WorldWideScience

Sample records for baking food

  1. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  2. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  3. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  4. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%.

  5. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%. PMID:26243966

  6. Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Patton, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis. PMID:10451595

  7. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Becky J.; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G.; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the e...

  8. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  9. Food contact material for baking: a review on associated chemical risks and technological issues

    OpenAIRE

    LE-BAIL Alain; Veyrand, Bruno; Durand, Sophie; KADAR Hanane; PROST, Carole; GRUA Joelle; Simoneau, Catherine; Perronnet, Annick; ROELENS Guillaume; LE BIZEC Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview on product contact surfaces (PCS) used for baking supports, with a focus on associated neoformed and exogenous contaminants related to these PCSs in the case of baking. Exogenous contaminants are usually brought into the product from the surface contact material of the baking support, and in particular, from antistick coatings (ASC). Due to multiple thermal treatments, the performance of ASCs evolve during ageing, resulting in sticking problems. In additio...

  10. MOVABLE OVEN FOR BREAD BAKING INTENDED FOR FOOD PREPARATION IN SERBIAN ARMY PEACE CORPS

    OpenAIRE

    TESANOVIC BRANKO M.; JOVIC SASA B.

    2014-01-01

    An oven for baking bread in field conditions is assigned to units that are by their nature relatively stationary and whose size does not require a movable bakery. It is intended for baking bread in our units located in international missions with supply difficulties, since our units have a habit of consuming bread instead of biscuits. The oven is of a prefabricated type, adapted for use in all types of terrains, simple design which makes it possible to be, dismantled and easily transported.

  11. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  12. The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (yoghurts and baked beans) on plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J A; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1997-04-01

    The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (strawberry yoghurt and baked beans) on plaque acidogenicity was investigated using plaque sampling with a 'Beetrode' electrode. Six varieties of yoghurt, four varieties of baked beans and positive and negative control solutions of 10 per cent sucrose and sorbitol, respectively, were tested on six volunteers, selected according to the guidelines agreed at the San Antonio Conference of 1985. Plaque was harvested immediately before a one minute challenge with the test condition and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. Parameters investigated were minimum plaque pH reached after a one minute consumption/rinse of the test food or control solution, maximum drop in plaque pH and 'area of the Stephan curve below pH 6.5'. An Acidogenic Potential Index was calculated for each test food and the results did not suggest a linear relationship between sucrose concentration in a food and acidogenic potential. PMID:9448797

  13. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lin; D. Knol; M. Menéndez-Carreño; W.A.M. Blom; J. Matthee; H.G. Janssen; E.A. Trautwein

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  14. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  15. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer.

  16. Pastry Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

  17. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products. PMID:26697919

  18. 无铝多效泡打粉在面制食品中的应用%Application of Aluminium-free Multiple-effect Baking Powder in Wheat Flour Food Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜炤; 许喜林; 蒋清君; 何松; 段慧琴

    2012-01-01

    将研制的Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型无铝泡打粉与市售的含铝泡打粉A、无铝泡打粉B和C应用到磨堡蛋糕、甜馒头和油条中,通过比较及分析其产品的感官、比容、质构等特性,确定研制的泡打粉的性能.结果表明、研制的Ⅱ型泡打粉在所有产品中都能起到比较好的作用,在蛋糕(2%)、馒头(2.5%)、油条(3.5%)产品中的比容分别为2.65 mL/g、1.76 mL/g、4.11 mL/g,同时质构特性各指标达到或优于市售泡打粉的产品水平,具有较好的应用前景.%Two new aluminum-free baking powders (named as baking power Ⅰ and Ⅱ) and three commercially available baking powder (including aluminum-containing baking powder A, aluminum-free baking powder B and C) were applied to the baked cake, the cooked sweet steamed bun and the deep-fried dough sticks. The performances of the tested baking powders were determined through analyzing and comparing the products' senses, specific volume and texture by using different baking powder. The results showed that the baking powder Ⅱ could work better in all tested wheat flour food products. Its specific volumes of cake (2%), sweet steamed bun(2.5%), deep-fried dough sticks (3.5%) were 2.65 mL/g, 1.76 mL/g and 4.11 mL/g, respectively. The texture characteristics of the baking powder are close or superior to those of commercially available baking powder.

  19. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M

    2015-01-01

    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  20. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE BAKING INDUSTRY IN KEMEROVO OBLAST

    OpenAIRE

    Kiryukhina, A.; Guk, N.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows the dynamics of the output of baked goods over the past five years in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District. The main trends in the development of the baking branch of the food industry of Kemerovo oblast are specified. Factors that determine the dynamics of baked goods production in the Kuznetsk Basin are considered. Practices of transfer from administrative bread price regulation to targeted subsidies for the least protected strata are shown. Analytical results of th...

  1. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  2. Selected Baking Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  3. Baking in the Backwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

  4. Determination of Aluminum Residue in Baking and Flour Foods and Regulatory Proposals%焙烤和面制食品中铝残留量的测定及监管建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奕水明; 钱文捷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a sampling survey on the amount of aluminum residue in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing city. Methods According to GB/T 5009. 182-2003 Method Standard for Determination of Aluminum in Pasta, the samples were prepared by microwave digestion or dry or wet digestion. The amount of aluminum residue in the final products was measured by spectrophotometer. Results The content and qualified rate of aluminum residue was determined accrding to the requirements of State Food and Drug Administration. The qualified rate of aluminum residue in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing city was 95.1%. Conclusion The overall situation for the use of additives containing aluminum in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing is good, but the usage of aluminum of a few products exceeds the standard.%目的:抽样调查嘉兴地区生产的焙烤和面制食品中铝残留量。方法按GB/T 5009.182-2003《面制食品中铝的测定》方法标准,样品前处理采用微波消解、干法或湿法消解,终产品中铝残留量用分光光度计测定。结果按照国家食药总局规定要求,对其铝残留量检测和判定,合格率为95.1%。结论嘉兴地区焙烤和面制食品中使用含铝添加剂的总体情况较好,少数产品使用量超标。

  5. Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injera Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 °C to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for househol...

  6. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  7. Bread Baking Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  8. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  9. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  10. Using Cooking, Baking, and Cutting Terms. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.1a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with some of the terms used in recipes. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on important cooking, baking, and cutting terms. The…

  11. First results on fast baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bvisentin@cea.fr; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  12. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided.

  13. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  14. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  15. Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Romina Pedreschi; Jørgen Nørgaard; Alain Maquet

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via...

  16. First results on fast baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J. P.

    2006-07-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120 °C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the “fast baking” (145 °C/3 h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to: time reduction and possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  17. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  18. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  19. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy from Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha Emily Cutler; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities.  We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion.  Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  20. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

  1. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  2. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  3. Pengaruh Penambahan Konsentrasi Tahu dan Baking Soda Terhadap Pembuatan Kerupuk Tahu.

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Josua Marojahan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of tofu and baking powder concentration on the making of tofu crackers. The study was performed in October to December 2011 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Agricultural Faculty, North Sumatra University, Medan, using Factorial Completely Randomized block design with two factors i.e. tofu concentration (A) (10%), (15%), (20%), and (25%) and baking powder concentration (B) (0.1%), (0.2%), (0.3%), and (0.4%). Parameters analyzed before fr...

  4. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  5. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  6. Vacuum Baking To Remove Volatile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Outgassing reduced in some but not all nonmetallic materials. Eleven polymeric materials tested by determining outgassing species as temperature of conditioned and unconditioned materials raised to 300 degrees C. Conditioning process consisted of vacuum bake for 24 hours at 80 degrees C in addition to usual cure. Baking did not change residual gas percentage of water molecules.

  7. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes. PMID:17995773

  8. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  9. USE OF CRIOPROTECTORS IN THE BAKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keniyz N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main component of food pyramid is bakery products. Consumers of bakery products offer fresh bakery in any time of day, in wide assortment, produced by traditional way and possessing the beneficial properties, hypoallergenic and mainly tasty. In Russia, there is an intensive development of the new technologies, which are based on the freezing of semi-finished bakery. There was considered a possibility of pectin use with a new purpose as a crioprotector in the article. On the first stage of the researches there was a work on study of the influence of different crioprotectors on rheology of dough, dough water-absorbing ability, change of formation time and dough stability at addition of crioprotectors, change of valometric assessment of dough at addition of crioprotectors. There was an analysis of the index of “flour power”. On the results of the research, there was calculated the optimal dose of pectin introduction. There was studied the influence of different crioprotectors on structure of frozen by-products. There were cited the microphotos of frozen yeast dough. There was revealed that the best indexes of a quality of ready bread was reached at use of EMP microwave frequency of defrosting dough by-products taking into account energy expenses there was chosen the rational way of baking. There was worked out the technological scheme of bread production from frozen by-products with pectin as a crioprotector

  10. The secret to baking a good loaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Martin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread has been produced and consumed for many thousands of years – long before science existed. A new book provides a comprehensive review of the latest scientific developments in baking.

  11. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS BAKING INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr S. Balan; Zoya A. Stepanjuk; Julia O. Dubenchuk

    2015-01-01

    The investment attractiveness of the baking industry in Ukraine is considered in the article. The factors that affect the investment attractiveness of the industry are considered. Dedicated key issues bakery products.

  12. Crust formation and its role during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Vanin, F.; Lucas, T.; Trystram, G.

    2009-01-01

    The final properties of the crumb and crust differ according to their heat-moisture dynamics. Compilations of heating and drying rates reported in the literature are discussed and will serve to validate future models of baking. Their impact on the structural elements in dough films and the porous network are discussed, highlighting the lack of data and the need to reproduce these dynamics inside the instrument of analysis. Some roles of the crust setting during the whole baking process are al...

  13. Identification of milling and baking quality QTL in multiple soft wheat mapping populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat derived food products require a range of characteristics. Identification and understanding of the genetic components controlling end-use quality of wheat is important for crop improvement. We assessed the underlying genetics controlling specific milling and baking quality parameters of soft wh...

  14. Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer during a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Ashokkumar, Saranya;

    2011-01-01

    water content in the product and water in the vapour phase – was calibrated and partially validated using data obtained during baking of a representative food model (a pancake batter) under controlled conditions on a specially designed experimental rig. The unknown parameters in the model equations were...

  15. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  16. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  17. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cevoli; Angelo Fabbri; Simone Virginio Marai; Enrico Ferrari; Adriano Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min), measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated t...

  18. IBL Thermal Mockup Bake-Out Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiry, FX

    2014-01-01

    This note summarizes different bake-out tests that have been performed with the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) mockup. Two beam pipe configurations have been tested: one with the aerogel insulation layer all along the pipe and one without insulation over 622 mm around Z0. These tests have been crucial for decisions about aerogel removal, choice of heaters for the LHC beam pipe bake-out, and choice of temperature setpoints for the cooling system during nominal IBL operation. They also revealed very useful information on integration issues and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the IBL detector.

  19. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  20. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  1. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue

  2. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  3. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong [Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Celiac sprue - foods to avoid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods, especially processed foods and baked goods. Breads, cakes, desserts, alcoholic beverages (except wine), cereals, and pastas may all contain gluten. Eating a gluten-free diet heals the intestines ...

  5. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  6. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fuckerer; Elsen, A.; Langer, H.; N. Leitschuh; J. Rumpf; Rosenberger, C.; Schmitt, J J

    2015-01-01

    Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but sti...

  7. Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels%Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; SHI Wen; HE Yan-lin; LU Xiao-gang; LI Lin

    2012-01-01

    Specimens of two different kinds of bake hardening steels (BH-Mn and BH-P) were prepared and treated with different annealing processes (water quenching and overaging). A novel technique of three dimensional atom probe was used to investigate solute distributions in these steels. The results indicate that C concentration decreases, whereas V increases during overaging in both bake hardening steels. The conclusion that no vanadium carbides pre- cipitate during the overaging is therefore originally obtained by microanalysis in bake hardening steels. Moreover, bake hardening values of all the specimens were tested by tensile experiments with 2 0/~ pre-deformation. However, those of overaged specimens were further measured with higher levels of pre-deformation because no bake hardening phenomenon was present at 2% pre-deformation. As the pre-deformation increases from 2% to 6% and 8%, both overaged steels show bake hardening values, and the value data are almost the same.

  8. Design and Development of Solar Thermal Injera Baking: Steam Based Direct Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia, the second most populated country in Africa, meets 96% of its energy need from bio-mass and majority of this energy goes entirely to Injera baking. Injera, a pan-cake like bread that is consumed by most of the population, demands a temperature of 180-220 oC to be well baked. Both traditional and newly developed biomass Injera stoves are energy inefficient; besides the kitchen environment is highly polluted with soot and smoke that affect the health of household inhabitants. This art...

  9. Determination of 28 phthalate esters in baked foods by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry%气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱法同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 薄艳娜; 卢俊文; 林勤保; 黄志强; 陈丽斯

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 28 phthalate ester residues in bakery foods was established. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate,and cleaned up with neutral alumina. The separation was per-formed on a TR-5MS capillary column( 30 m × 0. 25 mm × 0. 25 μm )by programmed temperature vaporization( PTV)with splitless mode. Meanwhile the identification and quantification were per-formed by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring(SRM)mode and using the internal stand-ard method. The calibration curves of the 27 phthalate esters showed good linearities in the range of 0. 05-10 mg/L,except diisononyl ortho-phthalate( DINP)which was in the range of 0. 1-20 mg/L,with the correlation coefficients not less 0. 996 2. The limits of detection( LODs)were 0. 1-9. 8 μg/kg and the limits of quantification( LOQs)were 0. 4-32. 6 μg/kg. With the proposed method,the spiked recoveries were evaluated in four types of baked foods( bread,biscuits, cakes,stuffing)at low,medium and high concentrations. The results showed that the average recoveries of the 28 PAEs were in the range of 81. 0%-117%,and the relative standard deviations (RSDs,n=6)were in the range of 1. 3%-13. 6%. The method was successfully applied in the investigation of the PAEs distribution in baked foods. The method is suitable for the determina-tion of the 28 PAEs in baked foods with easy operation,high accuracy and precision.%建立了气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱( GC-MS/MS)同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯类( PAEs)物质残留量的方法。样品经乙酸乙酯超声提取,用中性氧化铝净化后进行检测。经程序升温气化进样口( PTV)不分流进样,TR-5MS色谱柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25μm)进行色谱分离,在选择反应监测(SRM)模式下进行质谱扫描,采用内标法定量。28种邻苯二甲酸酯的线性范围,除邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯( DINP

  10. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  11. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  12. Baking the first bread in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  13. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fuckerer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but still not solved. Therefore, this study investigates a new possibility by trying to influence the recrystallization of starch with microwave heating. For this, the differences between microwave and conventional baked rye-wheat bread were examined concerning the difference of water activity and firmness of the bread during time. As result, a faster water loss during storage period could be observed in microwave heated bread, which probably implies an even more rapid recrystallization instead the desired avoiding of recrystallization of starch.

  14. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  15. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  16. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing...... the heat and mass transfer in butter cookies during baking was formulated. The model was solved numerically by the use of a finite element method. Model optimization and validation was successfully carried out against experimental data obtained in the new pilot plant oven. The effect of the baking tray...

  17. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  18. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods. PMID:1315432

  19. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  20. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  1. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  2. Graphitizing Process of the Self—Baking Carbon Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXiaojun; XUEXiangxin; 等

    1998-01-01

    The different specimens of the Self-Baking Carbon Block are obtained by charging the baking temperature and time.The graphitizing degree G of the specimen is determined by the quantitiative X-ray diffraction.The relationships between G and temperature are expressed.The results show that the graphitizing process from amorphous carbon to graphite is apparent quasi-one-order and should be conducted above a critical temperature.1200K The transition rate increases with tenperature.

  3. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  4. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  5. KADA KUHAJU BAKE... TRADICIJA I POVIJEST U DVJEMA BAKINIM KUHARICAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Normiranje i kanoniziranje tradicionalne hrvatske kuhinje, odnosno stvaranje prepoznatljiva brenda, jedan je od svojih izraza pronašlo u sintagmi bakina kuhinja. Funkcija bake u prenošenju tradicije, u najširem smislu, već je istaknuta u mnogim radovima, a recepcija bake kao najvećeg autoriteta privatnog kuhanja, legitimira njezinu kuhinju kao zdravu, ukusnu i prije svega tradicionalnu. Brojne kuharice i proizvodi koji nose pridjev bakin govore u prilog toj tezi. U posljednjih nekoli...

  6. Temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qing; Shao Jia-Cun; Zhao Hang; Zhang Kai; Su Zhong-Di

    2015-01-01

    Baking treatment is one of the most important processes of cigarette production, which can significantly enhance quality of tobacco. Theoretical and numerical investigation on temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking was carried out. The finite volume method was used to simulate the flow field. The relationship between the uniformity of temperature field and impeller’s speed was given finally, which is helpful to optimize cigarette oven wi...

  7. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, Sh.

    2012-01-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L*) and total color change (E*) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathemat...

  8. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, E A

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we hav...

  9. Creating value-added cereal-based baked products: marketplace offer, laboratory-designed goods, and revisited local products

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growing interest in well-being and healthy lifestyle, the increasing awareness of the relationship between non-communicable diseases and unhealthy diet, as well as the increasing prevalence of food intolerances have boosted the production of an increasing number of novel goods in both gluten-containing and gluten-free products market. The overall objective of this thesis was to create cereal-based baked products with added value with respect to those currently available o...

  10. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  11. Quantification of bovine β-casein allergen in baked foodstuffs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jingshun; Ke, Xing; Lai, Shiyun; Tao, Baohua; Yang, Jinchuan; Mo, Weimin; Ren, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of allergens in food including baked food matrices is of great interest. The aim of the present study was to describe a non-immunologic method to quantify bovine β-casein using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Eight of 10 theoretical peptides from β-casein after tryptic digestion were compared and MRM methods were developed to determine five signature peptides. The ...

  12. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  13. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  14. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  15. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion e...

  16. Effects of pre-strain and baking parameters on the microstructure and bake-hardening behavior of dual-phase steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fu Kuang; Shen-gen Zhang; Jun Li; Jian Wang; Hua-fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    In a typical process, C-Mn steel was annealed at 800°C for 180 s, and then cooled rapidly to obtain the ferrite-martensite micro-structure. After pre-straining, the specimens were baked and the corresponding bake-hardening (BH) values were determined as a function of pre-strain, baking temperature, and baking time. The influences of pre-strain, baking temperature and baking time on the microstructure evo-lution and bake-hardening behavior of the dual-phase steel were investigated systematically. It was found that the BH value apparently in-creased with an increase in pre-strain in the range from 0 to 1%;however, increasing pre-strain from 1%to 8%led to a decrease in the BH value. Furthermore, an increase in baking temperature favored a gradual improvement in the BH value because of the formation of Cottrell atmosphere and the precipitation of carbides in both the ferrite and martensite phases. The BH value reached a maximum of 110 MPa at a baking temperature of 300°C. Moreover, the BH value enhanced significantly with increasing baking time from 10 to 100 min.

  17. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  18. Use of family 8 enzymes with xylanolytic activity in baking

    OpenAIRE

    Dutron, Agnes; Georis, Jacques; Genot, Bernard; Dauvrin, Thierry; Collins, Tony; Hoyoux, Anne; Feller, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The present invention describes a method to improve the properties of a dough and/or a baked product by adding a bread or dough-improving agent containing a enzyme with xylanolytic activity belonging to glycoside hydrolases family 8. Preferred enzymes are the psychrophilic xylanase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and the mesophilic xylanase Y from Bacillus halodurans C-125.

  19. Arabinoxylan content and characterisation throughout the bread-baking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced in a variety of ways by non-starch polysaccharides, especially arabinoxylans (AX). The assessment of AX content and structural properties is often performed on flour and extrapolated to predict the role that AX may play in baked products....

  20. Curriculum Cake: Baking Your Curriculum Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Food is talked about endlessly in the media, at local, regional, national and indeed global levels. People are always wondering, therefore, about what is "good" or "right" to eat. To look for answers without giving enough consideration to trends and fashions, without thinking of the bigger picture, the implications of what people eat and how they…

  1. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection...

  2. 78 FR 65663 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ..., including baking powder, baking soda, and pectin. Section 101.12(e) provides that a manufacturer that... pectin 29 2.3 67 1 67 ] 101.12(e); adjustment to the RACC of an aerated food permitted......... 25 1 25...

  3. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  4. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  5. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  6. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  7. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian

    2013-01-01

    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  8. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... spectrometry (Q-TOF) proved the identity of the HMW proteins and sequencing the digested peptides also revealed possible post translational modifications of the identified HMW hordeins. Our results strongly indicate that the variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins of barley affect both...

  9. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  10. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  11. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments. PMID:26365625

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tank, A.; Chhanwal, N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2012-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C...

  13. Influence of cookies composition on temperature profiles and qualitative parameters during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Budžaki, Sandra; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Lukinac Čačić, Jasmina; Čačić, F.; Jukić, M.; Kožul, Ž.

    2014-01-01

    During baking of bakery products temperature of baking, temperature profiles, moisture content, volume and colour changes are strongly coupled. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of the cookies composition on temperature profiles and quality parameters (width and thickness, colour formation and textural properties: hardness, fracturability and work of breaking force) during baking process. Composition of cookies differs due to flour type and initial moisture content. Cooki...

  14. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room tempera...

  15. 大型预焙槽焦粒焙烧探讨%Coke Grain Baking of Large-scale Pre-baked Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彪

    2013-01-01

    目前,铝液焙烧及焦粒焙烧是国内比较常用的两种焙烧方法。焦粒焙烧法具有操作相对简便、技术可靠、焙烧时间短,一次可焙烧多处电解槽等优点,现已在大型预焙槽电解铝厂得到普遍应用。本文从理论及实践两方面对焦粒焙烧法进行解析及总结。%At present, the liquid aluminum baking and coke grain baking is domestic commonly used two methods of baking. Coke grain baking is relatively simple to operate, reliable technique, short roasting time, can baking more than one cell, and is now widely applied in the large pre-baked slot electrolysis plant. This paper, from two aspects of theory and practice, focuses grain baking method.

  16. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Gundersen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation.

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: Mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer for a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads...... to uncertainty in the model predictions. The aim of the current paper is to address this uncertainty challenge in the modelling of food production processes using a combination of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, where the uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis were applied to a heat and mass...... transfer model of a contact baking process. The Monte Carlo procedure was applied for propagating uncertainty in the input parameters to uncertainty in the model predictions. Monte Carlo simulations and the least squares method were used in the sensitivity analysis: for each model output, a linear...

  18. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process. PMID:17661177

  19. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  20. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Conlon

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  1. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Conlon

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  2. Microstructure and Properties of Ti and Ti+Nb Ultra-Low-Carbon Bake Hardened Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-ping; KANG Yong-lin; HAO Ying-min; LIU Guang-ming; XIONG Ai-ming

    2009-01-01

    Hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing processes of Ti bearing and Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels were experimentally studied. The microstrueture and texture evolution, as well as the morphology, size and distribution of second phase precipitates during hot roiling, cold rolling and continuous annea-ling were also analyzed. The results showed that the size of NbC precipitates in Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel was smaller than that of TiC precipitates in Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel, which made the average grain size of Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel finer than that of Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel; for the yield strength, the former was higher than the latter; but for the γ value which reflects the deep-drawing performance, the former was lower than the latter.

  3. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  4. 77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Bake Memorial Airport (OCQ) Oconto, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of.... Douglas Bake Memorial Airport, Oconto, WI. Parcel No. 18 is located outside of the airport fence along the... be released at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport in Oconto, Wisconsin: Part of Government Lot...

  5. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  6. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops...

  7. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zamani; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Behnam Naserian Khiabani; Zahra Tahernezhad; Mohammad Taher Hallajian; Marzieh Varasteh Shamsi

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reac...

  8. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  9. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  10. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  11. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... in microstructure and other physical properties of the food matrix. The heat and water transport inside the food is coupled in a complex way, which for some food systems it is not yet fully understood. A typical example of the latter is roasting of meat in convection oven, where the mechanism of water transport...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...

  12. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough rheological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several rheological parameters, including phase angle δ, Farinograph and creep recovery parameters...

  13. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1 to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion, meat inclusion (0 or 20%, and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2 to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15, and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15, whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  14. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread.

  15. The association between food cravings and consumption of specific foods in a laboratory taste test

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; O’Neil, Patrick M.; Tollefson, Gary; Greenway, Frank L.; White, Marney A.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study tested the relation between food cravings and food intake in the laboratory. Participants (n = 91; mean BMI = 35.1 kg/m2) completed the Food Craving Inventory to measure cravings for sweets, fats, carbohydrates, and fast food fats, and a taste test consisting of four foods (jelly beans, M&M’s®, regular potato chips, and baked low-fat potato chips). Thereafter, participants could eat the items ad libitum. Specific food cravings were significantly correlated with consumption of...

  16. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  17. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abri, SA; Kearney, T

    2013-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases i...

  18. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Rossi Silva; Giovani Benin; Juliano Luiz de Almeida; Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca; Claudemir Zucareli

    2014-01-01

    Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115) were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and Ju...

  19. Pengaruh Pemakaian Baking Soda Dalam Pasta Gigi Terhadap pH Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Siregar

    2008-01-01

    Baking soda sebagai bahan dasar pernbuat pasta gigi, mempunyai kemampuan sebagai buffer dalam menetralisir asam mulut sehingga dapat mencegah kerusakan pada gigi. Saat ini banyak beredar di pasaran bermacam-macam pasta gigi dengan berbagai merk dan jenis bahan kimia yang terkandung didalamnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan dan pengaruh pemakaian pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda terhadap pH saliva sebelum dilakukan penyikatan gigi dan setelah dilakukan penyikatan...

  20. Determining the baking isotherm temperature of Söderberg electrodes and associated structural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko, L.; J. P. Beukes; Strydom, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most commonly employed electrode systems in industrial metal smelting applications is continuous self-baking electrodes, i.e. the Söderberg electrode system. In this system, the temperature at which transition from a liquid/soft paste to a solid carbonaceous electrode takes place is termed the baking isotherm temperature. This temperature is extremely important within the context of electrode management. In this paper, thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) was used to measure the dimens...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode) TF POM 2 0.11 0.17 3 0.090 0.17 4...

  2. Optimization of Baking Process for Equus asinus%阿胶烘制工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振凌; 汪坤

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选阿胶烘制工艺.方法:以阿胶珠中4种氨基酸的含量为指标,采用HPLC测定指标成分含量,选取烘制温度、时间及阿胶丁大小为考察因素,正交试验法优选阿胶烘制工艺.结果:阿胶最佳烘制工艺条件为1.27cm×0.88 cm×0.6 cm的阿胶丁在180℃烘制15 min.结论:该优选工艺简单可控、操作性强、适合大规模生产.%Objective: To optimize baking process of Equus asinus. Method; With the cotents of 4 kinds of amino acid as indexes, which was determined by HPLC, baking process of E. asinus was optimized by orthogonal test with baking time, baking temperature and size of E. asinus as factors. Result: Optimum baking process was; size of E. asinus 1. 27 cm xO. 88 cm x 0. 6 cm, baked 15 min at 180 癈 . Conclusion; Optimized process was simple, controllable, operable, and suitable for mass production

  3. Impact of potassium iodate on the quality of wheat-spelt baked goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human nutrition is oftentimes deficient to important nutrients such as iodine not only in the developing countries but also in the developed countries. Bakery products are consumed every day by many people and offer spread potential for enrichment of final products by various type of nutrients. The study is focused on the monitoring effect of potassium iodate as bakery improver to the quality of wheat-spelt baked goods through methods of rheological, baking test and sensory analysis. The influence of potassium iodate on baked goods staling was also studied. Material and methods. Rheological properties of wheat-spelt dough enriched with potassium iodate were characterised by farinographic measurements. The final product analysis included determination of loaf quality (volume, specific volume, cambering and sensory attributes. Crumb hardness was evaluated by the manually operated penetrometer AP 4. Results. Potassium iodate influenced the final quality of wheat-spelt baked goods in different ways. Addition increasing doses of potassium iodate reduced dough development time and prolonged dough stability. Results of baking test and sensory analysis showed that products containing dose 1 and 2 mg of potassium iodatehad higher volume and cambering in comparison to control sample. Higher dose of this additive negatively affected sensory parameters of final products. Conclusion. It was found that enrichment of baked goods with potassium iodate not only helps increase to daily intake of iodine and but also positively affects rheological and sensory properties of final products.  

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore the obje...... modifications of the identified hordein which needs further investigation. Our results strongly indicate genetic variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the amino acid compositions and baking quality.......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the total AA composition and the hordein pattern indicated that there are genetic variations not only in the distributions of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the AA compositions. The free AA composition in the grain may also provide us...

  5. Architecture of baked breads depicted by a magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, N; Takano, H; Naito, S; Isobe, S; Uemura, K; Haishi, T; Kose, K; Koizumi, M; Kano, H

    2001-07-01

    The architecture of baked breads made of fresh dough and frozen dough was depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pieces of bread (16 mm cubic cakes) were soaked in organic solvents containing various concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Fe(3+)) and images of the grain structure of the breads were obtained. Of the organic solvents tested, acetone was preferable because of its single peak that prevents chemical shift effects on images, the retention of the bread structure, and the solubility of heavy metals. The heavy metals, especially Fe(3+), shortened the overly long relaxation times of acetone to practical lengths for imaging and stained the materials to provide high contrasts. The images obtained in acetone with 8 mM Fe(3+) were suitable for analyzing crumb grain structures. The bread of fresh dough showed a uniform distribution of pores of various sizes made of thin gluten sheets, whereas the pores in the bread of frozen dough were less, prominently large, non-uniformly distributed, and made of thick gluten sheets. PMID:11551728

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  7. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  8. Acrylamide formation and antioxidant level in biscuits related to recipe and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, N U; Grothe, K-H; Matthäus, B; Vosmann, K; Lindhauer, M G

    2012-08-01

    Heated plant foods may contain compounds with adverse health effects (e.g. acrylamide). On the other hand, health-promoting compounds (e.g. antioxidants) have also been identified in such foods. Therefore, a baking experiment with biscuits was carried out to study the potential impact of both acrylamide and antioxidants in that food. Two different wheat flour types - wholemeal (WMF) and white flour type 550 (T550; 0.55% mineral content) - as well as recipe (fat and leavening agent) and thermal input (temperature × time) were changed. Furthermore, the effect of an enzymatic asparagine hydrolysation was tested. Antioxidants were determined with two independent procedures ABTS - (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and FRAP-assay (ferric reducing ability of plasma). WMF samples resulted in an unchanged acrylamide level, but in a significantly higher antioxidant concentration when compared with T550 samples (149 and 141 µg kg(-1) acrylamide and 9.1 and 5.1 mmol TE kg(-1) FW ABTS for WMF and T550, respectively). A reduced fat content yielded in an increased volume. Raising agents had no effect on acrylamide levels, but antioxidants were higher in samples with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) than with ammonium bicarbonate (ABC). Thermal input (temperature × time; 150°C × 25 min to 240°C × 9 min) indicated an exponential acrylamide increase especially at higher temperatures (from 75 to 236 µg kg(-1)), whereas antioxidant increase was linear (from 7.0 to 7.7 mmol TE kg(-1) FW, ABTS). FRAP and ABTS values were correlated on a low level, whereas acrylamide content of biscuits was correlated with FRAP and lightness (R (2 )= 0.62 and 0.47, and 0.71 and 0.85 for WMF and T550, respectively). The enzyme asparaginase reduced acrylamide formation by about 50% for both raising agents (SBC and ABC, respectively), whereas antioxidant levels were not affected. An evaluation of recipe variants with low acrylamide and high

  9. 宣纸土焙研究%On Local Bake-room of Chinese Xuan Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹天生; 张有根

    2012-01-01

    Using local bake-room to sun paper is a significant part of traditional manufacture craftsmanship of Chinese Xuan paper.Researchers went deep into country of origin of Xuan paper,conducted detailed field trip,studied the problems such as production materials,instruments,process,as well as working hours and payment,format,baking and sunning of local bake-room of Xuan paper.We made comparative analysis of local bake-room and iron bake-room being used at present,then come to conclude,Xuan paper sunned by local bake-room as "longevous paper for millennium" still has some drawbacks,iron bake-room being used under modern conditions has advantages such as convenient built,flat surface smooth and neat,higher efficiency of labor,as well as certain drawbacks exist.Today we initiate inherit and protect of human non-material cultural heritage vigorously from the aspects of historical examine and keeping culture diversity and richness,and suggest local bake-room and irony bake-room to be applied at the same time in Xuan paper manufacture.%土焙晒纸是宣纸传统制作技艺中的重要组成部分。研究者深入宣纸原产地,对宣纸土焙制作材料、制作工具、制作过程、工时与工价、土焙规格、烧焙与晒纸等进行了较为详细的实地考察研究,对宣纸土焙与当下主要采用的铁焙进行了对比分析,最后得出结论:宣纸土焙晒出的宣纸,经过千百年的历史检验,被誉为"千年寿纸",但也有某些缺陷;现代条件下采用的铁焙具有建造便捷、平面光滑匀整、劳动效率提高的优势,但也有某些缺陷。在大力倡导非物质文化遗产传承、保护的今天,从宣纸纸张历史检验对比和保持文化多样性、丰富性角度出发,建议宣纸产地应土焙和铁焙同时使用。

  10. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H. [Chungnam National University Graduate School, Taejeon (Korea); Im, K.H.; Cho, S.Y. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Kim, J.B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (Korea); Woo, H.K. [Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6} {approx} 10{sup -7} Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. for this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 deg.C, 350 deg.C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Woo, H. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Im, K. H.; Cho, S. Y. [korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. For this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 .deg. C, 350 .deg. C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses.

  12. Effect of Age and Environment on Strength of Old Baked Clay Bricks of Indus Valley Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental investigations conducted on old baked clay bricks of Indus Valley civilization of tenth century. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of age and environmental conditions on the strength of the baked clay bricks which are about 1000 years old. The brick samples were collected from six different archeological sites at the banks of old route of River Indus in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. These specimens were tested for apparent density, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and the weathering effects on them during the course of time. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standard for baked clay bricks, based on compressive strength, suggests that the bricks of four sites can withstand severe weathering while the bricks of two sites are resistant to moderate weathering. These results were compared to the values of the corresponding data of bricks, of same period, obtained from the historical monuments of the world as reported in the literature. The comparison showed that the values of physical properties of old baked clay bricks of Indus valley civilization of tenth century are in agreement with that of old baked clay bricks of contemporary era. The results of this study could also be helpful for preservation of old archeological sites of Indus valley civilization.

  13. A Baking Function Depending Upon Storage Condition and a Type of Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Miličević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flour is a raw material, more exactly grocery very sensitive on external influence.Namely, due to the hygroscopic nature of the flour it is good base for microbial growth. Normal moisture content in flour ranges from 13 to 15 %. An increase in moisture contents makes conditions suitable for microbial growth, accelerating the enzymatic activity and spoiling of fl our. The storage conditions have a great influence on the moisture content, especially temperature and humidity.The fl our reaction to the storage condition is based to its chemical composition, which is related to the moisture, fat and proteins content.Baking function is dependable upon the storage condition and storage period, as well as acting of the flour during making of dough, and baking of made dough.The aim of this study was to establish behaviour of different fl our types (T-500,T-850 and whole meal fl our stored at temperatures +4 and 20 °C and defined humidity.Each fl our sample was analyzed determining its chemical contents and farinograph characteristics immediately after milling and after 10 and 21 day, and baking test was done on those days.The obtained results proved that storage conditions significantly affected the chemical composition of composite fl ours, as well as baking functions of fl our and characteristics of baked bread.

  14. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: mingxingguo@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  15. The effect of baking and enzymatic treatment on the structural properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Catalina; Zielke, Claudia; Prakash, Manish; Kumar, Puneeth; Peñarrieta, J Mauricio; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-12-15

    In this study, bread was baked with and without the addition of α-amylase. Starch was extracted from the baked bread and its molecular properties were characterized using (1)H NMR and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) connected to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and other detectors. The approach allows determination of molar mass, root- mean-square radius and apparent density as well as the average degree of branching of amylopectin. The results show that starch size and structure is affected as a result of the baking process. The effect is larger when α-amylase is added. The changes include both a decrease molar mass and size as well as an increase in apparent density. Moreover, an increase in average degree of branching and the number of reducing ends H-1(β-r) and H-1(α-r) can be observed. PMID:27451246

  16. Some measures for improving the pre-baked anode quality at initial stage of the second phase of baking%提高预焙阳极质量的一些措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺成平

    2011-01-01

    从焙烧工艺和焙烧炉燃烧设备两个方面介绍了中铝青海分公司炭素厂二期焙烧车间投产初期提高预焙阳极质量的一些措施,对焙烧车间提高预焙阳极质量有一定借鉴意义.%Some measures for improving the pre-baked anode quality at initial stage of production of the second phase of baking in Carbon Plant, Qinghai Branch of Chalco, were described from the view of baking process and the baking furnace equipment, which could give a reference for improving pre-baked anode quality.

  17. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C. Acry

  18. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  19. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  20. The Baking Process of 46.8m2 Glass Melting Kiln%46.8 m2玻璃熔炉的烘炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌

    2000-01-01

    本文针对46.8m2玻璃熔窑烘炉的全过程-烘炉曲线的制定、烘炉准备和烘炉三方面的工作作了介绍。%This paper introduces the whole process of the baking of 46.8m2 glass kiln. Theprocess includes :laying out baking curve, baking preparation and whole baking process.

  1. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  2. Studies and Tendencies within the Baking Products Market in the European Union with Implications on the Baking Products of the Romanian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Saseanu

    2005-01-01

    According to the agricultural patterns existing in the EU, the objectives of the Romanian baking industry should ensure the alimentary safety, introduce the European competitive technologies and manufacturing process, harmonize the Romanian law with the communitary acquis and implement it, match the Romanian standards with the European and international ones, improve the image and statute for the jobs as a miller or a baker and improve their professional training. Nowadays, the consumers of t...

  3. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Koppel; Michael Gibson; Sajid Alavi; Greg Aldrich

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study...

  4. Using X-ray Imaging Techniques to Determine Density of Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kelkar, Shivangi Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Density depends on the experimental technique and structural properties of food. True, apparent and bulk are different types of densities. For porous foods such as baked food products and complex food systems, accurate measurement of density is challenging. Empirical correlations dependent on composition and temperature exist to calculate true density. Thus if composition and apparent density are known, porosity can be calculated, porosity = [1 - (apparent density/ true density)]. Various non...

  5. Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Diets About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  6. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured. PMID:731029

  7. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  8. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructo

  9. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg∙min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  10. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Kajala

    Full Text Available Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m and V(max values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min, respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking.

  11. Rock magnetic and paleointensity results from Mesozoic baked contacts of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Perrin, M.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Pavlov, V. E.; Ayvaz'yan, A.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    Samples were obtained from three baked contacts and one lava flow along the upper Turonian-lower Coniacian Tovuz section, two baked contacts along the upper Coniacian-lower Santonian Paravakar section in the northern part of Armenia, and three baked contacts along the Titonian-Valanginian Kafan section in southern Armenia. A total of 130 samples were studied. Updated mean paleomagnetic poles were calculated for the Upper Cretaceous Tovuz-Paravakar sections (65.6°N, 162.2°E, A95 = 4.3, paleolatitude = 27.0 ± 3.4°) and the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kafan section (61.7°N, 158.9°E, A95 = 4.8°, paleolatitude = 24.7 ± 3.8°). Paleointensity determinations could be estimated from two of the upper Cretaceous and three of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous baked contacts, corresponding to a 30% success rate. The mean virtual dipole moments obtained were low (1.7-5.5 × 1022 A m2), which is in agreement with data published by Bol'shakov and Solodovnikov (1981a, 1983) for the same sections (3.0-4.4 × 1022 A m2). Our results support the hypothesis of the Mesozoic Dipole Low, even though the overall data are widely dispersed.

  12. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  13. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  14. Baking-powder driven centripetal pumping controlled by event-triggering of functional liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinahan, David J.; Burger, Robert; Vembadi, Abhishek;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports radially inbound pumping by the event-triggered addition of water to on-board stored baking powder in combination with valving by an immiscible, high-specific weight liquid on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. This technology allows making efficient use of precious real estate...

  15. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  16. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  17. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  18. The effect of pre-crop and fertilization on baking quality of organic spring wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Jaana; Pihala, Marjo

    1999-01-01

    Soil structure more than previous crop seemed to influence the development of organic spring wheat during the extremely wet growing season in 1998. However, the best soil structures and strongest wheat crops were found after clover leys and the poorest after peas. The most important determinant for the baking quality of the flour was the cultivar.

  19. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; auf’m Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  20. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  1. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese.

  2. Energy thermal management in commercial bread-baking using a multi-objective optimisation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing energy costs and legislative requirements energy efficient high-speed air impingement jet baking systems are now being developed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation framework for oven designs is presented which uses experimentally verified heat transfer correlations and high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as temperature uniformity in the oven and overall energy efficiency of baking. A surrogate-assisted multi-objective optimisation framework is proposed and used to explore a range of practical oven designs, providing information on overall temperature uniformity within the oven together with ensuing energy usage and potential savings. - Highlights: • A multi-objective optimisation framework to design commercial ovens is presented. • High fidelity CFD embeds experimentally calibrated heat transfer inputs. • The optimum oven design minimises specific energy and bake time. • The Pareto front outlining the surrogate-assisted optimisation framework is built. • Optimisation of industrial bread-baking ovens reveals an energy saving of 637.6 GWh

  3. Easy to clean nanocomposite metal coatings for food processing

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Willinger, Carsten; Heppe, Gisela; Krämer, Pamela; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    2002-01-01

    Cleaning and keeping clean of food processing equipment is of extremely high importance for hygienic reasons and, in many cases, also a cost factor for the whole process. Various low surface free energy coatings have been developed which show an antiadhesive behaviour to grease or food components, such as mustard, ketchup or fruit juices, even if baked at elevated temperatures on the coating surface. These coatings are composed of sol-gel derived hybrid materials, ceramic nanoparticles for me...

  4. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  5. Food caramels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Garima; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Caramel, defined as coloring agent and as an antioxidant, is being used in several kinds of food products. It has been classified into 4 classes to satisfy the requirement of several food and beverage systems. The variation in its consistency owing to its basic content of milk solids, sugars, and fat has been studied. Several methods have been found to estimate the amount of color provided by caramel in food products. Various formulations have been cited for the production of caramel by eradicating the frequent areas of problems during its processing. Caramel has been used as a synthetic colorant replacer in the baking and beverage industries. Researchers have aimed to ascertain the contribution to the antioxidant activity of some caramel-containing soft drinks. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has established an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of Class I caramel color as "not specified"; that of Class II as 0-160 mg/kg body weight; that of Class III as 0-200 mg/kg body weight; and that of Class IV as 0-200 mg/kg body weight. This paper is an overview of the classification, physicochemical nature, formulations, coloring properties, antioxidant properties, and toxicity of caramel in different food systems. PMID:25190825

  6. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S

    2015-12-16

    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products.

  7. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI; FARAH SALEENA TAIP; SITI MAZLINA MUSTAPA KAMAL; NORASHIKIN AB. AZIZ

    2014-01-01

    Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firm...

  8. Improvement of winter wheat baking quality in ecological cultivation by enlargement of row spacing and undersown intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Dr. Konstantin; Leithold, Prof. Dr. Günter

    2008-01-01

    Under ecological crop growing conditions, considerable problems consistently arise in fulfilling the baking quality of winter wheat demanded by consumers. The “wide row” procedure shows promising potential for effectively using the nutrient supply in ecological cultivation for the production of winter wheat with high baking performance. Increasing the distance between rows of winter wheat from 12.5 cm to 50 cm proved advantageous for the indirect quality parameters sedimentation value and glu...

  9. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Tamanna; Niaz Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed,...

  10. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESS CONTROL AND QUALITY MAINTENANCE IN FOOD QUALITY OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    DIVYA.S; Thyagarajan, D; G.Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the process optimization of various food processing methods such as drying, freezing, freeze drying, extrusion, rehydration of liquid foods, slurries, and suspensions, drypowders and baked products etc., which is an essential step in the optimization of many food manufacturing processes. This article will discuss about the quality factor associated with cellular tissueand also in chocolates. And also this article will give an idea about the on-line MRI for process cont...

  11. Microbial Proteases in Baked Goods: Modification of Gluten and Effects on Immunogenicity and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina G. Heredia-Sandoval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are still missing due to the technological challenge of substituting the special gluten properties. Instead of using alternative ingredients for baking, some attempts have been done to decrease gluten immunogenicity by its enzymatic degradation with microbial proteases. Although the gluten immunogenicity reduction has been reached to an acceptable level, some quality parameters of the products are affected. This review focus on the use of microbial peptidases to prepare less immunogenic baked goods and their effect on product quality.

  12. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. PMID:27185141

  13. Simulation of the influence of the baffle on flowing field in the anode baking ring furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 梅炽; 周孑民; 周乃君; 徐琼辉

    2002-01-01

    In an anode baking horizontal flue ring furnace, the temperature distribution is one of the key factors influencing the quality of baked anode and is closely correlated with the gas flow. To understand the gas flow distribution in the flue, Navier-Stokes equation with "k-ε" two-equation turbulence model was adopted and the simulation on the gas flow was performed. The numerical simulation results showed that the even direction of gas flow should be considered in the design of flue baffles and the gas flow distribution was really uneven in the flue in practical use. By adjusting the number and location of flue baffles rationally, the even distribution of gas flow can be improved obviously.

  14. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  15. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb.

  16. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kvačkaj; Mamuzić, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (ba...

  17. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...

  18. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one. PMID:12866615

  19. Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel

    1996-07-26

    Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Distribution for the Pan in a Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we give mathematical models to give the heat distribution around the pan’s exterior edges. By applying Fourier's law, the mathematical models of heat distribution are designed. Models of instantaneous heat flux density on the pans in the baking oven are then constructed for pans with different shapes from rectangular to circular. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of our methods.

  1. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a...

  2. Energy thermal management in commercial bread-baking using a multi-objective optimisation framework

    OpenAIRE

    KHATIR, Z; Taherkhani, AR; Paton, J.; Thompson, HM; Kapur, N; Toropov, V

    2015-01-01

    In response to increasing energy costs and legislative requirements energy efficient high-speed air impingement jet baking systems are now being developed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation framework for oven designs is presented which uses experimentally verified heat transfer correlations and high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as temperature uniformity in the ...

  3. Minimizing wafer defectivity during high-temperature baking of organic films in 193nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mai; Longstaff, Christopher; Ueda, Kenichi; Nicholson, Jim; Winter, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Demands for continued defect reduction in 300mm IC manufacturing is driving process engineers to examine all aspects of the apply process for improvement. Process engineers, and their respective tool sets, are required to process films at temperatures above the boiling point of the casting solvents. This can potentially lead to the sublimation of the film chemical components. The current methods used to minimize wafer defectivity due to bake residues include frequent cleaning of bake plate modules and surrounding equipment, process optimization, and hardware improvements until more robust chemistries are available. IBM has evaluated the Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK TM ACT TM 12 high exhaust high temperature hotplate (HHP) lid to minimize wafer level contamination due to the outgasing of a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) films during the high temperature bake process. Goal was to minimize airborne contamination (particles in free space), reduce hotplate contamination build up, and ultimately reduce defects on the wafer. This evaluation was performed on a 193nm BARC material. Evaluation data included visual hardware inspections, airborne particle counting, relative thickness build up measurements on hotplate lids, wafer level defect measurements, and electrical open fail rate. Film coat thickness mean and uniformity were also checked to compare the high exhaust HHP with the standard HHP lid. Chemical analysis of the HHP module residue was performed to identify the source material. The work will quantify potential cost savings achieved by reducing added wafer defects during processing and extending PM frequency for equipment cleaning.

  4. Microstructural characteristics and paint-bake response of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yan-li; GUO Fu-an; PAN Yan-feng

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural characteristics and paint-bake response of 6022 alloy with 0.3% Cu (mass fraction) were studied using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM), transmission electron microscope(TEM) and tensile tester. The results indicate that the phase constituents in the as-cast microstructure are Mg2Si, Si, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, Al5FeSi, α-Al(MnCrFe)Si and CuAl2. During the following homogenization, CuAl2, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Mg2Si phases are almost completely dissolved, and Al5FeSi transforms to α-Al(MnCrFe)Si particles. After rolling, the phase constituents in the alloy change less except the precipitation of Mg2Si particles, and the precipitation behavior of Mg2Si strongly depends on the thermomechanical conditions. Cu addition significantly increases the paint-bake response of 6022 alloy by facilitating the formation of β" phase. Therefore, the tensile strength of 6022 alloy with 0.3% Cu is higher than that of 6022 alloy without Cu after paint-bake cycle.

  5. 烤茶用具、烘烤温度与时间对佤族烤茶品质影响的研究%Study on Tea Baking Utensils, Baking Temperature & Time's Influences on the Quality of Wa Nationality Baked Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨净云

    2012-01-01

    Baked tea is one of the specialties of the minority areas in the Yunnan Province, which has a distinctive tea culture. In order to determine the influence of baking time and baking utensils on the Wa nationality's tea quality, and to further its popularization, experiments were conducted on sundried green tea. The experiments tested clay, papyrus, and iron paneled pots, which were often used by Wa people, under two different baking times, at three different baking temperatures. The results showed that, the tea baked in papyrus was superior to that in iron panel; 250 ℃ was the most favorable baking temperature; and the tea quality was not affected, either by baking for ten minutes or fifteen minutes.%烤茶是云南少数民族的传统茶饮品,具有独特的茶文化.为了研究不同烤茶用具在不同温度下烘烤不同时间对佤族传统烤茶品质的影响,更好地推广应用佤族烤茶,以晒青绿毛茶为试验材料,选取佤族常用的土罐、生草纸、铁板等3种用具,选择3种温度和2个烘烤时间对佤族晒青绿毛茶进行烘烤试验.结果表明,以草纸烤茶品质较好,优于佤族传统烤茶用具铁板烤茶;佤族烤茶烘烤温度以250℃时较好,但烘烤10 min和15 min对佤族烤茶品质的影响不明显.

  6. Chemical food contaminants; Chemische Lebensmittelkontaminanten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. (orig.)

  7. A new sensory vocabulary for crisp and crunchy dry model foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Mojet, J.

    2007-01-01

    The creation of a sensory descriptive panel for dry crusted, `crispy¿ and `crunchy¿ food products is presented. A sensory vocabulary comprising appearance, odour, taste, texture and sound is developed and the panel is trained to use these attributes. Model deep-fried battered snack and baked bread f

  8. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  9. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity. PMID:20367217

  10. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化研究%Optimization of salty baked chili powder technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 吴灿

    2012-01-01

    The effect of baking temperature,baking time and salt concentration on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder were studied,and the optimum processing technology was obtained through sensory score.Results showed that:baking time was the main influencing factors on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powde,and then baking temperature,adding salt only made the aroma more gentle.The optimal processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder was,baking temperature 120 ℃,baking time 10 min,and salt concentration 5%.%以野山椒为原料,通过感官评分的方法,探究了烘烤温度、烘烤时间以及加盐量对其加工的影响,并得出了焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺。结果表明,烘烤时间为焦盐野山椒粉生产的主要影响因素,其次是烘烤温度,而添加食盐只会让其香气变得更加柔和。焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺为烘烤温度120℃,烘烤时间10min,加盐量为干辣椒粉质量5%。

  11. Internal Friction on the Bake-Hardening Behavior of 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renyu Fu; Yu Su; Ping Ye; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li; Jicheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The bake-hardening (BH) values and the "internal friction-temperature" spectrums were studied for the baked 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) specimens with 0%, 2% and 6% prestrain. Results show that the experimental TRIP steel deserves good bake-hardening ability and Cottrell atmosphere is the reason for its bake hardening characteristic. It is also concluded that both the number and the saturation degree of Cottrell atmosphere might affect the BH value of TRIP steel.

  12. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  13. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven. PMID:25892790

  14. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part II: Investigations into burn-in time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Vetter, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Combination products have become popular formats for the delivery of parenteral medications. Bake-on siliconization of glass syringes or cartridges allows good piston break-loose and gliding during injection at low silicone levels. Although widely implemented in industry, still little is known and published on the effect of the bake-on process on the silicone level, layer thickness and chemical composition. In this study, cartridges were bake-on siliconized in a heat-tunnel by varying both temperature from 200 to 350°C for 12min and time from 5min to 3h at 316°C. Furthermore, a heat-oven with air-exchange was established as an experimental model. Heat treatment led to a time- and temperature-dependent decrease in the silicone level and layer thickness. After 1h at 316°C lubrication was insufficient. The silicone levels substantially decreased between 250 and 316°C after 12min. After bake-on, the peak molecular weight of the silicone remained unchanged while fractions below 5000g/mol were removed at 316 and 350°C. Cyclic low molecular weight siloxanes below 500g/mol were volatilized under all conditions. Despite most of the baked-on silicone was solvent-extractable, contact angle analysis indicated a strong binding of a remaining, thin silicone film to the glass surface. PMID:27328279

  15. Genetic locus half baked is necessary for morphogenesis of the ectoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A

    2005-06-01

    The zebrafish epiboly mutants partially block epiboly, the vegetalward movement of the blastoderm around the giant yolk cell. Here, we show that the epiboly mutations are located near the centromere of Linkage Group 7 in a single locus, termed the half baked locus. Nevertheless, except for the similar mutants lawine and avalanche, we find the epiboly traits of each of the alleles to be distinguishable, forming an allelic series. Using in situ analysis, we show that the specification and the formation of the germ layers is unaffected. However, during early gastrulation, convergence movements are slowed in homozygous and zygotic maternal dominant (ZMD) heterozygous mutants, especially in the epiblast layer of the blastoderm. Using triple-mutant analysis with squint and cyclops, we show that ablating involution and hypoblast formation in hab has no effect on the epiboly phenotype on the ventral and lateral sides of the embryo, suggesting that the hypoblast has no role in epiboly. Moreover, the triple mutant enhances the depletion of cells on the dorsal side of the embryo, consistent with the idea that convergence movements are defective. Double-mutant analysis with one-eyed pinhead reveals that hab is necessary in the ectodermal portion of the hatching gland. In ZMD heterozygotes, in addition to the slowing of epiboly, morphogenesis of the neural tube is abnormal, with gaps forming in the midline during segmentation stages; later, ectopic rows of neurons form in the widened spinal cord and hindbrain. Cell transplantation reveals that half baked acts both autonomously and nonautonomously in interactions among cells of the forming neural tube. Together, these results suggest that half baked is necessary within the epiblast for morphogenesis during both epiboly and neurulation and suggest that the mechanisms that drive epiboly possess common elements with those that underlie convergence and extension.

  16. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  17. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J.; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  18. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  19. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products. PMID:23993603

  20. EFFECT OF BAKING ON THE PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE HYGIENICAL QUALITY OF BISCUITS / EFFET DE LA CUISSON SUR LES CARACTERISTIQUES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES ET LA QUALITE SANITAIRE DES BISCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED MAMOUMI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The food safety is necessary of development of agro-food industries. We opted for the introduction of a concept to ensure a sanitary control of products-wares, including the pastry. We chose for our project three parameters as: water activity (aw, pH and moisture. Also, we defined the target values for these parameters to ensure the safety of our pastry. Otherwise, we incorporated the factor temperature to ensure complete control of safety knowing that cooking is a major industry in the pastry. We defined the temperature of microbial destruction to reduce the microbial load of the pastry after baking. This study was approved by microbiological analysis carried out on the cake having undergone the following parameters (aw, pH, moisture, temperature of microbial destruction.

  1. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production.

  2. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. PMID:26742610

  3. Optimization of High Temperature Baking Technology of Aconitum carmichaeli%川乌高温烘制工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 方莉; 邓广海; 龚又明

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选川乌高温烘制工艺.方法:HPLC和滴定法测定炮制品中6种生物碱和总生物碱的含量,并以此为指标,选取烘制时间、烘制温度及软化方式等为考察因素,采用正交试验法综合评价其高温烘制工艺.结果:川乌高温烘制的最佳工艺为A5B3C1,即川乌经润透法处理,110℃烘制8h.结论:该优选工艺简单可行且易于控制,可替代川乌传统炮制工艺.%Objective; To optimize high temperature baking process of Aconitum carmichaeli. Method: With the content of six kinds of alkaloid and total alkaloids in processed products were determined by HPLC and titration method, and with them as indexes, taking baking time, baking temperature and softening method as factors, orthogonal test was used to comprehensive evaluate high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli. Result; Optimum high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli was AsBiC1, as that of A. carmichaeli was treatmented by moistening method, baked 8 h at 110 t. Conclusion; This optimized technology was simple, practical and easy to control, it could be instead of traditional processing technology of A. carmichaeli as a new method.

  4. Role of antioxidants and phytochemicals on acrylamide mitigation from food and reducing its toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the presence of acrylamide in lots of fried and baked foods raises concerns due to its potential to cause toxicity and cancer in animals and human. Consequently, a number of papers have focused on evaluation of various chemicals in reduction of acrylamide in various food sources, as well as decreasing its related toxicities. In addition, plants are important sources of diverse metabolites demonstrating either possible effectiveness in acrylamide toxicity or reduction of acrylamide c...

  5. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  6. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvačkaj, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (bake hardening effect achieved by interaction of interstitial atoms with dislocations. The Cottrels atmosphere is obtained. The second step of BH effect is to produced the hardening from precipitation of the carbon atoms in e-carbides, or formation of Fe32C4 carbides. WH (work hardening effect is obtained as dislocation hardening from plastic deformations during sheet deep drawing. Experimental works were aimed at as to achieve such plastic material properties after cold rolling, annealing and skin-pass rolling, which would be able to classify the material ZStE220BH into the drawing categories at the level of DQ – DDQ. As resulting from the experimental results, the optimal treatment conditions for the maximal sum (WH+BH = 86 MPa are as follows: total cold rolling deformation ecold = 65 %, annealing temperature Tanneal. = 700 °C.

  7. The Potential of Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Baked Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Ben Boubaker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality baked carbon anodes contribute to the optimal performance of aluminum reduction cells. However, the currently decreasing quality and increasing variability of anode raw materials (coke and pitch make it challenging to manufacture the anodes with consistent overall quality. Intercepting faulty anodes (e.g., presence of cracks and pores before they are set in reduction cells and deteriorate their performance is therefore important. This is a difficult task, even in modern and well-instrumented anode plants, because lab testing using core samples can only characterize a small proportion of the anode production due to the costly, time-consuming, and destructive nature of the analytical methods. In addition, these results are not necessarily representative of the whole anode block. The objective of this work is to develop a rapid and non-destructive method for quality control of baked anodes using acousto-ultrasonic (AU techniques. The acoustic responses of anode samples (sliced sections were analyzed using a combination of temporal features computed from AU signals and principal component analysis (PCA. The AU signals were found sensitive to pores and cracks and were able to discriminate the two types of defects. The results were validated qualitatively by submitting the samples to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan.

  8. Effect of temper rolling on the bake-hardening behavior of low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fu Kuang; Shen-gen Zhang; Jun Li; Jian Wang; Pei Li

    2015-01-01

    In a typical process, low carbon steel was annealed at two different temperatures (660°C and 750°C), and then was temper rolled to improve the mechanical properties. Pre-straining and baking treatments were subsequently carried out to measure the bake-hardening (BH) values. The influences of annealing temperature and temper rolling on the BH behavior of the steel were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructure evolution during temper rolling was related to carbon atoms and dislocations. After an apparent increase, the BH value of the steel significantly decreased when the temper rolling reduction was increased from 0%to 5%. This was attributed to the increase in solute carbon concentration and dislocation density. The maximum BH values of the steel annealed at 660°C and 750°C were 80 MPa and 89 MPa at the reductions of 3%and 4%, respectively. Moreover, increasing the annealing temperature from 660 to 750°C resulted in an ob-vious increase in the BH value due to carbide dissolution.

  9. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Junichiro, E-mail: kamiya.junichiro@jaea.go.jp; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-PARC Center, Ooaza Shirakata 2-4, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, Yuichi [SAKAGUCHI E.H VOC CORP., Sakura Dai-san Kogyodanchi 1-8-6, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-0802 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  10. Microstructural characterization and thermodynamic analysis of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg-Woo [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Il. [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang, Jeonnam 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Moon-Hi [POSCO Center, 892 Daechi-4dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-777 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Yong [Gangwon Regional Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Gyu [Foundry Technology Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shlim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • We provide the optimum amounts of Nb in ultra-low-carbon steel. • The density of fine precipitates and yield strength are closely connected. • The bake hardenability was mostly affected by a fine NbC precipitates. • The observed MnS–Cu{sub 2}S precipitate manifests a core–shell structure. -- Abstract: The effects of niobium (Nb) addition on the morphologies, size distributions, crystallography, and thermodynamics of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels (ULC-BH) were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calculated nucleation rate of NbC precipitates indicate that the observed fine precipitates and saturation of yield strength with Nb 90 ppm steel are closely connected to thermodynamic factors. A TEM analysis was also carried out for other fine precipitates in two nitride modes: hexagonal AlN and fcc TiN. The Cu{sub 2}S–MnS complex precipitate was found to manifest a core–shell structure; the core part formed Cu{sub 2}S and the shell part formed MnS. MnS and Cu{sub 2}S have an orientation relationship between (001){sub MnS}//(001){sub Cu{sub 2S}} and [001]{sub MnS}//[001]{sub Cu{sub 2S}}.

  11. Degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids after baking and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Stefan; Dib, Baha; Maul, Ronald; Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2012-11-01

    The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. Different steps of digestion were analyzed using salivary, gastric, and duodenal juices. The degradation and bidirectional conversion of the toxicologically relevant (R)-epimers and the biologically inactive (S)-epimers for seven pairs of EAs were determined by a HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection. Baking cookies resulted in degradation of EAs (2-30 %) and a shift in the epimeric ratio toward the (S)-epimer for all EAs. The applied digestion model led to a selective toxification of ergotamine and ergosine, two ergotamine-type EAs. The initial percentage of the toxic (R)-epimer in relation to the total toxin content was considerably increased after digestion of cookies. Ergotamine and ergosine increased from 32 to 51 % and 35 to 55 %, respectively. In contrast, EAs of the ergotoxine type (ergocornine, α- and β-ergocryptine, and ergocristine) showed an epimeric shift toward their biologically inactive (S)-epimers. Further experiments indicated that the selective epimerization of ergotamine EAs occurs in the duodenal juice only. These results demonstrate that toxification of EAs in the intestinal tract should be taken into consideration. PMID:22968686

  12. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... be the high price of CAVEs, the lack of intuitive navigation and design tools in those environments, the absence of useful and easy to handle design workflows, and the quality constraints of real-time display of 3D models. A great potential for VR in the architectural workflow is the review of design...... decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...

  13. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children. PMID:26386301

  14. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children.

  15. 烟筐装烟烘烤对烟叶质量及烘烤成本的影响%Effects of Tobacco Baking with Loose Leaf Loaded in Basket on Leaf Quality and Baking Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小良; 李迪秦; 姚强; 郭维; 黄景崇; 谭思思

    2016-01-01

    为探讨适宜衡阳植烟区的密集烤房装烟方式,从烤后烟叶外观质量、主要化学成分指标、经济性状及烘烤能耗和用工成本等方面,对烟筐装烟和传统烟杆烘烤进行了对比研究。结果表明,与传统烟杆烘烤相比,烟筐装烟烘烤装鲜烟量高11.8%~15.9%,干烟量高50.5~65.5 kg/房,产值高804.7~1719.3元/房,主要化学成分指标间无显著差异,能耗与用工成本低1.1~1.6元/kg 干烟。综合分析烘烤后烟叶的装烟量、经济性状和综合成本,采用烟筐烘烤效果较好。因此,在现有烘烤设施和烘烤技术条件下,采用烟筐装烟烘烤可以代替传统的烟杆烘烤。%To explore a proper loading modes of tobacco bulk curing barn in Hengyang tobacco-growing areas,comparative experiments about apparent quality,chemical component indicators,economic character,energy and labor costs between baking of loose leaf loading in basket and pole model loading baking was carried out.The results showed that the loaded fresh-leaf quantity,per chamber dry tobacco leaves and per chamber out-put value of loose leaf loading model baking was 11.8% ~15.9%,50.5 ~65.5 kg/champer and 804.7 ~1719.3 yuan/champer higher than that of pole model loading baking in turn.And energy and labor costs of was 1.1 ~1.6 yuan/kg (dry tobacco leaf)significant lower than that of pole model loading baking.And there was any significant difference of chemical component indicators between loose leaf loading model baking and polo model loading baking.Loading fresh-leaf quantity,economy and composite costs of loose leaf loading model baking was the best.Therefore,the loose leaf loading model baking may replace the pole model loading baking.

  16. Analysis of thin baked-on silicone layers by FTIR and 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Pre-filled syringes (PFS) and auto-injection devices with cartridges are increasingly used for parenteral administration. To assure functionality, silicone oil is applied to the inner surface of the glass barrel. Silicone oil migration into the product can be minimized by applying a thin but sufficient layer of silicone oil emulsion followed by thermal bake-on versus spraying-on silicone oil. Silicone layers thicker than 100nm resulting from regular spray-on siliconization can be characterized using interferometric profilometers. However, the analysis of thin silicone layers generated by bake-on siliconization is more challenging. In this paper, we have evaluated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after solvent extraction and a new 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D-LSM) to overcome this challenge. A multi-step solvent extraction and subsequent FTIR spectroscopy enabled to quantify baked-on silicone levels as low as 21-325μg per 5mL cartridge. 3D-LSM was successfully established to visualize and measure baked-on silicone layers as thin as 10nm. 3D-LSM was additionally used to analyze the silicone oil distribution within cartridges at such low levels. Both methods provided new, highly valuable insights to characterize the siliconization after processing, in order to achieve functionality.

  17. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  18. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Soliz; Jeffrey Lim; Gang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  19. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

  20. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Soliz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  1. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

  2. Sorghum for human food--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglani, C

    1998-01-01

    A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. The cooked porridge Aceda has lower protein digestibility and higher biological value than the uncooked porridge Aceda. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent. PMID:9839838

  3. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating. PMID:27235822

  4. Bake NP NP”是属于动词还是属于构式?——以使用为基础的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛保义

    2012-01-01

    本文是在认知语法的范畴化理论框架内探讨“bake NP NP”与双及物构式“V NP NP”之间的范畴化关系,发现“bake NP NP”是从动词“bake”的使用例子中概括出来的具有一定规约性的单位.“V NP NP”通过原型范畴化和图式范畴化将“bake NP NP”范畴化为“give NP NP”家族的边缘成员和“transfer NP NP”图式的一个实例.作为实例,“bake NP NP”继承了图式“transfer NP NP”的语义特征,表示“传递”义.作为“give NP NP”家族的边缘范畴,“bake NPNP”表示通过“烘烤”过程实现的间接传递.因此,“bake NP NP”是一个表示“通过烘烤实现的间接传递”义的次范畴.显而易见,“bake NPNP”既属于动词,又属于构式.

  5. Development of High vacuum facility for baking and cool down experiments for SST-1 Tokamak components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SST-1 Tokamak, a steady state super-conducting device, is under refurbishment to demonstrate the plasma discharge for the duration of 1000 second. The major fabricated components of SST-1 like vacuum vessel, thermal shields, superconducting magnets etc have to be tested for their functional parameters. During machine operation, vacuum vessel will be baked at 150 °C, thermal shields will be operated at 85 K and magnet system will be operated at 4.5 K. All these components must have helium leak tightness under these conditions so far as the machine operation is concerned. In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, in-house high vacuum chamber is fabricated. This paper describes the analysis, design and fabrication of high vacuum chamber to demonstrate these functionalities. Also some results will be presented.

  6. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  7. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  8. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  9. Hypertension after ingestion of baked garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-04-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Schnauzer was referred 2-days after accidental ingestion of baked garlic. Regenerative anemia (Hematocrit 22%) and the elevated methemoglobin (8.7%) concentration were detected upon hematological examination. Eccentrocytes, Heinz bodies and ruptured red blood cells were also noted on blood smear films, which were the results from the oxidative injury of the Allium species. The dog was hypertension (systolic mean 182 mmHg) concurrent with other clinical signs, such as vomiting and dark brown urination. Treatment with continuous oxygen, antioxidant drugs and antihypertensive therapy resulted in good progress. The dog was discharged 4 days after hospitalization. There were no remarkable findings in the follow up hematologic examination 24 days after discharge, but the dog still had a high blood pressure and continued on antihypertensive therapy. No recurrence was noted and the blood pressure returned to normal levels 4 months later.

  10. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  12. Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-out

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Christian; Henrist, Bernard; Kölemeijer, Wilhelmus; Libera, Bruno; Lutkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.

  13. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. PMID:27531451

  14. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  15. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  16. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range. PMID:27041660

  17. Studies on Characteristic Baking Technologies of Flue-cured Tobacco Variety G80%烤烟G80特色烘烤工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓东; 李帆; 陈坤; 夏向京; 龙世平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore a characteristic baking technology for highly efficient using curing barn. [Method]The experiment aimed to compare energy cost, economic benefit, chemical composition, starch converting of three kinds of flue-cured tobacco after baking by dint of quantified baking technology (Ⅰ), mild yellow high baking technology (Ⅱ), and high temperature yellow humid backing technology (Ⅲ). [ Result] Ⅱ baking technology had less energy cost for per kilogram drying tobacco than I baking technology, and the energy cost reduced by 0.58 yuan/kg (central leaves of dry tobacco) and 0.12 yuan/kg ( upper leaves of dry tobacco) , respectively. Ⅲ baking technology had most economic benefit than other baking technologies, and the economic benefit of Ⅲ baking technology increased by 0.10 yuan/kg (central leaves of dry tobacco) and 0.15 yuan/kg ( upper leaves of dry tobacco) respectively. There were same starch converting tendency in three baking technologies, and the starch converting rate of B Ⅲ baking technology was the highest(27.53% ) , but CⅡ was least(14. 69% ). However, converting rate of CⅡ baking technology was the most radical (4. 5%) after baking, and converting rate of BⅠ baking technology was the least radical (6.15% ) after baking. [Conclusion] By comparison, it was found that II had relative lower energy cost while Ⅲ baking technology had most e-conomie benefit.%[目的]探索能够高效利用新型烤房的烟叶烘烤工艺.[方法]采用量化烘烤工艺(Ⅰ)、中温变黄高湿定色烘烤工艺(Ⅱ)和高温变黄高湿定色烘烤工艺(Ⅲ)烘烤烟叶,对3种烘烤工艺的能耗成本及其烤后烟叶经济效益、化学成分、淀粉转化情况进行比较分析.[结果]采用Ⅱ烘烤能耗成本较低,比Ⅰ分别降低0.58元/kg(中部叶干烟)、0.12元/kg(上部叶干烟).采用Ⅲ烤后烟叶经济效益最高,比Ⅰ分别提高了0.10元/kg(中部叶干烟)和0.15元/kg(上部叶干烟).3种工

  18. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

    2003-12-15

    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  19. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind

    1998-11-01

    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  20. Processing of Potato Chips by Microwave Baking%微波加工马铃薯片的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宽; 潘明

    2001-01-01

    Potato chips are produced by microwave baking, its flavor isimproved with the maceration of pineapple juice,scalding time and macerating time of potato flakes is 3 minutes and 30 minutes respectively,the concentration of adding sugar in pineapple juice is 4%~8%.The time of microwave baking is 110~130 seconds.%采用微波烘烤技术加工马铃薯片,并辅以菠萝汁浸渍来提高产品风味。试验结果表明:马铃薯片的热烫时间为3分钟,在菠萝汁中的浸渍时间为30分钟,加糖浓度4%~8%较为适宜,微波烘烤时间在110秒~130秒之间

  1. Structure optimization of the dispensing house in a combustion train for a thermal bake-out aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengbo; CHANG Baolong; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Binghuai

    2003-01-01

    The fume bake-out aluminum reduction cell is a novel technology possessing such advantages as easy control for the speed of heating-up, well-distributed temperature, and little cathode and anode oxidation. The key equipment of fume bake-out is a combustion train whose one important part is a dispensing house. This work deals with the numerical model and the flow and temperature fields of the dispensing house, which suggests that uniformity of flow and energy distribution is influenced by the position, shape and direction of the nozzle and cross dimension of dispensing house mainly, but is less influenced by entry speed The parameters of the dispensing house structure are optimised to satisfy the requirements for a combustion train in fume bakeout, and appropriate dimensions are obtained for a dispensing house structure.

  2. Accumulation of Protein Fractions during Grain Filloing of Wheat Genotypes Differing in Protein Content and Baking Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiaobing; LiWenxiong; 等

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of protein fractions was analyzed on developing and mature wheat grains of three cultivars differing in protein content and baking quality.There was a slight difference in the accumulation of cytoplasmic proteins in the cultivars used.The high yield but low protein cultivar showed a consistent decline of protein content during grain filling but the high-protein cultivars increascd their psotein contant after 25 days post-anthesis.The accumulation of storage proteins was different from that of cytoplasmic protein.and there were also cultivar variations,However,all cultivars reached their.Maximum-synthesizing capacity for storage proteins at maturity.The relationship between the protein fractions or their ratio and baking quality was also discussed.

  3. Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-03-01

    Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

  4. 浅谈“三段六步式”烘烤工艺效果评价%Effect Evaluation of "Three Phases and Six Steps" Baking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伯军; 李昆

    2013-01-01

    比较了三段六步式和三段式烘烤工艺烘烤烟叶的经济指标、外观质量、化学成分、评吸品质的差异,结果表明:无论是外观质量,还是烤后烟叶的经济价值,三段六步式均优于传统的三段式烘烤工艺,因而更加适用于重庆烟区特色烟叶的烘烤.%The author compared the economic indicators, appearance quality, chemical compositions, smoking quality of flue - cured tobacco leaf between "three phases and six steps" baking process and "three phases" baking process. The results indicated that; as compared with "three phases" baking process, "three phases and six steps" baking process could obtain good appearance quality and high economic value of flue - cured tobacco leaf. Thus, this baking process was more suitable for the tobacco leaf baking in Chongqing tobacco - growing area.

  5. Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1 after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2 was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS, ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb.

  6. The challenges faced when starting from scratch: baking GRI G4 sustainability reporting into existing organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Multanen, Juho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY, ACADEMIC BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: This study focuses on the process of introducing the trendy GRI G4 sustainability reporting standard in a Finnish chemical company and how this is done. The purpose of this single case study is to deepen our understanding on the challenges and tensions that actors dealing with reporting must handle and turn to their advantages. What empowers them to tackle these challenges, who are they exactly, and how have they baked the MA-...

  7. Amino Acid Composition and Structure of Cheese Baked as a Pizza Ingredient in Conventional and Microwave Ovens

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Alenka; Kalab, Miloslav

    1988-01-01

    Amino acid compositions of stirred-curd Mozzarella, stretched Mozzarella, and process Cheddar cheeses were similar and did not change as the result of baking in a conventional oven. D-glutamic acid (D0Glue) and D-phenyl-alanine (D-Phe) were present at low concentrations in all cheese samples, the lowest concentrations having been found in unbaked stirred-curd Mozzarella cheese (2.7% D-Glu of total Glu present and

  8. Strain Limit of Extra Galvannealed Interstitial-Free and Bake Hardened Steel Sheets Under Different Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Narayanasamy; N L Parthasarathi; R Ravindran; C Sathiya Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    The formability of bake hardened steel (thickness 0.82 ram),and the extra galvannealed IF steel (thickness 0.82 ram) have been studied.The suitability of the above steels for forming applications has been critically examined.The microstructure,tensile properties,and formability parameters of the above sheet metals were determined.The manufacturing process of the steels and the significance with reference to its formability were studied.

  9. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo sa...

  10. Use of bio-enriched yeast and stability of its vitamin D2 in wheat dough baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosa, Bogale N

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the basic vitamins required by our body for maintaining stable health conditions and to have stronger bone structure. In countries where there is shortage of sunlight exposure (like in Northern European countries) the oral intake of vitamin D either from dietary source or from supplementing tablets is very essential. This study aimed to analyze stability of vitamin D2 originating from bio-enriched yeast in baking process and...

  11. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph p...

  12. Influence of the xanthan gum addition on the technological and sensory quality of baking products during the freezing storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 0.16% xanthan gum addition in the recipe of the bread production and its influence on the baking and sensory quality of products was monitored during the process of our research. Prepared dough was inserted in the freezing box directly (-18°C and it was stored for one, two, three, four, five and six months. When the baking process was finished, the products with xanthan gum and the products without it were compared and evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. It was found that freezing, cooling and storage of the products without xanthan gum addition influenced the volume, vaulting and general appearance of the products in a negative way and loaves of bread were evaluated as unacceptable after four months of freezing. The quality of experimental loaves of bread with xanthan gum was, even after six months of freezing storage, comparable with freshly baked products. Despite the freezing, the volume of the products had an increased value. After first month of freezing the volume increased by 28.6% and after two months of freezing it increased by 23.8% both compared to the control. The vaulting in products processed by freezing was in the required optimal level during the whole period of freezing. Sensory evaluation results of loaves of bread with xanthan gum were the best after three, four and five months of storage in a freezer, when 98 points were achieved. During the monitored period of freezing, the addition of 0.16% of xanthan gum markedly contributed to the preservation of sensory and baking quality of the frozen wheat dough.

  13. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products.

  14. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  15. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  16. 麦精在面包中的应用%Application of malt extract in bread baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菊芬; 粟婉媛; 陈小泉

    2011-01-01

    The effect of malt extract in different addition dose on bread baking performance was studied,a bread preservation test was carried out,and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated.Results indicate that adding the malt extract can improve the performance in bread baking.The sensory evaluation proves that the bread texture and water binding capacity are improved by a proper addition of malt extract,especially the bread taste,flavor and inner textural structure.Furthermore,dough time and baking time of bread are shortened by the malt extract addition.The optimum addition dose of the malt extract in bread production is 4%.%研究了麦精的不同添加量对面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了面包中麦精的最适添加量。研究发现,麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的感官品质、质构以及面包的持水性。此外添加麦精可以缩短发酵时间和烘焙时间,面包中麦精的最适添加量为4%。

  17. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  18. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. PMID:26304439

  19. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pcoconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response. PMID:27102847

  20. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  1. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  2. Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotni, Dubravka; Curić, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Colić Barić, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina

    2011-02-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ≤ 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI.

  3. Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits.

  4. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions from baking: an unrecognized anthropogenic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F; Horst, Axel; Carrizo, Daniel; Holmstrand, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide (CH3Cl and CH3Br) are the largest natural sources of chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. We report the anthropogenic production of CH3Cl and CH3Br during breadbaking, and suggest this production is an abiotic process involving the methyl ester functional groups in pectin and lignin structural polymers of plant cells. Wide variations in baking styles allow only rough estimates of this flux of methyl halides on a global basis. A simple model suggests that CH3Br emissions from breadbaking likely peaked circa 1990 at approximately 200tonnes per year (about 0.3% of industrial production), prior to restrictions on the dough conditioner potassium bromate. In contrast, CH3Cl emissions from breadbaking may be of similar magnitude as acknowledged present-day CH3Cl industrial emissions. Because the mechanisms involve functional groups and compounds widely found in plant materials, this type of methyl halide production may occur in other cooking techniques as well. PMID:26878644

  5. Improvement of Mutant Wheat for Baking Quality Using Marker-assisted Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivars carrying the alleles HMWx2 and HMWx5 were classified according to results of SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel. Based on SDS-PAGE results we made crosses between Bezostaya, Enia, Tajan, Chamran, Pishtaz as pollinators (with high bread making quality) and Tabasi mutant lines (low bread making quality, but with other desirable traits) as recipient parents. F1 and F2 plants subsequently obtained from F1 hybrids were planted in a greenhouse. Selection for high baking quality was performed using an STS marker related to Glu1D (subunits 5+10) that showed a sharp band (450bp) in all genotypes that have 5+10 subunits. The identification of Glu-D1 HMWx5 carrier genotypes is more straightforward at the gene than at the gene product level. Furthermore, in all blind experiments, including a wide array of wheat genotypes, the PCR system correctly detected the presence of the Glu-D1 HMWx5+y10 pair. F2 individuals that had this allele were selected and planted in the field in April 2007. Selection of F3 individuals was done according to agronomical traits such as earliness, vigor and yield components, such as seed number per spike, weight of seed per spike, etc. (author)

  6. Improvement of mutant wheat for baking quality using marker assisted selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was conducted in the Molecular marker lab.Of nuclear agriculture Dep.In Agriculture Medicine and Industry, Research School. Cultivars carrying the alleles HMWx2 and HMWx5 were classified according to results of SDSPAGE in ploy acryl amid gel. A cording SDS-PAGE results we made crosses between Bezostaya, Enia, Tajan, Chamran, Pishtaz as pollinators (with high bread making quality) and Tabasi mutant lines( low bread making quality, but have desirable traits), as recipient parents. F1 plants were planted on greenhouse, subsequently F2 Plants that obtained from F1 hybrids were planted in greenhouse. Selection for high baking quality were performed using STS Marker, related to Glu1D (subunits 5+10).This marker showed a sharp band (450bp) in all genotypes that have 5+10 subunits. The identification of Glu-D1 HMWx5 carrier genotypes is more straightforward at the gene rather than at the gene product level. Furthermore, in all blind experiments including a wide array of wheat genotypes the PCR system correctly detected the presence of the Glu-D1 HMWx5+y10 pair. F2 individuals that having this allele selected and in April 2007 were planted in field condition.Selection of F3 individuals considered according to some agronomical traits such as earliness, vigor and yield component such as seed no per spike, weight of seed per spike, etc. (author)

  7. Half-Baked Logo Microworlds as Boundary Objects in Integrated Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chronis KYNIGOS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of fragmentation of the communities involved in the design of digital media for education. It draws on the experience gained at the Educational Technology Lab in the design of Logo-based microworlds with three different platforms respectively based on component computing, 3D game engines and 3D navigation with a GIS. In this paper I use the term half-baked to describe a microworld which is explicitly designed to engage its users with changing it as the main aspect of their activity. I discuss this kind of microworld as a tool for integrated design involving people with diverse expertise and/or roles to communicate. These kinds of microworlds implicitly exist within the community, but they can be explicitly designed mediated and put to use in the role of facilitators for integrated design and development to enable a growing communication amongst researchers, technicians, teachers and students. A template for presenting microworlds which was constructed through the experience with four such integrated communities is used to describe for each respective case the design principles, the affordances, the histories of development and the variety of emergent microworlds.

  8. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention.

  9. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  10. Baking and Adjustment of 66 m Natural Gas Tunnel Kiln Produced by Swindell Dressier International Company%66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘烤与调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏兴; 刘剑

    2011-01-01

    Reasonable baking system was propitious to extending the life of tunnel kiln.Checking and preparation before baking, method and notice for baking was introduced into the baking and adjustment of 66 m natural gas tunnel kiln produced.%合理的烘调制度,有利于延长隧道窑的使用寿命。笔者主要从烘调前的检查准备工作、烘调方法及烘调注意事项等几个方面对66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘调过程进行综述。

  11. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor As levels in baked clay (known as sikor. Methods Sikor samples originating from Bangladesh were digested using a microwave digester and analysed for their As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn levels using ICP-MS. Detailed As speciation analysis was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. Results Of particular concern were the levels of As (3.8-13.1 mg kg-1, Cd (0.09-0.4 mg kg-1 and Pb (21-26.7 mg kg-1 present in the sikor samples and their possible impact on human health. Speciation analysis revealed that sikor samples contained mainly inorganic As. Modest consumption of 50 g of sikor is equivalent to ingesting 370 μg of As and 1235 μg of Pb per day, based on median concentration values. This level of sikor consumption exceeds the permitted maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of inorganic As by almost 2-fold. Conclusion We conclude that sikor can be a significant source of As, Cd and Pb exposure for the Bangladeshi population consuming large quantities of this material. Of particular concern in this regard is geophagy practiced by pregnant women concurrently exposed to As contaminated drinking water. Future studies needs to evaluate the bioavailability of As and other elements from sikor and their impact on human health.

  12. Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

    2005-01-01

    Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

  13. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  14. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness. PMID:27497133

  15. Technology and Practice of Ferroalloy Online Baking Process%铁合金在线烘烤技术及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰升文

    2012-01-01

    The principle and scheme of ferroalloy baking process were researched and discussed. Ferroalloy online baking program was formulated. And the ferroalloy online baking process was optimized and realized. Practices showed that ferroalloy could be baked to highter than 300℃, average tapping temperature dropped by 50.4℃ with baked ferroalloy, and tapping temperature drop was lowered by 4.9℃.%对炼钢厂铁合金烘烤的原理和方案进行研究和探讨,初步制定了铁合金在线烘烤工艺方案,并对铁合金在线烘烤工艺进行优化改造,实现了铁合金的在线烘烤.实践表明:铁合金可烘烤至300℃以上,利用烘烤的铁合金料可使平均出钢温度降低50.4℃,出钢温降降低4.9℃.

  16. Experimental study on Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening sheet steel hot-rolled in the ferrite region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ping Chen; Yong-lin Kang; Ying-min Hao; Guang-ming Liu; Ai-ming Xiong

    2009-01-01

    A Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening sheet steel hot-rolled in the conventional austenite region and in the fer- rite region with lubrication was experimentally studied. Subsequent cold rolling and continuous annealing processes were also con-ducted. The results show that microstructures of ultra-low carbon bake hardening hot strips at room temperature are basically irregu-lar polygonal ferrites. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, n value, and r value of the No.2 specimen hot-rolled in the ferrite region with lubrication are 243 MPa, 364 MPa, 0.29, and 1.74, respectively, which are similar to those of the No.1 specimen hot-rolled in the conventional austenite region. The elongation rate and bake hardening value of No.2 specimen are 51% and 49.4 MPa, respectively, which are greater than those of No. 1 specimen. The No.2 specimen hot-rolled in the ferrite region with lubrication exhibits good mechanical properties and relatively excellent baking hardening performance. Therefore, the hot rolling experiment of Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steel in the ferrite region with lubrication is feasible and can be considered in the fu-ture industrial trial production.

  17. The multi-objective decision for baking process parameters of carbon anode%炭阳极焙烧工艺参数多目标决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琳; 李晓斌

    2016-01-01

    The multi-objective fuzzy decision is applied to optimize the technological parameters of baking. The authors analyzed the correlation between the technological parameters and the quality parameters in baking process, and used the technological pa-rameters of baking as the decision theory domain. According to the quality parameters of carbon anode which are as index function, it gets the optimal technological parameters, and optimizes the temperature curve of baking. This method creates the conditions for improving the quality of carbon anode, realizing the optimized control effect in consumption reduction, energy saving, and emission reduction of baking process.%研究将多目标模糊决策方法应用到炭阳极焙烧工艺参数优化中,通过分析焙烧过程中工艺参数与质量参数的相关性,以焙烧工艺参数为决策论域,炭阳极的质量参数为指标函数决策得到最优焙烧工艺参数,优化了焙烧曲线。该方法为提高炭阳极生产质量,实现炭阳极焙烧过程中的降耗、节能及减排等方面的优化控制创造条件。

  18. 焙烤仔猪教槽料的研制%Study on the baked piglet feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永富; 李亮; 穆玉云; 刘荫亭

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to research on the production process and feeding effect of baked piglet feed (BPF), therefore to develop a novel piglet feed product to ensure the successful weaning. The baking process was optimized at first. The loss ratio of lysine was minimum (8.25%) in the baked product when baking at 170 for 18 min. Then the baked product was fed to piglets. The intake speed for the BPF was significantly increased. Meanwhile, the feed intake for the BPF was 2 times of that for the traditional particulate feed (TPF), testing with the suckling piglets at the age of 7 to 20 days. Furthermore, the growth performance of the BPF also improved greatly. When testing with the suckling piglets at the age of 17 to 22 days, the average daily feed intake for the BPF was 11.1 g/head, 10 times higher than that for the TPF, and the average daily weight gain was 50 g/head higher than that for the TPF, indicating its high feed conversion ratio. Most importantly, for the piglets on day 1 postweaning, the feed intake for the BPF reached 139.95 g/head, 2 times higher than that for the TPF, which means that the nutrition intake exceeds the maintenance requirement, so piglets did not lose weight after weaning, but gain weight. These results demonstrated that the loss of lysine in the baking process had been effectively controlled, and two difficult problems of unwilling to eat feed during suckling and lose of weight after weaning have been successfully solved by the BPF.%试验旨在研究仔猪焙烤教槽料生产工艺及其对仔猪诱食和生长性能的影响,开发出能够确保仔猪成功离乳的新型仔猪教槽料产品.通过对焙烤工艺优化,在焙烤温度170℃、焙烤时间18 min时,焙烤产品赖氨酸损失最少,损失率为8.25%.诱食性试验证明,焙烤教槽料能使刚断奶仔猪采食速度明显加快;偏食性试验结果表明,在哺乳期7~20日龄内,焙烤教槽料的饲料摄入量是传统颗粒料的2倍;哺乳仔猪生

  19. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  1. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ways. Some food products may already contain bacteria or parasites. These germs can be spread during ... your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. ...

  2. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. The impact of cooking and delivery modes of thymol and carvacrol on retention and bioaccessibility in starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Gabriela; García, Olga; Muñoz, Ociel; Pérez-Correa, José R; Parada, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Oregano and thyme possess beneficial properties for human health, mainly attributable to monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. The main objective of this research was to assess, on starchy food, the impact of cooking (boiling and baking) and delivery (ground leaves and essential oil) modes on retention and bioaccessibility of thymol and carvacrol. Retention was assessed after cooking, while bioaccessibility was estimated in cooked samples using an in vitro digestion model. Our results indicate that bioaccessibility was weakly dependent on cooking and delivery modes (27-33%). Boil cooking presented 20% more retention than baking for both compounds. When essential oil was added to the food matrix, thymol was retained almost 25% more when compared with ground leaves' addition. Conversely, carvacrol was retained 39% more when ground leaves were added. PMID:26593564

  4. Effects of semolina replacement with gluten-free ingredients on properties of poultry baked pâtés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effects of semolina replacement with millet flakes and corn grits on selected properties of poultry pâtés. Yield after baking, moisture and fat contents, colour values (L*, a*, b*, and compression force were investigated. Sensory analysis was also conducted. Most of pâté chemical and physical characteristics (except higher compression force in the case of pâté with corn grits did not differ significantly. Most of sensory properties of pâtés with corn grits were scored higher compared to products with millet flakes.

  5. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  8. Furan Occurrence in Starchy Food Model Systems Processed at High Temperatures: Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Heating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, María; Granby, Kit; Fromberg, Arvid;

    2012-01-01

    Furan, a potential carcinogen, has been detected in highly consumed starchy foods, such as bread and snacks; however, research on furan generation in these food matrixes has not been undertaken, thus far. The present study explored the effect of ascorbic acid addition and cooking methods (frying...... and baking) over furan occurrence and its relation with the non-enzymatic browning in a wheat flour starchy food model system. Results showed that furan generation significantly increased in the presence of ascorbic acid after 7 min of heating (p

  9. Chemical identification of contaminants in paper and board food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda

    Paper and board are used for a variety of food contact materials, such as baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and packaging for cereals as well as fast foods. Despite this extensive use, there are currently large data gaps about the chemical composition of different paper and board food contact ......, be attributed to dyes used in printing inks. In addition, it was concluded that the endocrine disruptive effects could largely be explained by monomers and plasticisers present in a recycled fibre sample and by sizing agents in virgin fibres. ......Paper and board are used for a variety of food contact materials, such as baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and packaging for cereals as well as fast foods. Despite this extensive use, there are currently large data gaps about the chemical composition of different paper and board food contact...... materials and the toxicological effects of these compounds.The aim of this study was to develop a rationalised interdisciplinary strategy for the screening and identification of compounds with potential adverse health effects in paper and board materials. The first step in the proposed strategy...

  10. 采运烤一体化烤房挂筐式烘烤烟叶的效应%Effects of Tobacco Harvesting Roast Integration Barn Basket Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘久羽; 阚宏伟; 胡向丹; 张大斌; 孙建生; 邓泳; 张纪利

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the baking process of tobacco and reduce tobacco baking cost,the current widespread use of tobacco baking bulk curing barn was transformed and the tobacco harvesting roast basket type curing effect of hanging barn integration was studied in this paper.The results showed that logging roast integration barn basket baking could promote the transformation of tobacco inclusions and aroma precursors,promote the coordination of chemical composition,increase the content of neutral aroma substances and improve the proportion of high class leaf.it could save labor quantity 8.45,reduce baked cost 659.01 Yuan when baked fresh tobacco 4000 kg,and net income increased 939.01 Yuan each 600 kg dry tobacco.%为简化烟叶烘烤工作环节和降低烟叶烘烤成本,利用目前烟叶烘烤普遍使用的密集烤房进行改造,研究了烟叶采运烤一体化烤房的挂筐式烘烤效应。结果表明:采运烤一体化烤房挂筐式烘烤能够促进烟叶内含物和香气前体物质的转化,促进化学成分的协调性及中性香气物质的含量,提高上等烟叶比例。采烤4000 kg 鲜烟可节约用工数量8.45个,烟叶采烤成本降低659.01元;烤后干烟叶(600 kg)纯收入增加939.01元。

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  12. Validation of Baking To Control Salmonella Serovars in Hamburger Bun Manufacturing, and Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Nonpathogenic Surrogate Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Holmgren, Elizabeth S; Michael, Minto; Sevart, Nicholas J; Milke, Donka; Schwan, Carla L; Krug, Matthew; Wilder, Amanda; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Milliken, George

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for hamburger buns to destroy Salmonella serovars and to determine the appropriateness of using nonpathogenic surrogates (Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for in-plant process validation studies. Wheat flour was inoculated (∼6 log CFU/g) with three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium, Newport, or Senftenberg 775W) or with E. faecium. Dough was formed, proofed, and baked to mimic commercial manufacturing conditions. Buns were baked for up to 13 min in a conventional oven (218.3°C), with internal crumb temperature increasing to ∼100°C during the first 8 min of baking and remaining at this temperature until removal from the oven. Salmonella and E. faecium populations were undetectable by enrichment (>6-log CFU/g reductions) after 9.0 and 11.5 min of baking, respectively, and ≥5-log-cycle reductions were achieved by 6.0 and 7.75 min, respectively. D-values of Salmonella (three-serovar cocktail) and E. faecium 8459 in dough were 28.64 and 133.33, 7.61 and 55.67, and 3.14 and 14.72 min at 55, 58, and 61°C, respectively, whereas D-values of S. cerevisiae were 18.73, 5.67, and 1.03 min at 52, 55, and 58°C, respectivly. The z-values of Salmonella, E. faecium, and S. cerevisiae were 6.58, 6.25, and 4.74°C, respectively. A high level of thermal lethality was observed for baking of typical hamburger bun dough, resulting in rapid elimination of high levels of the three-strain Salmonella cocktail; however, the lethality and microbial destruction kinetics should not be extrapolated to other bakery products without further research. E. faecium demonstrated greater thermal resistance compared with Salmonella during bun baking and could serve as a conservative surrogate to validate thermal process lethality in commercial bun baking operations. Low thermal tolerance of S. cerevisiae relative to Salmonella serovars limits its usefulness as a surrogate for process validations

  13. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  14. Pre-treatment to Improve the Bake-hardening Response in the Naturally Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Hui Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes pre-treatment methods to improve the bake-hardening response of naturally aged AA6022 (Al-0.6Mg-1.0Si), which is an alloy used in automotive body panels. These methods are used to accelerate the artificial aging process, which proceeds 30-day period of natural aging. The precipitation behavior of the sheets of this aluminum alloy was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrical conductivity measurements, and subsequently confirmed by microstructure observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tensile tests and microhardness measurements were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the samples. Under simulated paint-baking conditions (30 min at 170℃), the microhardness and the yield strength (YS) of the pre-strained + pre-aged samples were found to be 113 HV and 225 MPa, respectively. These values are considerably higher than those of pre-aged samples, and they did not decrease significantly during the initial stage of artificial aging.

  15. Special Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  16. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  17. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  18. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs. Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  19. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil;

    2012-01-01

    . A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients......Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact...... dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch...

  20. Galactooligosaccharides: novel components of designer foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vikas; Tomar, S K; Singh, R R B; Singh, A K; Ali, Babar

    2011-05-01

    Since introduction of functional foods, commercialization of the traditionally used probiotics has ushered in more followers into the new fraternity of sophisticated, health-conscious consumers. In 1995, this was followed by the first introduction of prebiotics. Prebiotics are defined as "a non-digestible feed supplement, beneficially affecting the host by selectively stimulating growth and/or activity in one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon." The number of new product introductions with prebiotics has steeply increased over the last few years. Paradoxically, probiotics have limited applications as these cannot be used in wide range of food products because of their viability issue. Fortunately, prebiotics do not suffer from any such constraint and can be used in a wide range of food products. Probiotics do not have a long shelf life in their active form. In most cases, refrigeration is required to maintain the shelf life. While probiotics are predominantly used in fermented dairy products, the use of prebiotics has expanded into other food categories. Prebiotics have successfully been incorporated in a wide variety of human food products such as baked goods, sweeteners, yoghurts, nutrition bars, and meal replacement shakes. For instance, the introduction of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) into baby foods has been very successful. GOS, which are identical to the human milk oligosaccharides, has emerged with strong clinical support for both digestive and immune health. Various aspects related to GOS such as types and functions of functional food constituents with special reference to GOS, their role as prebiotics, and enhanced industrial production through microbial intervention are dealt in this review.

  1. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  2. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. PMID:23993492

  3. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  4. THE INULIN AND OLIGOFRUCTOSE EFFECT ON QUAL­ITY PARAMETERS OF BAKING PREMIUM WHEAT AND RYE FLOUR AND PRESSED BAKER’S YEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Koryachkina, S.; Matveeva, T.; Akhmedova, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expediency of inulin and oligofructose use as an additive giving the bread functional properties, the effect of inulin and oligofructose on quality parameters of baking premium wheat and rye flour and pressed baker’s yeast was investigated.

  5. Analysis and solution to the cavity defect of baked pruducts%焙烧品空头缺陷分析及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪伟; 陈磊

    2014-01-01

    The cavity defect of baked products is one of the main quality problems in the first-baking process technology, which often happens in domestic manufactures. It has a significant influence on the first-baking production yield, and the quality index in-cluding the structure, strength, electric resistance and functional performance of finished products. According to years of experience in solving the cavity defects in first-baking products, the causes were analyzed and the solutions were put forward.%石墨电极一次焙烧过程中空头缺陷是主要质量问题之一,其对一次焙烧成品率,成品结构、强度、电阻率等质量指标及产品使用性能有明显影响。根据多年对一次焙烧空头问题解决经验对该问题进行分析及提出新的解决措施。

  6. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds.

  7. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per serving to the right of the nutrient. Vitamins and minerals: Only two vitamins (A and C) and two ... are required on the food label. But, when vitamins or minerals are added to the food, or when a ...

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...

  9. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  10. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  11. 焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺含量测定分析%A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN BAKED WHEAT GERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志成; 任文明

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  12. In-situ lamination of starch-based baked foam articles with degradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique for making biodegradable food service packaging comprised of a starch/fiber core and a biodegradable film laminate is described. The biodegradable films were made of polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylenesuccinate/terephthalate (PBST), rubber latex and polybutyleneadipate/terephthalate (PB...

  13. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  14. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.;

    buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...... crisps (diameter 40 mm x width 2 mm) by deep frying in oil at 150°, 170° and 190°C to the same water content (crispiness) of ~ 2% simulating industrial conditions, the furan content increased from 12-15 ng/g up to 31-52 ng/g. A similar study on French fries (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) showed furan contents of 11...

  15. Study on the Best Baking Technology of Frankincense by Orthogonal Test%正交法优选乳香最佳烘制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素连; 蒋孟良; 陈卫红; 蒋晓煌

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to select the best baking process of frankincense. Methods Taking the indexes of stimulating components, peak area and number of essential oil and irritant test (hyp ere mia and hydroncus in rabbit eye),baking temperature, time, thickness, diameter of Frankincense were optimizated by orthogonal design test. Results The best baking technology were A2B3C1D1, diameter of Frankinceuse 0. 5 cm, thickness 1 cm, 120 ℃ baking for 2 h. Conclusion The baking method was reasonable, simple, feasible and high efficiency, it can provide a certain reference for mass - production.%目的 优选乳香烘制法的最佳炮制工艺.方法 以刺激性成分挥发油的总峰面积、峰数目和刺激性试验(兔眼充血与水肿)等4个评价指标,采用正交试验法,对温度、时间、放置厚度、药材直径等4个因素的水平进行优选.结果 乳香最佳烘制工艺为A2B3C1D1,即乳香直径0.5 cm,放置1 cm厚,120 ℃烘制2 h o结论优选出的炮制工艺合理、简单、可行、效率高,可为大规模生产提供参考依据.

  16. STUDY ON THE PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR PRE-BAKED FROZEN BREAD DOUGH%预烤冷冻面包面团加工工艺参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晨丽; 陈洁; 王春; 吕莹果

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effects of pre-baking conditions, such as water amount, proofing time, pre-baking temperature, and pre-baking time on the quality of pre-baked frozen bread dough by measuring the specific volume, texture(TPA) and other indexes of baked bread. The optimum conditions were as follows;water amount 50% , proofing time 135 min, pre-baking temperature 165℃ , and pre-baking time 10 min.%通过测定复烤面包后的比容、质构( TPA)、感官等各项指标,研究了不同加水量、醒发时间、预烤温度、预烤时间等加工条件对预烤冷冻面包面团品质的影响.确定其制作的最佳工艺:加水量50%、醒发时间135 min、预烤温度165℃、预烤时间10 min.

  17. Investigation on synthesis of a low cost no-bake furan resin system with a high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weihua; Liu Shiyang; Li Yingmin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a low cost no-bake furan resin with a high strength was researched in this paper. Through the analysis of main factors influencing the strength of furan resin, an orthogonal experiment was conducted to optimize synthesis of urea-formaldehyde furan resin with 3% nitrogen. The critical factors and their optimal levels were confirmed, and high strength property was obtained. Subsequently, some active substitute materials, including polyols A agent, methyl alcohol, mother liquid of xylitol, polyols B agent and ethanol, were used for partly substitution of furfural alcohol, the main material component of furan resin. A good combination of the substitute materials was determined to achieve a high strength, and the overal proportion of substitute materials to the resin is 20%. In this study, the substitution mechanism on furan resin was also characterized and analyzed by IR.

  18. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  19. 不锈钢烤花装饰工艺%Decoration and Baking Process for Stainless Stell Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光震

    2000-01-01

    As the living standards of the people have improved constantly,the stainless steel household utensils are indispensable for daily use in placement of aluminium products.The paper expounds how to decorate the stainless steel containers for increasing additional value.It also introduces the design of decal paper for stainless steel utensils and its baking decoration process.%随着人们生活水平的不断提高,不锈钢器皿逐步取代铝制品成为家庭生活中不可缺少的日用器具。就如何装饰不锈钢器皿,增加其附加值进行了论述,详细介绍了不锈钢装饰贴花纸的设计制作及不锈钢器皿贴花烤烧工艺的具体操作。

  20. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  1. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed.

  2. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  4. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pasta dishes. Add them to your pancakes, French toast, or baked goods mix. You can also ... al. Chia seed supplementation United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services. Plant guide: Chia. Updated ...

  5. [Technological challenges and strategies for developing low-protein/protein-free cereal foods for the dietotherapic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Western countries are finding health care costs to be a continuously increasing financial burden in excess of previous budgetary allocations. Medical nutrition therapies (MNT) have proven to be an efficient cost minimising tool whilst concurrently improving the patient's quality of life. These MNTs are defined as specially processed or formulated foods that are used for the dietary management of patients. Among the medical foods, low-protein/protein-free (LP/PF) foods have been shown to improve the physical manifestation of metabolic disorders in patients with amino acid or protein-related diseases, such as Phenylketonuria, Tyrosinaemia type I, as well as chronic kidney, and coeliac. Most of the cereal-based LP/PF foods currently marketed are a blend of refined or chemically-based food ingredients with unpalatable frequently artificial flavours, having excessive sweetness to mask the chemical taste of ingredients (drug-like approach). However, the adoption of an alternative to convention, such as a food-like approach to developing medical foods, it is a surprisingly complex process. This is specifically true when the technological aspects of LP/PF foods and, in particular, protein-free cereal foods are considered. The primary processing issues arise while trying to replace gluten in baked cereal products. This represents a significant technological challenge, since gluten is an essential structural network-building protein necessary for baked goods. In this article, the suitable food technology challenges and strategies for developing LP/PF cereal foods able to overcome the significant limitations of a food-like approach will be addressed. PMID:24777928

  6. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  8. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  9. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  10. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  12. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  13. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  14. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat Fruits Food Gallery Vegetables All About the Vegetable Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans ... Updated: Jun 16, 2015 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker ...

  15. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  16. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  17. Study on process of Inner mongolia traditional meat products-baking lamb chop%内蒙古传统肉制品-烤羊排制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海英; 李正英

    2015-01-01

    以8~10月的小尾寒羊分割肋骨为试验材料进行烤制,研究其最佳的烤制温度及时间。结果表明,羊排烤制的最佳工艺是先低温后高温的烤制方法,最佳工艺参数是先在110℃下烤制60 min,然后在170℃下烤制40 min,此工艺条件下烤制出的羊排烤香浓郁,无焦苦味,口感好,易嚼碎。%This experiment selected split ribs of 8~10 mouths ' Small Tailed Han Sheep as test materials to bake , and focused on research of the best baking temperature and time. The results show that the best baking technological process is first baking for 60 min under 60℃low temperature, and then baking for 40 min under 170℃. The products under the process are full of baking flavour, without caramel flavour and easy to masticate.

  18. Coupling between heat and mass transfer and stoechio-kinetic models to bring insight into Maillard reaction kinetics during baking of sponge-cake products

    OpenAIRE

    Pénicaud, Caroline; Broyart, Bertrand; Goujot, Daniel; COUREL, Mathilde; Meyer, Xuân Mi; Bonazzi, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Penicaud11coupling The objective of this work is to present the methodology used to bring insight into interactions between heat and mass transfer phenomena (within the heating product and between the product and its environment) and the extent of Maillard reaction (influenced by the variations of local values of product moisture content, temperature and reactants concentration) during baking of a sponge-cake type bakery product. Therefore, a heat and mass transfer model coupled with a sto...

  19. Perbedaan Laju Aliran Saliva Sebelum Dan Sesudah Berkumur Dengan Larutan Baking Soda Pada Pasien Hipertensi Dengan Xerostomia Di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Diny

    2014-01-01

    Perbedaan Laju Aliran Saliva Sebelum dan Sesudah Berkumur Dengan Larutan Baking Soda pada Pasien Hipertensi Dengan Xerostomia di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan.xi + 35 halaman Hipertensi adalah meningkatnya tekanan darah sistolik lebih tinggi atau sama dengan 140 mm Hg serta tekanan darah diastoliknya lebih tinggi atau sama dengan 90 mm Hg atau ketika seseorang sedang mengonsumsi antihipertensi untuk mengontrol tekanan darah. Beberapa golongan dari obat antihipertensi mempunyai efek samping xero...

  20. Preparation and Use of Water-borne Aluminium Powder Baking Varnish%水性铝粉烤漆的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商培; 董立志; 刘宝勇; 赵建成

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种水性铝粉烤漆的研制方法,阐述了润湿分散剂、流平剂、助溶剂、树脂、定向剂等对铝粉定向效果的影响。通过试验筛选出水性铝粉烤漆所需的原材料,制成高性能的涂膜,确定最终配方。试验多次优化配方和生产工艺,为研制高性能的水性铝粉烤漆提供设计思路和理论依据。%This paper introduces a preparation method of water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish and narrates the influence of wetting dispersant, leveling agent, co-solvent, resin, orientation agent on the orientation effect of aluminum powder. Through experiments, the materials for water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish are selected to prepare high performance coatings and the final formula is determined. The optimization of formulation and production technology in this paper provides design idea and theoretical basis for the preparation of water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish.

  1. Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, P; Singh, V; Gupta, M K; Kumari, V; Shrivastav, R; Ramanamurthy, M; Dass, S

    1997-01-30

    Studies were conducted in order to assess the level of aluminium (Al) in samples of Indian tea, coffee, toothpaste, paan masala (mouth freshener) and baking powder. Leaching of Al from cookware while preparing tea and coffee was also studied. Experiments were also conducted to study the sequential leaching of Al from cookware by preparing tea and coffee in the presence of standard size Al sheets (coupons). A small amount of Al was found to have leached from coupons during preparation of tea. Tea leaves, were found to be a rich source of Al and a maximum of 2.2% Al is extracted in tea infusions. Coffee powder on the other hand was not found to be a rich source of Al. Baking powder was found to be a rich source of Al and 1 kg of cake prepared with 1-3 teaspoon of baking powder may contain 2-12.7 mg of Al in each serving (25 g). Toothpaste also contains a significant quantity of Al, more so, when packed in Al tubes. Ingestion pattern of Al from these items by humans is also discussed. PMID:9092078

  2. The impact of raw materials and baking conditions on Maillard reaction products, thiamine, folate, phytic acid and minerals in white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Robert, Nathalie; Branlard, Gérard; Thebault, Jacques; Librere, Sarah; Jacquot, Sylvain; Mardon, Julie; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès; Chapron, Sophie; Chatillon, Antoine; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a white bread with improved nutrient contents and reduced levels of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products such as N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Assays were carried out through a full factorial experimental design allowing the simultaneous analysis of four factors at two levels: (1) wheat flour extraction rates (ash content: 0.60%-0.72%), (2) leavening agents (bakers' yeast - bakers' yeast and sourdough), (3) prebaking and (4) baking conditions (different sets of time and temperature). The baking conditions affected HMF and CML as well as certain mineral contents. A reduced baking temperature along with a prolonged heat treatment was found to be favourable for reducing both the CML (up to 20%) and HMF concentrations (up to 96%). The presence of sourdough decreased the formation of CML (up to 28%), and increased the apparent amounts of calcium (up to 8%) and manganese (up to 17.5%) probably through acidification of the dough. The extraction rate of flours as well as interactions between multiple factors also affected certain mineral content. However, compounds like folate, thiamine, copper, zinc, iron and phytic acid were not affected by any of the factors studied. PMID:26974195

  3. Rebel Food

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm, Caroline Groes; Liljendahl, Pernille; Andersen, Nikita Hoffmann; Minch Heyman, Marie Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the street food brand Rebel Food and an installation we as a group made, that was showcased the market on Den Røde Plads on Nørrebro in Copenhagen from May 5th to May 7th 2016. The installation was a photo booth that allowed Rebel Food’s visitors to interact with the installation and each other. Our hopes was that the guests would use the photo booth to take photos and later on upload these on their social media in order to brand the company Rebel Food. 4 The p...

  4. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  5. Desenvolvimento de uma massa funcional pronta para tortas utilizando o método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD Developing a functional ready to bake dough for pies using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Daibert Pinto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte das indústrias alimentícias no Brasil tem encontrado na inovação de produtos a chave para a sobrevivência no mercado. Uma forte tendência é o lançamento de produtos que, além da alta qualidade sensorial e nutricional, apresentem benefícios associados à saúde, os denominados alimentos funcionais. Dentre os funcionais, se encontram os ingredientes prebióticos, que, quando presentes na dieta, estimulam seletivamente o crescimento e a atividade de espécies bacterianas promotoras da saúde do organismo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma massa funcional pronta para tortas, utilizando-se como prebiótico, a inulina. O desenvolvimento desse produto foi baseado na ferramenta QFD (Desdobramento da Função Qualidade, sendo esta apontada como meio de organizar o desenvolvimento de novos produtos principalmente no nível de protótipos. Para tal desenvolvimento, pesquisas, testes e análises sugeridas pelo QFD foram realizados. De acordo com os resultados da matriz da qualidade obtida, concluiu-se que as características que os consumidores atribuem como de maior importância para a massa são: ser funcional, não quebrar, ter sabor neutro e ter diâmetro e espessura uniformes. Consequentemente, estas foram priorizadas no desenvolvimento do produto. A análise sensorial indicou que os provadores gostaram muito de todos os atributos de qualidade da massa. Por outro lado, o QFD mostrou-se eficaz no sentido de direcionar, de forma prática, a maneira de planejar e conduzir as atividades necessárias ao processo de desenvolvimento do produto.Great part of the food industries in Brazil have found that the key for surviving in the market is the innovation of products. A new trend is the launching of products which besides having high sensorial and nutritional quality, they also present benefits associated with health, and are known as functional food. Among these products are the prebiotics, food ingredients that

  6. [What is hidden behind the Baking Tray Task? Study of sensibility and specificity in right-hemispheric stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Juan; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Sanchez-Carrion, Rocío; Ensenat, Antònia; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2015-12-16

    Introduccion. Tham y Tegner propusieron el Baking Tray Task (BTT) como una prueba de evaluacion rapida y simple para la deteccion de negligencia espacial. No obstante, apenas existen estudios que hayan examinado su validez como prueba diagnostica. Objetivo. Analizar la validez diagnostica del BTT, midiendo su especificidad y sensibilidad, en una muestra de sujetos con ictus hemisfericos derechos. Sujetos y metodos. Cuarenta y ocho pacientes con lesiones vasculares hemisfericas derechas distribuidos en dos grupos (grupo negligencia, n = 35; grupo no negligencia, n = 13) en funcion de las puntuaciones obtenidas en una bateria de exploracion visuoespacial. La ejecucion de los participantes en el BTT se comparo con un grupo control sano (n = 12). Resultados. Los resultados mostraron una alta sensibilidad del BTT, pero una baja especificidad. Ocho de los 13 integrantes del grupo no negligencia obtuvieron un rendimiento en el BTT sugestivo de negligencia. Conclusiones. El BTT se muestra como un test sensible para la deteccion de la negligencia espacial. Sin embargo, basandonos en su baja especificidad, no es recomendable su uso aislado como prueba unica de diagnostico.

  7. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  8. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  9. Reconstitution baking tests with defatted wheat flour are suitable for determining the functional effects of lipase-treated wheat lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffarczyk, Monika; Østdal, Henrik; Matheis, Olivia; Jekle, Mario; Koehler, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A microscale reconstitution baking test, using wheat flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C, was established to determine the functional effects of lipids isolated from lipase-treated wheat dough. Proper selection of solvent and extraction temperature was of major importance to maintain the functionality of defatted flour. Dough and gluten from flour defatted with water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB; extracted at 20 °C) and 2-propanol (extracted at 75 °C) had inferior extensibility and loaf volume compared to control flour extracted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Quantitation of gluten proteins showed that defatting with WSB (20 °C) or 2-propanol (75 °C) decreased the gliadin and increased the glutenin content. Possible reasons were thiol-disulfide interchange reactions, caused either by heat (2-propanol, 75 °C) or by the solvent WSB, which affected gluten proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that regular, interconnected gluten structures were only present in dough from flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. PMID:26830576

  10. Ergonomics, automation and logistics: practical and effective combination of working methods, a case study of a baking company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Leonardo; Arias, Claudia; Cordoba, Jorge; Moroy, Magda; Pulido, Jean; Ramirez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to combine three different analytical methods from three different disciplines to diagnose the ergonomic conditions, manufacturing and supply chain operation of a baking company. The study explores a summary of comprehensive working methods that combines the ergonomics, automation and logistics study methods in the diagnosis of working conditions and productivity. The participatory approach of this type of study that involves the feelings and first-hand knowledge of workers of the operation are determining factors in defining points of action and ergonomic interventions, as well as defining opportunities in the automation of manufacturing and logistics, to cope with the needs of the company. The study identified an ergonomic situation (high prevalence of wrist-hand pain), and the combination of interdisciplinary techniques applied allowed to improve this condition in the company. This type of study allows a primary basis of the opportunities presented by the combination of specialized methods of different disciplines, for the definition of comprehensive action plans for the company. Additionally, it outlines opportunities for improvement and recommendations to mitigate the burden associated with occupational diseases and as an end result improve the quality of life and productivity of workers.

  11. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  12. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinks are fortified and enriched to provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Examples of commonly fortified foods ... margarine, and milk. This helps make up for vitamins or minerals that may be low or lacking in a ...

  13. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  14. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  15. Stability of mycotoxins during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia

    2007-10-20

    The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, canning, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize the highest temperatures having greatest effects. In general the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. However, roasting and extrusion processing show promise for lowering mycotoxin concentrations, though very high temperatures are needed to bring about much of a reduction in mycotoxin concentrations. Extrusion processing at temperatures greater than 150 degrees C are needed to give good reduction of zearalenone, moderate reduction of alfatoxins, variable to low reduction of deoxynivalenol and good reduction of fumonisins. The greatest reductions of fumonisins occur at extrusion temperatures of 160 degrees C or higher and in the presence of glucose. Extrusion of fumonisin contaminated corn grits with 10% added glucose resulted in 75-85% reduction in Fumonisin B(1) levels. Some fumonisin degredation products are formed during extrusion, including small amounts of hydrolyzed Fumonisin B(1) and N-(Carboxymethyl) - Fumonisin B(1) and somewhat higher amounts of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisin B(1) in extruded grits containing added glucose. Feeding trial toxicity tests in rats with extruded fumonisin contaminated corn grits show some reduction in toxicity of grits extruded with glucose. PMID:17804104

  16. 阳极焙烧温度场的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation on Temperature Field of Carbon Anodes during Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀慧

    2012-01-01

    The heat transfer mathematical modes for carbon anodes baking process were established to simulate the influence of baking curves on the process of raising temperature, finishing baking temperature and the difference in temperature between inside and outside of carbon anodes on FLUENT 6.3 software. The results show that the mathematical modes are reasonable because the simulated results of temperature raising rate is much close to the measured results in carbon anodes. The temperature raising curves of carbon anode-central gradually move to right, the finishing baking temperature gradually rise, and the difference in temperature between inside and outside of carbon anode decreases with the increase of fire cycle time when the other parameters are constant. The temperature raising rates rise in each baking phases increases, the soaking time decreases and the operating difficulties increases with the fire cycle time reducing.%以FLUENT 6.3为计算平台,建立了阳极焙烧温度场的计算模型,采用数值模拟的方法研究了不同焙烧曲线对阳极升温过程、终焙温度和内外温差的影响.结果表明:数值模拟结果与实测值极为接近,所建模型具有较高的可信度.在其它参数一定的条件下,随火焰周期的延长,阳极表面和中心的升温速率变小,终焙温度升高且出现的位置后移,阳极内外温差缩小,阳极内部温度均匀性得到改善;随火焰周期的变短,阳极在各焙烧阶段的平均升温速率增大,保温时间减少,操作参数的控制难度增大.

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  18. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  19. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  20. Bake-hardening behavior of low silicon TRIP steel with niobium%含铌低硅TRIP钢板烘烤硬化行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 张冬梅; 岳明明

    2014-01-01

    模拟汽车板的烘烤工艺,研究了预变形量、烘烤温度和烘烤时间等对含铌低硅T RIP钢板组织和性能的影响,探讨了T RIP钢的烘烤硬化机理。结果表明,当预变形量小于4%时,烘烤硬化值随预变形量增大而增加,预变形量大于4%时反而降低了烘烤硬化效应;当烘烤温度低于170℃时,随烘烤温度的上升,烘烤硬化值明显增加,当烘烤温度高于170℃时,烘烤温度对烘烤硬化值影响不大;当烘烤时间在20 m in以内时,随烘烤时间的延长,烘烤硬化值显著增加,烘烤时间超过20 m in时,烘烤硬化值随烘烤时间的延长反而有所降低。通过对TRIP钢的烘烤硬化机理分析,建立了烘烤硬化值变化模型:ΔYBH =ΔYγ+ΔYb+ΔYγc+ΔYdp+ΔYc ,其中沉淀析出碳氮化物数量和Cottrell气团数目变化引起的ΔY dp+ΔYc对烘烤硬化值变化影响相对显著。%In order to simulate baking process of automobile steel sheet ,baking treatment experiments at different pre-strains ,temperatures and times were carried out on low silicon TRIP steel with Nb . T he variation of the microstructures and bake-hardening values of the experimental steel during bak-ing treatment was investigated ,and the bake-hardening mechanism of TRIP steel was discussed .A model of variation of the bake-hardening value was built as follows :ΔYBH = ΔYγ + ΔYb+ ΔYγc+ΔYdp+ ΔYc ,in which effects of ΔYdp and ΔYc on the variation of the bake-hardening value (ΔYBH) are relatively strong ,which are the yield strength variations caused by the amount of carbide precipi-tation and Cottrell atmosphere .

  1. LC-TOF/MS determination of phthalates in edible salts from food markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirwono, Warnadi; Nam, Yun Sik; Park, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2013-01-01

    Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, refined salts with additives and baked salts) available in Korean food markets. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was used to analyse the samples. The method was validated and showed linear correlation (R² > 0.996) in the range 0.5-100 ng g⁻¹ for all target analytes. Recoveries were 85.9-108.4%, except for diethyl phthalate (DEP). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.7-6.0% and the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.2-2.8 ng g⁻¹. Although the contamination of phthalates in salt would be trivial in comparison to those of other main foods and below the reference dose of the Chronic Oral Exposure recommended by US-EPA, the availability of reference data could be valuable for food chemists and salt manufacturers.

  2. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Diabetes Association (ADA recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1 identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2 compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2=4.17, P=0.003, whole grain bread (χ2=8.33, P=0.004, and baked potato chips (χ2=13.68, P<0.001. On average, the price of diet cola (t=−2.12, P=0.044 and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community’s food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  3. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  4. Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test%正交试验法优选郁金的醋制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石典花; 苏本正; 孙立立; 张军; 曲永胜

    2011-01-01

    目的:优选郁金最佳醋制工艺.方法:以内在质量(姜黄素含量)和传统外观质量为指标,采用L9(34)正交试验,对闷润时间、炒制温度、炒制时间3个因素进行考察.结果:优选的最佳醋制工艺为取净郁金片,加10%的醋,拌匀,闷润10 min,130℃炒制10 min.结论:优选得到的郁金醋制工艺合理可行,可用于指导醋郁金的规范化生产.%Objective: To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. Method: The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (34 ). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. Result: The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 ℃ and the stir-baking time was 10 min. Conclusion: The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  5. [Effectiveness of secondary preventive programs for patients with asthma and rhinitis in the baking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, R; Nolting, H D; Rosenau, C; Stauder, J; Vonier, J

    1998-11-01

    Since 1992 the German industrial professional association for the food industry and gastronomy (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten), which is responsible for statutory accident insurance has been offering a specific patient education programme to bakers suffering from occupationally induced obstructive pulmonary disease or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, who do not quit their jobs and wish to continue working as bakers. The programme aims at preventing aggravation of the disease 74 male bakers with a mean duration of illness of 10 years on entering the programme were examined between 1 and 5 years (mean: 2.9) after participating in the patient education seminar. For a subpopulation of 55 of these patients spirometric measurements were available for the time before programme entry and at follow-up. Data on time spent at the bakehouse, prevalence of symptoms, frequency of symptoms at the site of working and during leisure hours, sleep disturbances and emergency situations were collected at the follow-up examination both for the time before programme entry and at follow-up, respectively. Direct ratings of the amount of changes in distress caused by the disease and of the quality of life were also obtained. The prevalence of 8 of the 9 most frequently reported symptoms decreased significantly, e.g. dysponoea from 70% to 42% and fear of suffocation from 30% to 3%. Participants reported on highly significant reductions in the frequency of disease-specific complaints during work and outside the working place, sleep disturbances and situations requiring immediate medical intervention. Between 64% and 85% of the patients experienced improvement of distress, physical and work performance, private and family life, and ability for self-management. Lung function did not deteriorate: mean FEV1 was 88% (+/- 23) at first and 90% (+/- 19) at second measurement. These results could not be explained by changes in medication. It is concluded that the programme is

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  8. LML型中长链结构酯在烘焙产品中的应用%Application of LML Medium and Long-Chain Triglycerides in Baking Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源媛; 张阳

    2015-01-01

    在我国,西式点心越来越受到人们的青睐,但其加工过程使用的原料均为高热量原料,尤其是所使用的油类多含有很高的饱和脂肪,容易引起肥胖和危害人体健康。本文对几种常用食用乳化剂进行了考察,筛选出一种最佳的乳化剂,并经起酥油制备工艺将以LML型结构脂和棕榈油硬脂通过复配制备起酥油用的基料油加工成起酥油成品。通过烘焙试验制备面包,参考GB/T 20981-2007,从感官和理化性质两个方面来分析和评价起酥油的应用效果。%In our country, more and more people are in favor of western-style dessert, but those raw materials are all high quantity of heat. Saturated fat contains are very high, that easy to cause obesity and endanger human body health. Several food emulsifying agent were investigated, and the best one were selected. LML-medium-and long-chain triglycerides and palmi-toleostearin were used for prepared shortening, and applied in bread baking. Basing on GB/T 20981-2007, sensory and physic-chemical properties were analyzed.

  9. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef J. Koppelman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested. The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame.

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  11. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  12. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norw...... destinations and regional food products....

  13. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from...

  14. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air humidity during baking caused a decrease in the melting temperature of the fractions of fats used in the process, compared to fats from pastries baked in dry air. This may be indicative of a product with a high degree of unsaturation in the lipid fraction.

    Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el tipo de grasa utilizada en el horneado de mantecadas tienen una influencia evidente en las propiedades de la fracción lipídica y una correlación entre estas propiedades (acidez, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados. Para grasas bajas en trans la correlación entre la acidez y el índice de peróxido es inversamente proporcional, para grasas conteniendo trans esta correlación fue directamente proporcional. Un aumento de la humedad del aire durante el horneado causa una disminución de la temperatura de fusión de las fracciones de grasas utilizadas en el proceso, en comparación con las grasas de repostería horneadas en aire seco. Esto puede indicar la presencia de productos con alto grado de insaturación en las fracciones lipídicas.

  15. Effect of the addition of hydrocolloids on the rheological and baking properties of the products with added spelt flour (Triticum spelta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the evaluation of the effect of additives on the rheological properties of composite flour made of wheat flour in the amount of 70% and spelt flour at 30%. As additives guar gum (0.5% by weight of flour and xanthan gum (0.16% by weight of flour were used. Properties of produced control dough and doughs with hydrocolloids were evaluated by means of rheological appliances by Farinograph, Extenzograph, Amylograph and Rheofermentometer. Based on the observed results it can be concluded that the addition of xanthan gum has a positive effect on increasing of farinographic water absorption capacity, extension of dough development time and dough stability and generally positively affected farinographic properties. The addition of guar gum has improved especially extensographic properties as extensographic energy and extensographic resistance. Based on amylographic evaluation of control doughs and doughs with additives it can be stated that in the dough with guar gum the amylographic maximum has slightly increased. Hydrocolloid guar gum contributed to an increased retention capacity of dough observed. Based on our measurements we can indicate that addition of guar and xanthan gum contributed to an increased rheological quality of doughs prepared with addition of flour from spelt wheat. With reference to the baking experiment it was found that the use of hydrocolloids has a positive effect on the improvement of the baking properties, in particular larger volume, specific volume, and the volume yield of the dough with the addition of guar and xanthan gum compared to the control. Our results showed that aditives significantly influenced rheological qualities of dough and a baking quality of products. These findings thus allow optimizing the recipe in order to increase the technological quality of leavened bakery products.

  16. Effect of proving time on the quality of frozen pre-baked French style rolls elaborated with the addition of wholegrain flour and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2014-11-01

    Proving is a step in the breadmaking process that can be crucial in determining the final characteristics of the product presented to the consumer. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of proving time on the quality of frozen pre-baked French style rolls elaborated with the addition of wholegrain flour and enzymes. With this objective, doughs from six different formulations were allowed to ferment to different stages of proving. The first stage corresponded to the stage where the dough presented the maximum point of volume development without losing its resistance to touch. The second stage was soon after the first one, being characterized by a loss of resistance to touch but without a marked loss of volume. The rolls were evaluated for their specific volume, crumb texture (firmness and springiness), oven spring, shape, cut opening and cut height. The results showed that the proving time influenced various characteristics of the pre-baked French bread. A longer proving time tended to result in greater specific volume of the rolls with greater crumb springiness, but with a less firm crumb and reduced cut opening and cut height. The oven spring and shape were not altered by the proving time. The increase in volume was the result of increases in the width and length of the rolls. This study showed that the proving time was one of the factors responsible for the collapse in the structure of the pre-baked rolls, and that an adequate formulation could overcome the loss in cut opening and cut height resulting from a longer proving time. PMID:26396336

  17. O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的特性研究%Properties of special oils for O/W baking release agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马传国; 汪鸿; 刘会娟; 苗海卿

    2013-01-01

    O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂作为一种乳化油脂有着特殊的性质.研究了各实验因素对O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的粘连率、液滴直径和黏度的影响,分析O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的脱模性和稳定性.结果表明,在Tween80-单甘酯比例1∶4,Tween80-单甘酯添加量3%,乳化时间1min,油水比例4∶6,乳化温度70℃,搅拌速率10 000 r/min,酯化磷脂添加量3%,黄原胶添加量0.30%的条件下,O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的液滴直径最小,为1.39 μm,黏度为5 090 mPa·s,焙烤蛋糕和面包粘连率均为O,粒度分布较均匀,体系较稳定.%O/W baking release agent as an emulsified fat has special properties. Effects of experimental factors on adhesion rate, droplet diameter and viscosity of O/W baking release agent were investigated and the release ability and stability of O/W baking release agent were analyzed. The results showed that when the ratio of Tween80 to monoglycerides was 1:4, Tween80 - monoglycerides dosage was 3% ,emulsion time was 1 min, ratio of oil to water was 4:6, emulsion temperature was 70 ℃, stirring rate was 10 000 r/min, acetyl phospholipids dosage was 3% and xanthan gum dosage was 0. 30% , the minimum droplet diameter was 1. 39 μm, the viscosity was 5 090 mPa · s and the adhesion rates of baking cakes and breads both were 0, which represented a stable emulsion system.

  18. Food advertisements in two popular U.S. parenting magazines: results of a five-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Hammond, Rodney; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha

    2013-12-24

    Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children's high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study's objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents' purchasing habits.

  19. Food advertisements in two popular U.S. parenting magazines: results of a five-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Hammond, Rodney; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-03-01

    Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children's high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study's objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents' purchasing habits. PMID:24576378

  20. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  1. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  2. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  3. Direct Marketing Local Foods: Food Safety Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kynda R.

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the food safety issues relevant to direct marketers of fresh and processed foods, as well as suggestions for establishing food safety controls and increasing consumer confidence in local products.

  4. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part I: Optimization of the spray-on parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are increasingly commercialized as drug/device combinations to enable self-administration. Siliconization of the inner syringe/cartridge glass barrel for adequate functionality is either performed at the supplier or drug product manufacturing site. Yet, siliconization processes are often insufficiently investigated. In this study, an optimized bake-on siliconization process for cartridges using a pilot-scale siliconization unit was developed. The following process parameters were investigated: spray quantity, nozzle position, spray pressure, time for pump dosing and the silicone emulsion concentration. A spray quantity of 4mg emulsion showed best, immediate atomization into a fine spray. 16 and 29mg of emulsion, hence 4-7-times the spray volume, first generated an emulsion jet before atomization was achieved. Poor atomization of higher quantities correlated with an increased spray loss and inhomogeneous silicone distribution, e.g., due to runlets forming build-ups at the cartridge lower edge and depositing on the star wheel. A prolonged time for pump dosing of 175ms led to a more intensive, long-lasting spray compared to 60ms as anticipated from a higher air-to-liquid ratio. A higher spray pressure of 2.5bar did not improve atomization but led to an increased spray loss. At a 20mm nozzle-to-flange distance the spray cone exactly reached the cartridge flange, which was optimal for thicker silicone layers at the flange to ease piston break-loose. Initially, 10μg silicone was sufficient for adequate extrusion in filled cartridges. However, both maximum break-loose and gliding forces in filled cartridges gradually increased from 5-8N to 21-22N upon 80weeks storage at room temperature. The increase for a 30μg silicone level from 3-6N to 10-12N was moderate. Overall, the study provides a comprehensive insight into critical process parameters during the initial spray-on process and the impact of these parameters on the characteristics of the

  5. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  6. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  7. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化及其挥发性成分分析%Optimization of Technology for Salty Baked Capsicum Powder Making and Analysis of Volatile Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 张晓; 邓后勤

    2012-01-01

    作者研究了焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺与香气特征,以野山椒为材料,通过正交试验方法确定焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺,采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱—质谱联用技术,分析灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒和野山椒四种焦盐辣椒粉的香气特征.结果表明:烘烤温度120℃、烘烤时间10 min、加盐量5%为焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺;最佳工艺条件下,4种焦盐辣椒粉共检出69种挥发性成分,其中灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒、野山椒分别为22种、39种、33种、50种,18种成分为4种辣椒粉共有.%To study the processing technology and aroma constitution of salty baked chili powder i the optimum processing technological parameters of salty baked capsicum frutescens var was investigated through orthogonal array experiment and the results listed as follows : baking temperature 120℃ ,baking time l0min,and salt concentration 5%. Furthermore,the volatile components from salty baked bell pepper,salty baked chili hot pepper,salty baked Vietnam capsicum frutescens var and salty baked capsicum frutescens var prepared by the optimum processing were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS),it was Found that a total of 69 volatile components with bell pepper 22,chili hot pepper 39,Vietnam capsicum frutescens var 33,and capsicum frutescens var 50,including 18 common components are identified under the optimum processing technology.

  8. Effects of Baking Time for Improving Aroma on the Quality of Congou Black Tea%烘焙提香时间对工夫红茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆娜; 张丽霞; 王小会; 向勤锃; 黄晓琴

    2012-01-01

    为提高工夫红茶的甜香度,本文以山东夏季鲜叶加工的工夫红茶初制品为原料,在70℃的烘温下进行不同时间的烘焙提香处理,并通过感官审评、生化成分和香气分析方法研究其对工夫红茶品质的影响,结果表明:烘焙时间的长短不仅影响工夫红茶的香型和高低,而且也影响汤色和滋味,在本试验条件下,烘焙时间以1.0~1.5h的感官品质较好;此外,烘焙时间对工夫红茶各生化成分的影响不同,但对品质有利的生化成分以烘焙1.0h的茶样含量最高;随着烘焙时间的延长,工夫红茶香气的种类、含量以及组分比值发生显著变化,从而可以解释不同烘焙时间工夫红茶香型存在差异的原因。%In order to improve the sweet flavor of congou black tea,the primary congou black tea,which was made from the summer fresh tea leaves picked in Shandong province,had been baked at 70℃ for different time.The effect of baking time on their quality was estimated by sensory evaluation,biochemical compositions determination and aroma analysis.The results showed that the baking time could affect the types and concentration of aroma as well as the liquor color,the taste of congou black tea.The sensory quality of congou black tea which was baked for 1.0 ~ 1.5 h at the temperature of 70℃,was better.There was different effect of baking time on different types of biochemical compounds.Baking 1h resulted in the high content of biochemical compounds which were beneficial to the quality of congou black tea.As the baking time increased,the types,contents and ratio of aroma compounds of congou black tea changed,which could the reason why the different baking time made different aroma of congou black tea.

  9. Atom probe analysis on interaction between Cr and N in bake-hardening steels with anti-aging properties at RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Jun, E-mail: takahashi.3ct.jun@jp.nssmc.com [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1, Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Maruyama, Naoki; Kawakami, Kazuto; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Sugiyama, Masaaki [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1, Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Ping, De-hai; Hono, Kazuhiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    One-dimensional atom probe (1DAP) analysis was performed on chromium and nitrogen added bake hardening steel sheets that have both high bake-hardenability and anti-aging properties at room temperature (RT). The atomic data of more than 2 million atoms were collected for sample steels with and without low-temperature aging after recrystallization annealing and quenching. The correlation in atomic position between chromium and nitrogen atoms in a solid solution was investigated by a statistical analysis using the binomial distribution function. In the samples with low-temperature aging, the probability that a chromium atom was observed near a nitrogen atom was significantly higher than that estimated from the null hypothesis that there was no attractive atomic interaction. This suggests that there is an attractive interaction between a nitrogen atom and a chromium atom in bcc iron, which led to the anti-aging properties at RT. In contrast, such correlation was not observed definitely in the samples without low-temperature aging, which implied that the atomic pair formation is a thermal activation process.

  10. A Wireless, Passive Sensor for Quantifying Packaged Food Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat Ghee Ong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of a wireless, passive sensor based on aninductive-capacitive resonant circuit, and its application for in situ monitoring of thequality of dry, packaged food such as cereals, and fried and baked snacks. The sensor ismade of a planar inductor and capacitor printed on a paper substrate. To monitor foodquality, the sensor is embedded inside the food package by adhering it to the package’sinner wall; its response is remotely detected through a coil connected to a sensor reader. Asfood quality degrades due to increasing humidity inside the package, the paper substrateabsorbs water vapor, changing the capacitor’s capacitance and the sensor’s resonantfrequency. Therefore, the taste quality of the packaged food can be indirectly determined bymeasuring the change in the sensor’s resonant frequency. The novelty of this sensortechnology is its wireless and passive nature, which allows in situ determination of foodquality. In addition, the simple fabrication process and inexpensive sensor material ensure alow sensor cost, thus making this technology economically viable.

  11. Challenges of Utilizing Healthy Fats in Foods123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  12. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less stable and more likely to fall during baking. Also, increasing the amount of egg strengthens the cell structure and may prevent the too-rich cake from falling. [ Top of Page ] Is cooking affected ...

  13. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of internati

  14. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends -- flax meal; Healthy food trends -- flax seeds; Healthy food trends -- linseeds ... acids, which is the hardest to get from foods. Eating flaxseeds can ... is healthy fat that helps boost your "good cholesterol." The ...

  15. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  16. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  18. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  19. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  20. Quantitation of N2-[1-(1-carboxy)ethyl]folic acid, a nonenzymatic glycation product of folic acid, in fortified foods and model cookies by a Stable isotope dilution assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michael; Mayr, Anja

    2005-06-29

    A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the quantitation of N(2)-[1-(carboxy)ethyl]folic acid (CEF) has been developed by using [(2)H(4)]CEF as the internal standard. After sample cleanup by anion exchange chromatography, the three-dimensional specifity of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabled unequivocal determination of the nonenzymatic glycation product of folic acid (FA). When CEF was added to cornstarch, the detection limit for CEF was found to be 0.4 microg/100 g, and a recovery of 98.5% was determined. In analyses of cookies, the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 8.0% (n = 5). Application of the SIDA to commercial cookies produced from wheat flour fortified with FA revealed CEF contents of up to 7.1 microg/100 g, which accounted for approximately 10-20% of the cookies' FA content. In baby foods, multivitamin juices, and multivitamin sweets, however, CEF was not detectable. Further studies on CEF formation during baking of cookies made from fortified flour and different carbohydrates revealed that fructose was most effective in generating CEF followed by glucose, lactose, and sucrose with 12.5, 3.9, 2.5, and 2.5 microg/100 g of dry mass, respectively. During baking, approximately 50% of FA was retained for both monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and 77% as well as 85% of its initial content was retained for the disaccharides lactose and sucrose, respectively. Of the degraded amount of FA, CEF comprised 28% for fructose as well as 18, 12, and 8% for sucrose, lactose, and glucose, respectively. Therefore, CEF can be considered an important degradation product of FA in baked foods made from fructose. To retain a maximum amount of FA, products should rather be baked with sucrose than with reducing carbohydrates.

  1. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  2. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, I; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, EP; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L; Pacheco, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene in different food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses were included in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. In parallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the...

  3. Radio frequency heating of foods: principles, applications and related properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, Punidadas; Dussault, Chantal; Koutchma, Tatiana; Ramaswamy, H S; Awuah, G B

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth and lower energy consumption. Radio frequency heating has been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat and in meat processing. However, its use in continuous pasteurization and sterilization of foods is rather limited. During RF heating, heat is generated within the product due to molecular friction resulting from oscillating molecules and ions caused by the applied alternating electric field. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant. This review deals with the current status of RF heating applications in food processing, as well as product and system specific factors that influence the RF heating. It is evident that frequency level, temperature and properties of food, such as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties and thus the RF heating of foods. Therefore, these parameters should be taken into account when designing a radio frequency heating system for foods.

  4. Radio frequency heating of foods: principles, applications and related properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, Punidadas; Dussault, Chantal; Koutchma, Tatiana; Ramaswamy, H S; Awuah, G B

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth and lower energy consumption. Radio frequency heating has been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat and in meat processing. However, its use in continuous pasteurization and sterilization of foods is rather limited. During RF heating, heat is generated within the product due to molecular friction resulting from oscillating molecules and ions caused by the applied alternating electric field. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant. This review deals with the current status of RF heating applications in food processing, as well as product and system specific factors that influence the RF heating. It is evident that frequency level, temperature and properties of food, such as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties and thus the RF heating of foods. Therefore, these parameters should be taken into account when designing a radio frequency heating system for foods. PMID:14669879

  5. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  6. [Food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Navarro, B E; Sienra-Monge, J J

    1993-06-01

    We are exposed to a large amount of potentially antigenic substances when we take aliments. Normally the mechanic, enzymatic and immunitary functions avoid the development of deleterious phenomena. Thus, when these mechanisms fail intolerance, idiosyncrasy or allergic reaction could be presented to the diet components. The adverse reactions to the aliments are present in one to three percent of the general population, while this occurs in the eight percent of the children under three years old. The clinical manifestations may comprise from abdominal pain pictures to anaphylactic shock. The symptomatology depends on age of the patient and the amount and kind of ingested food. The diagnosis must be establish on bases of careful anamnesis and physical examination. To confirm the diagnosis cutaneous test for immediate hypersensibility and the determination of specific IgE antibodies (RAST, ELISA) are used. The basic treatment consists in the withdrawal of the causative aliment and not on non-proper diets for the patient. PMID:8517939

  7. Effect of heating rate on the crack formation of carbon anodes during baking used in aluminum industry%升温速率对铝用炭阳极焙烧过程中裂纹形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘民章

    2016-01-01

    The quality of carbon anodes used in aluminum industry depends on the raw material properties and the manufacturing process parameters. It is one of the key factors directly related to the aluminum production cost. The degradation in anode quality such as crack formation increases the energy consumption, the environmental emissions, and the smelter’s overall operating cost. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of cracks in several industrial green anode samples during baking at different heating rates and to determine the influence of this baking parameter on the crack formation. The samples were characterized before and after baking by measuring a number of physical properties (electrical resistivity, density, etc.) which define the final quality of the anode samples. Also, techniques based on ultra-sound and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the extent of cracking after baking.%研究了不同升温速率下工业生阳极试样在焙烧过程中裂纹的形成。通过测量阳极试样在焙烧前后的一些物理性能(电阻率、密度),评价阳极试样的最终质量。另外,为了确定焙烧后的开裂程度,使用了超声波和扫描电子显微镜技术。

  8. Design Experience of the Lining-baking Equipment for New 260 t Mixing Bogie with Torpedo Retort%新型260 t鱼雷罐混铁车内衬烘烤装置的设计经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薇萍

    2000-01-01

    在上海宝钢集团一钢公司2500m3高炉工程混铁车内衬烘烤装置的设计中,采用了高架金属软管供给煤气、稳焰烧嘴和计算机按预设工况进行自动烘烤的新技术,成功地将转炉煤气用于混铁车内衬烘烤作业。通过一年多的生产实践,充分显示了该装置具有结构简单、操作维护方便、安全可靠和烘烤效果好等优点。%The new techniques of overhead metallic hose for gas supply, steady-flame burner and computer-based automatic baking are atopted in the design of the lining-baking equipment of the mixing bogie for the 2500m3 blast furnace project at the First Steel Co. of Shanghai Baosteel Group Corp. ,and the gas from converter is successfully used for baking the bogie lining. Over more then one year production practice,it is shown that the equipment has simple structure,convenient operation and maintenance, reliable safety and good baking effectiveness.

  9. Study on quality properties of seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings%7种盐焗鸡翅产品品质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李汴生; 阮征; 郭伟波; 林光明

    2012-01-01

    To compare the quality properties differences among the salt-baked chicken wings in the market,seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings were selected to conduct instrumental analysis,sensory evaluation,correlation analysis and principal component analysis.The result indicated that seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings ranked in the order of product 7,6,1,5,2,4,3 according to the shear force value and hardness.Product 1,5,2,7 ranked in the top four according to the sensory score.The correlation analysis showed that,the sensory score had positive relation with shear force,hardness,chewiness and cohesiveness and negative relation with tear force and weak negative relation with springiness,puncture force,resilience and water content while the correlation coefficient was close to zero.Principal component analysis was performed based on 12 parameters of quality.Top 3 factors were selected and the cumulative contribution to variance was up to 87.902%,muscle shear force and hardness were the dominant factors.%为了研究市场上盐焗鸡翅的品质特性以及差异,对7种盐焗鸡翅的品质进行了仪器分析、感官评价、相关性分析、主成分分析。结果表明,7种盐焗鸡翅的剪切力、硬度大小依次为:产品7〉6〉1〉5〉2〉4〉3,感官得分较高的鸡翅分别为:产品1、5、2、7。相关性分析表明,感官总分与剪切力、硬度、咀嚼性、内聚性呈正相关;但是感官总分与撕裂力呈负相关,与弹性、刺破力、回复性、水分含量呈相关系数接近于零的负相关。主成分分析结果表明,12个仪器指标中可以提取3个主分量,累积方差贡献率达到87.902%,剪切力和硬度是反映鸡翅肉品质的主要因素。

  10. 感受器辅助微波烘焙的面包性质研究%Study on the properties of breads baked by microwave with susceptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明敏; 杨哪; 徐学明

    2012-01-01

    Properties of breads baked by traditional oven,microwave with susceptor,traditional microwave oven were studied. Researched of the effect of susceptor on the change of temperature,baking loss,specific volume,water content of the core,hardness,texture and sensory evaluation of the breads. The results showed that compared with the traditional microwave oven,the external temperature of the breads were raised 18.80%, at the same time,the internal temperature of the breads were declined 15.71%. The baking moss decreased 2.05% ,specific volume were increased 18.00%~23.35%. The water content of the core were improved 7.10%~ 27.42% ,most of all ,the hardness were reduced 80.81%~85.52%. The texture and sensory characteristic of the breads were all improved. Microwave with susceptor was slightly less than the control group of traditional oven, it needed to be improved.%摘要:分别以传统烤箱和微波炉加热为参照,研究了感受器辅助微波对面包烘焙过程中的温度变化、质量损耗、比容、面包芯水分分布、硬度、质构及感官特性的影响,结果表明,与传统微波对照组相比,面包外部温度提高18.80%,内部温度降低15.71%,质量损耗降低2.05%,比容提高18.00%-23.35%,面包芯水分含量提高7.10%~27.42%,硬度值降低80.81%-85.52%,质构和感官特性得到有效改善;但与传统烤箱对照组相比,还有待改进。

  11. Food safety in food security and food trade:

    OpenAIRE

    Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    2003-01-01

    CONTENTS: Overview / Laurian J. Unnevehr; Food Safety as a Public Health Issue for Developing Countries / Fritz K. Käferstein; Mycotoxin Food Safety Risk in Developing Countries / Ramesh V. Bhat and Siruguri Vasanthi; Trends in Food Safety Standards and Regulation: Implications for Developing Countries / Julie A. Caswell; Food Safety Issues in International Trade / Spencer Henson; Balancing Risk Reduction and Benefits from Trade in Setting Standards / John Wilson and Tsunehiro Otsuki; Case St...

  12. 正交试验法优选桑白皮蜜炙工艺%Optimization of stir-baking technology for Mori Cortex with honey by orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群; 王瑾; 张会敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 优选桑白皮最佳蜜炙工艺.方法 以传统外观质量和内在质量(总黄酮量、东莨菪内酯量)为评价指标,采用L9(34)正交试验,对蜜与水比例、闷润时间、炒制温度及炒制时间4个因素进行考察.结果 桑白皮最佳蜜炙工艺为取炼蜜25 g加入37.5 g沸水稀释,淋入100g桑白皮净制饮片拌匀,闷润60 min,置炒制容器内,240℃炒制18 min,取出晾凉.结论 优选出的蜜炙工艺设计合理、结果可靠,为规范蜜桑白皮饮片生产提供了理论依据.%Objective To optimize the stir-baking technology for Mori Cortex with honey. Methods The traditional appearance and intrinsic quality (the contents of total flavonoids and scopoletin) were chosen as indexes. The four factors of the honey-water ratio, the moistening time, stir-baking temperature, and stir-baking time were investigated by L9(34) orthogonal test. Results The optimal technology was as follows: refined honey (25 g) was added to boiled water (37.5 g), and then the solution was drizzled onto the pieces of Mori Cortex (100 g), the moistening time was 60 min, the stir-baking temperature was 240 ℃, and the stir-baking time was 18 min. Conclusion The optimal stir-baking with honey technology for Mori Cortex is reasonable, which could be used to guide the standardized production of Mori Cortex stir-baked with honey.

  13. 不同烘烤工艺对烤烟感官质量的影响%Effect of Different Baking Technologies on Sensory Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建; 杨晓亮; 宋朝鹏; 张豹林; 贺帆; 吴克松; 王浩军; 汪季涛; 张国英

    2014-01-01

    The upper , middle and lower leaves of flue -cured tobacco variety Yunyan 97 were respectively baked under 7 tech-nological conditions , and the sensory qualities of the baked tobacco leaves were researched by factor analysis and comprehensive e -valuation.The results indicated that aroma quality , aroma quantity, offensive odor, physiological strength, smoke consistence, sweetness and remaining flavor had greater influences on the sensory quality evaluation .As for the correlation coefficients among 11 sensory quality indexes, 67.27%of them reached significant level .Through calculating the synthesis score (y) of sensory quality of baked tobacco leaves in different treatments according to the mathematical model y=0.58587F1 +0.26588F2 , the following conclu-sions were obtained:prolonging the baking time of lower leaves at terminal yellowing stage (42 ℃) by 8 h, prolonging the baking time of middle leaves at principal yellowing stage (38℃) by 12 h, and lengthening the baking time of upper leaves at 42℃by 20 h were advantageous to the improvement of sensory qualities of the baked tobacco leaves .%对烤烟品种云烟97的上、中、下3个部位的烟叶分别设计7个烘烤工艺条件处理,对烤后烟叶的感官质量进行了因子分析和综合评价。结果表明:香气质、香气量、杂气、劲头、浓度、甜度和余味7个指标对感官质量评价的影响较大,11个指标间的相关系数有67.27%达到显著水平。通过建立数学模型“综合得分=0.58587F1+0.26588F2”,得出:下部叶在变黄末期42℃延长8 h、中部叶在主变黄期38℃延长12 h、上部叶在42℃延长20 h有利于提高烤后烟叶的感官质量。

  14. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  15. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  16. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    . The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredient as a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA......This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...

  17. Applications of Technology of Compound Lining of Semi—gr aphitized Self—baking Carbon Block Ceramic Brickwork in Large—sized Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYung-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the lining technologies of the hot press formed carbon brick iu U.S.A., of the ce-ramic cup in France and of the creative self-baking car-bon brick in China,the technology of semi-graphitized car-bon block-ceramic brickwork has been studied and developed ,and has successfully ben used in No.7 blast furnace (2580m3) at Anshan Irom and Steel Company and in No.3 blast furnace (1200m3) at Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company,This paper puts fourward a feasible scheme for realization of long service lives of the bootms and the hearths of large-sized blast furaces in China.

  18. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  19. Influence of baking on the photoluminescence spectra of In1-x Gax Asy P1-y solid solutions grown on Inp substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of thermal treatments on the photoluminescence spectra of In1-x Gax Asy P1-y epitaxial layers of various compositions grown by LPE on In P substrates has been studied. To prevent the epitaxial layers from degradation, due to phosphor evaporation during the baking, their surface was covered by spin-on SiO2 layers. The photoluminescence spectra did not change for solid solutions whose compositions were near In P and InGaAs. For compositions in the middle of the lattice-matched region, the variations were very noticeable because the appearance of additional peaks in the luminescence spectra. This could be related to the decomposition of those solid solutions whose compositions lie inside a theoretically predicted miscibility gap. (Author)

  20. Energy-Saving Start-Up of Firing System in Anode Baking Furnace%阳极焙烧炉火焰系统的节能启动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇刚

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiencies of the traditional cold boiler ignition start-up method of anode baking furnace firing system, the energy-saving start-up method, by which firing system was igniting at high temperature by using the waste heat, was presented and applied. The practical result indicated that the method could effectively shorten the start-up time and save a lot of fuel consumption.%针对阳极焙烧炉火焰系统传统的冷炉点火启动方法存在的不足,提出并应用了利用余热进行高温点火的节能启动方法.实践结果表明,该方法能有效缩短烘炉启动过程时间,大幅减少燃料消耗.

  1. Seleção de refratários para fornos de cozimento de anodo Refractories selection for anode baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a produção mundial de alumínio tem aumentado e para as empresas continuarem competitivas torna-se necessário que a média do custo de produção do metal seja reduzida. Uma das alternativas é aumentar a vida útil dos refratários usados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, bem como a sua capacidade de produção. Ambas estratégias podem resultar em maior qualidade do anodo e redução no custo de manutenção do forno. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a caracterização termo-mecânica dos tijolos refratários utilizados em fornos de cozimento de anodo e a resistência destes materiais ao ataque químico. Os resultados indicam que a escolha da composição mais adequada depende de uma análise sistêmica das propriedades a alta temperatura, da resistência química e das práticas operacionais do forno.In the latest years, the worldwide production of aluminum is increasing and for the companies to keep their competitiveness it is necessary to reduce the average cost of the metal production. One of the alternatives is to increase the refractories working life used in anode baking furnaces and their production capacity. Both strategies may result in a higher anode quality and reduction of the furnace maintenance costs. This paper aims to present the thermo-mechanical characterization of the refractory bricks used in anode baking furnaces and their resistance to chemical attack. The results indicated that the selection of the most suitable composition depends on a systemic analysis involving the high temperature properties, chemical resistance and the operational practices of the furnace.

  2. Seleção de refratários para fornos de cozimento de anodo Refractories selection for anode baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a produção mundial de alumínio tem aumentado e para as empresas continuarem competitivas torna-se necessário que a média do custo de produção do metal seja reduzida. Uma das alternativas é aumentar a vida útil dos refratários usados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, bem como a sua capacidade de produção. Ambas estratégias podem resultar em maior qualidade do anodo e redução no custode manutenção do forno. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentara caracterização termo-mecânica dos tijolos refratários utilizados em fornos de cozimento de anodo e a resistência destes materiais ao ataque químico. Os resultados indicam que a escolha da composição mais adequada depende de uma análise sistêmica das propriedades a alta temperatura, da resistência química e das práticas operacionais do forno.In the latest years the worldwide production of aluminum is increasing and for the companies to keep their competitiveness it is necessary to reduce the average cost of the metal production. One of the alternatives is to increase the refractories working life used in anode baking furnaces and their production capacity. Both strategies may result in a higher anode quality and reduction of the furnace maintenance costs. This paper aims to present the thermo-mechanical characterization of the refractory bricks used in anode baking furnaces and their resistance to chemical attack. The results indicated that the selection of the most suitable composition depends on a systemic analysis involving the high temperature properties, chemical resistance and the operational practices of the furnace.

  3. 液体大麦精在面包烘焙中的应用%Application of Liquid Malt Extract in Bread Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龄; 丁文平; 曹银

    2009-01-01

    研究了液体大麦精的不同添加量对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量.研究发现,液体大麦精的添加会改变面团的流变学性质,对面包的理化指标有所改善.经过感官品质分析可得出:液体大麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的风味和内部结构.同时,面包添加液体大麦精,延缓了面包的陈化速率,延长了面包的保质期.试验结果显示,大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量为蔗糖替代量的60%.%The effects of liquid malt extract in different addition dose on the rheological characteristics of wheat dough and bread baking performance were studied, a bread preservation test was carried out, and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated. Results indieate that adding the malt extract to wheat dough changes the theological characteristics of dough and improves the performance in bread baking. The sensory evaluation proves that the bread quality is improved by a proper addition of malt extract, especially the bread taste, flavor and inner textural structure. Furthermore, the stale rate of bread is reduced and bread quality assurance period is extended by the malt extract addition. The optimum addition dose of the maltextract in bread produetion is 60% substitution amount of sugar.

  4. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  5. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects of food irradiation and direct economic benefits accruing from the application of food irradiation are discussed. A formula is presented to estimate the net economic benefit due to radiation processing of food. (M.G.B .)

  6. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony......The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...

  7. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000105.htm Fast food tips To use the sharing features on this ... fast food. When You Go to a Fast Food Restaurant Knowing the amount of calories, fat, and ...

  8. Food Safety for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants People at Risk of Foodborne Illness To Your Health! Food Safety for Seniors Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  9. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  10. Food irradiation: Its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

  11. Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

  12. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Composition Food Safety Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Weight and Obesity Professional and Career Resources Home The Food and ...

  13. Effect of heating rate on the quality of Longjing tea during baking and aroma-improving process%升温速率对龙井茶烘焙提香品质效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱作春; 汤一; 潘蓉; 胡书琴

    2013-01-01

    In the tea refining process,baking and aroma-improving technology is widely used in many kinds of dry tea to improve and stabilize the tea quality.Through baking process,not only the moisture of tea could be effectively reduced but also the harmful bacteria could be killed,which is good for preservation; furthermore,baking promotes the dehydration saccharification and isomerization of tea components which is good for tea quality by the way of reducing the bitterness,astringent taste and removing stale taste and miscellaneous taste of tea.So far,research on baking and aroma-improving technology was limited to baking temperature,baking time and so on.Considering that different heating rates in baking and aroma-improving process has different thermal effects on tea.It usually heats up faster on tea surface,but slower inside the tea due to the thermal conductivity factor,therefore,fast heating rate usually leads to uneven heating effect and to the decreases of tea quality.In this work,baking treatments with different heating rates were applied to Longjing tea,and the effects of heating rates on the tea quality were investigated.Middle and low grade Longjing teas were used as tested materials.Different baking treatments were carried out with final temperature of 110 ℃ and heating rates of 4,6 and 8 ℃/min respectively.Treatment A4 was directly heated at 110 ℃ for 45 minutes,and the unheated Longjing tea as a control.Different baking time was implemented in accordance with different heating rates to ensure that all the tea with different treatments received the same total heat.The effects of heating rate on the tea quality were estimated by sensory evaluation,quality component determination and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) for aroma analysis.The results indicated that different heating rates in baking process had obvious impact on the tea quality.Values from chemical tests showed that the slow heating rate resulted in the higher contents of amino acids

  14. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESS CONTROL AND QUALITY MAINTENANCE IN FOOD QUALITY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Divya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the process optimization of various food processing methods such as drying, freezing, freeze drying, extrusion, rehydration of liquid foods, slurries, and suspensions, drypowders and baked products etc., which is an essential step in the optimization of many food manufacturing processes. This article will discuss about the quality factor associated with cellular tissueand also in chocolates. And also this article will give an idea about the on-line MRI for process control and quality assurance in the food processing operations and controlling the quality parameters and actas on-line sensors in quality control of intermediate or final products. The single magnet design and NMR protocol will differ for various applications and it is necessary to adapt a spectrometer operation to each specific application. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is an emerging technology in foods, and it allows the interior of the food to be imaged noninvasively and non- destructively. These images can then be quantified to yield information about several process and material properties ranging from the composition of a material to the physical structure of the material. The signal detected by a MRI machine varies depending on water content and local magnetic properties of a particular material. Different substances can be distinguished from one another in the study image. This technology provides a real time internal process control for the food industry. This article will also discuss about the various techniques such as solid – imaging techniques for quality check of dried-food products and functional imaging techniques for optimizing the food crops in the field using MRI technology.

  15. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    temperature and pressure were linked to final product quality in freeze-dried corn, indicating processing modifications that could lead to improved product shelf life. Storage temperatures and packaging systems were also assessed for the impact to food quality. Reduced temperature storage had inconclusive impact to the progression of rancidity in butter cookies. Frozen storage was detrimental to fruit and vegetable textural attributes but refrigerated storage helped to sustain color and organoleptic ratings for plant-based foods. With regard to packaging systems, the metallized film overwrap significantly decreased the progression of the rancidity of butter cookies as compared to the highest barrier non-metallized film. The inclusion of oxygen scavengers resulted in noticeable moisture gains in butter cookies over time, independent of packaging film systems. Neither emergent processing technology nor the freeze dry optimization resulted in compelling quality differences from current space food provisions such that a five-year shelf life is likely with these processing changes alone. Using a combination of refrigeration and PATS processing is expected to result in organoleptically-acceptable fruit quality for most fruits through five years. The vitamin degradation will be aided somewhat by the cold temperatures but, given the labile nature of vitamin C, a more stable fortification method, such as encapsulation, should also be investigated to ensure vitamin delivery throughout the product life. Similarly, significant improvement to the packaging film used in the MATS processing, optimization of formulation for dielectric properties, vitamin fortification, and reduced temperature storage should be investigated as a hurdle approach to reach a five year shelf life in wet-pack entrees and soups. Baked goods and other environmentally-sensitive spaceflight foods will require an almost impenetrable barrier to protect the foods from oxygen and moisture ingress but scavengers and

  16. Food; Energy; Developing Countries; Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

  17. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  18. Chemistry, coeliac-toxicity and detection of gluten and related prolamins in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, J H; Devery, J M; Hill, A S

    1991-01-01

    Some recent advances in the understanding of the chemistry of gluten proteins and its relationship to the toxicity of different fractions in coeliac disease (gluten intolerance) is reviewed. Most recent studies on gluten toxicity have used in vitro analyses of cellular immune activation by gluten fractions and peptides. Our work indicates that gliadin is the most active of the different protein families found within the wheat grain and that a specific peptide sequence located in the amino terminus domain of alpha-gliadin and containing the sequence proline-serine-glutamine-glutamine was most active. Improvement in the dietary management of coeliac disease is possible by use of test kits for the detection of gluten in foods. Both laboratory kits and home test kits (suitable for use by individual coeliacs) are available and reliably detect gluten from wheat, rye and barley even after cooking or baking. PMID:1923557

  19. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  20. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  1. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  2. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

  3. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  4. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    , and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than......Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates......, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity...

  5. RETAIL FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Radojko LUKIC; Dragana Vojteski KLJENAK; Dragica JOVANCEVIC

    2014-01-01

    Food losses and waste are substantial on the global level. With the aim to achieve efficient management of food losses, it is necessary to find out the root causes, the locations of their origins, effects and efficacious activities aimed at minimising them. Identifying areas is of quite significant for improving cost effectiveness, efficiency in resource use and future activities directed at “optimization” of food losses. Food is lost throughout the food supply chain. This paper focuses on th...

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations....../implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting...

  8. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  9. 闽南乌龙茶烘焙的研究进展%The research advance of baking process in Minnan Oolong tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 孙威江

    2015-01-01

    With fierce competition, the sale of Fen-flavor Oolong tea ran to difficulty. The manufacturing of high-aroma Oolong tea becomes popular in Minnan district. The roasting process plays a critical role in shaping of flavor and improvements of tea quality. The black brown color of leaves developed from browning reactions during roasting process; baking odors came from browning reactions while the flower and fruit smell preserved and promoted in baking process; isomerizations of tea polyphenol compounds reduced the bitter and astringency taste, sugars added the sweet taste by means of decomposition and participation of browning reactions. The study on improvements of the leaf color, smell and taste of Oolong tea were reviewed in this paper, aroma and flavor substances were summarized, with the anticipation of the possible contribution to prove its chemical mechanism and provide theoretical basis and reference for further studies.%激烈市场环境下,闽南清香型乌龙茶销售陷入困境,浓香型乌龙茶开始回归,“清转浓”正如火如荼地进行。烘焙是形成浓香型乌龙茶风味的关键工艺,具有提升茶叶品质的重要作用。烘焙型茶叶通过褐化反应形成乌润色泽;烘烤香由褐化反应产生,焙火前已形成的花果香在烘焙中得以保留和提升;多酚类物质异构化减少茶汤苦涩味,糖类物质通过分解、参与褐化反应的方式增加甜醇滋味。本文对焙火提高乌龙茶色、香、味等方面品质的研究进行了综述,总结了已发现的呈香、呈味物质,为探索烘焙对茶叶品质形成的化学机制提供理论依据和参考。

  10. Food Safety for Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Food Safety for Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Food ... foods you prepare in it are safe. Buying Food Buying safe food is the first step. To ...

  11. Quantification of acrylamide in foods selected by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is toxic and probably carcinogenic compound, made as a result of high-temperature thermal treatment of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. In this article a method is improved for the extraction and quantitation of acrylamide in foods produced based on corn flour that are represented in our traditional diet. Acrylamide extraction was carried out using reduced volume of saturated solution of bromine water and the GC - MS method for the quantification was shown. Quantification of acrylamide was preceded by: sample homogenization, acrylamide extraction using water, extract purification using solid phase extraction, bromination, using a reduced volume of bromine water solution, dehydrobromination with sodium thiosulfate and transformation of dibromopropenamide in 2,3- 2- bromopropenamide using triethylamine. Regression and correlation analysis were applied for the probability level of 0.05. Calibration is performed in the concentration range 5-80 ug/kg with a detection limit 6.86 mg / kg and the limits of quantification 10.78 ug/kg and the coefficient of determination R2 > 0.999. Calibration curve was obtained: y = 0,069x + 0,038. Recovery values were an average from 97 to 110%. Proposed GC-MS method is simple, precise and reliable for the determination of acrylamide in the samples of thermal treated foods. Our results show that the tested foods quantify the presence of acrylamide in concentrations of 18 to 77 mg/kg acrylamide depending on whether the food was prepared by cooking or baking.

  12. 基于逆模型解耦的绿茶烘焙变论域模糊控制%Method of variable universe fuzzy control base on inverse-model decoupling for green tea baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 周国雄

    2014-01-01

    绿茶烘焙过程,伴随着复杂的物质交换和热交换,温、湿度变化耦合严重。针对这一问题该文提出了一种基于逆模型解耦的变论域模糊控制方法。采用支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)方法辨识绿茶烘焙过程,建立精度相对较高逆模型,根据试验结果,电热丝电流平均误差为4.3%,而风机转速为8.5%。将该模型并与被控对象进行串联,建立伪线性系统,实现温、湿度解耦。同时采用模糊控制器对温、湿度分别进行独立控制,同时对模糊控制器的论域进行改进,增强系统的环境适应能力。性能试验结果表明,该控制系统能够将温度误差控制在小于1.4℃,相对湿度控制误差仅为2.8%;品质试验表明,绿茶橙花叔醇成分平均提升15.2%,α-法呢烯成分平均提升17.4%,芳樟醇成分平均提升14.2%。该文方法能够有效提升绿茶烘焙过程的控制效果,提供了一种控制绿茶烘焙过程的新途径。%Baking technology is the key technology of the Green Tea refining process, and it directly affects the preservation of tea time, aroma and taste. At present, there are two ways for Green Tea baking;charcoal baking and roasting. Machine baking of charcoal, the main process by manual operation, greatly rely on the experience of workers and a low degree of standardization, but the tea quality is not stable; machine baking with an electric oven for baking is widely used, but due to the lack of systematic research, the control algorithm is simple, the temperature error is higher than 5℃, and the humidity error is greater than eight percent. Therefore, studies of one kind of advanced green tea baking process control method should be of vital significance. The key of the baking process is precise control of temperature and humidity, however, the roasting process physics, complex chemical changes, system temperature, and humidity influence each other, forming

  13. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  14. Food-borne protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G L

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food. PMID:10885117

  15. Microbial safety of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge and food treatment and processing, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world to-day. About two thirds of all outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food - one of the most hazardous being Clostridium botulinum, E. coli 0157: H7 and Salmonella. The pathogens can be introduced in the food products anywhere in the food chain and hence it is of prime important to have microbial vigilance in the entire food chain. WHO estimates that food-borne and water-borne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually. The infants, children, elderly and immune-compromised people are particularly susceptible to food-borne diseases. Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in the pathogens, changing life style, global trade of food etc. are responsible for the continued persistence of food-borne diseases. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed. However, there is increased risk of food-borne diseases with these products. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. The development of multi drug resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics is also a major problem. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Vibrio and Aeromonas species, their prevalence in export quality seafood as well in foods sold in retail market such as poultry, fish, sprouts and salads. These pathogens from Indian foods have been characterized for the presence of virulence genes

  16. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  17. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  18. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  19. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  20. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  1. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  2. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27162406

  3. Researches on Bake Effect on RF Superconducting Cavities%射频超导腔的低温烘烤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建奎; 赵夔; 朱凤

    2005-01-01

    射频超导腔在高场下的Q-slope严重影响到高加速梯度的获得.研究表明100-150℃低温烘烤(Bake)对改善超导腔的Q-slope有比较好的效果.本文在大量超导腔Bake实验的基础上,对Bake进行了系统的研究.研究结果显示,电抛光(EP)超导腔经过Bake后,平均加速梯度和高Q值(1×101o)时的加速梯度均增加3.5MV/m以上,最大加速梯度时的Q值得到增加,Q-slope得到改善.对Bake温度的研究表明,在最佳Bake温度范围内,高的Bake温度能得到相对高的Q值.对比化学抛光(BCP)和EP超导腔可知,要得到好的加速性能,需要60-80μm的EP.超过10-15μm的BCP会使EP超导腔品质下降.用氧扩散模型对Bake作出了解释.

  4. Vinegar-Baked Radix Bupleuri Regulates Lipid Disorders via a Pathway Dependent on Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with VBRB or fenofibrate, once daily for further twelve weeks. VBRB (1.0 g kg−1 per day produced effects similar to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 in reducing body weight (BW gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as hepatic TG and cholesterol content of HFD-fed rats. VBRB also lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. VBRB and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1 proteins were reversed by VBRB and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs in HFD-fed rats was lowered by VBRB and fenofibrate. The results of this study show that VBRB suppresses BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely mediated via upregulation of PPARα and downregulation of SREBP expression in the liver of HFD-fed rats.

  5. Structure and properties of a duplex coating combining micro-arc oxidation and baking layer on AZ91D Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Ming-Tian; Yang, Rui-Song; Yu, Zu-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A duplex coating (called MAOB coating) was fabricated on AZ91D Mg alloy by combining the process of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with baking coating (B-coating). The structure, composition, corrosion resistance, and tribological behaviour of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical and long-term immersion test, and ball-on-disc friction test. The results show that a dense 92 μm thick B-coating was tightly deposited onto the MAO-coated Mg alloy and exhibited a good mechanical interlock along the rough interface. Compared with the MAO-coated sample, the corrosion current density of the MAOB-coated Mg alloy decreased by two or three orders of magnitude and no corrosion phenomenon was observed during a long-term immersion test of about 500 h (severe corrosion pits were found for MAO-treated samples after about 168 h of immersion). The frictional coefficient values of the MAOB coating were similar to those of the MAO coating using dry sliding tests, while the B-coating on the MAO-coated surface significantly improved the wear resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy. All of these results indicate that a B-coating can be used to further protect Mg alloys from corrosion and wear by providing a thick, dense barrier.

  6. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  7. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery.

  8. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery. PMID:27173527

  9. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  10. Optimization of Processing Technology for Atractylodes lancea Stir-baking with Bran by Box-behnken Re-sponse Surface Methodology%Box-behnken效应面法优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 刘舸

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺。方法:以苍术素含量、水溶性浸出物得率、醇溶性浸出物得率和外观评分的综合评分为评价指标,采用Box-behnken效应面法考察所加辅料量、翻炒时间、翻炒温度对麸炒苍术饮片质量的影响,优选麸炒苍术炮制工艺参数并进行验证试验。结果:麸炒苍术最优炮制工艺为加辅料量为药材量的10%、翻炒温度140℃、翻炒时间3 min;验证试验综合评分平均值为0.39(RSD=2.88%,n=3),与预测值0.38接近。结论:采用Box-behnken效应面法优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺合理、可行。%OBJECTIVE:To optimize the processing technology for Atractylodes lancea stir-baking with bran. METHODS:Us-ing the content of atractylodin,yield of water-soluble extract and ethanol-soluble extract,appearance score as comprehensive in-dex,the effects of excipient amount,stir-baking time and temperature on the quality of A. lancea stir-baking with bran were investi-gated by Box-behnken design-response surface method,so as to optimize the processing technology parameters of A. lancea stir-bak-ing with bran,and verification test were conducted. RESULTS:The optimized parameters were that the excipients amount was 10% medicinal material,stir-baking at 140 ℃ for 3 min;average comprehensive score of verification test was 0.39 (RSD=2.88%,n=3),which was close to predicted value 0.38. CONCLUSIONS:Box-behnken response surface method is reasonable and feasible for the optimization of the processing technology for A. lancea stir-baking with bran.

  11. Recent trends and developments in infrared heating in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2012-01-01

    Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

  12. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  13. Summary of: Food references in UK children's magazines - an oral health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-11-01

    Objective Children's magazines are popular in the United Kingdom, but their content is poorly regulated. Consequently, food and beverages high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), detrimental to oral and wider health, make unrestricted appearances. The study aim was to assess the amount of HFSS food and drink children are exposed to while reading magazines; with particular focus on foods containing free sugars due to their known cariogenic properties, and foods with low pH due to their erosive potential.Design Eleven of the most popular UK children's magazines were selected and purchased at four separate time points in 2012. These 44 magazines were examined using content analysis; any references to food/beverages (in advertisements, free gifts, editorial and general content) were recorded.Results Of the 508 food references observed, 73.6% (374/508) were for foods detrimental to oral health owing to their high sugar and/or acid content. 5.9% (30/508) were considered 'unhealthy' due to their fat or salt content. 20.5% of references were for 'healthy' foods (104/508). The most common food categories referenced were baked goods (181/508) and sweets (86/508). Over a third (36.4%, 16/44) of magazines came with free sweets. In terms of positioning, the food/drink references were predominantly found in the general content of the magazines, including the editorial spreads. Direct advertisements for food/drink only accounted for 9.6% (36/374) of the total number of references counted.Conclusion Food references within children's magazines are biased towards unhealthy foods especially those detrimental to oral health; these permeate throughout the general and editorial content and are not restricted to direct advertisements. Magazine editors, journalists and illustrators are responsible for the editorial and general content of magazines. Without regulation, subliminal placement of advertisements within editorial and general content leads to 'advertorials' which are known to confuse

  14. Summary of: Food references in UK children's magazines - an oral health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-11-01

    Objective Children's magazines are popular in the United Kingdom, but their content is poorly regulated. Consequently, food and beverages high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), detrimental to oral and wider health, make unrestricted appearances. The study aim was to assess the amount of HFSS food and drink children are exposed to while reading magazines; with particular focus on foods containing free sugars due to their known cariogenic properties, and foods with low pH due to their erosive potential.Design Eleven of the most popular UK children's magazines were selected and purchased at four separate time points in 2012. These 44 magazines were examined using content analysis; any references to food/beverages (in advertisements, free gifts, editorial and general content) were recorded.Results Of the 508 food references observed, 73.6% (374/508) were for foods detrimental to oral health owing to their high sugar and/or acid content. 5.9% (30/508) were considered 'unhealthy' due to their fat or salt content. 20.5% of references were for 'healthy' foods (104/508). The most common food categories referenced were baked goods (181/508) and sweets (86/508). Over a third (36.4%, 16/44) of magazines came with free sweets. In terms of positioning, the food/drink references were predominantly found in the general content of the magazines, including the editorial spreads. Direct advertisements for food/drink only accounted for 9.6% (36/374) of the total number of references counted.Conclusion Food references within children's magazines are biased towards unhealthy foods especially those detrimental to oral health; these permeate throughout the general and editorial content and are not restricted to direct advertisements. Magazine editors, journalists and illustrators are responsible for the editorial and general content of magazines. Without regulation, subliminal placement of advertisements within editorial and general content leads to 'advertorials' which are known to confuse

  15. Food poisoning (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food contaminated with organisms is ingested. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus can commonly be found on people, but when allowed to grow in food this bacteria can produce a toxin that causes illness such as vomiting and diarrhea. ...

  16. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  17. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ethnic foods. Here's a sample of healthy food choices (lower in calories and fat) and terms to look for when making your selection: Chinese Zheng (steamed) Jum (poached) Kao (roasted) Shao (barbecued) ...

  18. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well...

  19. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    introduced make it possible to get an overview of processes. We have included a chapter on how to make block-dia¬grams and material balances. This should help in analysing a production and to isolate the most important processing steps. Most processes in a food production are of physical nature, thus we have...... included a chapter on relevant physical properties of foods and especially a part on rheological properties of food products. The remaining text is focused on the processes transport of fluids, transport of heat and transport of energy. The textbook ends with a chapter on heat exchangers and how...... to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fire itself, but TOXIC FUMES released from burning materials. Those fumes can kill; they can also contaminate food. Any type of food stored in permeable packaging — cardboard, plastic wrap, etc. — should be thrown away. ...