probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has brought with it new youth criminal justice legislation: the Youth Criminal Justice Act. This federal legislation created more options for practitioners (e.g., police, courts and probation) but, more importantly, a much more definitive stance on the use of restorative justice measures when dealing with youth in conflict with the law. This paper examines the ways in which youth probation and restorative justice are conceptualized and put into practice by the British Columb...

  20. Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Noakes, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff Social media is a great way to communicate BGS science, activities, achievements and services. This guidance is for BGS staff using social media as a way to communicate BGS science and technology. It is based on the Social Media Guidance for Civil Servants (Cabinet Office, 2012) the NERC Electronic Communications Policy (NERC, 2013) and the NERC Code of Conduct. This guidance was first published in Broadcasting the science sto...

  1. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, K.; van Sluijs, E M F; Steele, R. M.; Stephen, A M; Dunn, V.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Griffin, S. J.; Ekelund, U.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual b...

  2. The Saving Behaviour of Children: Analysis of British Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Brown; Karl Taylor

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influences on the saving behaviour of children aged 11 to 15 using panel data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey Youth Questionnaire. Our empirical findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money exert a moderating influence on the probability that a child will save, whilst hours of paid work undertaken by the child are positively associated with the probability that a child will save. The saving behaviour of parents, however, does not appear to influence the ...

  3. Early influences on saving behaviour: Analysis of British panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Taylor, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, we examine the saving behaviour of individuals over time. Initially, we explore the determinants of the saving behaviour of children aged 11–15. Our findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money (earnings from part-time work) lower (increase) the probability that a child saves. There is also evidence that the financial expectations of the head of household have an influence on their offspring’s saving behav...

  4. The saving behavior of children: Analysis of British panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influences on the saving behaviour of children aged 11 to 15 using panel data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey Youth Questionnaire. Our empirical findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money exert a moderating influence on the probability that a child will save, whilst hours of paid work undertaken by the child are positively associated with the probability that a child will save. The saving behaviour of parents, however, does not appear to...

  5. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  6. Power Struggle of British and German on Mesopotamia

    OpenAIRE

    MALHUT, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Mesopotamai with natural resources and strategic location is one of important land of the Ottoman Empire. British started to gain influence with right to transport on Tigris and Euphrates in the 19. Century. At the end of 19. Century, German began to become effective with Baghdad railway Project. Because of this Project, the two countries embarked on the struggle for influence in Ottoman land. Another important factor in this struggle was a matter of the Mesopotamia’s irrigation. Thanks to t...

  7. British television, 1925 – 1936: attitudes and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, Mark Peter Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This thesis assesses attitudes towards, and expectations of, British television between 1925 and 1936. This covers the period from the first public demonstration of an early form of the technology until the official launch of a full high-definition BBC service. The assessment is achieved via an analysis of four key factors. Chapter One covers the first of these, the private individuals working on television, with an emphasis on the publicity-hungry efforts of John Logie Baird. The second chap...

  8. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management ...

  9. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  10. Rebel alliances: the means and ends of contemporary British anarchisms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines, classifies and evaluates the tactics and organisational methods of British and Irish anarchist groups, which operated in the period 1984-1999 (although reference is made to groupings and events outside of this period). The thesis explains how class struggle anarchism, which was a minority trend even within the libertarian milieu, has developed into a significant and lively (anti-)political movement. This thesis examines recent groups through their own publications and th...

  11. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  12. Screening of newborn infants for galactosemia in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lorne T.; Norman, Margaret G.; Applegarth, Derek A.; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    With simple microbiologic and fluorescent tests, we detected two cases of classic galactosemia, confirmed by specific enzyme assays, in the first 25 000 newborn infants in British Columbia screened for this disorder. The results were equivocally abnormal for another 31 infants, and a second blood sample was requested from each, either for repeat screening or for enzyme assays. The two infants with galactosemia were in hospital with an undiagnosed acute illness and had only a trace of nongluco...

  13. Play now, pay later: legalized internet gambling in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sihota, Bharminder Singh

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the provincial government’s decision to expand online gambling services. In particular, the research identifies ways to decrease the problem gambling prevalence rate in British Columbia. Currently, BC has one of the highest problem gambling prevalence rates in Canada. With the increase in online gambling options, and a rise in the weekly deposit limit, the problem gambling prevalence rate could worsen. Using a case study analysis, this capstone looks at the best practices ...

  14. British Literature in Portuguese Literary Education during the Estado Novo

    OpenAIRE

    Gombár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the position of British literature versus national literature in literary education during the Estado Novo through the analysis of literature textbooks published at the time. The scope of the investigation, however, also includes a limited number of textbooks which may not have been officially authorised as a livro único (single textbook), but were used by schoolteachers in Salazar’s Portugal. Based on the corpus of these books, it seems that the vast majori...

  15. Cottonwoods in British Columbia: Problem analysis. FRDA report No. 195

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, D.S.; Mamias, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Black cottonwood and balsam poplar are the fastest growing trees in British Columbia and interest in their management has recently been renewed. This report assembled resource data on the amount, quality, distribution, and potential economic importance of cottonwood in B.C.; described the range of management regimes currently used and provided a summary of management options available; described the potential impacts of cottonwood harvest and management on other resources values; and summarized current cottonwood knowledge gaps and management problems and recommended research.

  16. Glorification of violence in British films depicting football hooliganism

    OpenAIRE

    Żyśko, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I tried to demonstrate that the British films depicting football hooliganism could be viewed as glorifying violence. A considerably great number of scenes and a great amount of time devoted to the presentation of violence, together with the unpunished, painless and heroic aspects of such presentations are just one side of the glorifying coin. The other side is occupied with the deeper meaning of particular scenes or the general overtones of the films which seem to develop a tend...

  17. British Policies regarding the European Union's emerging defense dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Kevin Karl.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the evolution and prospects of post-1945 British policies regarding multinational European security institutions, particularly the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Specifically, this thesis analyses the factors behind the Blair government's 1998 proposal to strengthen the European pillar of NATO and endow the EU with a defense dimension. This policy offers certain advantages for Britai...

  18. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Barroetavena Maria; Yavari Parvin; Hislop T Greg; Bajdik Chris D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumou...

  19. Negotiating Planning Gains through the British Development Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Claydon; Bryan Smith

    1997-01-01

    The British planning system provides for the exercise of discretion in the interpretation of policy and at the operational level processing planning applications. That discretionary space is utilised to negotiate, often over the provision of planning gains. Three applications for commercial uses drawn from different parts of England are taken as case study examples. They are examined within the context of an analytical framework which identifies the activity of negotiation, the influences on ...

  20. Comparing food costing approaches in British Columbia and Nova Scotia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Clarissa Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Food security is a determinant of health and a basic human right. Food insecurity is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes varying from nutrient deficiencies to chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, the availability and affordability of a basic nutritious diet is a public health concern. Food costing is one method used to address affordability of a basic nutritious diet and is completed annually across Canada. In British Columbia, dieticians ...

  1. Immigration Status and Victimization: Evidence from the British Crime Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...

  2. European integration and changing British discourse on sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    NAKANO, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether British elites’ discourse on sovereignty has changed as European integration has progressed. Academic research has long recognized the existence of discourse change regarding sovereignty, and the process of European integration is likely to be a modern event that produces such change in elite understanding of sovereignty. The dissertation thus investigates the question of whether elite discourse on sovereignty has indeed changed in the context of European integ...

  3. 'Hysteria', 'functional' or 'psychogenic'? A survey of British neurologists' preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, C J; Trimble, M R

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic preferences of British neurologists for patients who lack a physical explanation for their symptoms were assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. Analysis of 168 completed replies showed 'functional', 'psychogenic' and 'hysteria' to be the most popular terms in use. The number of different terms a clinician would use rose in line with the volume of such patients they encountered, but was unrelated to clinician factors such as the extent of their clinical experience in psych...

  4. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  5. INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE BRITISH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Ang; Rajabrata Banerjee; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2010-01-01

    Theory, historiography and empirical evidence suggest that agriculture is the key to economic development. This paper examines the extent to which productivity advances in British agriculture in the period 1620-1850 were driven by technological progress. Measuring technology by patents and new book titles on agricultural methods, the results indicate that technological progress has played a significant part in productivity advances. Furthermore, the results show that research effort has perma...

  6. Local and regional induction in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Banks; Beamish, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electric currents induced in the shallow seas and deep ocean around the British Isles have a profound effect upon the electromagnetic fields observed at stations on the land. The configuration of anomalous currents changes with frequency, and causes corresponding changes in the geomagnetic transfer functions. Magnetic variations have been recorded at a dense network of sites in southern Scotland and northern England. Single­ station transfer functions have been used to generate hypoth...

  7. Dance in the British South Asian diaspora: redefining classicism

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez y Royo, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses South Asian dance forms and genres in Britain, one of the major locations of the South Asian diaspora. It addresses issues of "classicism," "neoclassicism" and "contemporaneity" in South Asian dancing, particularly important as in the British context availability of public funding depends on the artists demonstrating an innovative engagement with their own practice. The author focuses, as a specific case study, on the work, Moham, choreographed and danced as a solo by bha...

  8. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  9. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  10. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  11. Perceptual categorization of handling handshapes in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sehyr, Z. S.; Cormier, K.

    2015-01-01

    Sign languages like British Sign Language (BSL) include a type of partially lexicalized construction which depicts handling or manipulation of objects. Object sizes gradiently vary, yet it is unclear if handling handshapes depict object handling in a categorical or gradient manner. The study examines whether deaf BSL signers perceive handling handshapes continuously or categorically, compared with hearing non-signers, and how sign language experience affects perception of handshapes in these ...

  12. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. British perceptions of the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1908

    OpenAIRE

    Odams, H. J. R. (Helen Jean Rachel)

    1996-01-01

    The title of this thesis is 'British Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire (1876-1908). The thesis explores the 'cultural dimension1 of relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain in this period, involving an examination of ideas about and representations of Ottoman society and its peoples. The overall aim is to stress the importance of these representations in in influencing and affecting relations between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Nineteenth-century writings about the...

  14. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  15. Resource variation and the structure of British bird communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Bradford C.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the foraging microhabitats of British birds are reanalyzed with the aim of understanding how fluctuations in resource abundance affect niche relationships and community structure. At Marley Wood, overlap in the foraging sites of resident bird species increased during the late spring and summer and decreased during the fall and winter. Among bird species coexisting in the pine forests at Thetford Chase, spatial overlap and spatial niche widths were positively correlated with food abund...

  16. Management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, MG; Luther, R

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates and reports on the management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry. Design/methodology/approach – The data is generated by a large-scale postal questionnaire which was informed by preliminary interviews. Further interviews were carried out to aid interpretation of the responses. Descriptive statistics on the importance and frequency of use of individual practices provide the basis for discussion. Findings – Direct costing is wi...

  17. Social Characteristics of British Businessmen, c1800-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a first full-scale investigation of social characteristics of 381 leading British businessmen included in Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography through the creation of a systematic database. Two sets of characteristics are explored. One relates to personal circumstances of the businessman such as family tradition, place of birth and of business, social origins, formal education, apprenticeship, and occupational career; the other non-business aspects such as wealth and public...

  18. Nutrition claims in British women's magazines from 1940 to 1955

    OpenAIRE

    Burridge, Joseph David; Barker, Margo

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study examined dietary messages conveyed in articles and advertising in two popular British women's magazines, Woman and Home and Woman's Own, between 1940 and 1954. Methods A qualitative analysis of written content was performed, focusing on regularities evident in content, and addressing the construction of the role of women in relation to food provision, as well as assertions for nutritional health. The setting comprised a desk-based study. The study sample encompass...

  19. (Mis) Representing the 'other' : "Honour Killing" in the British press

    OpenAIRE

    Chafai, Habiba

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore how the phenomenon of “honour killing” is reported in British newspapers by looking at the different linguistic and discursive strategies used in the news coverage of two victims, ‘Banaz Mahmod’ and ‘Samaira Nazir’. More specifically, news reports from the Times, the Daily Telegraph, the Guardian, the Independent, the Sun, the Daily Mail and the Mirror were selected in order to examine the representation of “honour killing” among Muslim immigrants in...

  20. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so that more forest land can be preserved. Tree breeding is done by selection and progeny testing. Genetic gain is delivered through seed orchards where panmixia and seed production can be enhanced. Dr...

  1. The makeshift settlement: colonial policy in British West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A M

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the evolution of colonial policy within British West Africa, and is based largely on unpublished correspondence between the Colonial office and colonial governors, held in the Public Record Office in London. It argues that the colonial states were unable to generate or implement a satisfactory strategy for capitalist development. In the first twenty years of colonial rule, various projects were outlined, which assumed the introduction of private property in land, the enco...

  2. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHN, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  3. The Evolution of British Monetarism: 1968-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Aled Davies

    2012-01-01

    How far were monetary targets imposed on the post-1974 Labour Government by international and domestic financial markets enthused with the doctrines of ‘monetarism’? The following paper attempts to answer this question by demonstrating the complex and contingent nature of the ascent of British ‘monetarism’ after 1968. It describes the post-devaluation valorisation of the ‘money supply’ which led investors to realign their expectations with the behaviour of the monetary aggregates. The collaps...

  4. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  5. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  6. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the…

  7. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  8. The rationality and reliability of expectations reported by British households: micro evidence from the British household panel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, James; Martin R. Weale

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of individuals' expectations of their financial circumstances, as reported in the British Household Panel Survey, as predictors of outcomes and identifies what factors influence their reliability. As the data are qualitative bivariate ordered probit models, appropriately identified, are estimated to draw out the differential effect of information on expectations and realisations. Rationality is then tested and we seek to explain deviations of realisations from...

  9. La noción de guerra revolucionaria en Fernando Landazábal Reyes y sus repercusiones en el conflicto armado colombiano The Notion of Revolutionary War in Fernando Landazábal Reyes and its Repercussions in Colombian Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Velásquez Rivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Una de las características del conflicto armado colombiano es el asesinato de civiles por parte de miembros de organismos de seguridad del Estado. Estos justifican sus acciones acusándolos de participar en una estrategia subversiva liderada por el Partido Comunista Colombiano. Esta, a su vez, se origina supuestamente en la guerra revolucionaria, antítesis de la guerra clásica. En Colombia, quien con mayor profundidad abordó el fenómeno de la guerra revolucionaria fue el oficial Fernando Landazábal Reyes. Este artículo pretende mostrar los principales rasgos de la guerra revolucionaria, desde la perspectiva del mencionado militar y la manera como pudo haber repercutido en el conflicto armado colombiano.Abstract One of the characteristics of the armed Colombian conflict is the murder of civilians by the members of organisms of national security, who accuse those they kill of participating in a subversive strategy led by the Colombian Communist Party, which in turn supposedly originates in the revolutionary war, antithesis of the classic war. In Colombia, the phenomenon of revolutionary war has been approached in depth by the officer Fernando Landazábal Reyes. This article tries to show the principal features of the revolutionary war, from the perspective of the mentioned military man and the way since it could have reverberated in the armed colombian conflict.

  10. "Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: las cartas de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz ("Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: the letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo presentamos el contenido de cartas inéditas escritas por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz durante el proceso de elaboración de "Voces usadas en Chile", obra lingüística de tipo normativo publicada en 1900. Estas cartas sugieren que, aunque la influencia de Lenz como modelo científico de Echeverría es indudable, su participación efectiva en "Voces usadas en Chile", especialmente en su sección lexicológica, no fue tan importante. Lenz colaboró con Echeverría principalmente dando indicaciones generales y revisó (junto con otras personas los apartados fonético y gramatical durante los últimos años de preparación del manuscrito. (The following work shows the content of non published letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz during the making of "Voces usadas en Chile", a normative linguistic work published in 1900. These letters suggest that, although the influence of Lenz as scientific model for Echeverría is out of question, his direct involvement in "Voces usadas en Chile" was not so important. Lenz took part on the making of this work mainly by giving general observations and revising (in collaboration with other persons the phonetic and grammatical chapters, during the last years of revision of the manuscript.

  11. From Glyndebourne to Glastonbury:The Impact of British Music Festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Mckay, George; Webster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Festivals are at the heart of British music and at the heart of the British music industry. They form an essential part of the worlds of rock, classical, folk and jazz, forming regularly occurring pivot points around which musicians, audiences, and festival organisers plan their lives. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the purpose of this report is to chart and critically examine available writing about the impact of British music festivals, drawing on both academic and ‘gre...

  12. Channel 4 and British film: an assessment of industrial and cultural impact, 1982-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an historical investigation of Channel 4’s influence on the British film industry and on British film culture between 1982 and 1998. Combining archival research with interview testimony and secondary literature, this thesis presents the history of a broadcaster’s involvement in British film production, while also examining the cultural and industrial impact of this involvement over time. This study of the interdependence of film and television will aim to bring together aspects...

  13. Pop art redefined British pop arts of the 1960s: towards a social and institutional history

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson Gilbert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This thesis uses new histories of exhibitions, cultural institutions, individuals and artworks to problematize and reconfigure current conceptions of British Pop art, arguing for the deployment of the term ‘British Pop arts’, as opposed to ‘British Pop Art’, to reflect the varied usage of the artistic practice across Britain during the 1960s. The central conclusion of this historical account is the recognition of a wider Pop arts network, albeit formed of disparate and often conflictual subje...

  14. Comprehensive Monitoring of Wildlife Mortality on British Columbia Highways Using the WARS System (1978 to 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been operating its Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) for almost three decades. Detailed information on motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality is systematically collected on a daily basis on major highways throughout British Columbia. Since its inception, WARS has become an increasingly valuable tool for highway planning and operational purposes. With WARS, BCMoT is able to support the British Columbia Government’s commitmen...

  15. Landscape, race and memory : biographical mapping of the routes of British Asian landscape values.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya P Tolia-Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the migration routes of British Asian women living in London are examined. It is shown that British Asians connect with a myriad of landscapes abroad, including East Africa, India and Pakistan. These connections to past landscapes are mapped and considered here as valued environments of British Asian women in Britain. Through the mapping of their biographies, it is apparent that memories of other landscapes are embedded in environmental practices in Britain, therefore contributi...

  16. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  17. ‘Drawing comic traditions': British television animation from 1997 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Norris,, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the shifts within mainstream British television animation between 1997 and 2010 and it discusses how British animation’s close relationship with live-action television comedy reveals a map of contemporary attitudes and tastes. The British animated texts in this period reacted to their shifting industrial and broadcasting landscape. The historical moment of the late 1990s was determined by the successes of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which profoundly affecte...

  18. TOLERATION OF CATHOLICS IN QUEBEC AND BRITISH PUBLIC FINANCES, 1760 TO 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Geloso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of the institutional decisions made by the British when they conquered the French colony of Quebec in 1760 by examining why toleration was the chosen policy course. Past experiences and the dire state of British public finances pushed the British government to adopt toleration of Catholics and of French legal institution in the colony as a policy designed to preserve the empire financially and strategically.

  19. Have you ever been in Bosnia? British military travelers in the Balkans since 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Tens of thousands of British military personnel traveled in former Yugoslavia as peacekeepers between 1992 and 2007. The settlements where British forces established their military presence and supply chain were conceptually far from former Yugoslavia’s tourist sites, but military travelers made sense of them by drawing on the commonplaces of previous travel accounts and the lessons of pre-deployment training. British military travelers constructed themselves as often frustrated helpers ...

  20. Factor prices and productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

  1. British business in Brazil: maturity and demise (1850-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paiva Abreu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the long-term trends of ''British business'' in Brazil since 1850. It covers investment and other manifestations of the British presence such as those related to trade as well as financial intermediation. Primary interest is in British involvement in Brazilian private sector activities, whether by direct investment or by the flotation of sterling securities for firms operating in Brazil. The article also considers the role of London as a financial market where Brazilian public loans were floated, the relevance of Britain as a market for Brazilian commodities and as a supplier to Brazil, and British intermediation in Brazilian trade with third countries. It is divided in chronological sections: imperial years (1850-1889; stagnation and boom (1889-1914; first signs of decline (1914-1930, and the divestment period (1930 to the mid-1950's. The final section presents the conclusions and mentions post-1950 trends.Este artigo considera as tendências de longo prazo das relações econômicas e financeiras britânicas com o Brasil desde 1850. Abrange investimentos e outas manifestações da presença britânica no Brasil, tais como as relacionadas a comércio e intermediação financeira. O interesse fundamental é no envolvimento britânico com as atividades do setor privado no Brasil, seja através de investimento direto, seja na intermediação financeira em benefício de firmas privadas que operavam no Brasil. O artigo também menciona o papel de Londres como centro financeiro no qual eram lançados empréstimos públicos brasileiros, a relevância do Reino Unido como mercado para as exportações brasileiras e como supridor de importações para o Brasil, e a intermediação britânica no comércio brasileiro com terceiros países. O artigo é dividido em seções cronológicas: os anos imperiais (1850-1889; estagnação e boom (1889-1914; primeiros sinais de declínio (1914-1930; os anos de redução de investimentos (1930

  2. The Paleoindian Bison Assemblage from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C. Driver; Vallieres, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    A small assemblage of bison bones from the Palaeoindian (10,700 to 9500 BP) components at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia is dominated by elements from the middle and lower limbs. The skeletal element frequencies are not typical of a kill site. The lithic assemblage, the lack of evidence for burning, and the ratio of long bone shaft fragments to epiphyses suggest that the assemblage was not produced at a residential site nor at a specialized processing area. We propose that the assemblage...

  3. Reconstruction of British Nuclear Fuel's Drigg marine outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the House of Commons Environment Committee expressed reservations over some of the waste-management procedures followed by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd at their Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sellafield in Cumbria. These reservations prompted the company to implement a Pound 20 million programme of improvements aimed at maximizing site usage, reducing trench leachate arisings and redirecting to the Irish Sea. This paper provides information and test results associated with design considerations and initial dilution testing, respectively, of a computer-controlled long sea outfall system designed to discharge leachate to the Irish Sea. Information is also provided on difficulties experienced during construction of the outfall. (Author)

  4. Results of monitoring at the British library excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Brian; Vardanega, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The main phase of excavation for the basements of the British Library at St Pancras, London, was completed in 1987. The project included basements extending up to 25 m deep, through the London Clay and into the Lambeth Group. The excavations were formed using both the top-down method and open excavation with ground anchors. Existing major buildings lie within 25 m of the site and London Underground tunnels lie below and adjacent to the site. The purpose of this paper is to present the results...

  5. Privatization and culture change: British Nuclear Fuels case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and explains the process of organizational change experienced by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) during the late 1980s. BNFL went through a major transformation in management values and practices to survive in the new business environment characterized by government deregulation and fiercer global market competition. The paper describes both the historical and the prevailing management behaviour as well as the strategy utilized by BNFL's top management in their change process. The key factor in the process of change seems to lie in top management commitment and a fully integrated set of actions involving different sub-systems of the organization. (author)

  6. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  7. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Laraine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  8. GATEWAY FOR PRIVATE HOME HEALTH CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Altejos

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study assesses the private home health care market in British Columbia for a business concept called Gateway to Home Health Care, or simply “Gateway.” Gateway is a new business concept recommended by the author to solve the increasing incongruence between growing health care demands and the limited care options in B.C. To conduct a feasibility study, the report examines the long-term care (LTC) industry and focuses on the role of the privatehome health care market in B.C. It ...

  9. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, S.; Nardone, A.; Field, N.; Mercer, CH; Tanton, C; Macdowall, W.; Johnson, AM; Sonnenberg, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4%...

  10. Sizewell B - analysis of British application of US PWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the staff's evaluation of major design differences and issues developed by the British in their application (Sizewell B) of US PWR technology. One design change, the addition of steam-driven charging pumps, was assessed to have a relatively high value compared to the other changes. However, the assessment is based on a number of assumptions for which inadequate data exist to make an unqualified judgment. Other changes to the US design (as typified by the SNUPPS design) were found to have relatively low or moderate safety benefits for US application

  11. Contracts for small hydro development : British Columbia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of small hydroelectric projects in British Columbia during the past decade was discussed. During that time, at least 10 small hydroelectric projects have been completed by non-utility independent power producers. This paper discusses how proponents of small hydro can become off-grid communities, or how mining/forestry companies can reduce their dependence on costly diesel generation. The paper also outlines alternative contractual arrangements for energy sales, engineering services, equipment supply, and plant construction, and describes their applicability, advantages, disadvantages and costs

  12. The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Akor, Ambrose

    2011-01-01

    The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign PolicyBy Ambrose AkorDoctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2011The University of ManchesterAbstractAre foreign policy officials responsive to policy preferences of the mass media and the public in making their decisions? That question has dogged scholars for decades but there has been little agreement among them on what is the true nature of mass media- and public opinion-foreign policy link. In terms of mass media impact, there are two media theories which ...

  13. De ruinas y cristales: una poética del tiempo en los textos de Aníbal Núñez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Puppo, María

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reading of the poetical texts of Aníbal Núñez (Salamanca, 1944-1987 focused on the study of two of its most important images, the ruin and the crystal. In the ruin motif many different literary traditions (Baroque, Romantic, Postmodernist coincide, establishing a dialog with the corpus of the twentieth century. On the other hand, crystals as a heuristic model refer to Gilles Deleuze’s esthetics. Firstly, the analysis will provide the bases of a «syntax of the imaginary» in Nuñez’s poetry, accounting for the logic that rules the relations among images gathered around both nuclear metaphors (Burgos 1982. Secondly, it will trace the «anthropologic journey» of ruins and crystals as dynamic images that arise from the poem and reach subjective and social imaginaries (Durand 1960, 1993. In conclusion, some guidelines will be proposed in order to define the poetics of time inscribed in the Spanish author’s texts.Este trabajo propone una lectura de los textos poéticos del salmantino Aníbal Núñez (1944-1987 a partir del estudio de dos de sus imágenes fundamentales, la ruina y el cristal. En el motivo de la ruina coinciden diferentes tradiciones literarias (barroca, romántica, postmoderna con las cuales dialoga el corpus del siglo veinte, en tanto que los cristales como modelo heurístico remiten al pensamiento estético de Gilles Deleuze. En primer lugar, se plantearán las bases de una «sintaxis del imaginario» en la poesía de Núñez, es decir, de la lógica que gobierna las relaciones de las imágenes reunidas en torno a estas dos metáforas nucleares (Burgos 1982. En segundo lugar, se buscará perfilar el «trayecto antropológico» de las ruinas y los cristales en tanto imágenes dinámicas, que desde el cuerpo del poema se vinculan con las resonancias pulsionales subjetivas y el imaginario del contexto y la tópica social (Durand 1960, 1993. A modo de conclusión, se propondrán algunos lineamientos para

  14. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  15. Toolkit for community energy planning in British Columbia. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This toolkit presents the basic concepts and issues regarding the implementation of community energy planning in British Columbia. It is intended primarily for local elected officials, municipal and regional planners and engineers, real estate developers and those interested in community sustainability and energy opportunities. The objectives are to: (1) describe how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community, (2) show that designing for energy supports community livability objectives, (3) describe how energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, (4) communicate the idea that community energy planning can play an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, thereby slowing down climate change, and (5) provide practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. This toolkit described the strategies that are related to each of these components. In addition, 6 case studies of specific initiative programs dealing with community energy planning in British Columbia were presented. These included the challenges facing developers of energy efficient sustainable buildings and municipalities, the Lillooet solar municipal pool, the community energy planning in Kamloops, improving the transportation system a small urban centre called Quesnel, BC's energy aware award winners, and the Shoal Point development on Victoria Island's Fisherman's Wharf. The efforts of each of these projects provide an opportunity to build a community that is more socially, environmentally and fiscally responsible and sustainable.

  16. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  17. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism. PMID:11147093

  19. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 109m3, up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 103m3, an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  20. Subtitle Translation of Humour in British TV Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jun-fei

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the translation of three categories of British humour-universal, cultural and linguistic humour in the light of GTVH(General Theory of Verbal Humour) and Relevance Theory. GTVH benefits the study of humour translation by providing an analytical framework of six Knowledge Resources which include Language (LA), Narrative Strategy(NS), Target (TA), Situation(SI), Logical Mechanism(LM) and Script Opposition (SO). The hierarchy of Knowledge Resources is used to make an analysis of the internal structure of humour and Relevance theory functions as a translation theory to check whether the translation is appropriate to achieve optimal relevance. Taking the translation examples from British TV sitcoms“Yes, Prime Minis-ter”and“Little Britain”,the thesis probes into the most important Knowledge Resources in these three kinds of humour respec-tively, analyzes the loss and gain of humour reproduction in fansubbers’translation and makes a few adjustments to some inappro-priate translation versions to“achieve the maximization of relevance”.

  1. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version. PMID:23981147

  2. Protest movements against nuclear energy and the British state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main aspects which explain the comparative weakness of the British anti-nuclear movement are identified. First, debate over nuclear energy has been conducted within a public enquiry framework and second there has been a lack of stimuli for opposition to emerge and develop. The main part of this paper analyses the political conflict over nuclear energy from 1974 to 1989 divided into four phases. Phase one (1974-1978) saw the emergence of nuclear power as a political issue and the early encounters between pro and anti-nuclear forces at the Windscale Inquiry in 1977. Phase two (1978-1981) saw the rise of a more radical anti-nuclear lobby as a national movement. Phase three (1982-1987) was characterized by the Sizewell-B inquiry. Phase four saw a major crisis in the British nuclear industry not from anti-nuclear protest but from the Governments privatisation policy. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of the policy style concept for an explanation of the role of the state in the nuclear conflict. (UK)

  3. Terkos Gölü'ndeki Çapak Balıkları (Abramis brama L. 1758)'nda Görülen Helmintlerin Mevsimsel Dağılımları

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRTAŞ, Murat; ALTINDAĞ, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

     Özet: Bu çalışma Eylül 2009 - Ağustos 2010 tarihleri arasında Terkos Gölü'nde yaşayan çapak balıkları (Abramis brama L. 1758)'ndaki helmint faunasının mevsimsel olarak dağılımını araştırmak için yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince incelenen 161 (♀:73, ♂:88) çapak balığının Monogenia'dan Dactylogyrus sphyrna ve Dactylogyrus distinguendus, Digenia'dan Diplostomum spathaceum metaserkeri, Cestoda'dan, Ligula intestinalis plerocercoidi, ve Hirudinea'dan  Piscicola geometra ile enfeste ol...

  4. Hydrogeological settings of a volcanic island (San Cristóbal, Galapagos from joint interpretation of airborne electromagnetics and geomorphological observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pryet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many volcanic islands face freshwater stress and the situation may worsen with climate change and sea level rise. In this context, an optimum management of freshwater resources becomes crucial, but is often impeded by the lack of data. With the aim of investigating the hydrogeological settings of Southern San Cristóbal Island (Galapagos, we conducted an helicopter-borne, transient electromagnetic survey with the SkyTEM system. It provided unprecedented insights in the 3-D resistivity structure of this extinct basaltic shield. Combined with remote sensing and fieldwork, it allowed the definition of the first hydrogeological conceptual model of the island. Springs are fed by a series of perched aquifers overlying a regional basal aquifer subject to seawater intrusion. Dykes, evidenced by alignments of eruptive cones at the surface, correspond to sharp sub-vertical contrasts in resistivity in the subsurface, and impound groundwater in a summit channel. Combined with geomorphological observations, airborne electromagnetics is shown to be a useful tool for hydrogeological exploratory studies in complex, poorly known environments. It allows optimal development of land-based geophysical surveys and drilling campaigns.

  5. Hydrogeological settings of a volcanic island (San Cristóbal, Galapagos from joint interpretation of airborne electromagnetics and geomorphological observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pryet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many volcanic islands face freshwater stress and the situation may worsen with climate change and sea level rise. In this context, an optimum management of freshwater resources becomes crucial, but is often impeded by the lack of data. With the aim of investigating the hydrogeological settings of southern San Cristóbal Island (Galapagos, we conducted a helicopter-borne, transient electromagnetic survey with the SkyTEM system. It provided unprecedented insights into the 3-D resistivity structure of this extinct basaltic shield. Combined with remote sensing and fieldwork, it allowed the definition of the first hydrogeological conceptual model of the island. Springs are fed by a series of perched aquifers overlying a regional basal aquifer subject to seawater intrusion. Dykes, evidenced by alignments of eruptive cones at the surface, correspond to sharp sub-vertical contrasts in resistivity in the subsurface, and impound groundwater in a summit channel. Combined with geomorphological observations, airborne electromagnetics are shown to be a useful for hydrogeological exploratory studies in complex, poorly known environments. They allow optimal development of land-based geophysical surveys and drilling campaigns.

  6. La presencia de ámbar y sub-ámbar (copal en Costa Rica: el caso de San Cristóbal de Savegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E Alvarado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, pequeños fragmentos de ámbar se encuentran en las rocas sedimentarias marinas clásticas del Mioceno, tales como Formación Punta Judas (Mioceno Medio, Formación Santa Teresa (Mioceno Medio y Formación Curré (Mioceno Medio-Superior. Sub-ámbar o copal se encuentra en relativa abundancia en ciertas localidades en los suelos residuales en las montañas cerca de San Cristóbal de Savegre (Aguirre, Puntarenas. Las muestras de copal tienen formas sub-redondeadas o aperladas (21,3%, tabulares o laminares (29,6% y troncoidales (30,4%, pero algunas son intermedias o indefinidas (18,7%. Su color varía entre anaranjado/rojizo (57,4%, seguido por amarillo (31,0% y menos frecuentemente el amarillo claro hasta blancuzco (11,6%; algunas muestras poseen insectos incorporados. La edad del copal está en el rango de edad de 1670-1780 A.D., basado en una datación 14C calibrada. Aunque estas muestras de copal parecen no tener valor comercial, si podrían ser usados por artesanos locales.

  7. The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL Quasar with a Probable Polar Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Berrington, Robert C; Gallagher, Sarah C; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D; Hall, Patrick B; Laurent-Muehleisen, S A

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e., an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Gamma = 1.7 or flatter at a >99% confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 10^23 cm^-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providi...

  8. Graffiti: una expresión político-cultural juvenil en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Abarca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo en este artículo es ayudar a comprender los componentes políticos y culturales asociados al desarrollo del graffiti en San Cristóbal de Las Casas. Realicé la investigación entre los años 2010 y 2012, desde el paradigma cualitativo, basado en la interpretación de registros etnográficos y entrevistas con sus productores y productoras. El graffiti emerge en esta ciudad desde la década de los noventa del siglo pasado, como una producción cultural, en torno a la cual las y los jóvenes construyen identidades individuales y colectivas; representan sus realidades, se (reapropian de los espacios públicos, cuestionan el ordenamiento socio-espacial y generan disputas por la definición del paisaje urbano. Con base en estos resultados concluyo que el graffiti es un producto cultural complejo a través del cual las y los jóvenes se posicionan como sujetos político- culturales. Palabras clave autor: ciudad.

  9. Graffiti: una expresión político-cultural juvenil en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Abarca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo en este artículo es ayudar a comprender los componentes políticos y culturales asociados al desarrollo del graffiti en San Cristóbal de Las Casas. Realicé la investigación entre los años 2010 y 2012, desde el paradigma cualitativo, basado en la interpretación de registros etnográficos y entrevistas con sus productores y productoras. El graffiti emerge en esta ciudad desde la década de los noventa del siglo pasado, como una producción cultural, en torno a la cual las y los jóvenes construyen identidades individuales y colectivas; representan sus realidades, se (reapropian de los espacios públicos, cuestionan el ordenamiento socio-espacial y generan disputas por la definición del paisaje urbano. Con base en estos resultados concluyo que el graffiti es un producto cultural complejo a través del cual las y los jóvenes se posicionan como sujetos políticoculturales.

  10. Elazığ İli Balık Eti Tüketim Alışkanlığı ve Tercihinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİÇEK, Emin; Akgün, Hakan; İLHAN, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Bu anket çalışması, Elazıð ili balık tüketim alışkanlıðı ve tercihinin belirlenmesi amacı ile yapılmıştır. Çalışma, rastgele örnekleme yöntemiyle, il merkezinde ikamet eden 350 kişiye 23 soruluk anket uygulanarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elazıð'daki tüketicilerin % 16'sı hayvansal gıda aðırlıklı, %13'ü bitkisel gıda aðırlıklı ve %71'i her iki tür ürünü de birlikte tükettikleri belirlenmiştir. Tüketiciler, hayvansal gıda ürünlerinden öncelik sırasıyla %41 kırmızı eti, %23 beyaz eti (kanatlı), %3 ...

  11. Tracing the Outflow of a z=0.334 FeLoBAL: New Constraints from Low-Ionization Absorbers in FBQS J1151+3822

    CERN Document Server

    Lucy, Adrian B; Terndrup, Donald M; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    We show for the first time that FBQS J1151+3822 is an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar (FeLoBAL QSO), the second-brightest and second-closest known example of this class. He I* and Fe II together act as an effective analytical tool, allowing us to obtain useful kinematic constraints from photoionization models of the outflow without needing to assume any particular acceleration model. The main outflow's log ionization parameter is -1.5, the log hydrogen density [cm^(-3)] 5.5 to 8, the log hydrogen column density [cm^(-2)] 21.7 to 21.9, the absorption radius 7.2 to 127 pc, and the kinetic luminosity 0.16 to 4.5% of the bolometric luminosity. We obtain line-of-sight covering fractions of ~0.25 for strong Fe II, ~0.5 for He I*, and ~0.6 for Mg II. Narrower and shallower absorption lines from weaker Fe II and Mn II with outflow velocity ~3400 km/s have appeared between 2005 and 2011, suggesting that dense cores may have condensed inside the main outflow. Consideration of the literature might sugge...

  12. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius. PMID:17934618

  13. La influencia de la localización del partido, el nivel del oponente y el marcador en la posesión del balón en el fútbol de alto nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lago Peñas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio consistió en examinar el efecto de la localización del partido, el nivel del oponente y el marcador sobre las estrategias de posesión del balón en un equipo de fútbol profesional. Para ello fueron analizados 27 partidos de la temporada 2005-2006 de la Liga Española de Fútbol utilizando un sistema computerizado de análisis del juego. Los partidos fueron divididos en episodios de juego de acuerdo con la evolución del marcador. Los resultados del análisis de regresión lineal muestran que la posesión del balón en global y el porcentaje de minutos que el equipo observado tuvo la posesión del balón en cada zona del campo de juego (zona defensiva 1/3, zona media 1/3 y zona ofensiva 1/3 estuvieron condicionados por las variables de situación analizadas, bien de forma independiente o de forma interactiva. La combinación de estas variables y sus interacciones puede ser utilizada para construir modelos que estimen la posesión del balón en el fútbol. Los hallazgos ponen en evidencia la necesidad para los entrenadores e investigadores de tener en cuenta los potenciales efectos independientes e interactivos de la localización del partido, el nivel del oponente y el marcador durante la evaluación del rendimiento de los equipos y los jugadores.

  14. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies, a

  15. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British higher…

  16. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly qu

  17. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas employment…

  18. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jonathan, Ed.; Kavanagh, Kathryn, Ed.

    The guide to American and British culture, for upper secondary- and university-level students, is intended for use by learners of English as a second language. It is designed to explain specific aspects of British and American life and traditions not generally included in English language dictionaries. The guide has a dictionary format, with terms…

  19. Britishness, Belonging and the Ideology of Conflict: Lessons from the "Polis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvane, Derek

    2011-01-01

    A central aspiration of the "Britishness" agenda in UK politics is to promote community through the teaching of British values in schools. The agenda's justification depends in part on the suppositions that harmony arising from agreement on certain values is a necessary condition of social health and that conflict arising from pluralism connotes a…

  20. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  1. Benchmarking Course Completion Rates: A Method with an Example from the British Columbia Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We report findings on the methodological phase of a research project designed to assess the progress of the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) toward a 1997 goal of increasing distance education course completion rates to British Columbia system levels by adapting existing "off-line" courses for online delivery (a virtualization strategy).…

  2. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  3. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  4. Nineteenth Century British and American Chemistry Textbook Writers: Some Differences of Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some themes that I have discussed before at this seminar in previous years, namely the different perceptions of the best ways to teach chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century between British and American chemists. In this paper I will examine the biographies of a number of nineteenth century British and…

  5. Are depressive symptoms more common among British South Asian patients compared with British White patients with cancer? A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Karen; Ibrahim, Kausher; Kumar, Sawan; Mitchell, Alex J; Rudd, Nicky; Symonds, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey investigated whether there were ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among British South Asian (BSA) patients with cancer compared with British White (BW) patients during 9 months following presentation at a UK Cancer Centre. We examined associations between depressed mood, coping strategies and the burden of symptoms. Design Questionnaires were administered to 94 BSA and 185 BW recently diagnosed patients with cancer at baseline and at 3 and 9 mont...

  6. Lexicografía chilena finisecular. "Voces usadas en Chile" de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900 (Chilean fin-de-siècle lexicography. "Voces usadas en Chile" by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alfero Wolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio corresponde al análisis metalexicográfico del diccionario "Voces usadas en Chile", publicado en 1900 por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes. La investigación tiene por objetivo conocer y establecer el estado de la lexicografía practicada en Chile a fines del siglo XIX. La metodología básica de este estudio se centra en la aplicación sistemática de la plantilla de análisis metalexicográfico de Matus (1995a, que pretende describir, analizar y valorar críticamente los repertorios lexicográficos del español de Chile. El análisis, que inserta el inventario léxico bajo estudio de forma transversal en el desarrollo de la lexicografía en Chile, muestra la avanzada técnica científica incorporada en el procesamiento y sistematización del material léxico. Por otro lado, evidencia las estrategias por medio de las cuales el autor comienza a abandonar las ideas puristas y normativas imperantes en su época. En efecto, se reconoce más de un punto de referencialidad idiomática, propiciándose así una estandarización policéntrica (De Granda, 1994: 48. La polarización entre léxico oficial y léxico marginal se desdibuja, siendo este un aspecto que puede verse reflejado en la incorporación de términos «malsonantes» y tabuizados. Finalmente, se bosqueja la importancia de la obra de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes como un diccionario de transición entre lo precientífico y lo propiamente científico. (This paper is a metalexicographical analysis of the dictionary "Voces usadas en Chile", by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes published in Chile in 1900. It reviews the state of lexicography practiced in late 19th Century Chile. The analysis follows Matus’ metalexicographical analysis chart (1995, which allows description, analysis and critical evaluation of lexicographical works on Chilean Spanish. This work aims at reavealing (revealing the advanced scientific techniques used by Echeverría y Reyes in processing and systematizing

  7. 巴拿马BalBoa港第三期工程码头钻孔灌注桩冲洗液选择与实践%Selection and Practice of Drilling Fluid for Bored Pile in BalBoa Wharf Project of Panama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂新; 廖光华

    2004-01-01

    巴拿马BalBoa港第三期工程码头钻孔灌注桩工程是巴拿马乃至中南美洲第一次在海上La-Boca地层施工钻孔灌注桩,该海相凝灰质细砂岩的特点是遇空气后很快风化分散,极不稳定,孔壁稳定性问题是钻进成孔中的主要难题.通过科学地实验和分析,优选钻孔桩冲洗液护壁方案,取得了良好效果.详细介绍了该钻孔桩冲洗液优选方法及应用效果.

  8. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  9. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  10. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  11. The Differences of Chinese and British Culture in the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晨辰

    2015-01-01

    Culture is the kernel and connotation of the country and it is also the irreplaceable soul for the country. The modern Olympic Games is the comprehensive and international sport competition which is with a long history, a large scope and the top level all over the world. It is expressed the culture of the country in the every aspect of the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games. In this paper, it is explored the difference of Chinese and British culture in the oral command, theme, design concepts of the main stadium, emblem and sport events of the Olympic Games through the introduction and comparison of the 4th, 14th London Olympic Games, 29th Beijing Olympic Games and the 30th London Olympic Games.

  12. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  13. The teaching of high energy physics in British universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is given of a survey of the teaching of high energy physics in British universities. The subject changes quickly, and there is a continual conflict between new and old material. Different courses may deal with this in different ways. To find out what is actually being taught to students, details were obtained from all 50 university physics departments in the United Kingdom (UK) by means of a questionnaire. This covered the course structure - whether it was optional or compulsory or contained both elements - the number of lectures given, and the topics covered in the syllabus. The replies give a comprehensive picture of the state of undergraduate teaching of high energy physics in the UK. (Author)

  14. Universal health care: lessons from the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald W

    2003-01-01

    Britain's National Health Service (NHS) was established in the wake of World War II amid a broad consensus that health care should be made available to all. Yet the British only barely succeeded in overcoming professional opposition to form the NHS out of the prewar mixture of limited national insurance, various voluntary insurance schemes, charity care, and public health services. Success stemmed from extraordinary leadership, a parliamentary system of government that gives the winning party great control, and a willingness to make major concessions to key stakeholders. As one of the basic models emulated worldwide, the NHS-in both its original form and its current restructuring-offers a number of relevant lessons for health reform in the United States. PMID:12511379

  15. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  16. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  17. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts : British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of British Columbia's petroleum industry is presented. The industry injects more than one billion dollars annually into the BC economy. The province is the second largest natural gas producer in Canada. Seven thousand people are engaged in upstream activities such as exploration, production and development, while the downstream sector of the industry employs about 25,000 people in refining, pipeline transportation, natural gas distribution and retail gasoline operations. There is an extensive pipeline network with nearly 24,000 kilometres of pipeline serving local, national and international markets. From 1993 to 1997, the number of oil and gas wells drilled in BC nearly doubled from 324 wells to 616 wells. More than half of the natural gas produced in BC is exported, mostly to the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Some gas also goes to eastern Canada, the U.S. midwest and California. 3 figs

  18. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the Energy Select Committee put questions to representatives of British Nuclear Fuels PLC (BNFL) about the annual report and accounts 1989-90. Questions concerned the late publication of the accounts, BNFLs role in the downfall of the nuclear privatisation, government assistance to the nuclear industry, the price BNFL charges for fuel reprocessing and the process of laser isotope separation of uranium. The committee also asked about the rate of return in BNFL's assets as a percentage, Sellafield's potential as a site for a deep repository for radioactive wastes and the 6000 boreholes that MREX will drill at Sellafield. The commercial case for reprocessing is made. Feasibility studies for possible new reactions at Sellafield and Chapel Cross have been carried out. On the whole the Energy Committee were satisfied with the replies from BNFL. (UK)

  19. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  20. THE EMBODIMENT OF BRITISH WITCHCRAFT CULTURE IN HARRY POTTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阅

    2015-01-01

    The series novel Harry Potter was created by English woman writer J.K.Rowling. It contains the rich mythical factor, the witchcraft fantasy component and the folk cultural factor. It has inherited England traditional culture, fantastic novel and children literature. This essay mainly discuss the reason of Harry Potter regarded with great favor in the west from the perspective of traditional culture of British and Europe. It started from the witchcraft culture and Christian Culture. These two points are expounded the western culture details by means of the analyzing on culture background. Both of them layed the culture foundations for the success of the series. At last,the depiction of the heroism of nobody is in sharp contrast with the traditional heroism, thereby reflected the commendable, which makes people realised to carish the worth of peaceful life.

  1. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  2. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  3. Emmonsia crescens infection in a British water vole (Arvicola terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrey, Julian C; Borman, Andrew M; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Kipar, Anja

    2006-06-01

    Emmonsia crescens, a dimorphic fungus of the order Onygenales, is primarily a pathogen of lower animals and rarely humans. Inhaled conidia of E. crescens fail to germinate in the lungs, and instead simply enlarge in lung tissue to become giant adiaspores. We present here the case of fatal Emmonsia crescens infection in a wild-caught British water vole (Arvicola terrestris). Histopathological examination of the animal, which died in captivity, revealed a multifocally extensive granulomatous reaction containing oval adiaspores scattered irregularly throughout the lungs. Mycological examination of fungus cultured from lung tissue and PCR amplification and sequencing of rDNA gene fragments of the cultured organism confirmed the diagnosis of massive infection by E. crescens. PMID:16772233

  4. The future of bereavement care in British general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, W R

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the future of bereavement care in British general practice by providing an insight into existing practice and then speculating on influences that may shape developments. There have been calls for the specialty to build on this traditional role and expand its bereavement service. Specific suggestions for the content of such a service are summarised. This emphasis reflects the increasing awareness in bereavement by other health organisations. This image of an expanding service needs to be contextualised within a primary care system that is feeling more pressurised due to increasing workload. This will continue to inhibit extensive service development. In addition it is important for the profession to consider the appropriateness of this activity. This complex debate has received little attention and research is required to inform and provide the necessary direction. PMID:9233164

  5. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item covers a meeting held between members of the United Kingdom government's energy committee and representatives of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to discuss their Annual Report and Accounts for the year 1988-89. The committee explored the reasons for escalating predictions of the costs of nuclear power and why decommissioning costs are so difficult to estimate accurately so as to include them in cost per kilowatt hour of generated electricity. The relationship between BNFL and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) was explored, as was the MoD's relationship with the United States Department of Defense. BNFL's financial position should improve when the thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield becomes operational, and the Chapelcross and Calder Hall reactors may contribute income from electricity generation. (UK)

  6. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  7. Assimilation of Indian immigrant adolescents in British society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S M

    1984-09-01

    Assimilation into British society was studied with first- and second-generation Indian immigrant adolescents and English boys and girls (N = 395, age range 14-16 years). They were administered a questionnaire designed by Danziger to monitor changes in their cultural perspectives, such as sex role specialization, autonomy in everyday life, and parents' perceived expectations. Analysis of variance revealed that no changes occurred among second-generation Indian girls, who enjoyed less autonomy in their daily lives than English girls and boys did. Second-generation Indian girls also perceived greater expectations from both parents to play a more responsible role in household activities. Few significant changes were found for Indian boys. PMID:6512721

  8. Hodgkin's disease in childhood: the British National Lymphoma Investigation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation in the treatment of 68 children with Hodgkin's disease is reported over a 14 year period from 1970. The presenting histology was reviewed by a single histopathologist; 87% of the cases were classified as nodular sclerosis (NS) and further subdivided into NSI (53%) and NSII (35%). Primary treatment consisted of local (involved field) or prophylactic (extended field) irradiation, combination chemotherapy alone or low dose irradiation and chemotherapy. An overall 5 year survival of 87% was achieved and a 5 year relapse-free survival of 64%. Eight deaths were reported during the study, all of which occurred in children who presented with NSII histology. Each child was in relapse and undergoing chemotherapy at the time of death. This histological subtype was also associated with both a lower complete remission rate and a reduced response to second line chemotherapy. (author)

  9. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Lucy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were measured for COHb and information on social, household and individual factors assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were based on 3603 men measured in or close to ( Results The COHb distribution was positively skewed. Geometric mean COHb level was 0.46% and the median 0.50%; 9.2% of men had a COHb level of 2.5% or more and 0.1% of subjects had a level of 7.5% or more. Factors which were independently related to mean COHb level included season (highest in autumn and winter, region (highest in Northern England, gas cooking (slight increase and central heating (slight decrease and active smoking, the strongest determinant. Mean COHb levels were more than ten times greater in men smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day (3.29% compared with non-smokers (0.32%; almost all subjects with COHb levels of 2.5% and above were smokers (93%. Pipe and cigar smoking was associated with more modest increases in COHb level. Passive cigarette smoking exposure had no independent association with COHb after adjustment for other factors. Active smoking accounted for 41% of variance in COHb level and all factors together for 47%. Conclusion An appreciable proportion of men have COHb levels of 2.5% or more at which symptomatic effects may occur, though very high levels are uncommon. The results confirm that smoking (particularly cigarette smoking is the dominant influence on COHb levels.

  10. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  11. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  12. Double-balloon enteroscopy: a descriptive study of 50 explorations Enteroscopia de doble balón: estudio descriptivo de 50 exploraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pérez-Cuadrado

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the utility of double-balloon enteroscopy for small-bowel disease. Design: a prospective study of 50 consecutive enteroscopies performed from December 2004 to July 2005 to analyze diagnoses and treatments. Patients: 44 patients (33 had undergone a previous capsule endoscopy with indications for obscure digestive hemorrhage, angiodysplasia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ulcer, suspected Crohn's disease, tumors, and refractory celiac disease. Results: we carried out enteroscopy studies in 44 patients by the oral route and, in 6 additional patients, by both the oral and anal routes. We reached the ileon with the oral route in all cases but one (jejunal stenosis, and in 4 cases out of 7 with the anal route, with an average duration of 73 minutes. We found angiodysplasia in 19 cases, as well as NSAID-related enteropathy, Crohn's disease, diverticulosis, and Waldenström's disease. We performed biopsies in 31% of cases with diagnoses of adenocarcinoma, lymphangiectasia secondary to tumor in celiac disease, and Whipple's disease. We treated 19 patients with angiodysplasia (1 to 20 synchronous lesions with argon, and 4 patients with polyps using polipectomy (sporadic polyps or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A retained capsule in one patient with stenosis was removed. Conclusions: double-balloon enteroscopy is a useful and effective technique in the diagnosis and treatment of small intestine diseases, thus complementing capsule endoscopy. More studies are needed to analyze its impact on the management of this condition.Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de la enteroscopia de doble balón en enfermedades de intestino delgado. Diseño: estudio prospectivo descriptivo de 50 enteroscopias consecutivas (diciembre 2004 a julio 2005, analizando diagnóstico y terapéutica. Pacientes: cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (33 con cápsula endoscópica previa con hemorragia digestiva oculta o lesiones detectadas mediante cápsula (angiodisplasias, pólipos, úlceras

  13. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat. PMID:25984724

  14. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats’ possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel’s intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat. PMID:25984724

  15. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming. PMID:17348136

  16. The Christopher Columbus Project: An Enterprise of Modernity El proyecto de Cristóbal Colón: Una empresa de la modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rojas Arias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The project of discovering America by Christopher Columbus is an enterprise of Modernity, understood as the modern mentality displayed in the capitalist system. Even though Columbus lived during the Renaissance period, the mentality carried in his project is closer to some modern philosophers such as Descartes and Hobbes, who from rationality and individualism constitute a change of time. The hypothesis that Columbus is a modern person is sustained with evidence in the reasons he explained to defend his project from the Spanish court and especially the final agreement, "the capitulation", in which rationality and individualism took precedence over divine or medieval considerations. The rationalist mentality of Columbus prefigures that from modern businessman who does not stitch without thimble.El descubrimiento de América, impulsado por Cristóbal Colón, es una empresa  de la Modernidad, entendida esta como la mentalidad moderna desplegada en el sistema capitalista. Si bien es cierto que Colón, por la época en que vivió, se ubica  dentro del Renacimiento, la mentalidad con que fue llevada a cabo su iniciativa está más cerca de modernos como Descartes y Hobbes, quienes, a partir de la racionalidad y el individualismo, configuran un cambio de época. La hipótesis de que Colón es un moderno se sustenta con muchas evidencias en las razones que construyó para defender su proyecto ante la corte española y especialmente en el acuerdo final, “la capitulación”, en donde la racionalidad y el individualismo priman sobre consideraciones divinas o medievales. La mentalidad racionalista de Colón prefigura la del empresario moderno que no da puntada sin dedal.  

  17. Linking SO2 emission rates and seismicity by continuous wavelet transform: implications for volcanic surveillance at San Cristóbal volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Vladimir; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Saballos, J. Armando; Galle, Bo; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2016-07-01

    San Cristóbal volcano is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Its persistently high activity during the past decade is characterized by strong degassing and almost annual VEI 1-2 explosions, which present a threat to the local communities. Following an eruption on 8 September 2012, the intervals between eruptions decreased significantly, which we interpret as the start of a new eruptive phase. We present here the results of semi-continuous SO2 flux measurements covering a period of 18 months, obtained by two scanning UV-DOAS instruments installed as a part of the network for observation of volcanic and atmospheric change project, and the results of real-time seismic amplitude measurements (RSAM) data. Our data comprise a series of small to moderately explosive events in December 2012, June 2013 and February 2014, which were accompanied by increased gas emissions and seismicity. In order to approach an early warning strategy, we present a statistical method for the joint analysis of gas flux and seismic data, by using continuous wavelet transform and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) methods. This analysis shows that the XWT coefficients of SO2 flux and RSAM are in good agreement with the occurrence of eruptive events and thus may be used to indicate magma ascent into the volcano edifice. Such multi-parameter surveillance efforts can be useful for the interpretation and surveillance of possible eruptive events and could thus be used by local institutions for the prediction of upcoming volcanic unrest.

  18. La región de Metagonia, la estrategia defensiva de Aníbal en Libia y en Iberia, y los primeros tratados entre Cartago y Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcoz Yanguas, Serafín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an interpretation of the epigraphic information transmitted by Polybius about the bronzes containing the first treaties between Carthage and Rome, and the one of the Temple of Hera Lacinia about Hannibal’s defensive strategy, which allows us to propose a hypothesis to reconstruct the provincial organization of Carthage in Libya and Iberia, as part of the struggle for hegemony in the western Mediterranean. This proposal also represents a turning point in the knowledge of the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula and we believe will provide a better understanding of the situation and organization of Carthage before the Second Punic War, its position in front of Rome and of their consecutive processes of the conquest of Iberia.Presentamos una interpretación de la información epigráfica transmitida por Polibio de los bronces que contenían los primeros tratados entre Cartago y Roma, y el del templo de Hera Lacinia, acerca de la estrategia defensiva de Aníbal, que permite proponer una hipótesis para reconstruir la organización provincial de Cartago en Libia y en Iberia, en el marco de la lucha por la hegemonía en el Mediterráneo occidental. Esta propuesta también supone un punto de inflexión en el conocimiento de los pueblos prerromanos de la Península Ibérica y creemos que permitirá conocer mejor tanto la situación y organización de Cartago antes de la Segunda Guerra Púnica, como su posición frente a Roma y sus consecutivos procesos de conquista de Iberia.

  19. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  20. Where the Runners Went: British Motivations Behind Postal Policy and Allocation in Colonial India

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat, Sheetal

    2012-01-01

    British presence has had a profound influence on economic development in British and independent India, and the debate on the nature of this influence has been raging for decades. At one end is the imperialist view that India benefitted from British rule and at the other is the nationalist view that India is still struggling from the burden of misrule. This debate has been enriched by in-depth research on the railways, among other topics; yet the closely related postal network has received ...

  1. Supplement use by UK-based British Army soldiers in training

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Anna; Hughes, Jason; Izard, Rachel M.; Greeves, Julie P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of supplements is widespread at all levels of civilian sport and a prevalence of 60–90 % is reported among high-performance UK athletes, including juniors. The prevalence of supplement use among UK-based British Army personnel is not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of supplement use in UK-based British Army soldiers under training (SuTs) and associated staff. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was carried out in 3168 British Army SuTs and sold...

  2. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  3. Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart and the British interregnum in Netherlands Timor, 1812-1816

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Farram

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘British interregnum’, in relation to Indonesia, refers to two short periods in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when the British took control of most of the Netherlands Indies from the Dutch, only to hand it back a few years later. The British did this as a result of their wars with France. The first occupation occurred in 1795-1797 after a pro-France regime had been established in Holland. After peace was declared in 1802, the occupied territories were returned to...

  4. Anglo Libyan relations and the British military facilities 1964-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Straw, Sean William

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the Anglo-Libyan relationship and the British military facilities in the Labour Government’s foreign and defence policy from 1964 to 1970. This relationship, built upon a “shared tradition” of strategic self interest, was given form in the 1953 treaty which permitted British deployments. The military presence enabled the British to maintain their wider strategic interests East of Suez as well as provide security for the Idris regime in Tripoli. As the Labour G...

  5. Via póstero-lateral unilateral para cifoplastia percutánea con balón Acesso póstero-lateral unilateral para cifoplastia percutânea com balão Posterolateral unilateral approach for percutaneous baloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oscar Ricciardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia ha sido realizada en el Hospital Alvarez de Buenos Aires, Argentina en pacientes tratados por el Equipo de Columna Vertebral. El autor ha modificado el método original de punción descrito por Valls y Ottolenghi, lo que permite ubicar al paciente en decúbito lateral y prescinde del instrumental descrito originalmente, como spider y guía que se utilizaban con equipos de rayos X convencionales. El presente trabajo pretende describir en detalle la técnica aplicada para efectuar la cifoplastía con balón en vértebras torácicas y lumbares por vía póstero-lateral extrapedicular unilateral bajo anestesia local infiltrativa.Esta experiência foi realizada no Hospital Alvarez de Buenos Aires, Argentina, em pacientes tratados pela Equipe de Coluna Vertebral, que tenho a honra de liderar. O autor modificou o método original de punção descrito por Valls e Ottolenghi, o que permite colocar o paciente em decúbito lateral prescindindo da instrumentação originalmente descrita, tal como spider e fio-guia que eram utilizados com equipamento de raios-X convencional. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever em detalhes a técnica utilizada para realizar cifoplastia com balão em vértebras torácicas e lombares por acesso póstero-lateral extrapedicular unilateral com anestesia local por infiltração.This experiment was performed at the Hospital Alvarez from Buenos Aires, Argentina, in patients treated by the Spine Team, which I have the honor to lead. The author modified the original puncture method described by Valls and Ottolenghi, which allows accommodating the patient in the lateral position dispensing the instrumentation originally described like spider and guide wires that were used with X-ray conventional. This paper aims to describe in detail the technique used to perform balloon kyphoplasty for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae by posterolateral extrapedicular unilateral approach with local anesthesia by infiltration.

  6. Trumpeter swan lead shot poisoning investigation in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) populations wintering in northwest Washington State and on the Sumas Prairie, British Columbia,...

  7. The Study of British College Education Tradition and Its Enlightment to Modern Chinese Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian YANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the heritage of the British classical university, British college is the main perpetrators and function carrier of British university personnel training. British college owns academic communities sharing a common interest, and is a cultural field of poetic dwelling, the self-government and self-consistent life style and the grace and liberal cultural atmosphere created the essence of the cultural community of the shaping elite. In this one continuous line of cultural community, the process of student continuing to pursue knowledge, is the process of their sharing a common history, a common culture and the shared feelings, shared experience and atmosphere. In short, they share a common lifestyle, and they have a common understanding of the soul of the nation. Civilization survives in the college which is as a cultural community. Thenational citizens cultivated by the college education as the human resources help the development of countries, which create a virtuous circle.

  8. Two British Columbia University Colleges and the Process of Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative investigation identified a condition of frenetic change experienced by two colleges in British Columbia, Canada, accompanying their change from community colleges to university colleges. Explored how economic globalization influenced the formation and functioning of these institutions. (EV)

  9. Bumble Bees Influence Berry Size in Commercial Vaccinium spp. Cultivation in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the abundance, diversity, and dispersion patterns of managed and wild bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations in commercial highbush blueberry and cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum L., Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fields in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, and assessed their ...

  10. British domestic synchronous clocks 1930-1980 the rise and fall of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pook, Leslie Philip

    2015-01-01

    This book complements available one-make books on domestic synchronous clocks. It is also a history of science book that sets British domestic synchronous clocks, their manufacturers and technology in their social context. Part I covers the historical background, British domestic synchronous clock manufacturers and brands, how synchronous clocks work, domestic synchronous clock cases, practical advice on the servicing of domestic synchronous clocks, and analysis of the marketing and reliability of British domestic synchronous clocks. This analysis provides an explanation of the rise and eventual fall of their technology. Part II contains galleries of a selection of British domestic synchronous clocks, and of the movements with which they are fitted. There is a front and back view of each clock, together with a brief description. Views of each movement include views with the movement partly dismantled, together with a brief technical description of the movement. This profusely illustrated book is primarily fo...

  11. A survey of palaeobotanical evidence for dyeing and mordanting from British archaeological excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. R.

    There is a growing body of records from British archaeological deposits of macrofossil remains of plants indicative of dyeing and mordanting of textiles. These records are brought together and the nature of the evidence, including some interpretative problems, considered.

  12. British Association of Clinical Anatomists: Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual General Meeting, 1983

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented.

  13. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest...

  14. Infectious disease control in the Ionian Islands during the British Protection (1815-1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Thalassinou, E; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Anogiatis-Pelé, D; Hatzakis, A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents the medical and social role of British military doctors in the formation of the British sanitary campaign in the Ionian Islands during the period 1815-1864. They were the core of a health system based on the old sanitary model of the Venetian Republic, which was the former ruler of the region. The British innovation and reorganisation of the old lazarettos (a quarantine system for maritime travellers), the new marine sanitary procedures, the determination of quarantine duration for major infectious diseases along with the introduction of the vaccination system resulted in a satisfactory defence against epidemics in Greece during the 19th century. The British military physicians applied and established West European medical ideas, as well as the principles of preventive medicine, for the first time in the Greek territory and this is a historical example of a successful sanitary campaign based on the experience of military physicians and their collaboration with civilian physicians. PMID:23720505

  15. Archive of Geosample Information from the British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF), National Oceanography Centre, is a contributor to the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  16. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  17. Contraband, free ports, and British merchants in the Caribbean world, 1739-1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hunt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of contraband to legitimate trade in the eighteenth century Caribbean world during the War of Jenkins’ Ear and Seven Years’ War. It focuses on the informal networks of the British South Sea Company and the trade of informal actors. The article explores how British legislators shifted Jamaican and Dominican colonial economies away from contraband trade by opening free ports in 1766. The British Parliament passed the Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica following Danish and Dutch colonial efforts to crack down on contraband trade in the Caribbean world. This transition from contraband to legitimate trade enabled British merchants to engage in free trade by importing and exporting an assortment of commodities and enslaved people to and from Jamaica to other colonies in the Caribbean world.

  18. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model an...

  19. Construction of Identity in British and Indian Cinema: a Postcolonial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valančiūnas, Deimantas

    2013-01-01

    The object of the dissertation is British and Indian popular (commercial) cinema and the construction of identity there. The problem of identity construction in Indian and British films was researched employing three approaches found in the postcolonial theory: the critique of colonial discourse, anticolonial nationalism and the construction of national identity and the problematics of diasporic identity. The comparative analysis of the films from the two industries of the countries which wer...

  20. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Doekes, G; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...