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Sample records for bainite

  1. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  2. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  3. Superbainite. A novel very strong bainitic microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, E. G.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2005-01-01

    In this work very recent results are how that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150 degree centigree, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainite ferrite (20-40 nm thickness) and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV) and strong (2.5 GPa). (Author) 18 refs

  4. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    and Gleeble heat affected zone tests were performed on AISI 4130 steel plate. When possible, testing was baselined against conventional quench and...Diffraction Report 34 APPENDIX F Charpy V-Notch Test Results on Flash Bainite and Q&T 4130 Plate 38 APPENDIX G Charpy V-Notch Test Results on Gleeble...provides recommendations for future testing . EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Gary Cola, Sirius Protection LLC, provided 4130 steel plates to ARDEC. Both

  5. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  6. Monitoring of Bainite Transformation Using in Situ Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Nishijima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bainite transformation behavior was monitored using simultaneous measurements of dilatometry and small angle neutron scattering (SANS. The volume fraction of bainitic ferrite was estimated from the SANS intensity, showing good agreement with the results of the dilatometry measurements. We propose a more advanced monitoring technique combining dilatometry, SANS and neutron diffraction.

  7. Examination of carbon partitioning into austenite during tempering of bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, Francesca G. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Clarke, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garcia-Mateo, C. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of carbon after tempering of a novel nanocrystalline bainitic steel consisting of a mixture of supersaturated ferrite and retained austenite has been analyzed by atom probe tomography. No direct evidence supporting the additional carbon enrichment of austenite beyond that initially achieved during the bainite heat treatment was obtained during subsequent tempering of this high carbon, high silicon steel.

  8. Examination of carbon partitioning into austenite during tempering of bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Amy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caballero, Francisca G [CENIM-CSIC, MADRIS, SPAIN; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Garcia - Mateo, C [CENIM-CSIC, MADRID, SPAIN

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of carbon after tempering of a novel nanocrystalline bainitic steel consisting of a mixture of supersaturated ferrite and retained austenite, has been analyzed by atom probe tomography. Direct supporting evidence of additional austenite carbon enrichment beyond that initially achieved during the bainite heat treatment was not obtained during subsequent tempering of this high carbon, high silicon steel. Evidence of competing reactions during tempering, such as the formation of carbon clusters in bainitic ferrite that signify the onset of the transitional carbides precipitation, was observed.

  9. Nanostructured Bainite-Austenite Steel for Armours Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burian W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite-austenite steels are applied in the armours construction due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility which enables to lower the armour weight and to improve the protection efficiency. Mechanical properties of the bainite-austenite steels can be controlled in the wide range by chemical composition and heat treatment. In the paper the results of investigation comprising measuring of quasi - static mechanical properties, dynamic yield stress and firing tests of bainite-austenite steel NANOS-BA® are presented. Reported results show that the investigated bainite-austenite steel can be used for constructing add-on armour and that the armour fulfils requirements of protection level 2 of STANAG 4569. Obtained reduction in weight of the tested NANOS-BA® plates in comparison with the present solutions is about 30%.

  10. Bainitic high-strength cast iron with globular graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.; Kamynin, V. V.; Zentsova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    Special features of formation of bainitic structures in grayed cast irons are considered. The influence of the graphite phase and of the special features of chemical composition of the iron on the intermediate transformation in high-carbon alloys is allowed for. The range of application of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure is determined. The paper is the last and unfinished work of G. I. Silman completed by his disciples as a tribute to their teacher.

  11. Analysis of Carbon Diffusion during Bainite Transformation in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the time required for the diffusion of carbon out of supersaturated sub-units of ferrite into the retained austenite. The analytical model estimates the decarburisation time of the sub-units of supersaturated bainitic ferrite. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate how a thermodynamic method can be used for solving a problem of the decarburisation of bainite subunits and carbon diffusion distances in the matrix of ADI. This should in principle enable to examine the partitioning of carbon from supersaturated ferrite plates into adjacent austenite and the carbon content in retained austenite using analytical method. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in austenite is very sensitive to the carbon concentration and this has to be taken into account in treating the large concentration gradients that develop in the austenite. The results are discussed in the context of displacive mechanism of bainite transformation. Experimental measurements of volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and volume of the untransformed austenite indicate that there is a necessity of carbides precipitation from austenite. The necessary carbon diffusion distance in austenite also illustrates that the estimated time is not capable of decarburising the ferrite subunits during the period of austempering. A consequence of the precipitation of cementite from austenite during austempering is that the growth of bainitic ferrite can continue to larger extent and that the resulting microstructure is not an ausferrite but is a mixture of bainitic ferrite, retained austenite and carbides.

  12. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  13. Microstructural Evolution of Inverse Bainite in a Hypereutectoid Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-12-01

    Microstructural evolution of inverse bainite during isothermal bainite transformation of a hypereutectoid low-alloy steel at 773 K (500 °C) was investigated through a series of interrupted isothermal experiments using a quench dilatometer. Microstructural characterization revealed that the inverse bainitic transformation starts by the nucleation of cementite (Fe3C) from parent austenite as a midrib in the bainitic microstructure. The inverse bainite becomes "degenerated" to typical upper bainite at prolonged transformation times. Crystallographic orientation relationships between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure were found to obey { _{γ } || _{θ } } { _{α } || _{θ } } { _{γ } || _{α } } 111_{γ } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 110} _{α } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 111} _{γ } || { 110 } _{α } {111} _{γ } || {211} _{θ } {110} _{α } || {211} _{θ } Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation deviations between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure suggest that the secondary carbide nucleation occurs from the inverse bainitic ferrite. Thermodynamic driving force calculations provide an explanation for the observed nucleation sequence in inverse bainite. The degeneracy of inverse bainite microstructure to upper bainite at prolonged transformation times is likely due to the effects of cementite midrib dissolution at the early stage and secondary carbide coarsening at the later stage.

  14. Microstructure evolution of Fe-based nanostructured bainite coating by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanbing; Li, Zhuguo; Yao, Chengwu; Zhang, Ke; Lu, Fenggui; Feng, Kai; Huang, Jian; Wang, Min; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The laser cladding and isothermal holding are used to fabricate nanobainite coating. • Fine prior austenite is obtained to accelerate the bainite transformation. • Low transformation temperature results in fine bainite ferrite and film austenite. • Retained austenite volume fraction in bainite coating is determined by XRD. • Evolution of carbon content in austenite and ferrite is analyzed. - Abstract: A Fe-based coating with nano-scale bainitic microstructure was fabricated using laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatment. The microstructure of the coating was observed and analyzed using optical microscope (OM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that nanostructured bainitic ferrite and carbon-enriched retained austenite distributed uniformly in the coating. Blocky retained austenite was confined to the prior austenite grain boundaries resulting from the elements segregation. The bainitic microstructure obtained at 250 °C had a finer scale compared with that obtained at 300 °C. The volume fraction of austenite increased with increasing transformation temperature for the fully transformed bainitic coating. The bainitic transformation was accelerated as a result of the fine prior austenite generated during the laser cladding. The evolution of the carbon contents in bainitic ferrite and retained austenite revealed the diffusionless mechanism of the bainitic transformation

  15. Crack growth behavior of low-alloy bainitic 51CrV4 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Canadinç, Demircan; Lambers, H. G.; Gorny B.; Tschumak, S.; Maier, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of low-alloy bainitic 51CrV4 steel was investigated. The current results indicate that the stress state present during the isothermal bainitic transformation has a strong influence on the crack propagation behavior in the near threshold regime, when the crack growth direction is perpendicular to the loading axis of the original sample undergoing phase transformation. However, the influence of stresses superimposed during the bainitic transformation on the crack growt...

  16. Atomic scale observations of bainite transformation in a high carbon high silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, F.G.; Miller, M.K.; Babu, S.S.; Garcia-Mateo, C.

    2007-01-01

    A fine-scale bainitic microstructure with high strength and high toughness has been achieved by transforming austenite at 200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the carbon concentration of these bainitic ferrite plates to be higher than expected from para-equilibrium. Atom-probe tomography revealed that a substantial quantity of carbon was trapped at dislocations in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite interface. These results suggest that the carbon trapping at dislocations prevents the decarburization of super-saturated bainitic ferrite and therefore alters the carbide precipitation sequence during low-temperature bainite formation

  17. Atomic scale observations of bainite transformation in a high carbon high silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F.G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)]. E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6136 (United States); Babu, S.S. [Edison Welding Institute, Technical Division, 1250 Arthur E Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221-3585 (United States); Garcia-Mateo, C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A fine-scale bainitic microstructure with high strength and high toughness has been achieved by transforming austenite at 200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the carbon concentration of these bainitic ferrite plates to be higher than expected from para-equilibrium. Atom-probe tomography revealed that a substantial quantity of carbon was trapped at dislocations in the vicinity of the ferrite-austenite interface. These results suggest that the carbon trapping at dislocations prevents the decarburization of super-saturated bainitic ferrite and therefore alters the carbide precipitation sequence during low-temperature bainite formation.

  18. TEM Study of the Orientation Relationship Between Cementite and Ferrite in a Bainitic Low Carbon High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Illescas Fernandez, Silvia; Brown, A.P.; He, K.; Fernández, Javier; Guilemany Casadamon, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    Two different bainitic structures are observed in a steel depending on the sample heat treatment. The different types of bainitic structures exhibit different orientation relationships between cementite and the ferrite matrix. Upper bainite presents a Pitsch orientation relationship and lower bainite presents a Bagaryatski orientation relationship. Different heat treatments of low carbon HSLA steel samples have been studied using TEM in order to find the orientation relationshi...

  19. Bainitic nodular cast iron with carbides obtaining with use of Inmold method

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gumienny

    2009-01-01

    In these paper bainitic nodular cast iron with carbides as-cast obtaining has been presented. This cast iron has been obtained with use of Inmold method. It was shown, that there is the possibility of bainite and carbides obtaining in cast iron with Mo and Ni for studied chemical composition.

  20. USE OF HIGH-STRENGTH BAINITIC CAST IRON FOR PRODUCING GEAR WHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages and drawbacks of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure are reviewed basing on the authors’ own experience in the production of critical partsfrom this material and on the analysis of world trends. A possibility of the replacement of alloy steels by bainitic cast iron in manufacturing critical machine parts is discussed.

  1. Structure-property relation in a quenched-partitioned low alloy steel involving bainite transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Haoran [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044 (China); Gao, Guhui, E-mail: gaogh@bjtu.edu.cn [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044 (China); Gui, Xiaolu [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044 (China); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra2@utep.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968-0520 (United States); Bai, Bingzhe [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Material, School of Material Science & Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The impact of bainite transformation during initial quenching and partitioning steps on the microstructural evolution was studied in a Fe-0.4C-2.0Mn-1.7Si-0.4Cr (wt%) steel. By optimizing quenching cooling rate and partitioning time, the final microstructure comprised of initial-quenched bainite, carbon-depleted martensite, bainite formed during partitioning, and final-quenched martensite, together with retained austenite. High volume fraction of retained austenite with desired carbon-content was obtained by prolonging the partitioning time to 2700 s The initial-quenched bainite, bainite formed during partitioning, and martensite provided carbon atoms to austenite, leading to the formation of retained austenite with different degree of stability. Consequently, a good combination of strength and elongation (ultimate tensile strength: 1688 MPa, total elongation: 25.2%) was obtained.

  2. The bainite reaction kinetics in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taran, Yu.N.; Uzlov, K.I.; Kutsov, A.Yu. [State Metall. Acad., Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Phys. Metall. Dept.

    1997-11-01

    Bainitic reaction kinetics in ductile iron contained according to Ukrainian standard (weight%) 3.60-3.80 carbon, 2.60-2.80 Si, {proportional_to}0.12 Mn, {proportional_to}0.60 Cu and additionally alloyed by Mo (0.15-0.20) has been studied. It was found that the overall transformation kinetics becomes slower as transformation temperature increase. This is because more intensive redistribution of carbon into austenite at higher temperatures. Two austenites with different carbon content have been fixed and kinetics of their lattices parameters has been studied. (orig.). 6 refs.

  3. Martensite and bainite in steels: transformation mechanism and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Many essential properties of iron alloys depend on what actually happens when one allotropic form gives way to another, i.e. on the mechanism of phase change. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the atomic mechanism by which bainite and martensite grow is the focus of this paper. The discussion is illustrated in the context of some common engineering design parameters, and with a brief example of the inverse problem in which the mechanism may be a function of the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  4. Effect of B and B + Nb on the bainitic transformation in low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kangying; Oberbillig, Carla; Musik, Celine; Loison, Didier; Iung, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → B retards slightly the bainite transformation kinetics. → Combined addition of B + Nb delayed dramatically bainite transformation kinetics. → B refines the microstructure and promotes lath morphology of bainite. → Larger packets of laths and longer laths are observed in the B + Nb steel. → More free boron/finer borocarbide precipitates on γ grain boundaries in B + Nb steel. - Abstract: Development of new, advanced high and ultra-high strength bainitic steels requires the selection of the optimum balance of bainite promoting elements allowing the production of the desired bainitic microstructure over a wide range of cooling rates. The addition of boron or a combined addition of boron and niobium is well known to retard strongly the polygonal ferrite formation but very little knowledge has been acquired on the bainitic transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of boron and boron plus niobium on the bainite transformation kinetics, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in a low carbon steel (Fe-0.05C-1.49Mn-0.30Si). Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined and followed by a detailed quantitative characterisation of the bainite microstructure and morphology using complementary advanced metallographic techniques (FEG-SEM-EBSD, SIMS and TEM). The relationship between microstructure and hardness has been evaluated. Finally, results of SIMS and TEM analyses coupled with microstructural investigations enable to propose a mechanism to explain the effect of the synergy between boron and niobium on the bainitic transformation and the resultant microstructure.

  5. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.; Caballero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed

  6. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornide, J., E-mail: jca@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Capdevila, C., E-mail: ccm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed.

  7. Mathematical Model of Bainitic Transformation in Austempered Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejarczyk-Wożeńska I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of austenite - bainite transformation in austempered ductile cast iron has been presented. The model is based on a model developed by Bhadeshia [1, 2] for modelling the bainitic transformation in high-silicon steels with inhibited carbide precipitation. A computer program has been developed that calculates the incubation time, the transformation time at a preset temperature, the TTT diagram and carbon content in unreacted austenite as a function of temperature. Additionally, the program has been provided with a module calculating the free energy of austenite and ferrite as well as the maximum driving force of transformation. Model validation was based on the experimental research and literature data. Experimental studies included the determination of austenite grain size, plotting the TTT diagram and analysis of the effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure of ductile iron. The obtained results show a relatively good compatibility between the theoretical calculations and experimental studies. Using the developed program it was possible to examine the effect of austenite grain size on the rate of transformation.

  8. Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on the Morphology of Nano-Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kritika; Kumar, Avanish; Singh, Aparna

    2018-04-01

    The strength in nanostructured bainitic steels primarily arises from the fine platelets of bainitic ferrite embedded in carbon-enriched austenite. However, the toughness is dictated by the shape and volume fraction of the retained austenite. Therefore, the exact determination of processing-morphology relationships is necessary to design stronger and tougher bainite. In the current study, the morphology of bainitic ferrite in Fe-0.89C-1.59Si-1.65Mn-0.37Mo-1Co-0.56Al-0.19Cr (wt pct) bainitic steel has been investigated as a function of the prior austenite grain size (AGS). Specimens were austenitized at different temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1150 °C followed by isothermal transformation at 300 °C. Detailed microstructural characterization has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the bainitic laths transformed in coarse austenite grains are finer resulting in higher hardness, whereas smaller austenite grains lead to the formation of thicker bainitic laths with a large fraction of blocky type retained austenite resulting in lower hardness.

  9. The crystallography of carbide-free bainites in thermo-mechanically processed low Si transformation-induced plasticity steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • First EBSD study comparing ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic laths in two TRIP steels. • Both TRIP steels (base and with Nb–Ti additions) subjected to the same TMP schedule. • Crystallography of the ferrite in the 2 bainites studied using the K–S orientation relationship. • Variants in GB associated with self-accommodation. • BF variant selection linked to RA plastic accommodation and limited volume. - Abstract: Carbide-free bainites are important microstructural constituents in bainitic, nanobainitic and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. A comparison of the crystallography of ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite lath morphologies, both of which were simultaneously present in a base and a Nb–Ti containing TRIP steel, has been carried out using electron back-scattering diffraction. Ferrite in granular bainite was characterised by the realisation of nearly all 24 variants of the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship; which in turn was associated with the self-accommodation of the transformation strain. On the other hand, bainitic ferrite comprised a mostly parallel lath structure between thick interlayers of retained austenite and exhibited variant selection such that one or more crystallographic packets are not realised and sometimes only 1–2 variants formed in a crystallographic packet. The variant selection in bainitic ferrite laths was associated with: (i) the plastic accommodation of transformation strain by retained austenite and, (ii) the limited available volume for its formation.

  10. In Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Non-Isothermal Tempering of Bainitic and Martensitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hesamodin Talebi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations during non-isothermal tempering of bainitic or martensitic microstructures obtained after quenching of a medium-carbon low-alloy steel was studied. The microstructures correspond to different locations of an as-quenched large-sized forged ingot used as a die material in the automotive industry. High-resolution dilatometry experiments were conducted to simulate the heat treatment process, as well as to investigate different phenomena occurring during non-isothermal tempering. The microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dilatometry analyses demonstrated that tempering behavior varied significantly from bainitic to martensitic microstructures. Retained austenite, which exists between bainitic ferrite sheaves, decomposes to lower bainite causing a remarkable volume increase. It was found that this decomposition finishes below 386 °C. By contrast, martensite tempering was accompanied with a volume decrease due to the decomposition of medium-carbon martensite to low carbon martensite and carbides.

  11. On structure-property relationship in nanostructured bainitic steel subjected to the quenching and partitioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Ping [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Gao, Guhui, E-mail: gaogh@bjtu.edu.cn [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Han [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Tan, Zhunli [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Misra, R.DK. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968-0520 (United States); Bai, Bingzhe [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Material, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-20

    We elucidate here the mechanistic contribution of the application of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) concept to a high carbon Mn-Si-Cr steel in obtaining a multiphase microstructure comprising of martensite/austenite and nanostructured bainite (bainitic ferrite and nanometer-sized film-like retained austenite) that exhibited tensile strength of 1923 MPa and total elongation of 18.3%. The excellent mechanical properties are attributed to the enhanced refinement of blocky austenite islands obtained by the Q&P process. The austenite was stabilized by both carbon partitioning from martensite and bainite transformation. Compared with conventional heat treatment to produce nanostructured bainite, the total time is significantly reduced without degradation of mechanical properties.

  12. Role of Austenitization and Pre-Deformation on the Kinetics of the Isothermal Bainitic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, H.-G.; Tschumak, S.; Maier, H. J.; Canadinc, D.

    2009-06-01

    The role of time-temperature path on the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation of low alloy 51 CrV 4 steel was investigated and the corresponding microstructures were analyzed. The important finding is that an incomplete initial austenitization treatment leaves undissolved carbides in the matrix, such that lower carbon and chromium content in the matrix result, eventually accelerating the phase transformation. Furthermore, the residual carbides constitute additional nucleation sites for the bainite plates, speeding up the process even further. Also, both plastic pre-deformation of the supercooled austenite and application of external elastic stresses during the phase transformation lead to transformation plasticity by enhancing the stress fields, providing a driving force for the growth of bainite plates along a preferred orientation. Overall, the current results constitute the first step toward establishing a database for constructing a realistic microstructure-based model for simulating metal forming operations involving austenite-to-bainite phase transformation.

  13. Carbide-Free Bainitic Weld Metal: A New Concept in Welding of Armor Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, N.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Murty, B. S.; Reddy, G. M.; Rao, T. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbide-free bainite, a fine mixture of bainitic ferrite and austenite, is a relatively recent development in steel microstructures. Apart from being very strong and tough, the microstructure is hydrogen-tolerant. These characteristics make it well-suited for weld metals. In the current work, an armor-grade quenched and tempered steel was welded such that the fusion zone developed a carbide-free bainitic microstructure. These welds showed very high joint efficiency and ballistic performance compared to those produced, as per the current industrial practice, using austenitic stainless steel fillers. Importantly, these welds showed no vulnerability to cold cracking, as verified using oblique Y-groove tests. The concept of carbide-free bainitic weld metal thus promises many useful new developments in welding of high-strength steels.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy study of high temperature bainitic transformation in 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadabadi, M.N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Niyama, E. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Echigoya, J. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    A 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron austenitized at 900 C for 90 min and austempered at 375 C for different periods was used to study some aspects of bainitic reaction in high Mn austempered ductile iron with reference to carbide precipitation in bainitic ferrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) study shows that precipitation of carbide in the ferritic component of bainite is a function of the local concentration of alloying elements. In other words, in the region near graphite where Si segregates and there is negative Mn segregation as well as carbon, the bainitic ferrite is carbide free. However, in the intercellular region where Mn segregates and Si is depleted, the ferritic component of bainite occurs together with very fine and almost uniformly distributed carbide. Furthermore, TEM-EDXA results show that the increase in Mn content not only delays stage I (the initial transformation of austenite to ferrite and retained austenite) of the bainitic reaction, but also delays stage II (decomposition of retained austenite to ferrite and carbide). ((orig.))

  15. Mechanical properties of low-alloy-steels with bainitic microstructures and varying carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A.; Klarner, J.; Vogl, T.; Schöngrundner, R.; Sam, G.; Buchmayr, B.

    2016-03-01

    Materials used in the oilfield industry are subjected to special conditions. These requirements for seamless steel tubes are between the priorities of strength, toughness and sour gas resistance. Steels with bainitic microstructure provide a great opportunity for those harsh environmental conditions. With different morphologies of bainite, like carbide free, upper or lower bainite, the interaction of high tensile strength and elongation is assumed to be better than with tempered martensite. To form carbide free bainite two ways of processing are proposed, isothermal holding with accurate time control or controlled continuous cooling. Both require knowledge of time-temperature transformation behaviour, which can be reached through a detailed alloying concept, focused on the influence of silicon to supress the carbide nucleation and chromium to stabilize the austenite fraction. The present work is based on three alloys with varying silicon and chromium contents. The carbide free microstructure is obtained by a continuous cooling path. Additionally different heat treatments were done to compare the inherent performance of the bainitic morphologies. The bainitic structures were characterized metallographically for their microstructure and the primary phase by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of carbide-free structures were analysed with quasi-static tensile tests and Charpy impact tests. Moreover, investigations about hydrogen embrittlement were done with focus on the effect of retained austenite. The results were ranked and compared qualitatively.

  16. Morphology of Upper and Lower Bainite with 0.7 Mass Pct C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-09-01

    There has been an on-going discussion on the difference in formation mechanisms of upper and lower bainite. Various suggestions have been supported by reference to observed morphologies and illustrated with idealized sketches of morphologies. In order to obtain a better basis for discussions about the difference in mechanism, the morphology of bainite in an Fe-C alloy with 0.7 mass pct carbon was now studied in some detail from 823 K to 548 K (550 °C to 275 °C) at temperature intervals of 50 K or less. The work focused on bainite seen to start from a grain boundary in the plane of polish and showing an advancing tip in the remaining austenite. The results indicate that there is no essential difference with temperature regarding the ferritic skeleton of feathery bainite. The second stage of bainite formation, which involves the formation of both ferrite and cementite, was regarded as a eutectoid transformation and the resulting morphologies were analyzed in terms of two modes, degenerate and cooperative eutectoid transformation. There was no sharp difference between upper and lower bainite. Ways to define the difference were discussed.

  17. Microscopic deformation and strain hardening analysis of ferrite–bainite dual-phase steels using micro-grid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Kyono; Sueyoshi, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Tatsuya; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The local strain measurement method using nanometer-scaled micro grids printed on the surface of a specimen by an electron lithography technique (the micro-grid method) has been established. Microscopic deformation behavior of the ferrite–bainite steels with different bainite volume fraction, 16% and 40% of bainite, was evaluated. Strain localization in the ferrite phase adjacent to the ferrite/bainite boundary was clearly observed and visualized. Highly strained regions expanded toward the inner region of the ferrite phase and connected each other with an increase of macroscopic strain. The existence of hard bainite phase plays an important role for inducing strain localization in the ferrite phase by plastic constraint in the boundary parallel to the tensile direction. In order to obtain further understanding of microscopic deformation behavior, finite element analysis using the representative volume element, which is expressed by the axisymmetric unit cell containing a hard phase surrounded by a soft phase matrix, was conducted. It was found that the macroscopic stress–strain behavior of ferrite–bainite steels was well simulated by the unit cell models. Strain concentration in the ferrite phase was highly enhanced for the ferrite-40% bainite steel, and this imposed higher internal stress in the bainite phase, resulting in higher strain hardening rate in the early stage of the deformation. However, smaller ferrite volume fraction of ferrite-40% bainite steel induced bainite plastic deformation in order to fulfill the macroscopic strain of the steel. Accordingly, strain hardening capacity of the ferrite-40% bainite steel was reduced to a significant degree, resulting in a smaller uniform elongation than the ferrite-16% bainite steel

  18. TEM study of bainitic low-carbon HSLA steel: the orientation relationships of cementite; TEM-Untersuchung eines kohlenstoffarmen bainitischen HSLA-Stahls: die Orientierungsbeziehungen von Zementit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illescas, S.; Fernandez, J.; Guilemany, J.M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica; Asensio, J. [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2007-07-15

    Two different bainitic structures can be present in steel depending on the heat treatment to which the samples are subjected. The two different types of bainitic structures exhibit a different orientation relationship between the cementite and the ferrite matrix. The Pitsch orientation relationship is observed in upper bainite while the Bagaryatski orientation relationship is observed in lower bainite. Different heat treatment samples of low-carbon high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel were studied using TEM observations in order to ascertain the orientation relationship between ferrite and carbide in the different bainitic structures and to determine whether this relationship may indicate the type of bainitic structure. (orig.)

  19. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-11-25

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  20. The effect of double steps heat treatment on the microstructure of nanostructure bainitic medium carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughani, Milad; Kolahi, Alireza; Palizdar, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Nano structure bainitic steel have attracted attention mostly because of its special mechanical properties such as high tensile strength, hardness, appropriate toughness and low manufacturing cost. The main concern for the mass production of this type of steels is prolong austempering process which increases the production costs as well as time. In this research, in order to accelerate the bainitic transformation and decrease the production time, a medium carbon steel has been prepared and two steps austempering process was employed to prevent the bainite laths thickening. The Samples were austenetized at 1000°C for 15 min and were kept in the salt bath between 1 - 12 hours at 290°C in one step and between 1 - 12 hours at the temperature range of 250°C - 300°C in two steps bainite transformation. The obtained micro structures were studied by the optical and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the mechanical properties were investigated by using tensile and hardness tests. The results show that the two steps austempering process and lower carbon concentration lead to lower austempering time as well as the formation of more stable retained austenite and nanostructured bainite lath which results in higher mechanical properties.

  1. On the role of microstructure in governing the fatigue behaviour of nanostructured bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia; Kuntz, Matthias; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Kerscher, Eberhard; Sourmail, Thomas; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured bainite is not a novel laboratory-scale steel anymore and the interest on the commercial production of these microstructures by steelmakers and end-users is now conceivable. These microstructures are achieved through the isothermal transformation of high-carbon high-silicon steels at low temperature, leading to nanoscale plates of ferrite with thickness of 20–40 nm and retained austenite. Nanostructured bainitic steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels (2.2 GPa/40 MPa m 1/2 ) and the potential for engineering components is alluring. However, fatigue properties, responsible of the durability of a component, remain to be examined. In order to understand the role of the microstructure during the fatigue crack propagation, the crack path in three nanoscale bainitic structures has been analysed on the basis of the relationships between grain misorientations and grain boundaries by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. Active slip systems in bainitic ferrite and crack deflection at grain boundaries have been identified, while retained austenite is cast doubt on its role

  2. Ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) steels after quenching and tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Kolan, C.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical and Charpy V impact strength properties of new advanced ultra low carbon bainitic (ULBC) steels after water quenching and tempering (WQT) have been investigated. Their chemical compositions are given. The nine continuous cooling transformation diagrams (CCT) of the new ULCB steel grades have been established. The CCT diagrams for ULCB N i steels containing 9% Ni - grade 10N9 and 5% Ni - grade HN5MVNb are given. The comparison between CCT diagrams of 3.5%Ni + 1.5%Cu containing steels grade HSLA 100 and HN3MCu is shown. The effect of the increase in carbon and titanium contents in the chemical composition of ULCB M n steels 04G3Ti, 06G3Ti and 09G3Ti on the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous cooling is presented by the shifting CCT diagrams. The Charpy V impact strength and brittle fracture occurence curves are shown. The effect of tempering temperature on tensile properties of WQT HN3MCu steel is shown and Charpy V impact strength curves after different tempering conditions are shown. The optimum tempering temperatures region of HN3MCu steel for high Charpy V impact toughness at law temperatures - 80 o C(193 K) and -120 o C(153 K) is estimated. The effect of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of HN5MVNb steel is given. The low temperature impact Charpy V toughness of HN5MVNb steel is shown. The optimum range of tempering temperature during 1 hour for high toughness of WQT HN5MVNb steel is given. HN3MCu and HN5MVNb steels after WQT have high yield strength YS≥690 MPa and high Charpy V impact toughness KV≥80 J at -100 o C (173K) and KCV≥50 J/cm 2 at - 120 o C (153K) so they may be used for cryogenic applications

  3. Effect of molybdenum on continuous cooling bainite transformation of low-carbon microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Junhua; Xie Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Through simulation of thermomechanical processing/on-line accelerated cooling processing and observation of microstructure, the effect of molybdenum on continuous cooling bainite transformation of ultra-low carbon microalloyed steel was studied. The continuous cooling transformation curves of the trial steels with or without molybdenum addition were also determined. The result showed that the separate temperature of bainite was obviously reduced and the size of microstructure became smaller as 0.40 wt% Mo was added to the steel. At the same time, the martensitic structure, which formed at some cooling conditions, became finer and dispersed more uniformly. The deformed austenite would transform to finer bainite even when the cooling rate was not too high

  4. The Varying Effects of Uniaxial Compressive Stress on the Bainitic Transformation under Different Austenitization Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal simulation experiments under different austenitization temperatures and different stress states were conducted. High-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, thermal dilatometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to quantitatively investigate the effects of the uniaxial compressive stress on bainitic transformation at 330 °C following different austenitization temperatures. The transformation plasticity was also analyzed. It was found that the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the austenitization temperature due to larger prior austenite grain size as well as stronger promoting effect of mechanical driving force on selected variant growth at higher austenitization temperatures. The grain size and the yield strength of prior austenite are other important factors which influence the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation, besides the mechanical driving force provided by the stress. Moreover, the transformation plasticity increases with the austenitization temperature.

  5. A FIM-atom probe investigation of the bainite transformation in CrMo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the role played by Cr and Mo in the bainite transformation a Field-Ion Microscope - Atom Probe was constructed in order to study the distribution of the alloying elements near various types of boundaries on atomic scale. The distribution of alloying elements measured with this instrument is not so smooth on atomic scale as suggested by microprobe analysis. In a coherent twin boundary, formed during the bainite transformation, a depletion of the substitutionals Cr and Mo and an enhancement of the C content is observed, which is in accordance with the atomic model of a B.C.C. twin. In the twin plane the interstitial sites are even larger than the F.C.C. octahedral sites and this plane can act as an effective sink for the carbon atoms from bainitic ferrite. The depletion of Cr and Mo from the twin plane is due to interface coherency. (Auth.)

  6. Phase transformations of under-cooled austenite of new bainitic materials for scissors crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pacyna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains CCT diagrams presenting a transformation kinetics of under-cooled austenite from two new bainitic cast steels which the scissors crossovers for heavy-duty railway tracks (min. 230kN/axle at the speed up to 200 km/h are made of. The cooling ranges of UIC60 type railway tracks plot on the CCT diagrams indicate that there is a 100% bainitic structure in the scissors crossovers made of these cast steels as well, but mainly it would be a favourable for cracking resistance lower bainite. The achievable hardness of scissors crossovers made of new materials make it possible to use high–temperature tempering resulting in obtaining of good crack resistance. However one should provide a good quality of castings made.

  7. Bainitic transformation in austempered ductile iron with reference to untransformed austenite volume phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadabadai, M.N. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    Much interest has been focused on austempered ductile iron (ADI) because of its superior mechanical properties, which might be improved by further control of microstructure. It has so far been assumed that segregation of alloying elements in the intercellular region just delays bainitic reaction in these regions. However, the existence of bainite-free regions (UAV) even after 10,000 minutes at test temperature, e.g., 375 C, indicates something intrinsic to the mechanism of bainitic transformation. The bainitic transformation start (B{sub s}) temperature is a function of alloying elements; segregation of alloying elements can also alter the B{sub s} temperature. In other words, B{sub s} temperature in the region near graphite should be different from the intercellular region. Therefore, the intercellular region with higher concentration of alloying elements such as Mn should have a lower B{sub s} temperature, which leads to formation of UAV even after a long high-temperature austempering time (hereafter, this stable UAV will be named as the minimum UAV value). To examine this concept, theoretical and experimental procedures were employed.

  8. Characterization of bainitic/martensitic structures formed in isothermal treatments below the M

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro Lopez, A.; Hidalgo Garcia, J.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia Navarro, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels are generally obtained by applying isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (Ms). Previous investigations have shown that bainitic ferrite can form from austenite in isothermal treatments below Ms, where its

  9. The bainite transformation and the carbide precipitation of 4.88% aluminium austempered ductile iron investigated using electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani-Rashid, A.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fkiana@yahoo.com

    2009-04-17

    The transformation to a bainitic microstructure during austempering under different conditions was examined for the most successful of the experimental casts. Austenitising temperature of 920 deg. C and austempering temperature of 350 deg. C for different holding times have been used. Microstructures have been examined by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that isothermal transformation at 350 deg. C for different soaking times gave a typical bainitic microstructure that increased with increasing austempering time. Extension of isothermal transformation time leads to precipitation of carbides which also depended on the bainitic phase transformation.

  10. Identification of Inverse Bainite in Fe-0.84C-1Cr-1Mn Hypereutectoid Low Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-03-01

    A unique dilatation trend is observed for isothermal bainite transformation in Fe-0.84 pct C-1 pct Cr-1 pct Mn steel. The dilatation is found to occur in two stages with volumetric contraction dominating the first stage, followed by volumetric expansion dominating the second stage. Through electron microscopic characterization, bainitic microstructure is identified as inverse bainite with cementite (Fe3C) nucleating first from supersaturated austenite followed by the transformation of ferrite and secondary carbides (Fe3C, Fe2C, and Fe5C2) from carbon-depleted austenite.

  11. Preparation and microstructure characteristics of low-temperature bainite in surface layer of low carbon gear steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, T. S.

    2011-06-01

    A kind of technology was proposed for the development of low-temperature bainitic microstructure in the surface layer of low-carbon gear steel 20CrMnMo, which is based on carburization and succedent low-temperature austempering. The carbon content in the surface carburization layer increases to 0.81 wt.%, making the martensite starting point depressed. Low-temperature bainite formed in the carburization layer and lath martensite with low carbon content in the center by austempering at a low temperature slightly higher than the martensite starting point of the surface layer. Aluminum is added as alloying elements with the purpose of enhancing the driving force of bainitic transformation and retarding the precipitation of cementite during austempering. With the excellent toughness of low-temperature bainite, this low-temperature austempering technology could be a potential substitute of the traditional quenching and tempering heat treatment in the manufacture of gear.

  12. A Study of the Influence of Thermomechanical Controlled Processing on the Microstructure of Bainite in High Strength Plate Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2014-10-01

    Steels with compositions that are hot rolled and cooled to exhibit high strength and good toughness often require a bainitic microstructure. This is especially true for plate steels for linepipe applications where strengths in excess of 690 MPa (100 ksi) are needed in thicknesses between approximately 6 and 30 mm. To ensure adequate strength and toughness, the steels should have adequate hardenability (C. E. >0.50 and Pcm >0.20), and are thermomechanically controlled processed, i.e., controlled rolled, followed by interrupted direct quenching to below the Bs temperature of the pancaked austenite. Bainite formed in this way can be defined as a polyphase mixture comprised a matrix phase of bainitic ferrite plus a higher carbon second phase or micro-constituent which can be martensite, retained austenite, or cementite, depending on circumstances. This second feature is predominately martensite in IDQ steels. Unlike pearlite, where the ferrite and cementite form cooperatively at the same moving interface, the bainitic ferrite and MA form in sequence with falling temperature below the Bs temperature or with increasing isothermal holding time. Several studies have found that the mechanical properties may vary strongly for different types of bainite, i.e., different forms of bainitic ferrite and/or MA. Thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) has been shown to be an important way to control the microstructure and mechanical properties in low carbon, high strength steel. This is especially true in the case of bainite formation, where the complexity of the austenite-bainite transformation makes its control through disciplined processing especially important. In this study, a low carbon, high manganese steel containing niobium was investigated to better understand the effects of austenite conditioning and cooling rates on the bainitic phase transformation, i.e., the formation of bainitic ferrite plus MA. Specimens were compared after transformation from recrystallized

  13. Partial-Isothermally-Treated Low Alloy Ultrahigh Strength Steel with Martensitic/Bainitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Quanshun; Kitchen, Matthew; Patel, Vinay; Filleul, Martin; Owens, Dave

    We introduce a new strengthening heat treatment of a Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloyed spring steel by partial isothermal salt-bath and subsequent air-cooling and tempering. Detailed isothermal treatments were made at temperatures below or above the Ms point (230°C). The salt bath time was controlled between 10 and 80 minutes. Through the new treatment, the candidate steel developed ultrahigh tensile strength 2,100 MPa, yield strength 1,800 MPa, elongation 8-10 %, hardness 580-710 HV, and V-notch Charpy toughness 10-12 J. Optical and electron microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction revealed multi-phase microstructures of bainitic/martensitic ferrites, fine carbide precipitates and retained austenite. Carbon partitioning during the bainitic/martensitic transformation was investigated for its remarkable influence on the strengthening mechanism.

  14. Study of the bainitic transformation, at 420 deg. C, of iron-carbon-silicon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissler, Jean-Marie

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis work aimed at studying the degree of austenite enrichment, the orientation relationships between ferrite and austenite, the compositional plan, the initial transformation process, the nature of carbides and the influence of their formation on the initial process. After a presentation of experimental techniques (alloy elaboration, thermal treatments, examination by metallographic microscopy and by electron microscopy, determination of phases, dilatometric technique, Castaing microprobe analysis, mechanical tests), the author describes the two steps of transformation at 420 C of Fe-C-Si alloys containing about 1,5 per cent of carbon and 3,9 per cent of silicon. He reports the investigation of the first step (structure and microhardness evolution, study of determining factors, electron microscopy and electron micro-diffraction), a detailed crystallographic analysis of the first step of the bainitic transformation, and a study of the evolution of the bainitic transformation during the second step (dilatometry, electron microscopy, spontaneous formation of martensite). The last part addresses the influence of the bainitic transformation on the graphitization by tempering

  15. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels.

  16. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  17. Bainite transformation of low carbon Mn-Si TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: influence of silicon content on cementite precipitation and austenite retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.; Catlin, T.; Geerlofs, N.; Kop, T.; Zwaag, S. van der; Delannay, F.

    1999-01-01

    Studies dealing with TRIP-assisted multiphase steels have emphasized the crucial role of the bainite transformation of silicon-rich intercritical austenite in the achievement of a good combination of strength and ductility. The present work deals with the bainite transformation in two steels differing in their silicon content. It is shown that both carbon enrichment of residual austenite and cementite precipitation influences the kinetics of the bainite transformation. A minimum silicon content is found to be necessary in order to prevent cementite precipitation from austenite during the formation of bainitic ferrite in such a way as to allow stabilisation of austenite by carbon enrichment. (orig.)

  18. Real time neutron transmission investigation of the austenite-bainite transformation in grey iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggers, Kay; Priesmeyer, Hans G.; Trela, Walter J.; Bowman, Charles D.; Dahms, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The first successful application of a new method to investigate phase transformations in real time, like the decomposition of austenite into bainite in grey iron, is described. During the ongoing transformation, transmission spectra of thermal neutrons, which contain Bragg edges corresponding to the crystal structure of the transforming phases, are recorded. By evaluating the height of these Bragg edges, which is a measure of the volume fraction of the phase, at different transformation times, the transformation can be followed in-situ in a time resolved manner. The method is compared to other previously used methods (micrographs, dilatometry, diffraction techniques); also a summary and an outlook are given. ((orig.))

  19. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1994-03-08

    This work describes a high strength, high toughness bainitic/ferritic steel alloy comprising about 2.75% to 4.0% chromium, about 2.0% to 3.5% tungsten, about 0.10% to 0.30% vanadium, and about 0.1% to 0.15% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy having been heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled at a rate sufficient to produce carbide-free acicular bainite. 15 figures.

  20. High ductility of bainite-based microstructure of middle carbon steel 42SiMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučerová, L.; Bystrianský, M.; Jeníček, Š.

    2017-02-01

    Heat and thermo-mechanical treatments with various processing parameters were applied to middle carbon low alloyed 42SiMn steel. The aim of the treatment was to obtain multiphase microstructure typical for TRIP (Transformation induced plasticity) steel and to achieve the best combination of ultimate tensile strength and ductility. TRIP steels typically possess about 5-15% of metastable retained austenite, which can transform to martensite during plastic deformation. The gradual phase transformation during loading postpones the onset of necking, thus increasing ultimate tensile strength and ductility at the same time. Manganese and silicon, used as the main alloying elements of the experimental steel, are employed to increase austenite stability and to hinder cementite precipitation during the treatment. All proposed methods of heat and thermo-mechanical treatment contain bainitic hold at 400 °C or 425 °C. The final microstructures were very complex, consisting of bainite, ferrite, very small areas of extremely fine perlite lamellas, about 10% of retained austenite and M-A constituent (austenitic islands partially transformed to martensite). Even though pearlite and martensite are undesirable microstructure in TRIP steel, the tensile strength ranged from 850 to 1065 MPa and ductility A5mm from 26 to 47 %.

  1. Phase Equilibrium and Austenite Decomposition in Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grajcar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the phase equilibrium analysis and austenite decomposition of two Nb-microalloyed medium-Mn steels containing 3% and 5% Mn. The pseudobinary Fe-C diagrams of the steels were calculated using Thermo-Calc. Thermodynamic calculations of the volume fraction evolution of microstructural constituents vs. temperature were carried out. The study comprised the determination of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT diagrams and continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of the investigated steels. The diagrams were used to determine continuous and isothermal cooling paths suitable for production of bainite-based steels. It was found that the various Mn content strongly influences the hardenability of the steels and hence the austenite decomposition during cooling. The knowledge of CCT diagrams and the analysis of experimental dilatometric curves enabled to produce bainite-austenite mixtures in the thermomechanical simulator. Light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to assess the effect of heat treatment on morphological details of produced multiphase microstructures.

  2. Microstructure and Property of Mn-Nb-B Low Carbon Bainite High Strength Steel Under Ultra-fast Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bing-xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel with the reducing production technology as the research target, the deformation behavior and phase transformation behavior were studied by the thermal simulation testing machine. Combining with the characteristics of the medium and heavy plate production line, the controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology based on ultra-fast cooling were designed to produce low cost high strength construction machinery steel with superior comprehensive mechanical properties. The strengthening mechanisms such as grain refinement strengthening, precipitation strengthening are effective to produce the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel. The yield strength and tensile strength of the product reach to 678MPa and 756 MPa respectively, the elongation A50 is 33% and the impact energy at -20℃ is 261J. The microstructure of the steel is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and lath bainite. A large number of fine, point, granular M/A constituents and dislocation structures dispersively distributed inside the matrix, and also tiny and dispersed (Nb,Ti (C,N precipitates are observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a low carbon carbide-free bainitic steel co-alloyed with Al and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Lihe; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Fucheng; Meng, Jiangying; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► A low carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was produced. ► Co-alloying with Al and Si suppresses the precipitation of cementite. ► Fine carbide-free bainite laths and thin film-like retained austenite obtained. ► Excellent combination of strength, ductility and toughness enabled. -- Abstract: A low carbon, low alloy steel has been investigated for producing low carbon carbide-free bainitic microstructure by co-addition of alloying elements of aluminum and silicon. The influence of heat treatment process on microstructure, impact toughness as well as tensile properties was investigated by light optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and mechanical property tests. The results demonstrate that the co-addition of aluminum and silicon in the investigated steel plays an effective role in suppressing the precipitation of cementite. A desired microstructure consisting of mainly fine-scale carbide-free bainitic ferrite and thin film-like retained austenite located between the ferrite laths was obtained and accordingly an excellent combination of toughness, ductility and strength was achieved by optimized heat treatments, i.e. by isothermal treatment at 320 °C for ∼84 min or more. The microstructure-mechanical property relationships are discussed.

  4. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of bainitic cast steel used for frogs in railway crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tasak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of sample cast assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossover. Materials used in railway industry for frogs (manganese cast steel and forged pearlitic steel do not fulfil strict conditions of exploitation of railway. One of the solutions is using cast steel with bainitic or bainite-martensite microstructure, what allows to gain high resistance properties (Rm = 1400 MPa, Rp0,2 = 900 MPa, hardness to 400 HBW. The cooling rates of rail type UIC60 shows that it is possible to reach the bainitic microstructure in cast of frog. The microstructure of lower banite should have an advantageous influence on cracking resistance. In order to set the parameters of heat treatment, the critical temperatures were determined by dilatometric methods determined. This heat treatment consisted of normalizing that prepared it to the farther process of resistance welding. Moreover, the CCT diagram of proposed bainitic cast steel was prepared. The exams were done that can be used to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of the sample cast.

  5. The CCT diagrams of ultra low carbon bainitic steels and their impact toughness properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The CCT diagrams of ULCB N i steels, HN3MV, HN3MVCu having 5.1% Ni and 3.5% Ni and Cu bearing steels; HN3M1.5Cu, HSLA 100 have been determined. The reduced carbon concentration in steel, in order to prevent the formation of cementite, allowed for using nickel, manganese, chromium and molybdenum to enhance hardenability and refinement of the bainitic microstructures by lowering B S temperature. Copper and microadditions of vanadium and niobium are successfully used for precipitation strengthening of steel both in thermomechanically or heat treated conditions. Very good fracture toughness at low temperatures and high yield strength properties of HN3MVCu and HN3MV steels allowed for fulfillment of the requirements for steel plates for pressure vessels and cryogenic applications. (author)

  6. In situ room temperature tensile deformation of a 1% CrMoV bainitic steel using synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, M.A.; Evans, A.D.; Van Petegem, S.; Holdsworth, S.R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction spectra have been acquired during room temperature tensile deformation of a creep-resistant bainitic 1% CrMoV steel, in order to study the evolution of internal microstresses and load-sharing mechanisms between the ferrite matrix and the various carbides. Cementite takes load from the plastifying matrix at the onset of macroscopic plasticity resulting in residual interphase stresses. Single peak fitting indicates an elastic anisotropic behaviour of cementite.

  7. Structure-Property-Fracture Mechanism Correlation in Heat-Affected Zone of X100 Ferrite-Bainite Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueda; Ma, Xiaoping; Subramanian, S. V.; Misra, R. D. K.; Shang, Chengjia

    2015-03-01

    Structural performance of a weld joint primarily depends on the microstructural characteristics of heat-affected zone (HAZ). In this regard, the HAZ in X100 ferrite-bainite pipeline steel was studied by separating the HAZ into intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICCG) HAZ containing and non-containing regions. These two regions were individually evaluated for Charpy impact toughness and characterized by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Low toughness of ~50 J was obtained when the notch of impact specimen encountered ICCGHAZ and high toughness of ~180 J when the notch did not contain ICCGHAZ. Fracture surface was ~60 pct brittle in the absence of ICCGHAZ, and 95 pct brittle (excluding shear lip) in the presence of ICCGHAZ in the impact tested samples. The underlying reason is the microstructure of ICCGHAZ consisted of granular bainite and upper bainite with necklace-type martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent along grain boundaries. The presence of necklace-type M-A constituent notably increases the susceptibility of cleavage microcrack nucleation. ICCGHAZ was found to be both the initiation site of the whole fracture and cleavage facet initiation site during brittle fracture propagation stage. Furthermore, the study of secondary microcracks beneath CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ through EBSD suggested that the fracture mechanism changes from nucleation-controlled in CGHAZ to propagation-controlled in ICCGHAZ because of the presence of necklace-type M-A constituent in ICCGHAZ. Both fracture mechanisms contribute to the poor toughness of the sample contained ICCGHAZ.

  8. Effect of Aluminum Alloying on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Nano-bainite Bearing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. N.; Dai, L. Q.; Chu, C. H.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, L. W.; Xiao, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in using aluminum in nano-bainite steel, especially for high-carbon bearing steel, is gradually growing. In this study, GCr15SiMo and GCr15SiMoAl steels are introduced to investigate the effect of Al alloying on the hot deformation behavior of bearing steel. Results show that the addition of Al not only notably increases the flow stress of steel due to the strong strengthening effect of Al on austenite phase, but also accelerates the strain-softening rates for its increasing effect on stacking fault energy. Al alloying also increases the activation energy of deformation. Two constitutive equations with an accuracy of higher than 0.99 are proposed. The constructed processing maps show the expanded instability regions for GCr15SiMoAl steel as compared with GCr15SiMo steel. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of cracking on the GCr15SiMoAl specimens, revealing that Al alloying reduces the high-temperature plasticity of the bearing steel. On the contrary, GCr15SiMoAl steel possesses smaller grain size than GCr15SiMo steel, manifesting the positive effect of Al on bearing steel. Attention should be focused on the hot working process of bearing steel with Al.

  9. Micromechanical local approach to brittle failure in bainite high resolution polycrystals: A short presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Guyen, C.N.; Osipov, N.; Cailletaud, G.; Barbe, F.; Marini, B.; Petry, C.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of determining the probability of failure in a brittle material from a micromechanical local approach has recently been addressed in few works, all related to bainite polycrystals at different temperatures and states of irradiation. They have separately paved the ground for a full-field modelling with high realism in terms of constitutive modelling and microstructural morphology. This work first contributes to enhance this realism by assembling the most pertinent/valuable characteristics (dislocation density based model, large deformation framework, fully controlled triaxiality conditions, explicit microstructure representation of grains and sub-grains,... ) and by accounting for a statistically representative Volume Element; this condition indeed must be fulfilled in order to capture rare events like brittle micro-fractures which, in the stress analysis, correspond to the tails of distribution curves. The second original contribution of this work concerns the methodology for determining fracture probabilities: rather than classically - and abruptly - considering a polycrystal as broken as soon as an elementary link (grain or sub-grain) has failed, the possibility of microcrack arrest at microstructural barriers is introduced, which enables to determine the probability of polycrystal failure according to different scenarios of multiple micro-fractures. (authors)

  10. Bainitic steels behavior at different temperatures: study of cementite using neutron and synchrotron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouahab, Razane

    2012-01-01

    The multi-scale experimental characterization of bainitic steels has been the subject of this research. Two two-phase steels ferrite-cementite were chosen: a 16MND5 steel used to design RPW reactors (Reactor Pressurized Water) and a 2C40 steel. In order to study the mechanical behavior of each phase individually, different thermomechanical characterization tools have been considered. The originality of this work comes from the use of two techniques: in situ tensile tests combined to synchrotron radiation and nano indentation. A major interest is given to the behavior of cementite. The stresses reached in this phase were determined by two methods. First, analyzes have been performed in ferritic phase by XRD and a mixture law has been used to estimate the stress values in cementite. Then, analyzes have been carried out directly in each phase using synchrotron radiation. The results show that the mixture law is a good tool to describe the stress distribution in each phase of the studied steels. However, it may be not enough because it doesn't take into account the morphology of the carbide and highly depends on the volume fraction of the cementite: an uncertainty of ± 0.2 % can lead to stress variation of ± 1000 MPa. The local properties of cementite were also analyzed by nano indentation. The primary results have confirmed that the carbide hardness is 2-3 times greater than the hardness of the matrix [fr

  11. Structure, strength and plasticity of low activated prospective reactor steels of bainitic class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybin, V.V.; Kursevich, I.P.; Lapin, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives data on the structure,phase composition and mechanical properties in initial state,after long-duration holding at heat and neutron irradiation of the base metal of welded joints of a bainitic 15X2B2FA steel showing a rapid decay of induced activity. CCT diagrams at cooling from 1000,1050 and 1200 degree C in the range of rates from 0.03 to 25 degree C/s, microstructure and hardness for various cooling rates are presented. High resistance of developed the materials to thermal and irradiation embrittlement is demonstrated. The examination of materials after holding at heat (at 400 degree C for 3000 hrs,at 450 degree C for 260 hrs - for 15X2B2FA steel, and 300 degree C for 1000 hrs - for the weld metal) has shown that no changes in their mechanical properties were observed. The low-activated 15X2B2FA steel irradiated to various neutron fluence up to 1.5 centre dot 1020 n/cm 2 (E≥ 0.5 MeV) at a temperature of 270-290 degree C is characterized by lower radiation strengthening and shift in DBTT temperature as compared to a 15X2B2FA steel used for WWER vessels. On combination of properties the low-activated 15X2B2FA-A steel is represented rather perspective for the future nuclear reactors of increased ecological safety and increased service life

  12. The Effects of One and Double Heat Treatment Cycles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Ferritic-Bainitic Dual Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Reza; Ghasemi, Behrooz; Yousefpour, Mardali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, samples with ferritic-bainitic dual phase structures consisting of 62 pct bainite were obtained from the AISI 4140 steel by applying one and double heat treatment cycles. Microstructural investigations by electron and optical microscopy indicated that the sample heat treated through double cycle benefited from finer ferrite and bainite grains. Additionally, results obtained from mechanical tests implied that the double-cycle heat-treated sample not only has a higher tensile strength as well as ultimate strength but also benefits from a higher ductility along with a higher impact energy than the one-cycle heat-treated sample. Moreover, fractography results showed that the type of fracture in both samples is a combination of the brittle and the ductile fracture. Besides, the ratio of the ductile fracture is higher for the double-cycle heat-treated sample than for the one-cycle sample, due to the lower aggregation of sulfur at grain boundaries.

  13. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bainitic Cast Iron Using an Electromagnetic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, M.; Nateq, M. H.; Kahrobaee, S.

    2017-09-01

    High-strength bainitic cast iron is studied after isothermal hardening at 340°C for from 0.5 to 5 h with the use of a non-destructive eddy-current method for monitoring the microstructure and mechanical properties. Iron microstructure is studied by optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Brinell hardness and the impact energy are determined. Correlation is established between electromagnetic sensor signal, microstructure, and mechanical properties. It is shown that induced voltage and normalized impedance may be used for non-destructive monitoring of the production process and cast iron quality.

  14. Fast Salt Bath Heat Treatment for a Bainitic/Martensitic Low-Carbon Low-Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanec, Julia; Saastamoinen, Ari; Kivivuori, Seppo; Louhenkilpi, Seppo

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties of a low-alloyed steel with 0.06 wt pct C were investigated after a series of heat treatment processes using salt bath followed by quenching into water in order to obtain bainitic/martensitic steel. Salt bath holding time varied from 30 to 330 seconds. Hardness, tensile properties and toughness have been examined. The results show the obtained microstructure significantly enhances the impact strength (up to 187 J) and toughness (up to 71.4 pct critical reduction) with good hardness (239 ± 4 HV) and tensile strength (720 to 800 MPa) compared to direct quenching heat treatment without salt bath holding.

  15. Stress heterogeneity analysis by X-ray diffraction in the 16MND5 bainitic pressure vessel steel at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesci, R.; Inal, K.; Berveiller, M.

    2004-01-01

    The 16MND5 bainitic steel being a two-phase material, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most efficient tool to determine the stress states in the ferritic phase. Coupled to tensile tests at low temperatures [96 deg C; -60 deg C], this technique shows the heterogeneity of strains for each phase and each crystallographic orientation. A multi-scale polycrystalline modeling is developed concurrently with these experimental measurements: it takes into account the effects of temperature on the stress states in each phase, enables to calculate the lattice strains ε φψ and also includes a cleavage fracture criterion. (authors)

  16. Effect of Bainitic Microstructure on Ballistic Performance of Armour Steel Weld Metal Using Developed High Ni-Coated Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A. K.; Das, H.; Reddy, G. M.; Ghosh, M.; Nandy, S.; Pal, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Welding of armour steel has gained significant importance during the past few years as recent civilian and military requirements demand weld metal properties matching with base metal having good ballistic performance along with high strength and toughness at - 40 °C as per specification. The challenge of armour steel welding therefore lies in controlling the weld metal composition which is strongly dependent on welding electrode/consumables, resulting in desired weld microstructure consisting of lower bainite along with retained austenite. The performance of butt-welded armour steel joints produced by the developed electrodes was evaluated using tensile testing, ballistic testing, impact toughness at room temperature and subzero temperature. Microstructures of weld metals are exclusively characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction pattern. Experimental results show that weld metal with relatively lower carbon, higher manganese and lower nickel content was attributed to lower bainite with film type of retained austenite may be considered as a most covetable microstructure for armour steel weld metal.

  17. Microstructural effects on the yield strength and its temperature dependence in a bainitic precipitation hardened Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kotilainen, H.; Nenonen, P.

    1980-03-01

    The plastic deformation behaviour of a precipitation hardened bainitic Cr-Mo-V steel is analyzed at ambient and low temperatures. The temperature dependent component of the yield strength is composed of the Peierls-Nabarro force and also partly of the strengthening contribution of the lath- and cell boundaries or the solid solution hardening. The temperature dependence below 230 K is in accordance with the models presented by Yanoshevich and Ryvkina as well as Dorn and Rajnak. The temperature independent component can be calculated merely from the dislocation density, which is stabilized by the vanadium-rich carbides. The linear additivity cannot be used for the superposition of the strengthening effects of various strengthening parameters, By using the phenomenological approach starting from the dislocation movement mechanisms upon yielding the laws for the superposition are discussed. (author)

  18. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  19. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  20. Effect of silicon on stability of austenite during isothermal annealing of low-alloy steel with medium carbon content in the transition region between pearlitic and bainitic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeníček, Š.; Vorel, I.; Káňa, J.; Ibrahim, K.; Kotěšovec, V.

    2017-02-01

    In a vast majority of steels, a prerequisite to successful heat treatment is the phase transformation of initial austenite to the desired type of microstructure which may consist of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite or their combinations. Diffusion plays an important role in this phase transformation. Together with enthalpy and entropy, two thermodynamic quantities, diffusion represents the decisive mechanism for the formation of the particular phase. The basis of diffusion is the thermally-activated movement of ions of alloying and residual elements. It is generally known that austenite becomes more stable during isothermal treatment in the transitional region between pearlitic and bainitic transformation. This is due to thermodynamic processes which arise from the chemical composition of the steel. The transformation of austenite to pearlite or bainite is generally accompanied by formation of cementite. The latter can be suppressed by adding silicon to the steel because this element does not dissolve in cementite, and therefore prevents its formation. The strength of this effect of silicon depends mainly on the temperature of isothermal treatment. If a steel with a sufficient silicon content is annealed at a temperature, at which silicon cannot migrate by diffusion, cementite cannot form and austenite becomes stable for hours.

  1. Comparative Effect of Mo and Cr on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in NbV-Microalloyed Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Kostryzhev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel product markets require the rolled stock with further increasing mechanical properties and simultaneously decreasing price. The steel cost can be reduced via decreasing the microalloying elements contents, although this decrease may undermine the mechanical properties. Multi-element microalloying with minor additions is the route to optimise steel composition and keep the properties high. However, this requires deep understanding of mutual effects of elements on each other’s performance with respect to the development of microstructure and mechanical properties. This knowledge is insufficient at the moment. In the present work we investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of bainitic steels microalloyed with Cr, Mo, Nb and V. Comparison of 0.2 wt. % Mo and Cr additions has shown a more pronounced effect of Mo on precipitation than on phase balance. Superior strength of the MoNbV-steel originated from the strong solid solution strengthening effect. Superior ductility of the CrNbV-steel corresponded to the more pronounced precipitation in this steel. Nature of these mechanisms is discussed.

  2. Influence of cold deformation and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement of cold hardening bainitic steel for high strength bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Weijun, E-mail: wjhui@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Yongjian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Shao, Chengwei [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Kaizhong; Sun, Wei; Yu, Tongren [Technical Center, Maanshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Maanshan 243002, Anhui (China)

    2016-04-26

    The influence of cold drawing and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of newly developed cold hardening bainitic steel was investigated by using slow strain rate testing (SSRT) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), for ensuring safety performance of 10.9 class high strength bolts made of this kind of steel against HE under service environments. Hydrogen was introduced into the specimen by electrochemical charging. TDS analysis shows that the hydrogen-charged cold drawn specimen exhibits an additional low-temperature hydrogen desorption peak besides the original high-temperature desorption peak of the as-rolled specimen, causing remarkable increase of absorbed hydrogen content. It is found that cold drawing significantly enhances the susceptibility to HE, which is mainly attributed to remarkable increase of diffusible hydrogen absorption, the occurrence of strain-induced martensite as well as the increase of strength level. Annealing after cold deformation is an effective way to improve HE resistance and this improvement strongly depends on annealing temperature, i.e. HE susceptibility decreases slightly with increasing annealing temperature up to 200 °C and then decreases significantly with further increasing annealing temperature. This phenomenon is explained by the release of hydrogen, the recovery of cold worked microstructure and the decrease of strength with increasing annealing temperature.

  3. The potential significance of microalloying with niobium in governing very high cycle fatigue behavior of bainite/martensite multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Cheng, C.; Gao, G.; Hui, W.; Misra, R.D.K.; Bai, B.; Weng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We elucidate here the effect of microalloying with niobium (Nb) on very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior in high-strength C–Mn–Si–Cr bainite/martensite (B/M) multiphase steels studied through ultrasonic fatigue testing. The tensile strength (R m ) and fatigue limit strength after 10 9 cycles (σ w9 ) and in the non-failure condition of the steel microalloyed with Nb were 1640 MPa and 900 MPa, respectively. Thus, the value of σ w9 /R m exceeded in comparison to conventional steels and was approximate 0.55. Three types of failure modes were observed in Nb-bearing steels depending on the surface condition, inclusion, and the matrix microstructure, i.e., surface defect-induced failure mode (S-mode), inclusion-induced failure mode (I-mode), and non-inclusion induced failure mode (N-mode). Only two failure modes were observed in Nb-free steels, the S-mode and the N-mode. The study clearly suggests that Nb had a distinct effect on the VHCF properties of B/M steels. The VHCF limit of Nb-bearing steel was enhanced by 200 MPa because of refinement of the microstructure and pinning of dislocations by randomly distributed nanometer-sized Nb(C, N) precipitates. It is underscored that microalloying with Nb is a potential approach to enhance VHCF properties in advanced high-strength steels.

  4. Simulation of the hot rolling and accelerated cooling of a C-Mn ferrite-bainite strip steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, B.; Teracher, P.; Jonas, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    By means of torsion testing, the microstructures and mechanical properties produced in a 0.14 Pct C-1.18 Pct Mn steel were investigated over a wide range of hot-rolling conditions, cooling rates, and simulated coiling temperatures. The austenite grain size present before accelerated cooling was varied from 10 to 150 μm by applying strains of 0 to 0.8 at temperatures of 850 °C to 1050 °C. Two cooling rates, 55 °C/s and 90 °C/s, were used. Cooling was interrupted at temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 300 °C. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to investigate the microstructures. The mechanical properties were studied by means of tensile testing. When a fine austenite grain size was present before cooling and a high cooling rate (90 °C/s) was used, the microstructure was composed of ferrite plus bainite and a mixture of ferrite and cementite, which may have formed by an interphase mechanism. The use of a lower cooling rate (55 °C/s) led to the presence of ferrite and fine pearlite. In both cases, the cooling interruption temperature and the amount of prior strain had little influence on the mechanical properties. Reheating at 1050 °C, which led to the presence of very coarse austenite, resulted in a stronger influence of the interruption temperature. A method developed at Institut de Recherche Sidérurgique (IRSID, St. Germain-en-Laye, France) for deducing the Continuous-Cooling-Transformation (CCT) diagrams from the cooling data was adapted to the present apparatus and used successfully to interpret the observed influence of the process parameters.

  5. Kinetics of bainite precipitation in the Cu{sub 69.3}Al{sub 18.8}Mn{sub 10.3}Ag{sub 1.6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, M.B.J.L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, IQ-UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    In this work the kinetics of bainite precipitation in the Cu{sub 69.3}Al{sub 18.8}Mn{sub 10.3}Ag{sub 1.6} alloy was studied using measurements of microhardness change with aging time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, measurements of magnetization change with applied field and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the bainite precipitation is responsible for the hardness increase in the Cu{sub 69.3}Al{sub 18.8}Mn{sub 10.3}Ag{sub 1.6} alloy. The activation energy value obtained for the bainite precipitation is lower than that found in the literature. This was attributed to the presence of Ag dissolved in matrix and the occurrence of the Cu{sub 3}Al(DO{sub 3}) → Cu{sub 2}AlMn(L2{sub 1}) ordering reaction together with the bainite precipitation. - Highlights: • The activation energy for the bainite precipitation in the Cu{sub 69.3}Al{sub 18.8}Mn{sub 10.3}Ag{sub 1.6} alloy is around 33 kJ/mol. • During bainite precipitation the Cu{sub 2}AlMn phase formation occurs. • The Cu{sub 3}Al(DO{sub 3}) → Cu{sub 2}AlMn(L2{sub 1}) ordering reaction interferes in the activation energy value.

  6. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  7. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  8. Carbidic Bainitic and Ausferritic Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumienny G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W arty kule przedstawiono nowe rodzaje żeliwa sferoidalnego z węglikami o różnej mikrostrukturze osnowy metalowej. Żeliwo to otrzymano stosując sferoidyzację metodą Inmold. zapewniającą dużą liczbę kulek grafitu i rozdrobnienie składników osnowy metalowej. Różną mikrostrukturę osnowy metalowej żeliwa otrzymywano bez stosowania obróbki cieplnej (w stanie surowym poprzez odpowiednią kombinację ilościową dodatków stopowych. Wykazano, że dodatek molibdenu, chromu, niklu i miedzi w żeliwie sferoidalnym pozwala uzyskać osnowę metalową złożoną z bainitu górnego, jego mieszaniny z dolnym lub ausferrytu w odlewach o grubości ściany 3^-25 mm. Proces krystalizacji żeliwa przedstawiono i opisano za pomocą krzywych analizy termicznej i derywacyjnej (ATD. Pokazano efekty cieplne od przemiany austenitu w stanie stałym

  9. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, M.

    2006-06-01

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  10. Effect of bainite transformation and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Abe, Toshihiko; Tada, Shuji [Tohoku National Industrial Research Inst., Sendai (Japan). Materials Engineering Div.

    1996-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has excellent mechanical properties, but its Young`s modulus is low. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel (AGS) has been developed in order to obtain a new material with superior mechanical properties to ADI. Its carbon content (approximately 1.0 pct) is almost one-third that of a standard ADI; thus, the volume of graphite is also less. Young`s modulus of AGS is 195 to 200 GPa and is comparable to that of steel. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel has an approximately 200 MPa higher tensile strength than ADI and twice the Charpy absorbed energy of ADI. The impact properties and the elongation are enhanced with increasing volume fraction of carbon-enriched retained austenite. At the austempering temperature of 650 K, the volume fraction of austenite is approximately 40 pct for 120 minutes in the 2.4 pct Si alloy, although it decreases rapidly in the 1.4 pct Si alloy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that appropriate quantity of silicon retards the decomposition of the carbon-enriched retained austenite. For austempering at 570 K, the amount of the carbon-enriched austenite decreases and the ferrite is supersaturated with carbon, resulting in high tensile strength but low toughness.

  11. Fatigue Behavior of Ferritic-pearlitic-bainitic Steel - Effect of Positive Mean Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Petrenec, Martin

    417-418, - (2010), s. 577-580 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /8./. Malta, 08.09.2009-10.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480704; GA ČR GA101/07/1500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fatigue * mean stress * fatigue life Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Experimental study and local approach of cleavage crack arrest in a bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, A.

    2012-01-01

    EDF wants to complete the assessment of reactor pressure vessels, usually based on crack initiation concept, by crack arrest concept. The work aims at improving the knowledge of cleavage crack arrest in a reactor pressure vessel steel. For that purpose, isothermal crack arrest experiments were performed for temperatures ranging from - 150 C up to - 50 C on compact tensile specimens and on pre-cracked rings submitted to compressive loading. Fractographic observations revealed that the whole crack propagation and arrest occurs by cleavage even if ductile tearing occurs before initiation of the unstable crack propagation. A local cleavage crack arrest criterion is applied in finite element computations carried out in elasto-visco-plasticity and in full dynamics: the crack propagates since the largest principal stress reaches a critical stress. The application of this criterion on the experiments leads to a good prediction of the crack speed and of the crack length and shows that the critical stress increases with the temperature in relation with dissipation features observed on the fracture surfaces. Dependence to the geometry is observed; it can be due to the assumption used for the 2D computations. The study of the structural dynamic shows that the crack arrest phenomenon is very linked to the global dynamics of the structure: crack arrest and crack closure occur approximately at the same time. (author)

  13. An acoustic emission study of martensitic and bainitic transformations in carbon steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Steel is one of the most commonly used materials today, especially in industrial sectors such as ship building and the automotive industry. In order to meet the requirements for steel applications, new multi-phase steels are being developed. The microstructure of these steels consists of a variety

  14. The role of microstructure in brittle fracture behaviour of low alloy tempered bainitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Válka, Libor; Holzmann, Miloslav; Dlouhý, Ivo

    A234-236, - (1997), s. 723-726 ISSN 0921-5093. [International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA-11). Praha, 25.08.1997-29.08.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV101/96/K264 Impact factor: 0.842, year: 1997

  15. The influence of isothermal ageing and subsequent hydrogen charging at room temperature on local mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of martensitic-bainitic weldments for power engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Falat, L.; Čiripová, L.; Homolová, V.; Kroupa, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), s. 373-382 ISSN 1450-5339 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : power-plant steels * dissimilar weld * thermal exposure Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016

  16. Morphology and constitution of the phases in as-welded microstructure of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.Y.; Zhou, Z.F.; Sun, D.Q.

    2005-06-15

    It was found by optical and electron microscopic examination of the microstructure of as-weld austempered ductile iron that the weld matrix is composed of austenite and bainite, the volume fractions of which were determined. In addition, the carbon content of austenite was measured and therefore the average carbon content of the matrix was calculated. In the matrix of the weld metal two types of bainite, bainite ferrite and lower bainite, were found. According to the morphology and distribution of the bainite plates, the nucleation and growth modes of bainite was inferred. (author)

  17. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  18. Microstructural Evolution of HSLA ISO 3183 X80M (API 5L X80) Friction Stir Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenegildo, Tahiana F. C.; Santos, Tiago F. A.; Torres, Edwar A.; Afonso, Conrado R. M.; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation was made of friction stir welded joints, identifying conditions that resulted in satisfactory welded joints free from defects and with microstructural characteristics that provided good mechanical properties. Microstructural characterization and cooling curve analysis of the joints with lower and higher heat inputs evidenced deformation below and above the non-recrystallization temperature (Tnr) and dynamic recrystallization during microstructural evolution. Microscopy analyses showed acicular ferrite, bainitic ferrite, and coalesced bainite microstructures in the stir zone of the cold weld (lower heat input), while the stir zone of the hot weld (higher heat input) contained bainitic ferrite, acicular ferrite, coalesced bainite, martensite, and dispersed carbides. Granular bainite and dispersed carbides were observed in all the heat affected zones. Analysis of the microstructural transformations, together with the thermal history of the joints, showed that the variable that had the greatest influence on the morphology of the bainite (granular bainite/bainitic ferrite) was the deformation temperature.

  19. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  20. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  1. Developing Novel Heat treatments for Automotive Spring Steels : Phase Transformations, Microstructure and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, K.

    2018-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis investigates the substitution of quenching and tempering treat-
    ments by isothermal bainitic treatments in automotive spring production. An isothermal bainitic treatment has benefits mainly in terms of energy savings, but it can also prevent quench cracking, distortion and

  2. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  3. Effect of hot deformation on phase transformation kinetics of 86CrMoV7 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Furen; Liao Bo; Qiao Guiying; Guan Shuzhe

    2006-01-01

    The time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of 86CrMoV7 steel with and without hot deformation were constructed by means of dilatometry, metallography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the pearlite and bainite transformations of 86CrMoV7 steel can be promoted and the microstructure can be refined by hot deformation. The undissolved carbides associated with hot deformation increase the inhomogeneity of carbon distribution in deformed austenite. The inhomogeneities of the austenite increase the number of nucleation sites for pearlite and bainite, and promote pearlite and bainite formation, which result in refinement of both the pearlite and bainite microstructures. In contrast, the undissolved carbides do not play a direct role on the pearlite and bainite transformation of 86CrMoV7 steel in the absence of hot deformation

  4. Revenido de un acero bain?tico nanoestructurado: un an?lisis a nivel at?mico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, Francesca G. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Mateo, C. Garcia [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    2008-01-01

    New developments with bainite have resulted in a steel with an ultimate tensile strength of 1.7-2.5 GPa and a toughness in excess of 30-40 MPa m1/2. The novel microstructure is generated in a high carbon high silicon steel isothermally transformed at temperatures of 200 C-350 C. Iron does not diffuse during the transformation to bainite at this low temperature. As a result, 20-40 nm thick plates of ferrite are generated, giving rise to the exceptional properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the carbon concentration in the bainitic ferrite was much higher than that expected from equilibrium thermodynamics between austenite and ferrite. Atom probe tomography demonstrated that a substantial quantity of carbon (7.4 at. % C) was found to be trapped at dislocations in the vicinity of the ferrite/austenite interface. Carbon trapping at dislocations was found to prevent the decarburization of supersaturated ferrite and in some extent to alter the carbide precipitation sequence during low temperature bainite formation. These results provided the first direct observation of carbon Cottrell Atmospheres in bainitic ferrite. There are important differences in the tempering behavior of bainite and martensite. Much of the carbon precipitates as carbides or partitions from the ferrite to the remaining austenite during bainite formation. As a consequence the bainitic microstructure is less sensitive to additional tempering heat treatment. In contrast, the level of carbon in the bainitic ferrite of this novel bainitic steel is unusually high. Redistribution of alloying elements during tempering of this nanocrystalline steel has been analysed by atom probe tomography. Results suggest that retained austenite decomposes during tempering before full equilibrium is reached at the interface. Moreover, cementite precipitates from supersaturated ferrite via a paraequilibrium transformation mechanism.

  5. Effect of austempering temperature and time on the kinetics and microstructure of austempered compacted graphite cast irons; Einfluss von Zwischenstufenverguetungstemperatur und -zeit auf die Kinetik und die Mikrostruktur von zwischenstufenverguetetem, Gusseisen mit Vermiculargraphit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymourian, Mehdi [LMI Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Casting Dept.; Boutorabi, Seyed Mohammad Ali [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials

    2012-07-01

    After starting the austempering nucleation of bainitic ferrite was observed within a very short time. Samples that austempered for 2 min. showed martensite in the microstructure. By increasing the austempering time from 30 min to 90 min the retained austenite decomposes and X-ray diffraction observations revealed the greatest volume fraction of retained austenite up to 17.3 and 23.8 percent when austempered for 30 min. Micro-hardness of the bainitic Verbesferrite increased up to 370 and 500 HV and micro-hardness of the retained austenite increased up to 300 and 400 HV at the austempering temperatures of 300 C and 400 C respectively. In comparison to austempered ductile iron, the austempered compacted graphite cast iron shows higher rate of bainitic reaction. Bainite formation driving force and consequently the rate of austempering process are higher in compacted graphite cast irons. (orig.)

  6. Electron microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon and aluminum ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, L. (Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Production Engineering); Smallman, R.E.; Young, J.M. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials)

    1994-09-01

    Samples of unalloyed silicon and aluminum spheroidal graphite cast iron have been studied in the austempered condition. Austempering times of up to 3 h at 400 C for Al SG and 1 h at 350 C for Si SG gives a typical ADI microstructure consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite and stable, high carbon enriched, retained austenite. This has an attractive combination of elongation and strength. For longer austempering times transition carbides are precipitated in the bainitic ferrite, [eta]-carbide in the upper bainitic range, i.e. 400 C for Al SG and 350 C for Si SG, and [epsilon]-carbide in the lower bainite range. Increasing amounts of transition carbide reduce the ductility and produce a mixed mode of fracture. For longer austempering times [chi]-carbide is precipitated at the ferrite/austenite boundaries leading to a more brittle fracture mode.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Austempered Medium-Carbon Spring Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Ho; Bae, Chul-Min; Lee, Jae Sang; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2018-03-01

    Changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of medium-carbon spring steel during austempering were investigated. After austempering for 1 h at 290 °C or 330 °C, the bainite transformation stabilized austenite, and microstructure consisting of bainitic ferrite and austenite could be obtained after final cooling; the retained austenite fraction was smaller in the alloy austempered at 290 °C because carbon redistribution between bainitic ferrite and austenite slowed as the temperature decreased, and thereby gave persistent driving force for the bainite transformation. The products of tensile strength and reduction of area in the austempered alloy were much larger in the austempered steel than in quenched and tempered alloy, mainly because of significant increase in reduction of area in austempered alloy.

  8. Theoretical design and advanced microstructure in super high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, F.G.; Santofimia, M.J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Chao, J.; Garcia de Andres, C.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical design procedure based on phase transformation theory alone has been successfully applied to design steels with a microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Using thermodynamics and kinetics models, a set of four carbide free bainitic steels with a 0.3 wt.% carbon content were designed and manufactured following a thermomechanical treatment consisting of hot rolling and two-step cooling. The designed steels present significant combinations of strength and ductility, with tensile strengths ranging from 1500 to 1800 MPa and total elongations over 15%. However, a carbon content of 0.3 wt.% is still high for in-use properties such as weldability. In this sense, a reduction in the average carbon content of advanced bainitic steels was proposed. Improved bainitic steels with a carbon content of 0.2 wt.% reached combinations of strength and ductility comparable to those in TRIP assisted steels.

  9. Effect of Welding Heat Input on the Microstructure and Toughness in Simulated CGHAZ of 800 MPa-Grade Steel for Hydropower Penstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Ding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate welding heat input for simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ of 800 MPa-grade steel used in hydropower penstocks, the microstructural evolution, hardness, and 50% fraction appearance transition temperature (50% FATT were investigated. The results indicated that when the cooling rate (heat input is reduced (increased, the impact toughness at −20 °C and hardness of the simulated CGHAZ decreased. When the heat input increased from 18 to 81 kJ/cm, the 50% FATT increased from −80 °C to −11 °C. At 18 kJ/cm, the microstructures consisted of lath bainite and granular bainite, but lath bainite decreased with increasing heat input. The increase in the 50% FATT was attributed mainly to an increase in the austenite grain size and effective grain size, and a decrease in lath bainite and the fraction of HAGBs (misorientation: ≥15°.

  10. Effects of deformation and boron on microstructure and continuous cooling transformation in low carbon HSLA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, H.J.; Kang, J.S.; Seo, D.H.; Kang, K.B.; Park, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram and continuous cooled microstructure were investigated for low carbon (0.05 wt.% C) high strength low alloy steels with/without boron. Microstructures observed in continuous cooled specimens were composed of pearlite, quasi-polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, acicular ferrite, bainitic ferrite, lower bainite, and martensite depending on cooling rate and transformation temperature. A rapid cooling rate depressed the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite, which resulted in higher hardness. However, hot deformation slightly increased transformation start temperature, and promoted the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite. Hot deformation also strongly promoted the acicular ferrite formation which did not form under non-deformation conditions. Small boron addition effectively reduced the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite and broadened the cooling rate region for bainitic ferrite and martensite

  11. Obtención y caracterización mecánica de un acero bainítico aleado con boro (10 y 20 ppm)

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Sierra; J. J. Olaya; R. Rodríguez-Baracaldo

    2012-01-01

    Bainitic steels have become one of the metals most widely investigated in the last decade, due to the exceptional combination of mechanical properties. The advantage of such materials is to obtain free carbide structures that combine good mechanical strength with excellent toughness. In this work were established and properly controlled conditions to cast a bainitic steel with 10 and 20 ppm of boron, and subsequently thermomechanical treatment of rolling process between 1000 °C and 1200 °C. T...

  12. Microstructure-Fracture Behavior Relationships of Slot-Welded Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie, Aldinton; Aglan, Heshmat; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-09-01

    Microstructural analyses of the parent pearlitic and bainitic rail steels were performed, and the results were compared with the microstructure of the welded pearlitic and bainitic steels. An increase in the ASTM grain size number of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) for both pearlitic and bainitic slot welds was observed. The microstructural features that were identified in the weldment of both slot-welded steels were very similar. This was expected since the same welding wire was used to weld both rail steels. The weld consisted of mainly ferrite and had similar grain size. The fusion zones of the welded pearlitic and bainitic rail steels were examined after flexural tests to determine if there were any cracks present due to improper or weak fusion. Examination of the entire fusion zone under high optical magnification revealed no cracks, indicating that a perfect fusion was achieved. The three-point flexural behavior of the parent pearlitic and bainitic steels was evaluated and compared with that of the slot-welded steels. It was found that that the welded pearlitic steel has superior fracture resistance properties when compared to the parent pearlitic steel. The average fracture resistance of the parent pearlitic steel was 79 MPa√m compared to 119 MPa√m for the welded pearlitic steel. The slot-welded bainitic steel, however, showed similar fracture resistance properties to the parent bainitic steel with average values of 121 and 128 MPa√m, respectively. The failure mechanism of the welded and parent pearlitic and bainitic steels was also identified. Microvoid coalescence was observed in both welded rail steel samples. This was manifested by dimpled features, which are associated with ductile failure.

  13. Refinement of grain structure in 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Zou Min

    1997-04-01

    The size of prior austenite grains and bainitic colonies of 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel (a reactor pressure vessel steel) after normal heat treatment is measured and its controlling factors are discussed. Results show that low aluminium content can induce serious mixed structure with fine and coarse grains in prior austenite. Fast cooling rate can promote refinement of bainitic colonies. Further refinement of grains can be obtained by inter-critical quenching. (5 figs., 1 tab.)

  14. Modeling and characterization of high carbon nanobainitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet

    Analytical models have been developed for the transformation kinetics, microstructure analysis and the mechanical properties in bainitic steels. Three models are proposed for the bainitic transformation based on the chemical composition and the heat treatment conditions of the steel as inputs: (1) thermodynamic model on kinetics of bainite transformation, (2) improved thermo-statistical model that eliminates the material dependent empirical constants and (3) an artificial neural network model to predict the volume fraction of bainite. Neural networks have also been used to model the hardness of high carbon steels, subjected to isothermal heat treatment. Collectively, for a steel of given composition and subjected to a particular isothermal heat treatment, the models can be used to determine the volume fraction of bainitic phase and the material hardness values. The models have been extensively validated with the experimental data from literature as well as from three new high carbon experimental steels with various alloying elements that were used in the present work. For these experimental steels, data on the volume fraction of phases (via X-ray diffraction), yield strength (via compression tests) and hardness were obtained for various combinations of isothermal heat treatment times and temperatures. The heat treated steels were subjected to compression and hardness tests and the data have been used to develop a new correlation between the yield stress and the hardness. It was observed that while all three experimental steels exhibit a predominantly nanostructured bainite microstructure, the presence of Co and Al in one of the steels accelerated and maximized the nano-bainitic transformation within a reasonably short isothermal transformation time. Excellent yield strength (>1.7 GPa) and good deformability were observed in this steel after isothermal heat treatment at a low temperature of 250°C for a relatively short duration of 24 hours.

  15. Study of the isothermal transformation of ductile iron with 0.5% Cu by electrical resistance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, B.Y.; Chen, E.T.; Lei, T.S. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    1995-10-01

    A computer-controlled system for measuring electrical resistance has been developed and used to study the isothermal transformation of austenite in a ductile iron (3.31% C, 3.12% Si, 0.22% mn, 0.55% Cu). The ability of the technique to follow the isothermal decomposition of austenite was established by measurements on an AISI 4340 steel. The times at which the austenite decomposed to primary ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were accurately detected. In the ductile iron, the formation of pearlite and of bainite was easily detected, and an isothermal transformation diagram was constructed from the results. The temperature range for the formation of bainite is especially important in producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) and was mapped. An initial stage of decomposition of austenite to ferrite and high-carbon austenite is followed by a time delay; then the high-carbon austenite decomposes to bainite. The formation of ADI requires austempering to a structure of ferrite and high-carbon austenite, then quenching to retain this structure, thus avoiding the formation of bainite. This is achieved by isothermal transformation into the time-delay region. For the ductile iron studied here, this time region was about 2.6 h at 400 C and increased to 277 h at 300 C.

  16. Rolling contact fatigue strength of successive austempered ductile cast iron; Chikuji austemper shori kyujo kokuen chutetsu no korogari hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawamoto, A. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1998-04-25

    The holding time of austempered spheroidal graphite cast iron material is allowed to vary in heat treatment especially at the lower bainite transformation zone during the process for the preparation of specimens different from each other in the amount of {gamma}-pool, and the specimens are tested for their rolling contact fatigue strength. The effects of the amount of {gamma}-pool, roughness of the bainite structure, and work-hardening, on the rolling fatigue strength are also studied. Findings obtained as the result of experiment are stated below. In the case of an austempered ductile cast iron specimen containing a {gamma}-pool amount that occupies a high rate of 6.52%, the rolling fatigue withstanding limit exhibits a relatively high level of 1310MPa, which becomes approximately 1245MPa when the holding time is extended in the lower bainite transformation zone. The limit rises to approximately 1320MPa at a stage where the {gamma}-pool virtually disappears. In a successive austempering treatment process that aims at improving on machinability and at allowing sufficient fatigue strength to be maintained, it is necessary to allow the holding time in the bainite zone to be long enough for the {gamma}-pool to disappear and for the lower bainite structure to grow sufficiently. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Effect of austenitization conditions on kinetics of isothermal transformation of austenite of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, E.V.; Bayazitov, V.M.; Abramov, O.V.; Kozlova, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of austenization of kinetics of pearlite and bainite transformations for steels with different carbon content differing by alloying character and degree has been investigated. Austenization temperature increase is shown to leads to retardation of ferrite-pearlite transformation in low- and medium-carbon alloyed steels. Step-like holding in the region of austenite stable state (850, 950 deg) after high-temperature heating (1100 deg C) increases the rate of transformation partially recovering its kinetics and decomposition velocity after low-temperature heating in steels alloyed advantageously with carbide-forming elements (08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3) and does not affect kinetics in the 35Kh, 30KhGSN2A, 45N5 steels. Increase of heating temperature and growth of an austenite grain cause considerable acceleration of bainite transformation, increase of the temperaure of bainite transformation beginning and increase of the transformation amplitude in the 08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3 steels and affect weakly kinetics in steels with mixed alloying (30KhGSN2A) or low-alloy one (35Kh). The bainite transformation rate in the 45N5 steelite does not depend on austenization. The effect of additional acceleration of bainite transformation as a result holding after high-temperature heating in those steels, where activation of transformation occurs with increase of heating temperature

  18. Effect of Austempering Time on the Microstructure and Carbon Partitioning of Ultrahigh Strength Steel 56NiCrMoV7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanshun Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh strength steel 56NiCrMoV7 was austempered at 270 °C for different durations in order to investigate the microstructure evolution, carbon partitioning behaviour and hardness property. Detailed microstructure has been characterised using optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. A newly developed X-ray diffraction method has been employed to dissolve the bainitic/martensitic ferrite phase as two sub-phases of different tetragonal ratios, which provides quantitative analyses of the carbon partitioning between the resultant ferrites and the retained austenite. The results show that, a short-term austempering treatment was in the incubation period of the bainite transformation, which resulted in maximum hardness being equivalent to the oil-quenching treatment. The associated microstructure comprises fine carbide-free martensitic and bainitic ferrites of supersaturated carbon contents as well as carbon-rich retained austenite. In particular, the short-term austempering treatment helped prevent the formation of lengthy martensitic laths as those being found in the microstructure of oil-quenched sample. When the austempering time was increased from 20 to 80 min, progressive decrease of the hardness was associated with the evolution of the microstructure, including progressive coarsening of bainitic ferrite, carbide precipitating inside high-carbon bainitic ferrite and its subsequent decarbonisation.

  19. Carbon concentration measurements by atom probe tomography in the ferritic phase of high-silicon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rementeria, Rosalia; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Aranda, Maria M.; Guo, Wei; Jimenez, Jose A.; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies using atom probe tomography (APT) show that bainitic ferrite formed at low temperature contains more carbon than what is consistent with the paraequilibrium phase diagram. However, nanocrystalline bainitic ferrite exhibits a non-homogeneous distribution of carbon atoms in arrangements with specific compositions, i.e. Cottrell atmospheres, carbon clusters, and carbides, in most cases with a size of a few nanometers. The ferrite volume within a single platelet that is free of these carbon-enriched regions is extremely small. Proximity histograms can be compromised on the ferrite side, and a great deal of care should be taken to estimate the carbon content in regions of bainitic ferrite free from carbon agglomeration. For this purpose, APT measurements were first validated for the ferritic phase in a pearlitic sample and further performed for the bainitic ferrite matrix in high-silicon steels isothermally transformed between 200 °C and 350 °C. Additionally, results were compared with the carbon concentration values derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses considering a tetragonal lattice and previous APT studies. The present results reveal a strong disagreement between the carbon content values in the bainitic ferrite matrix as obtained by APT and those derived from XRD measurements. Those differences have been attributed to the development of carbon-clustered regions with an increased tetragonality in a carbon-depleted matrix.

  20. Obtención y caracterización mecánica de un acero bainítico aleado con boro (10 y 20 ppm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bainitic steels have become one of the metals most widely investigated in the last decade, due to the exceptional combination of mechanical properties. The advantage of such materials is to obtain free carbide structures that combine good mechanical strength with excellent toughness. In this work were established and properly controlled conditions to cast a bainitic steel with 10 and 20 ppm of boron, and subsequently thermomechanical treatment of rolling process between 1000 °C and 1200 °C. The microstructure characterization was carried out by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical characterization by hardness, strength-strain and toughness test at room temperature. The results show an ultimate strength of 1800 MPa and elongations of 16%. Also, it is noticeable increase in mechanical properties with increasing boron content in the steels. Probably boron acts as grain refiner and decrease the nucleation of the ferrite grain on austenite boundaries, improving the formation of Bainite.

  1. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation, propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix: crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite; crack propagates along the boundary of ferrite朼ustenite in bainitic ferrite laths; crack propagates into bainitic ferrite laths; crack nucleates and propagates in the high carbon brittle plate shape martensite which is transformed from some blocky retained austenite due to plastic deformation. Based on the observation and analysis of microfracture processes, a schematic diagram of the crack nucleation and propagation process of high silicon cast steel is proposed

  2. Application of Moessbauer effect in the study of austenite retained in low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de; Silva, E.G. da

    1979-01-01

    Moessbauer effect measurements of two samples of low carbon alloy having micro-structure of granular bainite type and martensite type have been done. The concentration of the retained austenite in both samples was determined by Moessbauer effect and x-rays there, being agreement for the higher austenite content sample. Concentration of carbon in the MA (Martensite - Austenite) constituents of bainite is also ditermined, the results being in agreement with metallographic considerations. Carbon enrichments are shown as responsible by the stabilization of the austenite in the granular bainite. Spectra of both samples present three magnetic configurations for α-iron with medium magnetic fields iqual to 335, 307 and 280 KOe. (A.R.H.) [pt

  3. The influence of thermo-mechanical processing on the microstructure of steel 20MoCrS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandova, D.; Meyer, L.W.; Masek, B.; Novy, Z.; Kesner, D.; Motycka, P.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 0.22%C-0.87%Mn-0.73Cr-0.40Mo steel was investigated. The transformation CCT diagram and CCCT diagram were determined by dilatometric measurements. Hot deformation before austenite decomposition slightly accelerates ferritic transformation, retards bainitic reactions and decreases the bainite start temperature. Special methods of TMP were performed consisting of hot and/or warm compression deformations and dwell at an elevated temperature. The microstructure was studied using metallography and transmission electron microscopy. The compression deformation results in a remarkable refinement of the microstructure and an improvement of mechanical properties. Warm deformation followed by dwell at 470 deg. C was found to be suitable for an increase of tensile strength and notch toughness; the corresponding microstructure is a fine lath-like bainitic microstructure with a relatively homogeneous distribution of carbide particles

  4. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  5. Effects of N and B on continuous cooling transformation diagrams of Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhui, Wang; Bo, Liao; Ligang, Liu; Xianfeng, Li; Hang, Su; Caifu, Yang; Qingfeng, Wang

    2012-05-01

    Effects of the single addition of nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and the combined addition of N and B on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams and properties of the three Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels were investigated by means of a combined method of dilatometry and metallography. Microstructures observed in continuous cooled specimens were composed of pearlite (P), quasi-polygonal ferrite (QPF), granular bainite (GB), acicular ferrite (AF), lath-like bainite (LB) and martensite (M) depending on the cooling rates and transformation temperatures. Single addition of 12 ppm B effectively reduced the formation of QPF and broadened the cooling rate region for LB and M. Added N makes the action of B invalid and the QPF region was prominently broadened, and even though the cooling rate is higher than 50°C s-1, it cannot obtain full bainite.

  6. Influence of quantity of non-martensite products of transformation on resistance to fracture of improving structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Golovanenko, Yu.S.; Zikeev, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    18KhNMFA, low-carbon, alloyed steel and 42KhMFA medium-carbon, alloyed steel have been examined. For the purpose of obtaining different structures in hardening the steel, different cooling rates, different temperatures and isothermal holding times are applied. The following has been shown: on tempering to the same hardness (HV 300), the presence of non-martensite structures in hardened state does not practically influence the standard mechanical properties of steel (sigmasub(B), sigmasub(0.2), delta, PSI). The resistance of steel to the brittle failure is enhanced by the uniform, fine-disperse distribution of the carbide phase in the structure of lower bainite (up to 80 % bainite in martensite for 42KhMF steel to be improved), as well as strongly fragmented packages of rack martensite-bainite (up to 50 % lower bainite in martensite of 18KhNMFA steel). The formation of the upper bainite in the structure of the hardened steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMF results on tempering in the formation of coarse, non-uniform, branched carbide inclusions, and this, in its turn, leads to raising the cold-shortness threshold and to lowering the amount of work as required for propagation of a crack. The presence of ferritic-pearlitic structures in the structural steels hardened to martensite and bainite results in reducing the resistance of steel to the brittle failure; the presence of every 10 % ferritic-pearlitic component in martensite of the structural steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMFA to be thermally improved, raises T 50 by 8 deg and 20 deg C, respectively

  7. Welding heat effect on structure and properties of 25Kh2NMFA steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaets, A.A.; Levenberg, N.E.; Romanenchuk, N.V.; Medvedik, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of welding heating on the structure and properties of rotor steel 25Kh2NMFA as well as metal tendency for brittle fracture parts of heat affected zone (HAZ) are reproduced by means of imitation of welding thermal cycle (WTC). It is shown that welding heating of steel 25Kh2NMFA result in a considerable strengthening of metal owing to formation of bainitic, bainitic-martensitic and martensitic structures and sharp decrease of plasticity characteristics and impact toughness. With an increase in the cooling rate after heating up to 1400 deg C both strength and impact toughness increase which is related to the formation of homogeneous martensite

  8. Liability and lifetime of metallic components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, B.

    2009-12-01

    In this overview of his research activity, the author describes the ductile damage process in structures subjected to high rate loadings, notably for tank steels and gas pipeline high resistance steels. Then, he describes the cleavage fracture process in bainitic steels by means of a local fracture approach. He proposes a modelling of the Charpy v-notch impact test of the resilience-to-toughness transition during the ductile-brittle transition for bainitic steels, the developed method being used to interpret resilience and toughness tests performed on an irradiated material. He finally discusses these works, describes the current ones, and discusses research perspectives within his Nuclear Material Department

  9. Empirical Formulae for The Calculation of Austenite Supercooled Transformation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzaska J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical formulae for the calculation of austenite supercooled transformation temperatures, basing on the chemical composition, austenitising temperature and cooling rate. The multiple regression method was used. Four equations were established allowing to calculate temperature of the start area of ferrite, perlite, bainite and martensite at the given cooling rate. The calculation results obtained do not allow to determine the cooling rate range of ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic and martensite transformations. Classifiers based on logistic regression or neural network were established to solve this problem.

  10. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Structure In X37CrMoV5-l Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the thermal stability of the nanostructure produced in X37CrMoV5-1 tool steel by austempering heat treatment consisted of austenitization and isothermal quenching at the range of the bainitic transformation. The nanostructure was composed of bainitic ferrite plates of nanometric thickness separated by thin layers of retained austenite. It was revealed, that the annealing at the temperature higher than temperature of austempering led to formation of cementite precipitations. At the initial stage of annealing cementite precipitations occurred in the interfaces between ferritic bainite and austenite. With increasing temperature of annealing, the volume fraction and size of cementite precipitations also increased. Simultaneously fine spherical Fe7C3 carbides appeared. At the highest annealing temperature the large, spherical Fe7C3 carbides as well as cementite precipitates inside the ferrite grains were observed. Moreover the volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and of freshly formed martensite increased in steel as a result of retained austenite transformation during cooling down to room temperature.

  11. Mössbauer studies on an AISI 1137 type steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An AISI 1137 type medium carbon steel was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. This steel in as received state at room temperature was ferritic. Different heat treatments on related steel exhibited different microstructures such as pearlite and bainite. Also magnetism of these ...

  12. Mechanické vlastnosti a lomové chování bainitické oceli na odlitky a její využití v srdcovkách výhybek

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzmann, Miloslav; Dlouhý, Ivo; Zbořil, J.

    č. 16 (2003), s. 81-96 ISSN 1211-2321 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0745; GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : bainitic steel * fracture toughness * points frog Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  13. Mechanické vlastnosti a lomové chování oceli na odlitky s bainitickou strukturou a její využití v srdcovkách výhybek

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzmann, Miloslav; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2003), s. 8-20 ISSN 0018-8069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0342; GA ČR GA106/02/0745; GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : bainitic steel * points frog * fracture behaviour Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  14. Lokální mechanické vlastnosti svarového spoje perlitické a bainitické kolejnicové oceli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Hadraba, Hynek; Zbořil, J.

    -, č. 37 (2006), s. 15-19 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : pearlitic steel * bainitic steel * weld point Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  15. Caractérisation des fissures secondaires dans un acier faiblement allié par EBSD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haušild, P.; Nohava, Jiří; Bompard, P.

    s. 141 ISSN 0035-1563. [Société francaise de Métallurgie et de Matériaux. 29.10.2001-31.10.2001, Paříž] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : EBSD, secondary cracks, bainitic steel Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  16. The Effect of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Cast Irons and ADI with Various Carbon Equivalent and Graphite Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Gi; Lee, Kyung Sub

    1989-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of cast irons, flake, CV graphite cast iron ductile iron and ADI have been investigated. The effects of various carbon equivalent, graphite morphology and matrix have been analyzed to determine the predominant factor which influences on the hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of various carbon equivalent on the embrittlement was little in the similar graphite morphology. The embrittlement of ferrite matrix changed by heat treatment was less than that of pearlite matrix. In the case of ADI, the tendency of hydrogen embrittlement of lower bainite matrix was less remarkable than that of upper banite matrix. As the result of hydrogen charging, the tendency of interface decohesion between matrix-graphite was increased in flake G.C.I., and the trend from ductile fracture mode to brittle fracture mode was observed in CV G.C.I and ductile iron. Lower bainite in ADI showed the ductile fracture mode. Hydrogen solubility of lower bainite was higher than that of upper bainite

  17. Effect of microstructural types on toughness and microstructural optimization of ultra-heavy steel plate: EBSD analysis and microscopic fracture mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Yu, Hao, E-mail: yuhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China); Wang, Shaoyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijng 100083 (China)

    2016-03-21

    The uniformity of toughness along thickness direction has long been the critical problem for producing ultra-heavy steel plate. To clarify the rule and mechanism of the influence of microstructures on toughness, different microstructures and their mixtures have been obtained through various heat treatment processes. The microstructures and substructures were characterized by means of optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, the correlations between misorientation, grain size, microscopic fracture propagation and toughness have been studied in detail using electron backscatter diffraction. Results suggest that after tempering, lath bainite can achieve better toughness property than martensite, whereas granular bainite is detrimental for toughness. Note that firstly generated lath bainite can effectively refine subsequent martensitic packets and blocks, and increase barriers for fracture propagation. Compared with single-phase martensite microstructure, the mixture of martensite+bainite obtains finer substructure and more percentage of large misorientation, which are favorable for hindering the propagation of microcrack, meanwhile it is an ideal microstructural type to achieve the optimal combination of toughness and strength. Besides, functional mechanism of packet boundaries and block boundaries for hindering crack propagation is different, as it is more difficult for crack propagation to bridge between different lattice planes than between different crystallographic orientations.

  18. Dislocation structures in 16MND5 pressure vessel steel strained in uniaxial tension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Robertson, Ch.; Marini, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 342, - (2005), s. 35-41 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bainitic steels * dislocation structure * low temperature deformation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  19. An Investigation of Metallurgical Factors Which Affect Fracture Toughness of Ultra-High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology, while both Charpy V-notch impact tests and plane strain fracture toughness...correlation between the Charpy impact test results and the fracture toughness results.... tests were used to determine the fracture properties. The normal commercial heat treatment resulted in the formation of some bainite in all the alloys

  20. Mössbauer studies on an AISI 1137 type steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. An AISI 1137 type medium carbon steel was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. This steel in as received state at room temperature was ferritic. Different heat treatments on related steel exhibited different microstructures such as pearlite and bainite. Also magnetism of.

  1. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstraße 8 – 9, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Kannengiesser, Thomas [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Materials and Joining Technology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitetsplatz 2, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results.

  2. Influence of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon High Silicon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaksha, P. A.; Ravishankar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of austempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon high silicon steel was evaluated. The test specimens were machined from the as-received steel and were first austenitised at 900 °C for 45 minutes, followed by austempering heat treatment in salt bath at various temperatures 300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C for a fixed duration of two hours, after that those specimens were air-cooled to room temperature. The characterization studies were carried out using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and then correlated to the hardness and tensile properties. Results indicate that, the specimens austempered at lower temperature i.e. at 300 °C, which offered high hardness, tensile strength and lower ductility (1857 MPa and 13.3 %) due to the presence of acicular bainite i.e. lower bainite and also some martensite in the microstructure. At 350 °C, reduction in the tensile strength and hardness was observed, but comparatively higher ductility, which was favored by the presence of bainite laths i.e. upper bainitic structure along with higher retained austenite content. Finally at 400 °C, reduction in both ductility and tensile strength was observed, which is due to the precipitation of carbides between the banite laths, however good strain hardening response was observed at austempering temperatures of 350 °C and 400 °C.

  3. ESBD analysis of secondary clevage cracks in a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří; Haušild, P.; Karlík, M.; Bompard, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2002), s. 211-217 ISSN 1044-5803 Grant - others:Barrande(XX) 2001-005-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : EBSD, cleavage cracks, bainitic steel Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.423, year: 2002

  4. Dislocation structures in 16MND5 pressure vessel steel strained in uniaxial tension at -196 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Robertson, Christian; Marini, Bernard

    96 2005, č. 8 (2005), s. 909-912 ISSN 0044-3093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Keywords : Bainitic steel * Dislocation structure * Tension test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2005

  5. Influence of Composition and Hot Rolling on the Subsurface Microstructure and Bendability of Ultrahigh-Strength Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijalainen, Antti Juhani; Liimatainen, Mia; Kesti, Vili; Heikkala, Jouko; Liimatainen, Tommi; Porter, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of subsurface microstructure on the bendability of three 8-mm-thick low-alloyed hot-rolled and direct-quenched ultrahigh-strength strip steels with yield strengths in the range 800 to 1100 MPa has been investigated. Rolling to lower finish rolling temperatures increased austenite pancaking, leading to the formation of ferritic/granular bainitic subsurface microstructures that are softer than the upper bainitic microstructures found with higher finish rolling temperature. In addition, increased austenite pancaking was found to increase the intensities of {112}α and {110}α to {110}α texture components in the surface layers, especially in upper bainitic microstructures. It is shown that the bendability of ultrahigh-strength steels is governed by subsurface hardness and crystallographic texture. Bendability was found to be related to mean microhardness 0.1 to 0.4 mm below the surface, such that excellent bendability was achieved with a relatively soft subsurface layer down to a depth of 0.4 mm, i.e., 5 pct of the sheet thickness. Intense {112}α texture combined with upper bainite containing MA islands in the subsurface region is shown to be detrimental to bendability when the bend axis is perpendicular to the rolling direction probably as a result of geometrical softening combined with high hardness.

  6. The Effect of Two-Step Heat Treatment Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 42SiMn Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kučerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Medium-carbon steel 42SiMn (0.4C-0.6Mn-2Si-0.03Nb was used for a two-step heat treatment consisting of a soaking hold and an annealing hold at bainite transformation temperature. Various heating temperatures, cooling rates, and bainitic hold temperatures were applied to the steel to obtain microstructures typical for TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity steels. TRIP steels utilize the positive effects of a multiphase microstructure with retained austenite, creating a good combination of strength and total elongation and an excellent deep-drawing ability. Typical microstructures consist of ferrite, bainite, and 10–15% of retained austenite. In this work, tensile strengths in the region of 887–1063 MPa were achieved with total elongation A5mm of 26–47%, and the final microstructures contained 4–16% of retained austenite. The most suitable microstructure and the best combination of high strength and total elongation were achieved for the processing with intercritical heating temperature of 850 °C and cooling at 30 °C/s to the bainitic hold of 400 °C. Very fine pearlite persisted in the microstructures, even after applying a cooling rate of 50 °C/s, however these small areas with extremely fine laths did not prevent the retention of up to 16% of retained austenite, and high total elongation A5mm above 40% was still reached for these microstructures.

  7. Creep and microstructural processes in a low-alloy 2.25%Cr1.6%W steel (ASTM Grade 23)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchařová, Květa; Sklenička, Václav; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, NOV (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bainitic steel * Low- alloy steel * Creep strength * Microstructural changes * Carbide precipitation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2015

  8. Influence of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of cooling rate on the structure and properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF cast steel. The material for research was a section taken out from an outer cylinder of a steam turbine body after about 250 000 hours of operation at the temperature of 535°C and pressure 9 MPa. The investigated cast steel was subjected to heat treatment which consisted in cooling at the rates corresponding to the processes, such as: bainitic hardening, normalizing and full annealing. Tempering after the process of cooling from austenitizing temperature was carried out at the temperatures of: 700, 720 and 740°C. Performed research has proved that structures obtained after bainitic hardening and normalizing are characterized by a large strength margin which allows to apply high temperatures of tempering. It has been shown that the cast steel of bainitic structure, with similar mechanical properties as the cast steel of bainitic – ferritic structure, is characterized by almost twice as high impact energy. Full annealing and tempering of the examined cast steel ensures only the required impact strength, with mechanical properties comparable to those after service.

  9. Transformation Characteristics of Ferrite/Carbide Aggregate in Continuously Cooled, Low Carbon-Manganese Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, S. F.; Thewlis, G.

    2014-02-01

    Transformation characteristics and morphological features of ferrite/carbide aggregate (FCA) in low carbon-manganese steels have been investigated. Work shows that FCA has neither the lamellae structure of pearlite nor the lath structure of bainite and martensite. It consists of a fine dispersion of cementite particles in a smooth ferrite matrix. Carbide morphologies range from arrays of globular particles or short fibers to extended, branched, and densely interconnected fibers. Work demonstrates that FCA forms over similar cooling rate ranges to Widmanstätten ferrite. Rapid transformation of both phases occurs at temperatures between 798 K and 973 K (525 °C and 700 °C). FCA reaction is not simultaneous with Widmanstätten ferrite but occurs at temperatures intermediate between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite. Austenite carbon content calculations verify that cementite precipitation is thermodynamically possible at FCA reaction temperatures without bainite formation. The pattern of precipitation is confirmed to be discontinuous. CCT diagrams have been constructed that incorporate FCA. At low steel manganese content, Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite bay sizes are significantly reduced so that large amounts of FCA are formed over a wide range of cooling rates.

  10. Size Effects in Residual Stress Formation during Quenching of Cylinders Made of Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schemmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the residual stress formation and the evolution of phase fractions during the quenching process of cylindrical specimens of different sizes. The cylinders are made of hot-work tool steel grade X36CrMoV5-1. A phase transformation kinetic model in combination with a thermomechanical model is used to describe the quenching process. Two phase transformations are considered for developing a modelling scheme: the austenite-to-martensite transformation and the austenite-to-bainite transformation. The focus lies on the complex austenite-to-bainite transformation which can be observed at low cooling rates. For an appropriate description of the phase transformation behaviour nucleation and growth of bainite are taken into account. The thermomechanical model contains thermophysical data and flow curves for each phase. Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP is modelled by considering phase dependent Greenwood-Johnson parameters for martensite and bainite, respectively. The influence of component size on residual stress formation is investigated by the finite element package Abaqus. Finally, for one cylinder size the simulation results are validated by X-ray stress measurements.

  11. Intergranular brittle fracture of a low alloy steel induced by grain boundary segregation of impurities: influence of the microstructure; Rupture intergranulaire fragile d'un acier faiblement allie induite par la segregation d'impuretes aux joints de grains: influence de la microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoul, St

    1999-07-01

    The study contributes to improve the comprehension of intergranular embrittlement induced by the phosphorus segregation along prior austenitic grain boundaries of low alloy steels used in pressurized power reactor vessel. A part of this study was performed using a A533 steel which contains chemical fluctuations (ghost lines) with two intensities. Axi-symmetrically notched specimens were tested and intergranular brittle de-cohesions were observed in the ghost lines. The fracture initiation sites observed on fracture surfaces were identified as MnS inclusions. A bimodal statistic obtained in a probabilistic model of the fracture is explained by the double population of ghost lines' intensities. A metallurgical study was performed on the same class of steel by studying the influence of the microstructure on the susceptibility to temper embrittlement. Brittle fracture properties of such microstructures obtained by dilatometric experiments were tested on sub-sized specimens to measure the V-notched fracture toughness. Fraction areas of brittle fracture modes were determined on surface fractures. A transition of the fracture mode with the microstructure is observed. It is shown that tempered microstructures of martensite and lower bainite are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than tempered upper bainitic microstructure. The intergranular fracture is the most brittle mode. The analysis of crystalline mis-orientations shows a grain boundary structure appreciably more coherent for tempered microstructures of martensite and lower bainite. The higher density of randomgrain boundaries is susceptible to drag the phosphorus in the upper bainitic matrix and to make the quantity of free phosphorus decreasing. Microstructure observations show a difference in the size and the spatial distribution of carbides, essentially cementite, between tempered martensite and upper bainite. It can explain the bigger susceptibility of this last microstructure to cleavage mode

  12. Abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydogan, M.; Koekden, M.U.; Cimenoglu, H. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science Engineering Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons was investigated. In the as cast condition, GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons were having ferritic and pearlitic matrix structures, respectively. Austempering at 250 C after austenitisation at 900 C for 100 minutes produced bainitic matrix structure in both of the investigated ductile irons. Abrasive wear tests performed by rubbing the as cast and austempered specimens on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasive bands, revealed that austempering treatment improves abrasion resistance about 10-70% depending on the abrasive particle size and composition of the base iron. In the as cast condition, pearlitic GGG 80 grade ductile iron, has higher wear resistance than ferritic GGG 50 grade ductile iron. In the austempered condition GGG 50 and GGG 80 grade ductile irons which have bainitic matrix structure, exhibit almost similar wear resistance. (orig.)

  13. Influence of microstructure on fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.P.; Putatunda, S.K. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1997-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron. Austempered ductile iron (ADI) alloyed with nickel, copper, and molybdenum was austenitized and subsequently austempered over a range of temperatures to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized through optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Plane strain fracture toughness of all these materials was determined and was correlated with the microstructure. The results of the present investigation indicate that the lower bainitic microstructure results in higher fracture toughness than upper bainitic microstructure. Both volume fraction of retained austenite and its carbon content influence the fracture toughness. The retained austenite content of 25 vol pct was found to provide the optimum fracture toughness. It was further concluded that the carbon content of the retained austenite should be as high as possible to improve fracture toughness.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical characterization of friction stir welded high strength low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Dinaharan, I.; Kumar, Ravi; Akinlabi, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technique to join HSLA steels without the problems encountered during fusion based welding processes. In the present work, 3 mm thick HSLA plates were successfully welded using FSW. A tool made of tungsten-rhenium alloy was used in this work. The relationship between microstructure and tensile strength was studied under various welding conditions i.e. change in traverse speed (57–97 mm/min). The microstructure of the weld nugget revealed the presence of upper bainite and fine ferrite phases. The amount of upper bainite reduced with increase in traverse speed. EBSD images showed a reducing trend for grain size. The details of hardness, tensile strength and bending test were reported.

  15. Wear Resistance of Austempered Ductile Iron with Nanosized Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleicheva, J. K.; Mishev, V.

    2018-01-01

    The wear resistance, microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with nanosized additives of cubic boron nitride cBN are investigated. Samples of ductile iron are put under austhempering at the following conditions: heating at 900°С, 1 h and isothermal retention at 280оС, 2 h and 380°С, 2 h with the aim to achieve a lower bainitic structure and an upper bainitic structure. The experimental wear testing of austempered ductile irons is performed in friction conditions of a fixed abrasive by a cinematic scheme „pin - disc” using an accelerated testing method and device. The microstructure of the ADI is investigated by metallographic and X-Ray analyses. The Vickers hardness testing and impact strength examination are carried out. The influence of the nanosized additives of cBN on the wear resistance, microstructure, impact strength and hardness of the ADI is investigated.

  16. Fatigue of Austempered Ductile Iron with Two Strength Grades in Very High Cycle Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwang; Li, Wei; Song, Qingpeng; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Liantao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, Austempered ductile irons (ADIs) with two different strength grades were produced and the fatigue properties were measured at 109 cycles. The results show that the S-N curves give a typical step-wise shape and there is no fatigue limit in the very high cycle fatigue regime. The two grades ADI have the similar fracture behaviors and fatigue failure can initiate from defects at specimen surface and subsurface zone. On the fracture surfaces of some specimens, the `granular-bright-facet' area with rich carbon distribution is observed in the vicinity of the defect. The microstructure affects the crack behaviors at the early propagation stage. The ADI with upper and lower bainite shows higher fatigue strength compared with the ADI with coarse upper bainite.

  17. The Influence of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Machinability of a Prehardened Mold Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseiny, Hamed; Caballero, Francisca G.; M'Saoubi, Rachid; Högman, Berne; Weidow, Jonathan; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    2015-05-01

    The machinability performance of a modified AISI P20 steel, heat treated to have the same hardness but three different microstructures, lower bainite, tempered martensite, and primary spheroidized carbides in a tempered martensite matrix, was studied. The microstructures were characterized using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties were compared by means of tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests. The influence of microstructure and the resultant mechanical properties on machinability was studied in the context of single tooth end milling operation. The results showed that the material containing primary spheroidized carbides exhibited a superior machinability at the expense of a marginal loss of tensile strength and impact toughness, with comparable yield strength to that of the material containing tempered martensite. By contrast, the material with bainitic microstructure showed the lowest yield strength and the poorest machinability performance while having the highest uniform elongation.

  18. Incubation and development of corrosion in microstructures of low alloy steels under a thin liquid film of NaCl aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Shan-Wu; Guo, Jia; Liu, Zhi-Yong; He, Xin-Lai

    2010-12-01

    Electrochemical measurement, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of some low alloy steels. The steels were held under a thin liquid film of 0.5wt% NaCl aqueous solution. It is found that the steels with the same chemical composition but different microstructures exhibit obviously different corrosion behaviors. However, the corrosion behavior of the steels with different compositions but the same microstructures may be similar in the present investigation. The corrosion rate of bainite is slower than that of ferrite and pearlite. The corrosion products of bainite are uniform and fine. The size of carbon-rich phases produces a great impact on the corrosion of the steels, whether in the initial stage or in the long term. It is easy to induce large pitting for carbon-rich phases with large size, which damages the compactness of the rust layer.

  19. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of structural steels, including steels with modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Nikiforow, K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the low alloy ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels mostly undergo the general corrosion, pitting corrosion occurring under certain conditions jeopardizes the safety of installations, causing perforation of walls or initiation of crack. On the basis of electrochemical, corrosion and microscopic examinations, the conditions simulating typical industrial corrosion environments, containing Cl - ions have been selected, to which the parts of machines, devices and installation are subjected. The test parameters provide the preferential pitting corrosion without prevailing general corrosion, and provide the similar type of corrosion of different kinds of ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels, including steels with modified surface layer. The proposed express method allows to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on susceptibility to pitting corrosion in environments containing Cl - ions. The method may be applied for the proper selection of materials exploited under pitting corrosion conditions and for preparation of precorroded samples for mechanical testing. (author)

  20. Effect of welding parameters on the mechanical properties of GMA-welded HY-80 steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmusoglu, Senol [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Tuerker, Mehmet [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). ISF - Welding and Joining Inst.; Tosun, Murat [Gedik Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    In this publication, investigations of HY-80 steels joined by gas metal arc welding by using different welding parameters are described. Different samples obtained from the welded joints were subjected to mechanical testing by means of tensile, hardness and impact toughness tests. The tensile test results showed that the strength of weld metal and heat affected zone were higher than of base metal. Similar Charpy impact toughness test results were obtained for weld metal and heat affected zone. Weld metal hardness was almost similar to the base metal hardness, nevertheless, the heat affected zone indicated higher values. The base metal has ferritic-perlitic structure with fine grains. Martensite needles and bainite are seen in the heat affected zone. Weld metal has martensite needles, partial bainite and residual austenite.

  1. Influence of Subsurface Structure on the Linear Reciprocating Sliding Wear Behavior of Steels with Different Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.

    2014-12-01

    The present work investigates the influence of subsurface microstructure on the linear reciprocating sliding wear behavior of a number of steels with ferrite-pearlitic, pearlitic, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures under dry unlubricated condition. The change in the underlying microstructure with depth from worn-out surface of steel sample intimately relates to the associated hardness variation and wear volume. The present paper is not about comparison of wear resistance of steels with different structures; rather it is on mutual influence of wear and substructure for individual microstructure. Inherent toughness of the matrix and ability of microstructural components to get deformed under the reciprocating action of the ball decide the wear resistance of the steels. Bainite has good amount of stability to plastic deformation. Ferrite shows severe banding due to wear action. Work hardening renders pearlite to be wear resistant. Temperature rise and associated tempering of martensite are observed during wear.

  2. Nanocrystalline Steels’ Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement in X37CrMoV5-1 steel with two different microstructures: a nanocrystalline carbide-free bainite and tempered martensite. The nanobainitic structure was obtained by austempering at the bainitic transformation zone. It was found, that after hydrogen charging, both kinds of microstructure exhibit increased yield strength and strong decrease in ductility. It has been however shown that the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of X37CrMoV5-1 steel with nanobainitic structure is higher as compared to the tempered martensite. After hydrogen charging the ductility of austempered steel is slightly higher than in case of quenched and tempered (Q&T steel. This effect was interpreted as a result of phase composition formed after different heat treatments.

  3. High Versatility of Niobium Alloyed AHSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučerová L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of processing parameters on the final microstructure and properties of advanced high strength CMnSiNb steel was investigated. Several processing strategies with various numbers of deformation steps and various cooling schedules were carried out, namely heat treatment without deformation, conventional quenching and TRIP steel processing with bainitic hold or continuous cooling. Obtained multiphase microstructures consisted of the mixture of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and M-A constituent. They possessed ultimate tensile strength in the range of 780-970 MPa with high ductility A5mm above 30%. Volume fraction of retained austenite was for all the samples around 13%. The only exception was reference quenched sample with the highest strength 1186 MPa, lowest ductility A5mm = 20% and only 4% of retained austenite.

  4. Application of Moessbauer effect to the study of austenite retained in low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de; Silva, E.G. da

    1979-01-01

    Moessbauer effect measurements were performed in two samples of low carbon, low alloy steels, one with a bainite granular microstructure and the other a martensitic one. The concentration of the retained austenite was determined in both samples by Moessbauer spectrometry and X radiation, a very good agreement for the sample with a greater austenite content having been observed. From the assumption that the carbon atoms in the f.c.c. matrix repel one another due to Coulomb interactions, giving origin to quadrupolar interactions, it was possible to determine carbon concentration in the MA (Martensite Austenite) components of bainite, the results being in good agreement with the one obtained from metallographic considerations. (I.C.R.) [pt

  5. Reasonable Temperature Schedules for Cold or Hot Charging of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Wen, Jin; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2013-12-01

    Some continuously cast steel slabs are sensitive to transverse fracture problems during transportation or handling away from their storage state, while some steel slabs are sensitive to surface transverse cracks during the following rolling process in a certain hot charging temperature range. It is revealed that the investigated steel slabs with high fracture tendency under room cooling condition always contain pearlite transformation delayed elements, which lead to the internal brittle bainitic structure formation, while some microalloyed steels exhibit high surface crack susceptibility to hot charging temperatures due to carbonitride precipitation. According to the calculated internal cooling rates and CCT diagrams, the slabs with high fracture tendency during cold charging should be slowly cooled after cutting to length from hot strand or charged to the reheating furnace directly above their bainite formation temperatures. Based on a thermodynamic calculation for carbonitride precipitation in austenite, the sensitive hot charging temperature range of related steels was revealed for the determination of reasonable temperature schedules.

  6. The Effects of Finish Rolling Temperature and Niobium Microalloying on the Microstructure and Properties of a Direct Quenched High-Strength Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijalainen A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprehends the effects of finish rolling temperature (FRT and Nb-microalloying on the microstructural evolution and resultant properties of a low carbon direct quenched steel in the yield strength category of ≥900 MPa. Results indicate that a decrease in FRT close to Ar3 temperature significantly influenced the microstructure following phase transformation, especially at the subsurface (~50-400 μm of the rolled strip. On decreasing the FRT, the subsurface microstructure revealed a fine mixture of ferrite and bainite obviously as a result of strain-induced transformation, whereas the structure at the centreline remained essentially martensitic. Further, Nb-microalloying promoted the formation of ferrite and bainite even at higher FRTs, thus influencing the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the hot-rolled strips were further corroborated with the aid of CCT diagrams.

  7. Study on the welding continuous cooling transformation and weldability of SA508Gr4 steel for nuclear pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Chen, Zhongyi [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Material and Metallurgy; Kang, Xiaolan [Baotou Vocational and Technical College (China)

    2017-02-15

    SA508Gr4 is a newly developed high-strength steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Its welding characteristics remain largely unexplored. In this work, the simulated heat affected zone continuous cooling transformation (SH-CCT) diagram of SA508Gr4 steel was constructed and the high-temperature cooling phase compositions and the properties of the heat affected zone (HAZ) were characterized using dilatometry and microscopic tests. The results show that the phase transformation in the HAZ was divided into bainite and martensite transformation stages. When 4.6 ≤ t{sub 8/5} (the HAZ cooling time from 800 C to 500 C) ≤ 15 s, lath-shaped martensite was fully developed, resulting in extensive hardening and cold cracking in the HAZ, while the cooling time required to form the bainite completely exceeds 1 200 s. Thus, to improve weld quality, preheating to 196 C or higher is recommended.

  8. Study on the welding continuous cooling transformation and weldability of SA508Gr4 steel for nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Chen, Zhongyi

    2017-01-01

    SA508Gr4 is a newly developed high-strength steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Its welding characteristics remain largely unexplored. In this work, the simulated heat affected zone continuous cooling transformation (SH-CCT) diagram of SA508Gr4 steel was constructed and the high-temperature cooling phase compositions and the properties of the heat affected zone (HAZ) were characterized using dilatometry and microscopic tests. The results show that the phase transformation in the HAZ was divided into bainite and martensite transformation stages. When 4.6 ≤ t 8/5 (the HAZ cooling time from 800 C to 500 C) ≤ 15 s, lath-shaped martensite was fully developed, resulting in extensive hardening and cold cracking in the HAZ, while the cooling time required to form the bainite completely exceeds 1 200 s. Thus, to improve weld quality, preheating to 196 C or higher is recommended.

  9. Effect of austempering time on mechanical properties of a low manganese austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putatunda, S.K.; Gadicherla, P.K.

    2000-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of austempering time on the resultant microstructure and the room-temperature mechanical properties of an unalloyed and low manganese ductile cast iron with initially ferritic as-cast structure. The effect of austempering time on the plane strain fracture toughness of this material was also studied. Compact tension and round cylindrical tensile specimens were prepared from unalloyed ductile cast iron with low manganese content and with a ferritic as-cast (solidified) structure. These specimens were then austempered in the upper (371 C) and lower (260 C) bainitic temperature ranges for different time periods, ranging from 30 min. to 3 h. Microstructural features such as type of bainite and the volume fraction of ferrite and austenite and its carbon content were evaluated by X-ray diffraction to examine the influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of this material. The results of the present investigation indicate that for this low manganese austempered ductile iron (ADI), upper ausferritic microstructures exhibit higher fracture toughness than lower ausferritic microstructures. Yield and tensile strength of the material was found to increase with an increase in austempering time in a lower bainitic temperature range, whereas in the upper bainitic temperature range, time has no significant effect on the mechanical properties. A retained austenite content between 30 to 35% was found to provide optimum fracture toughness. Fracture toughness was found to increase with the parameter (X{gamma}C{gamma}/d){sup 1/2}, where X{gamma} is the volume fraction of austenite, C{gamma} is the carbon content of the austenite, and d is the mean free path of dislocation motion in ferrite.

  10. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Hong, Jun-Hwa; Kuk, Il-Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the unirradiated and irradiated microstructure. Microvickers hardness, indentation, and miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were 2 irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7x10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg. C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Band-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural. state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation(VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by

  11. The Effect of Nodular Cast Iron Metal Matrix on the Wear Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gumienny

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of the nodular cast iron metal matrix composition on the abrasive and adhesive wear resistance. Nodular cast iron with different metal matrix obtained in the rough state and ADI were tested. To research of abrasive and adhesive wear the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides and without this component were chosen. The influence of the carbides amount for cast iron wear resistance was examined. It was found, that the highest abrasive ...

  12. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  13. Lomová houževnatost lité nízkolegované CrNiMo oceli s bainitickou strukturou

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzmann, Miloslav; Kozák, Vladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2004), s. 384-398 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0745; GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : cast bainitic steel * fracture toughness * cleavage fracture stress Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2004

  14. Microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Rui; Li, Shengli; Zhu, Xinde; Ao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In order to further reveal the microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, the microstructure of this type steel was intensively studied with Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), etc. The results show that severe C–Mn segregation exists in the abnormal segregation band region at the center of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, which results from the Mn segregation during solidification process of the continuous casting slab. The C–Mn segregation causes relative displacement of pearlite transformation curve and bainite transformation curve of C curve in the corresponding region, leading to bay-like shaped C curve. The bay-like shaped C curve creates conditions for the transformation from supercooling austenite to bainite at relatively lower cooling rate in this region. The Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone (FASZ) caused by C–Mn segregation can powerfully retard the atomic motion, and increase the lattice reconstruction resistance of austenite transformation. These two factors provide thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the bainite transformation, and result in the emergence of granular bainitic abnormal segregation band at the center of steel plate, which leads to lower plasticity and toughness of this region, and induces the layered fracture. - Highlights: • Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) is applied in the fracture analysis. • The abnormal segregation band region appears obvious C–Mn segregation. • The C–Mn segregation leads to bay-like shaped C curve. • The C–Mn segregation leads to Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone

  15. Neutron diffraction analysis of retained austenite stability in Mn-Si steel during plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muransky, Ondrej; Lukas, Petr; Zrnik, Jozef; Sittner, Petr

    2006-01-01

    High strength and ductility of the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels is attributed to the transformation-induced plasticity effect resulting from the strain-induced martensitic transformation of the retained austenite in the multiphase (ferrite, bainite) microstructure. This paper reports the results of in situ neutron diffraction experiments focused on monitoring the evolution of the phase fractions and phase stresses in three different TRIP steel samples subjected to tensile loading at room temperature

  16. Microstructural characteristics of Al-alloyed austempered ductile irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani-Rashid, A.R.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructural development after austempering ductile irons containing 0.48% and 4.88%Al has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental irons were made by green sand casting and gravity die casting. After austenitising at 920 deg. C for 90 min, an austempering treatment at 400 deg. C for times up to 100 min resulted in microstructures consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with considerable amounts of high carbon retained austenite.

  17. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiang; Vuorinen, Esa; Grahn, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Crack initiation, propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix: crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite; ...

  18. Correlation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Thermomechanically Processed Low-Carbon Steels Containing Boron and Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Chang Gil; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The correlation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of thermomechanically processed low-carbon steels containing B and Cu was investigated in this study. Eighteen kinds of steel specimens were fabricated by varying B and Cu contents and finish cooling temperatures (FCTs) after controlled rolling, and then tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on them. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of the B-free and B-added steel specimens under nondeformed and deformed conditions were constructed by a combination of deformation dilatometry and metallographic methods. The addition of a very small amount of B remarkably decreased the transformation start temperatures near a bainite start temperature (Bs) and thus expanded the formation region of low-temperature transformation phases such as degenerate upper bainite (DUB) and lower bainite (LB) to slower cooling rates. On the other hand, a deformation in the austenite region promoted the formation of quasipolygonal ferrite (QPF) and granular bainite (GB) with an increase in transformation start temperatures. The tensile test results indicated that tensile strength primarily increased with decreasing FCT, while the yield strength did not vary much, except in some specimens. The addition of B and Cu, however, increased the tensile and yield strengths simultaneously because of the significant microstructural change occasionally affected by the FCT. The Charpy impact test results indicated that the steel specimens predominantly composed of LB and lath martensite (LM) had lower upper-shelf energy (USE) than those consisting of GB or DUB, but had nearly equivalent or rather lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) in spite of the increased strength. According to the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis data, it was confirmed that LB and LM microstructures had a relatively smaller effective grain size than GB or DUB microstructures, which enhanced the tortuosity of cleavage

  19. Stacking faults in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermida, J.D. [CNEA, San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    1996-06-01

    During last decade, Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) has been successfully used as an acceptable replacement material for steel in many applications, due to the relatively high strength and reasonable ductility obtained. These properties are the result of the special microstructure exhibited by this material at the end of the upper bainite reaction: ferrite platelets surrounded by high carbon stabilized austenite. However, at the beginning of the austempering treatment, the existence of interdendritic low carbon austenite is revealed by its transformation to martensite when cooling the sample or during subsequent deformation. The completion of the upper bainite reaction is of decisive importance to mechanical properties because the remaining martensite reduces ductility. It was observed that the rate of the upper bainite reaction is governed by the carbon content difference between the low and high carbon austenites. The carbon content is obtained by the lattice parameter measurement, because there exists a known expression that relates both magnitudes. Several works have used X-ray diffraction to measure the lattice parameter and phase concentrations as a function of austempering time. In these works, the lattice parameters were obtained directly from the {l_brace}220{r_brace} and {l_brace}311{r_brace} peaks position. The purpose of this work is to show more precise lattice parameters measurement and, very closely related to this, the existence of stacking faults in austenite, even at times within the processing window.

  20. Carbon Concentration of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to examine the influence of temperature and times of austempering process on the maximum extend towhich the bainite reaction can proceed and the carbon content in retained austenite. It should be noted that a small percentage change in theaustenite carbon content can have a significant effect on the subsequent austempering reaction changing the volume fraction of the phasespresent and hence, the resulting mechanical properties. Specimens were prepared from an unalloyed ductile cast iron, austenitised at 950oCfor 60 minutes and austempered by the conventional single-step austempering process at four temperatures between BS and MS, eg., 250,300, 350 and 400oC. The samples were austempered at these temperatures for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes and finally quenched toambient temperature. Volume fractions of retained austenite and carbon concentration in the residual austenite have been observed byusing X-ray diffraction. Additionally, carbon concentration in the residual austenite was calculated using volume fraction data of austeniteand a model developed by Bhadeshia based on the McLellan and Dunn quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The comparison ofexperimental data with the T0, T0' and Ae3' phase boundaries suggests the likely mechanism of bainite reaction in cast iron is displacive rather than diffusional. The carbon concentration in retained austenite demonstrates that at the end of bainite reaction the microstructure must consist of not only ausferrite but additionally precipitated carbides.

  1. Effect of Nanoadditives on the Wear Behavior of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaleicheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribological characteristics of spheroidal graphite cast irons with and without nanosized additives are investigated. The tests are performed as in cast iron condition as well after austempering. The spheroidal graphite irons are undergone to austempering in the bainite field, including heating at 900 °С for an hour, after that isothermal retention at 280 °С, 2 h and at 380 °C, 2 h. The lower bainitic and upper bainitic structures are formed during the process. Nanosized additives of titanium carbonitride and titanium nitride TiCN+TiN influence on the graphite phase characteristics and on the microstructure of the cast and austempered spheroidal graphite irons. The changes in the micro structure the irons with nanoadditives lead to an abrasive wear resistance increase. The formation of the strain induced martensite from the retained austenite in the friction contact area during wear is determined in the austempered irons. This is the reason for the wear resistance increase of the irons. The experimental testing of the wear is carried out by cinematic scheme tapper-discunder friction on the fixed abrasive. The microstructure of the patterns is observed by optical and quantitative metallography, X-Ray analysis, SEM and EDX analysis. The hardness testing is performed by Brinnel and Vickers methods.

  2. Microstructure and Impact Toughness of the Intercritically Reheated Coarse-grained Heat Affected Zone of 13MnNiMoR Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Jinbo, Qu

    The microstructure and impact toughness of intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of 13MnNiMoR and the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) process were investigated by means of welding thermal simulation test. The result shows that after the first welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) mainly consists of granular bainite and lath bainite, with good impact toughness. After the second thermal cycle with a peak temperature of 650 to 700°C, the CGHAZ microstructure experiences a tempering process and its impact toughness improves due to the precipitation of carbides and reduction of dislocations. With a second peak temperature of 750 to 850°C, part of the CGHAZ microstructure retransforms to austenite and during cooling, martensite-austenite (MA) constituents forms along grain boundaries in the ICCGHAZ microstructure, leading to a sharp drop of toughness. When the second thermal cycle peak temperature is up to 900°C, the CGHAZ microstructure is fully austenitized, and the final microstructure mainly consists of ferrite and granular bainite. After a PWHT process in the temperature range of 560 to 640°C, the impact toughness of ICCGHAZ is markedly improved, primarily due to the decomposition of MA constituents.

  3. Process Integrated Heat Treatment of a Microalloyed Medium Carbon Steel: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Sebastian; Schledorn, Mareike; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Milenin, Andrij; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Air-water spray cooling was employed during a heat treatment to enhance the mechanical properties of microalloyed medium carbon steel test cylinders (38MnVS6, 88 mm diameter). Using appropriate cooling times and intensities, the test cylinders' surfaces could be quenched and subsequently self-tempered by the residual heat of the core. Simultaneously, it was possible to keep the core regions of the cylinders in the bainitic regime and carry out a quasi-isothermal holding. The resulting microstructures consisted of tempered martensite (near-surface) and bainite with pearlite and ferrite (core). Compared to the standard heat treatment (controlled air cooling), the tensile properties (proof stress and ultimate tensile strength) could be improved for both near-surface and core regions with the adapted spray cooling. A hardness profile with 450 HV10 surface hardness and a hardening depth of more than 11 mm could be realized. In addition, an increase of the impact toughness for the core was achieved, resulting in approximately 25 J charpy impact energy. This is a substantial improvement compared to standard heat treatment procedure and values reported in the literature and can be attributed to the reduced pearlite volume fraction and the increased amount of fine bainite.

  4. Effects of Microstructural Inhomogeneity on Charpy Impact Properties for Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Song, Jaemin; Kim, Min-Chul; Choi, Kwon-Jae; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels are fabricated by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), and then heat treatment of quenching and tempering is conducted after forging. The through-the-thickness variation of microstructure in RPV can occur due to the cooling rate gradient during quenching and inhomogeneous deformation during forging process. The variation of microstructure in RPV affects the mechanical properties, and inhomogeneity in mechanical properties can occur. The evaluation of mechanical properties of RPV is conducted at thickness of 1/4T. In order to evaluate the safety of RPV more correctly, the research about the through-the-thickness variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in RPV is need. 1. The fine low bainite (LB) is the dominant phase at the inner-surface (0T), but coarse upper bainite (UB) is the dominant phase at the center (1/2T). This is because cooling rate gradient from surface to center occurs during quenching. 2. Inter-lath carbides act as fracture initiation site, and it reduces impact toughness. 3. The upper shelf energy is low and the reference temperatures are high at the 1/4T. Impact properties are poor at 1/4T because of the formation of coarse upper bainite structure and coarse inter-lath carbides.

  5. Microstructure and wear behavior of austempered high carbon high silicon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Palaksha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the influence of austempering temperature and time on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of high silicon steel was studied. The test specimens were initially austenitised at 900°C for 30 minutes, thereafter austempered at various temperatures 280°C, 360°C and 400°C, for varying duration from 30 to 120 minutes. These samples after austempering heat treatment were subsequently air cooled to room temperature, to generate typical ausferritic microstructures and then correlated with the wear property. The test outcomes demonstrate the slight increase in specific wear rate with increase in both austempering temperature and time. Specific wear rate was found to be minimum at an austempering temperature of 280°C, that exhibits lower bainite microstructure with high hardness, on the other hand specific wear rate was found to be slightly high at increased austempering temperatures at 360°C and 400°C, due to the upper bainite structure that offered lower hardness to the matrix. The sample austempered at 280°C for 30 minutes offered superior wear resistance when compared to other austempering conditions, mainly due to the presence of fine acicular bainitic ferrite along with stabilized retained austenite and also some martensite in the microstructure.

  6. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in SA508 Gr4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minchul; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel is a mixture of tempered martensite and tempered lower bainite and that of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel is predominantly tempered upper bainite. Higher strength and toughness steels are very attractive as an eligible RPV steel, so several researchers have studied to use the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel for the NPP application. Because of the thickness of reactor vessel, there are large differences in austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations of thickness in RPV. Because the cooling rates after austenitization determine the microstructure, it would affect the mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, and it may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics when the commercial scale of RPV is fabricated. In order to apply the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel to RPV, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite and bainite fractions on mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined by controlling the cooling rate after austenitization. First of all, continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagram was established from the dilatometric analyses. Then, the phase fractions at each cooling rate were quantitatively evaluated. Finally, the mechanical properties were correlated with the phase fraction, especially fraction of martensite in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel

  7. The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Carpenter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nb on the hardenability of ultra-thin cast strip (UCS steels produced via the unique regime of rapid solidification, large austenite grain size, and inclusion engineering of the CASTRIP© process was investigated. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams were constructed for 0, 0.014, 0.024, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 wt% Nb containing UCS steels. Phase nomenclature for the identification of lower transformation product in low carbon steels was reviewed. Even a small addition of 0.014 wt% Nb showed a potent effect on hardenability, shifting the ferrite C-curve to the right and expanding the bainitic ferrite and acicular ferrite phase fields. Higher Nb additions increased hardenability further, suppressed the formation of ferrite to even lower cooling rates, progressively lowered the transformation start and finish temperatures and promoted the transformation of bainite instead of acicular ferrite. The latter was due to Nb suppressing the formation of allotriomorphic ferrite and allowing bainite to nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries, a lower energy site than that for the intragranular nucleation of acicular ferrite at inclusions. Strength and hardness increased with increasing Nb additions, largely due to microstructural strengthening and solid solution hardening, but not from precipitation hardening.

  8. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B.; Pineau, A.

    1998-11-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc...) along prior γ grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate ( Vc) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50°C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed.

  9. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B.; Pineau, A.

    1998-01-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc..) along prior γ grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate (V c ) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50 C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  10. A method for the calculation of retained austenite evolution during heat-treatment of low-alloy TRIP-assisted steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsamas, A.I. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2006-03-15

    Despite the critical effect of heat-treatment, and in particular of the isothermal bainitic treatment stage, on the amount and stability of retained austenite in the microstructure of low-alloy TRIP-assisted steels, determination of optimum heat-treatment conditions is still largely empirical and experiment-dependent. This work proposes a method by which it is possible to calculate the vol. fraction of retained austenite in the microstructure as a function of intercritical annealing temperature and isothermal bainitic treatment temperature and holding time. The method assumes diffusionless lengthening of bainitic ferrite ({alpha}{sub B}) plates in austenite ({gamma}), and subsequent thickness-wise C rejection from the {alpha}{sub B} plates to the adjacent {gamma} layers. The relative thickness of {alpha}{sub B} plates and adjacent {gamma} layers is determined by the T{sub o} line of the transforming system at any given bainitic transformation temperature. The C-concentration profiles in {gamma} are calculated with respect to a local time-scale, referring to any random section of any random {alpha}{sub B} plate. Determination of the variation of C-concentration profiles with local time in {gamma}, together with the use of a simple austenite-retention criterion, allows the calculation of vol. fraction retained austenite ({gamma}{sub R}) as a function of transformation temperature and local time. Transition from local (calculation) time to actual heat treatment time is performed by introducing a time-scale factor, which depends on transformation temperature and initial C-content of {alpha}{sub B}. The calculated behaviour of vol. fraction {gamma}{sub R} vs. bainitic holding time conforms to the well established, experimentally observed one: vol. fraction {gamma}{sub R} initially increases with holding time, reaches a maximum and decreases at longer holding times. According to calculated results, the decrease is attributed to the gradual homogenization of C inside the

  11. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  12. Effect of hot-dip galvanizing processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Wang, Min-li; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Shen-gen

    2017-12-01

    A C-Mn dual-phase steel was soaked at 800°C for 90 s and then either rapidly cooled to 450°C and held for 30 s (process A) or rapidly cooled to 350°C and then reheated to 450°C (process B) to simulate the hot-dip galvanizing process. The influence of the hot-dip galvanizing process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel (DP600) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. The results showed that, in the case of process A, the microstructure of DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, and a small amount of bainite. The granular bainite was formed in the hot-dip galvanizing stage, and martensite islands were formed in the final cooling stage after hot-dip galvanizing. By contrast, in the case of process B, the microstructure of the DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, bainite, and cementite. In addition, compared with the yield strength (YS) of the DP600 annealed by process A, that for the DP600 annealed by process B increased by approximately 50 MPa because of the tempering of the martensite formed during rapid cooling. The work-hardening coefficient ( n value) of the DP600 steel annealed by process B clearly decreased because the increase of the YS affected the computation result for the n value. However, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation ( A 80) of the DP600 annealed by process B exhibited less variation compared with those of the DP600 annealed by process A. Therefore, DP600 with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties (YS = 362 MPa, UTS = 638 MPa, A 80 = 24.3%, n = 0.17) was obtained via process A.

  13. Phase Transformation during Continuous Cooling of NM550 Wear-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Renbo; Xiong, Wenming; Wen, Erding; Wang, Zhonghong; Guo, Ke

    The CCT (continuous cooling transformation) curve of the test steel was obtained on Gleeble-1500 thermal mechanical simulator based on the thermal dilation measurement. The test steels were the deformation with 40% under the temperature of 900°C and then were cooled to room temperature at different cooling rates. The phase transformation law and hardness change rule were emphatically investigated at the cooling rate from 0.05°C/s to 30°C/s by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Vickers hardness tester. The regression model of phase transformation was calculated. The results show that the transformation of ferrite and pearlite are inhibited, which cause the dynamic CCT curve shift to the right. The microstructure of the test steel consists of ferrite and pearlite after phase transformation at the cooling rate of 0.05°C/s; the granular bainite appears at the cooling rate of 0.5°C/s due to the interaction of Mo and B; as the cooling rate increases to 2°C/s, the microstructure mainly consists of lath bainite; the martensite is observed at the cooling rate of 2°C/s and there would be total martensite if the cooling rate is higher than 5°C/s and the grain growth rate is faster at the same time. The hardness of test steels increases with the increase of cooling rate, and increases obviously when the cooling rate is lower than 5 °C/s. A theoretical basis is provided to obtain the best bainite/martensite composite microstructure. The martensitic transformation start temperature is 354.6°C and the critical cooling rate is 5°C/s. The test value and the regression model can fit well and reflect the test value trend, showing a high precision of regression.

  14. Investigation on the crystallography of the transformation products of reverted austenite in intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Shang, Chengjia; Chen, Liang; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Area of reverted austenite is traced out by crystallographic information. ► Bainite and martensite regions were confirmed within it. ► The martensite region is considered as the blocky MA particles. ► Martensite region has high deformation to initiate fracture. ► More uniform transformation of the reverted austenite is good for toughness. -- Abstract: In present study the intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone (ICCGHAZ) showing the worst impact toughness in the heat affected zone of multi-pass welding was simulated by Gleeble-1500, and its microstructure was investigated in detail by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). With the crystallographic information from EBSD scanning the area of a single reverted austenite grain which formed during the thermal cycles of second pass simulation was traced out. Within it two regions with different characteristic both in morphology and crystallography were found out, showing an un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite. The region I is a bainitic region containing larger bainitic ferrite grains, while the region II is made up of several clusters containing tiny grains. Based on the crystallographic information each cluster was determined as martensite island thereby should be considered as blocky Martensite/Austenite constituent (M/A), which is hard phase and harmful for toughness. Analysis on the level of deformation shows that the region II is much higher deformed than the region I, indicating there is high stress concentration within the region II. The possible influence of the region I and the region II on fracture is discussed under the early proposed M/A’s fracture-initiating mechanisms. It suggests that the main cause of the toughness reduction is the un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite, and the toughness performance of the ICCGHAZ could be improved if the transformation of the reverted

  15. Metallographic investigation of ADU materials; Metallographische Charakterisierung von ADI-Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, L. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. for Production Engineering; Novovic, M. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. for Production Engineering; Smallman, R.E. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials

    1996-01-01

    The microstructure of austempered ductile ion (ADI) was investigated using conventional light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural variations arising from variations of composition and austempering processing parameters are discussed. Specimens with a microstructure consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite and retained austenite show promising mechanical properties. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Gefuege von zwischenstufenverguetetem Gusseisen mit Kugelgraphit (ADI) wird licht-, rasterelektronen- und transmissionselektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Die Gefuegeaenderungen, die durch unterschiedliche Zusammensetzung und Veraenderungen der Waermebehandlungsparamter verursacht werden, werden diskutiert. Die guenstigsten mechanischen Eigenschaften liefert ein Gefuege aus carbidfreiem bainitischem Ferrit und Restaustenit. (orig.)

  16. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.C. [Kuang Wu Inst. of Tech. and Commerce, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  17. Effects of various austempering temperatures on fatigue properties in ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, S. [Marmara University, Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Findik, F. [Materials Technology Department, Technical Education Faculty, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)]. E-mail: findik@sakarya.edu.tr; Topuz, P. [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Metallurgy and Material, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Austempering is an isothermal heat treatment which when applied to ferrous materials, produces a structure that is stronger and tougher than comparable structures produced with conventional heat treatments. In this paper, ductile iron specimens were applied to various austempering temperatures and interpreted fatigue properties. In this test, Denison 7615 fatigue machine was used for doing double sided bending stresses. The iron was austenitized at 900 deg. C and then austempered at 235, 300 and 370 deg. C for 2 h within a salt bath to obtain various austempered microstructures. Also, the fatigue properties of the bainitic structures which occurred by austempering are examined by scanning electron microscope.

  18. Low alloy steel versus ADI – differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparison between the microstructure of selected bainitic low alloy steel and austempered ductile iron ADI are presented. The aim of the comparison was to find out differences and similarities existing in these iron carbon commercial alloys. In this paper our own results on ADI structure and literature data were used. It follows from discussion presented here that both microstructure and properties of ADI are very close that which are observed in low alloy carbon steel. Moreover, we suggest that there is no so doubt to treat ADI mechanical properties as steel containing nodular inclusions of graphite.

  19. Fatigue behaviour of cast iron with globular graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, P.; Pusch, G.; Krodel, L. [Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Cast iron with bainitic matrix and globular graphite, so called austempered ductile iron (ADI), allows the substitution of heat-treatable steels. The use of ADI in safety-relevant components requires knowledge of the fracture and fatigue behaviour. Cyclic stress strain behaviour and fatigue life at total strain control and random loading have been investigated at ADI (EN-GJS-1000-5) and pearlitic cast iron (EN-GJS-600-3). In addition fracture mechanic tests at cyclic loading at various stress ratios were carried out. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Multi scale study of the plasticity at low temperature in {alpha}-iron: application for the cleavage; Etude multiechelle de la plasticite du fer-{alpha} a basse temperature application au clivage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussidon, J

    2007-10-15

    An accident inside a nuclear power plant may lead to the cleavage of the nuclear vessel made of bainitic steel. In order to understand the origin of this fracture, we studied BCC-iron plasticity at low temperature using numerical simulations at different scales. Molecular Dynamics simulations show the high dependency of screw dislocation motion with temperature and stress. Results from these simulations were added to experiment data to develop a new Dislocation Dynamics code dedicated to BCC iron at low temperature. The code was used to model plasticity into a ferritic lath for various temperatures. This work confirms that cleavage is favoured by low temperatures. (author)

  1. Laboratory criteria of crack resistance of high-strength steels for gas main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyshmintsev, I. Yu.; Arabei, A. B.; Farber, V. M.; Khotinov, V. A.; Lezhnin, N. V.

    2012-04-01

    Low-carbon ferrite-bainite pipe steels of the K65 (Kh80) strength grade produced by two manufacturing companies have been studied using different mechanical tests and fractographic analysis of fractured surfaces. The results demonstrate that the energy capacity a ( a c) and the true relative reduction at fracture φf upon tensile tests, as well as the level of KCV -40 ≥ 250 J/cm2 and the relative width of the zone of homogeneous ductile fracture L C/ B at the fracture surface of Charpy samples upon impact bending tests, can be used as the laboratory criteria of crack resistance.

  2. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  3. TRIP型ベイニティックフェライト鋼板の伸びフランジ性に及ぼすYAGレーザ切断パルスエネルギーの影響

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 明彦; 窪田, 優一; 川尻, 將洋; 三尾, 敦; 北條, 智彦; 槙井, 浩一; NAGASAKA, Akihiko; KUBOTA, Yuichi; KAWAZIRI, Hiromasa; MIO, Atsushi; HOJO, Tomohiko; MAKII, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, effect of YAG laser cutting pulse energy on stretch-flangeability in 0.2C-1.5Si-1.5Mn ultra high-strength TRIP-aided sheet steel with bainitic ferrite matrix (TBF steel) which were austempered at 375 or 450℃ was investigated for automotive applications. The tensile strength (TS) of TBF steel austempered at 375℃ was higher than that of TBF steel austempered at 450℃. The press formability of laser cut surface layer was investigated by hole-expanding test. On the other hand,...

  4. Application of Numerical and Physical Simulation to Design of the Best Manufacturing Technology for Fasteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusiak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the best manufacturing technology for fasteners was the subject of this work. Physical and numerical simulations were used to evaluate various technological variants. Possibility of application of new generation bainitic steels was considered, as well. Improvement of exploitation properties was the objective of the optimization having in mind tool wear and manufacturing costs as constraints. Several fasteners were investigated but results for three parts, including Allen screw, screw anchors used to carry concrete plates are presented as a case study. Industrial trials were performed and confirmed correctness of the designed manufacturing technology.

  5. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  6. Structure and phase composition effect on resistance to tempering and to brittle fracture in 15Kh2NMFA and 10GN2MFA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandomirskij, M.M.; Grigorkin, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The tempering structure of low-carbon perlite steels of 15Kh2NMFA and 10GN2MFA type and effect of carbide phases formed in them on steel resistance to tempering and critical brittleness temperature are studied. The increase of resistance to tempering in the course of formation of uniformly distributed disperse particles of M 7 C 3 , M 3 C, M 2 C and MC carbides, and also as a result of carbon diffusion mobility in ferrite are found. The maximum resistance to tempering is typical for steel with the structure of tempered lower bainite, the highest resistance to brittle fracture -for steel with the structure of tempered rod martensite

  7. Strength properties of low-carbon martensitic steel O7Kh3GNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehntin, R.I.; Kogan, L.I.; Odesskij, P.D.; Kle ner, L.M.; Tolmacheva, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose of substitution of bainitic steels intended for manufacturing plate welded joints the low-carbon martensitic steel 07Kh3GNM is proposed. The 07Kh3GNM steel tempered at 650 deg C has guaranteed values σsub(0.2) >600-750 MPa and σsub(u) >= 700-850 MPa in combination with rather high for this strength level values of ductility, impact strength and fracture toughness. Steel possesses perfect weldability without preheating, in thermal strengthened state and has no tendency to cold cracking and to delayed fracture in heat treated state

  8. Effects of matrix structures on fracture mechanisms of austempered ductile cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Shigeru; Matsufuji, Kenichi [Oita Univ. (Japan); Mitsunaga, Koichi [Kagoshima Junior Womens College (Japan); Takahara, Masao [Isuzu Motors, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    On the fatigue behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron (so called ADI), rotating fatigue tests in very high cycle region were performed. The S-N curve represented the double bending. This behavior is caused by the high cycle (>10{sup 7} cycles) fracture, and called the complex three region fractures. The main reason is the work hardening in the surface layer. Therefore, it was removed by electropolishing the surface layer with work hardening. The S-N curve did not show the double bending mentioned above. The fatigue strength with bainitic structure of electropolished ADI was higher than those of mother pearlitic structure.

  9. Transformación bainítica en aleaciones Fe-C Transformación bainítica en aleaciones Fe-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vélez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunas aleaciones Fe-C presentan una excelente combinación de tenacidad y resistencia mecánica, asociada a los productos de la reacción bainítica, que las hace útiles en la fabricación de componentes de máquinas sometidos a altos esfuerzos. Sin embargo, en nuestro medio el conocimiento de esta transformación es reducido; esto hace difícil la competitividad del sector metalmecánica en la economía globalizada. En este trabajo se hace un compendio de los conceptos básicos de la reacción bainítica, que va más allá de los textos clásicos de transformaciones de fases metálicas y considerando los últimos avances que se han realizado en su estudio. Además, se analizan los factores más importantes de la bainita tanto en aceros como en fundiciones nodulares. Se discuten los mecanismos de transformación, la cinética de reacción, las características microestructurales y las propiedades mecánicas. Elobjetivo del trabajo es difundir las nociones y técnicas requeridas para la implementación de esta transformación de fase, buscando promover el desarrollo de productos bainíticos.Some alloys Fe-C have an excellent combination of toughness and strength, related to bainitic reaction products, being useful in manufacturing of machine components subjected to high stresses. However, in our medium the knowledge of this transformation is reduced; it makes difficult a competition of industrial sector in the global economy. In this work it has been made a summary of basic issues of bainitic reaction, further to the review of classic books of phase transformations and considering last advances that it has been realized in its study. In addition, it’s compiled the issues more important of bainite as in steels as much as in ductile irons. It is discussed the reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetic, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties. The goal is diffuse notions and techniques required to implantation of this phase

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting the edge formability of two hot rolled multiphase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Monideepa; Tiwari, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of various factors on the hole expansion ratio and hence on the edge formability of two hot rolled multiphase steels, one with a ferrite-martensite microstructure and the other with a ferrite-bainite microstructure, was investigated through systematic microstructural and mechanical characterization. The study revealed that the microstructure of the steels, which determines their strain hardening capacity and fracture resistance, is the principal factor controlling edge formability. The influence of other factors such as tensile strength, ductility, anisotropy, and thickness, though present, are secondary. A critical evaluation of the available empirical models for hole expansion ratio prediction is also presented.

  11. On the improvement of quality of tubes for steam generator collectors of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskaya, L.A.; Gulyaev, G.I.; Kholyavko, Z.I.; Khanina, M.M.; Khotomlyanskij, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    Pipes from 12Kh1MF steel were strengthened by a method which makes it possible, in subsequent manufacture of items from said pipes, to weld and temper the steel without any substantial prejudice to its structure and strength properties. It was shown that cooling in air from the austenitization temperature down to 820-850 deg C, an accelerated cooling in a bath with water on the temperature range between 850 and 500 deg C and subsequent air cooling enhances both the initial long-time strength and its values after tempering during erection. The high strength properties in this case result from the fragmentation of the bainite ferrite

  12. Method for the calculation of volumetric fraction of retained austenite through the software for analysis of digital images; Metodo para o calculo da fracao volumetrica de austenita retida atraves do software de analise digital de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, S.; Costa, F.H.; Hashimoto, T.M.; Pereira, M.S., E-mail: sandro_Lombardo@hotmail.co [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Abdalla, A.J. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    2010-07-01

    In order to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in aeronautic multiphase steels, it was used a digital analysis software for image processing. The materials studied were steels AISI 43XX with carbon content between 30, 40 and 50%, heat treated by conventional quenching and isothermal cooling in bainitic and intercritical region, characterized by optical microscopy, etching by reagent Sodium Metabisulfite (10%) for 30 seconds, with forced drying. The results were compared with the methods of X-Ray Diffraction and Magnetic Saturation through photomicrographs, showing that with this technic it is possible to quantify the percentage of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix, in the different types of steels. (author)

  13. Isothermal treatment of SAE92XX type high silicon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, J.L.; Fuentes, F.; Battegliese, A.

    1996-01-01

    SAE 9260 type steels have silicon and carbon contents similar to thoseof the ductile iron matrix, and present a bainitic transformation with the same characteristics as ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). The hypothesis is that excellent mechanical properties can be obtained by means of austempering (in times so short as to be accessible from the industrial point of view), the same as in ADI and even better because it is a rolling material instead of a cast materials. It will be compared with the mechanical properties obtained by quenching and tempering at different temperatures. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Application of neural networks to forecasting the CCT curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Trzaska, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents methodology of modeling using neural networks of the relationship between the chemical composition and austenitising temperature, and the supercooled austenite transformation kinetics during the continuous cooling. The model worked out makes it possible to calculate a complete CCT diagram for the steel with a known chemical composition and analysis of the influence of particular elements on the characteristic points and transformation curves of supercooled austenite, and also the hardness resulting from cooling. It makes also possible forecasting of the structure developed in the steel as a result of cooling at a particular rate, by the quantitative description of the percentages of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite with retained austenite. (author)

  15. Transformation kinetics of selected steel grades after plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawulok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the impact of previous plastic deformation on the kinetics of transformations of four selected steels. The research was conducted with use of the universal plastometer GLEEBLE 3800, when Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT and Deformation Continuous Cooling Transformation (DCCT diagrams of selected steels were constructed on the basis of dilatometric tests. The research confirmed that the strain accelerates the particularly the transformations controlled by diffusion. Bainitic transformation was accelerated in three of the four steels. In the case of martensitic transformation the effect of the previous deformation was relatively small, but with clearly discernible trend.

  16. Method for the calculation of volumetric fraction of retained austenite through the software for analysis of digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, S.; Costa, F.H.; Hashimoto, T.M.; Pereira, M.S.; Abdalla, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in aeronautic multiphase steels, it was used a digital analysis software for image processing. The materials studied were steels AISI 43XX with carbon content between 30, 40 and 50%, heat treated by conventional quenching and isothermal cooling in bainitic and intercritical region, characterized by optical microscopy, etching by reagent Sodium Metabisulfite (10%) for 30 seconds, with forced drying. The results were compared with the methods of X-Ray Diffraction and Magnetic Saturation through photomicrographs, showing that with this technic it is possible to quantify the percentage of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix, in the different types of steels. (author)

  17. Wear Behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron with Nanosized Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaleicheva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI strengthened with nanosized addtives of titanium nitride + titanium carbonitride (TiN + TiCN, titanium nitride TiN and cubic boron nitride cBN are investigated. The TiN, TiCN and cBN, nanosized particles are coated by electroless nickel coating EFTTOM-NICKEL prior to the edition to the melt. The spheroidal graphite iron samples are undergoing an austempering, including heating at 900 оС for an hour, after that isothermal retention at 280 оС, 2 h and 380 оС, 2h. The metallographic analysis by optical metallographic microscope GX41 OLIMPUS and hardness measurements by Vickers Method are performed. The structure of the austempered ductile iron consists of lower bainite and upper bainite.Experimental investigation of the wear by fixed abrasive are also carried out. The influence of the nanosized additives on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the austempered ductile irons (ADI is studied.

  18. Dependence of fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron on austempering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.P. [Karnatak Regional Engineering Coll. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Putatunda, S.K. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Ductile cast iron samples were austenitized at 927 C and subsequently austempered for 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours at 260 C, 288 C, 316 C, 343 C, 371 C, and 399 C. These were subjected to a plane strain fracture toughness test. Fracture toughness was found to initially increase with austempering temperature, reach a maximum, and then decrease with further rise in temperature. The results of the fracture toughness study and fractographic examination were correlated with microstructural features such as bainite morphology, the volume fraction of retained austenite, and its carbon content. It was found that fracture toughness was maximized when the microstructure consisted of lower bainite with about 30 vol pct retained austenite containing more than 1.8 wt pct carbon. A theoretical model was developed, which could explain the observed variation in fracture toughness with austempering temperature in terms of microstructural features such as the width of the ferrite blades and retained austenite content. A plot of K{sub IC}{sup 2} against {sigma}, (X{sub {gamma}}C{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} resulted in a straight line, as predicted by the model.

  19. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of low alloyed Ni-Mo-Cu austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosnjak, B.

    2000-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of austempering temperature and austempering time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low alloyed Ni-Mo-Cu ductile iron. The effect of austempering parameters and alloying additions on the austemperability of treated ductile iron has been estimated, too. Specimens were austenitised at 900 degree C for 120 mm, then austempered for 10, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 mm at 300, 350 and 400 degree C respectively, and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The structure consisted of bainitic ferrite containing retained austenite. the amount of which increased, and the carbon content of which decreased, with increasing austempering temperature. The carbon content of austenite has been evaluated by measuring the lattice parameter by X-ray diffraction. After short periods of austempering time in iron, the carbon content of the retained austenite decreases and on subsequent cooling to room temperature it transforms to martensite. The volume fractions of retained austenite, bainitic ferrite, martensite and austenite carbon content was correlated with microstructural changes and mechanical properties. Optimum properties are obtained at intermediate austempering periods (120-240 mm) when both the amount of retained austenite and austenite carbon content are maximum. (author)

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of CuNiMo austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erić Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu, Ni and Mo alloyed cast ductile iron have been investigated after austempering. Samples were austenitised at 860oC for 1h and then austempered at 320oC and 400oC in the interval from 0,5 to 5h. The X-ray diffraction technique and the light microscopy were utilized to investigate the bainitic transformation, while tensile and impact tests were performed for characterization of mechanical properties. By austempering at 320oC in the range between 2 and 5h, a microstructure typical for austempered ductile iron was produced, i.e. a mixture of free bainitic ferrite and highly carbon enriched retained austenite. The characteristic of the whole range of austempering at 400oC is the appearance of martensitic structure. The maximum impact energy (133 J coincides with the maximum value of volume fraction of retained austenite that was obtained after 2,5h of austempering at 320oC. The appearance of martensite during austempering at 400oC is the main cause for much lower tensile properties than at 320oC.

  1. Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.

  2. Influence of Heat Input on Microstructure and Toughness Properties in Simulated CGHAZ of X80 Steel Manufactured Using High-Temperature Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Han, Jian; Li, Huijun

    2015-11-01

    To determine and demonstrate the weldability of high-Nb high-temperature processed (HTP) steels and provide extremely valuable information for future line pipe steel design and general steel manufacture, in the current study the toughness in simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of an X80 grade steel manufactured using HTP was evaluated. The simulated CGHAZs subjected to thermal cycles with various heat inputs (HIs) (0.8 to 5.0 kJ/mm) were produced using a Gleeble 3500 simulator. The microstructures and corresponding mechanical properties were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, hardness testing, and Charpy V-notch (CVN) testing. The microstructural examination shows that the simulated CGHAZs consisted of a bainite-dominant microstructure and relatively low amount (<2 pct) of martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. The prior austenite grain size was controlled to be 45 to 55 µm at HIs of 0.8 to 3.5 kJ/mm, and remarkably increased to 85 µm at an HI of 5 kJ/mm. The results of CVN testing suggest that superior toughness can be achieved in the studied range of HIs (0.8 to 5 kJ/mm). This is thought to be associated with the combined effects of bainitic microstructure and low M-A fraction as well as comparatively fine austenite grain size in the studied CGHAZs.

  3. Determination of bearing steel heat treatment with the use of the acoustic emission method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Wozniak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the control of an extremely important stage of the martensitic-bainitic austempering and obtaining the M-B structure in the 100CrMnSi6-4 steel with the use of the acoustic emission (AE has been undertaken. In order to enrich retained austenite with carbon, steels are austempered at appropriately low temperatures. A martensitic transformation, resulting from diffusionless and displacive transformation is associated with significant AE signs. The strain energy produced during growth due to the shape change is reduced by plastic deformation. Predominant source of (AE is the movement of dislocations in order to relieve internal stresses.The heat treatment was performed in a modern, purpose-constructed device which simultaneously records acoustic emission effects. The signals were recorded with the use of an AE analyzer 20–800 kHz, and they were received by means of a broadband piezoelectric transducer with the use of a specialist card with a sampling frequency of 1200 kHz. The results regarding a correlation of austempering temperature and the maximum number of AE events and dilatometric results have been presented. This parameter can be used for precise Ms temperature estimation. Basing on microstructural investigations, it has been found that previously formed martensite with midrib morphology also accelerates the bainitic transformation.

  4. Microstructural influence on the local behaviour of 16MND5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekfali, S.

    2004-06-01

    16MND5 Steel or A508 Cl3 is used for manufacture by forging of nuclear reactor vessels. This material presents a good compromise in term of tenacity and yield stress, its microstructure is mainly bainitic tempered. Because of the chemical composition local variation and process of development, this material presents microstructural heterogeneities which can locally modify the properties of damage. In particular, some zones present a martensitic microstructure. The goal of this thesis is to bring some explanations on the influence of the microstructure; more particularly, size of the crystallographic entities and their spatial distribution on the local behaviour of 16MND5 steel. Two microstructures were elaborated for this purpose, a tempered bainitic microstructure and a tempered martensitic microstructure. An experimental characterization was carried out on the two microstructures in order to determine morphology, spatial distribution of the crystallographic orientations and tensile behaviour. A deposit of micro grid was carried out on tensile specimens to determine the experimental deformation field on a beforehand EBSD analyzed zone. The determination of the tensile behaviour allowed the identification of a multi crystalline behaviour law by a reverse method using the density of dislocation on each system of slip. This behaviour law was used in simulations with a finite element method to simulate the local mechanical field of the two microstructures and to compare with the obtained experimental deformation fields. It results, a good adequacy between simulations and experiments and the description of the influence of the neighbor grain's orientation on the local behaviour. (author)

  5. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  6. The Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Pipeline Steel with Plastic Deformation at Different Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.

    2017-07-01

    Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.

  7. Effects of boron addition on tensile and Charpy impact properties in high-phosphorous steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Junghoon [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyong Su [Next Generation Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a new possibility for improving the steel-making productivity by fabricating plain carbon steels containing high phosphorous (P), effects of microstructures on tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated in this study. Nine plain carbon steels were fabricated by controlling the addition of P and boron (B), and isothermal or quench heat-treatments were conducted on these steels to make ferrite–bainite-based or martensite-based microstructures. The addition of B positively influenced the grain refinement and the formation of bainites, thereby leading to the increase in strength. The upper shelf energy (USE) decreased with increasing P content, while the energy transition temperature (ETT) increased, in all the steels. The B addition beneficially affected both the USE and ETT as the dimpled ductile fracture mode prevailed in the B-added steels. This was because B preferentially covered grain boundaries, which reduced the grain boundary segregation of P. Thus, it effectively suppressed the intergranular fracture due to the segregation of P. According to the fractographic results, the increased tendency of intergranular fracture mode was observable in the 20-ppm-B-added steels rather than in the 10-ppm-B-added steels. When an excess amount of B, e.g., 20 ppm of B, was added, the severe segregation of B on grain boundaries occurred, and led to the precipitation of boro-carbides, which could act as intergranular crack initiation sites.

  8. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Austempering SUS440 Steel Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUS440 is a high-carbon stainless steel, and its martensite matrix has high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high pressure resistance. It has been widely used in mechanical parts and critical materials. However, the SUS440 martempered matrix has reliability problems in thin plate applications and thus research uses different austempering heat treatments (tempering temperature: 200 °C–400 °C to obtain a matrix containing bainite, retained austenite, martensite, and the M7C3 phase to investigate the relationships between the resulting microstructure and tensile mechanical properties. Experimental data showed that the austempering conditions of the specimen affected the volume fraction of phases and distribution of carbides. After austenitizing heat treatment (1080 °C for 30 min, the austempering of the SUS440 thin plates was carried out at a salt-bath temperature 300 °C for 120 min and water quenching was then used to obtain the bainite matrix with fine carbides, with the resulting material having a higher tensile fracture strength and average hardness (HRA 76 makes it suitable for use as a high-strength thin plate for industrial applications.

  9. Effect of Q&P heat treatment on fine microstructure and mechanical properties of a low-alloy medium-carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Rahim; Kheirandish, Shahram; Mirdamadi, Shamsoddin

    2018-01-01

    The current research investigates the effect of ultrafine microstructure resulted from Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) process on obtaining ultra-high strengths in a low-alloy steel with 4wt.% carbon. The purpose of Q&P heat treatment is to enrich the austenite with carbon by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to austenite, in order to stabilize it to the room temperature. The microstructure, consequently, is consists of martensite, retained austenite and in some conditions bainite. Two-step Q&P heat treatment with quench and partitioning temperatures equal to 120°C and 300°C respectively were applied to the samples at different times. Mechanical behavior was studied by tensile test. The microstructure of the samples was observed using SEM, and TEM and to quantify the amount of retained austenite X-ray diffraction was used. The retained austenite grain size was estimated to be about 0.5 µm and the highest amount of retained austenite obtained was 10 vol%. All samples showed a yield strength and a tensile strength of above 900MPa and 1500MP respectively. The yield strength increased with increase in partitioning time, whereas tensile strength showed an inverse behavior. The elongation in samples varied from 5% to 9% which seemed to not have a direct connection with the amount of retained austenite, but instead it was related to the ferritic structures formed during partitioning such as coalesced martensite, bainite and tempered martensite.

  10. Development of Highly Ductile Spheroidized Steel from High C (0.61 wt.% C) Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monia, S.; Varshney, A.; Gouthama; Sangal, S.; Kundu, S.; Samanta, S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to develop a multiphase steel combining spheroidal cementite and bainite in ductile ferrite matrix possessing an optimal balance of reasonably high strength and excellent ductility. A high carbon (0.61 wt.%) high silicon (1.71 wt.%) EN45 spring steel was annealed to obtain ferrite pearlite microstructure. The samples were given 5 and 10% cold rolling followed by holding at temperature below Ac1 for about 3 h. The samples were then held in intercritical range at 770 °C temperature for different durations ranging from 5 to 20 min for partial re-austenitization followed by quenching in a salt bath maintained at 350 °C and holding for 10 min to get bainite. The samples were finally water quenched. Characterizations of the samples with the help of optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were carried out. Optimal heat-treatment conditions were found out after correlating with tensile properties. The best combination of high tensile strength (~800 MPa) with very high elongation (~29%) was obtained. Effects of cold-rolled strain and holding time in the intercritical region on the mechanical properties and microstructural changes were studied. Finally, structural property correlation is established.

  11. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Weng Lan Lee [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of the effect of microstructure on tensile behavior and retained austenite stability of thermo-mechanically processed transformation induced plasticity steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Kun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liss, Klaus-Dieter [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Timokhina, Ilana B. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V., E-mail: elenap@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-04-26

    Transmission electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the martensitic transformation and lattice strains under uniaxial tensile loading of Fe-Mn-Si-C-Nb-Mo-Al Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel subjected to different thermo-mechanical processing schedules. In contrast with most of the diffraction analysis of TRIP steels reported previously, the diffraction peaks from the martensite phase were separated from the peaks of the ferrite-bainite α-matrix. The volume fraction of retained γ-austenite, as well as the lattice strain, were determined from the diffraction patterns recorded during tensile deformation. Although significant austenite to martensite transformation starts around the macroscopic yield stress, some austenite grains had already experienced martensitic transformation. Hooke’s Law was used to calculate the phase stress of each phase from their lattice strain. The ferrite-bainite α-matrix was observed to yield earlier than austenite and martensite. The discrepancy between integrated phase stresses and experimental macroscopic stress is about 300 MPa. A small increase in carbon concentration in retained austenite at the early stage of deformation was detected, but with further straining a continuous slight decrease in carbon content occurred, indicating that mechanical stability factors, such as grain size, morphology and orientation of the retained austenite, played an important role during the retained austenite to martensite transformation.

  13. Contribution towards the study of β→α transformation in uranium and its alloys (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.

    1962-05-01

    The kinetics of the transformation of uranium alloys containing 0.5 - 0.75 - 1.0 - 1.5 and 3 atoms per cent have been studied. The influence of heat treatment before decomposition has been discussed. The study of the transformation characteristics such as kinetics, residual phases, phenomena connected with the coherence between phases, reversibility below the equilibrium temperature, shows the following mechanisms exhibited during the decomposition of the β phase on lowering the temperature: 1 ) eutectoid, 2) bainitic, 3) martensitic. The study of the TTT diagrams of alloys containing decreasing percentages of chromium indicates that the unalloyed uranium transforms without maintaining the coherence above 600 deg. C, where as at lower temperatures the transformation is mainly martensitic. The various alloying elements can be characterised by their influence on the three TTT curves corresponding to the three possible transformation mechanisms. The ability of the uranium alloys to alpha grain refining during isothermal decomposition or ambient temperature quenching is directly connected with the characteristics of the TTT diagrams and especially to the mode of bainitic transformation. (author) [fr

  14. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid lithium containment. II. Effects of post-weld heat treatment and niobium content. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Edwards, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lithium corrosion resistance of the regular grade of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel can be vastly improved with a proper postweld heat treatment, but even greater improvements are needed. Results indicate that if weldments were tempered sufficiently long at 760C to remove all Mo 2 C from the microstructure, even greater resistance to attack by low nitrogen lithium could be achieved. Corrosion tests should eventually be performed on regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments which have been given a long-term (> 25 h) post-weld temper at 760C. Lithium corrosion resistance of regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel may also be improved by employing a quench and temper heat treatment. Quenched microstructures have more homogenous distribution of carbides than isothermally annealed microstructures, and if properly tempered, should provide excellent lithium corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the toughness of such a lower bainite microstructure should be better than that of the ferrite-bainitic microstructure created by an isothermal anneal. Numerous parameters, all potentially deleterious to the lithium corrosion resistance of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, remain to be investigated; two such variables are velocity effects and lead content in the lithium

  15. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid lithium containment. II. Effects of post-weld heat treatment and niobium content. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Edwards, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lithium corrosion resistance of the regular grade of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel can be vastly improved with a proper postweld heat treatment, but even greater improvements are needed. Results indicate that if weldments were tempered sufficiently long at 760C to remove all Mo/sub 2/C from the microstructure, even greater resistance to attack by low nitrogen lithium could be achieved. Corrosion tests should eventually be performed on regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments which have been given a long-term (> 25 h) post-weld temper at 760C. Lithium corrosion resistance of regular grade 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel may also be improved by employing a quench and temper heat treatment. Quenched microstructures have more homogenous distribution of carbides than isothermally annealed microstructures, and if properly tempered, should provide excellent lithium corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the toughness of such a lower bainite microstructure should be better than that of the ferrite-bainitic microstructure created by an isothermal anneal. Numerous parameters, all potentially deleterious to the lithium corrosion resistance of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, remain to be investigated; two such variables are velocity effects and lead content in the lithium.

  16. Control of Microstructures and the Practical Properties of API X80 Grade Heavy-Wall High-Frequency Electric Resistance-Welded Pipe with Excellent Low-Temperature Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Sota; Nakata, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Shunsuke; Okabe, Takatoshi; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes development of heavy-walled API X80 grade high-frequency electric resistance-welded (HFW) line pipes and conductor-casing pipes with wall thicknesses up to 20.6 mm. A fine bainitic-ferrite microstructure, which is preferable for low-temperature toughness, was obtained by optimizing the carbon content and applying the thermomechanical controlled hot-rolling process. As a result, the Charpy ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was well below 227 K (-46 °C) in the base metal of the HFW line pipe. When the controlled hot-rolling ratio (CR) was increased from 23 to 48 pct, the area average grain size decreased from 15 to 8 μm. The dependence of CTOD properties on CR was caused by the largest grain which is represented by the area average grain size. No texture development due to the increase of CR from 23 to 48 pct was observed. In addition, because controlled in-line heat treatment of the longitudinal weld seam also produced the fine bainitic-ferrite microstructure at the weld seam, DBTT was lower than 227 K (-46 °C) at the weld portion. The developed pipes showed good girth weldability without preheat treatment, and fracture in the tensile test initiated from the base metal in all cases.

  17. Effect of starting microstructure upon the nucleation sites and distribution of graphite particles during a graphitising anneal of an experimental medium-carbon machining steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inam, A., E-mail: aqil.ceet@pu.edu.pk; Brydson, R., E-mail: mtlrmdb@leeds.ac.uk; Edmonds, D.V., E-mail: d.v.edmonds@leeds.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    The potential for using graphite particles as an internal lubricant during machining is considered. Graphite particles were found to form during graphitisation of experimental medium-carbon steel alloyed with Si and Al. The graphite nucleation sites were strongly influenced by the starting microstructure, whether ferrite–pearlite, bainite or martensite, as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Favourable nucleation sites in the ferrite–pearlite starting microstructure were, not unexpectedly, found to be located within pearlite colonies, no doubt due to the presence of abundant cementite as a source of carbon. In consequence, the final distribution of graphite nodules in ferrite–pearlite microstructures was less uniform than for the bainite microstructure studied. In the case of martensite, this study found a predominance of nucleation at grain boundaries, again leading to less uniform graphite dispersions. - Highlights: • Metallography of formation of graphite particles in experimental carbon steel. • Potential for using graphite in steel as an internal lubricant during machining. • Microstructure features expected to influence improved machinability studied. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite nucleation sites. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite distribution. • Potential benefit is new free-cutting steel compositions without e.g. Pb alloying.

  18. Perspectives of using Q&P-heat treatment process for improving complex of mechanical properties of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Георгійович Єфременко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign publications on the influence of modes Q&P (quenching and partitioning heat treatment on mechanical and operational properties of structural steels with different carbon content. The mechanism of structure formation in Q&P-treated steels is analyzed, it is shown that Q&P-treatment results in formation of a microstructure containing tempered martensite, lower bainite (polygonal ferrite with an increased amount of residual austenite which provides TRIP-effect when loaded. The values of strength and plastic properties, achieved in the low-carbon, medium-and high-carbon steel as a result of Q&P-processing are presented. The effect of alloying elements (Mn, Si, Al, Cr, Mo, Nb etc. on the properties of the Q&P-steels is described. It is shown the crucial role of silicon and aluminum in formation of residual austenite and carbides-free bainite. The parameters of Q&P-processing, determining the amount of residual austenite and its ability to deformation martensite transformation during deformation are analyzed. The classification of types Q&P-treatment, depending on the additional operations of heat treatment such as preliminary hardening, heating in the intercritical temperature range, tempering for dispersed carbides precipitation, is given. The prospects of Q&P-processing to produce relatively inexpensive high strength steels are described

  19. Superbainita. Una nueva microestructura bainítica de alta resistencia Superbainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Mateo, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work very recent results are shown that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150°C, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainitic ferrite (20-40 nm thickness and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV and strong (2.5 GPa.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de investigaciones muy recientes que revelan la posibilidad de obtener bainita por transformación isotérmica a temperaturas muy bajas, del orden de 150 °C, en aceros de alto carbono y silicio. La microestructura así obtenida no tiene cementita y está formada por placas de ferrita bainítica extremadamente finas (20-40 nm de espesor y láminas delgadas de austenita enriquecida en carbono. Estas microestructuras son extraordinariamente duras (600 HV y resistentes (2,5 GPa

  20. Response of ferritic steels to nonsteady loading at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature operating experience is lacking in pressure vessel materials that have strength levels above 586 MPa. Because of their tendency toward strain softening, we have been concerned about their behavior under nonsteady loading. Testing was undertaken to explore the extent of softening produced by monotonic and cyclic strains. The specific materials included bainitic 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel containing vanadium, titanium, and boron, and a martensitic 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel. Tests included tensile, creep, variable stress creep, relaxation, strain cycling, stress cycling, and non-isothermal creep ratchetting experiments. We found that these steels had very low uniform elongation and exhibited small strains to the onset of tertiary creep compared to annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel. Repeated relaxation test data also indicated a limited capacity for strain hardening. Reversal strains produced softening. The degree of softening increased with increased initial strength level. We concluded that the high strength bainitic and martensitic steels should perform well when used under conditions where severe cyclic operation does not occur

  1. Martensite phase stress and the strengthening mechanism in TRIP steel by neutron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjo, Stefanus; Tsuchida, Noriyuki; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu

    2017-11-09

    Two TRIP-aided multiphase steels with different carbon contents (0.2 and 0.4 mass%) were analyzed in situ during tensile deformation by time-of-flight neutron diffraction to clarify the deformation induced martensitic transformation behavior and its role on the strengthening mechanism. The difference in the carbon content affected mainly the difference in the phase fractions before deformation, where the higher carbon content increased the phase fraction of retained austenite (γ). However, the changes in the relative fraction of martensitic transformation with respect to the applied strain were found to be similar in both steels since the carbon concentrations in γ were similar regardless of different carbon contents. The phase stress of martensite was found much larger than that of γ or bainitic ferrite since the martensite was generated at the beginning of plastic deformation. Stress contributions to the flow stress were evaluated by multiplying the phase stresses and their phase fractions. The stress contribution from martensite was observed increasing during plastic deformation while that from bainitic ferrite hardly changing and that from γ decreasing.

  2. Microstructure characterization and mechanical behavior of laser additive manufactured ultrahigh-strength AerMet100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran, Xianzhe [National Engineering Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing for Large Metallic Components, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Dong [National Engineering Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing for Large Metallic Components, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education on Laser Direct Manufacturing for Large Metallic Component, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, An, E-mail: li_an@buaa.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing for Large Metallic Components, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education on Laser Direct Manufacturing for Large Metallic Component, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Huaming; Tang, Haibo [National Engineering Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing for Large Metallic Components, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education on Laser Direct Manufacturing for Large Metallic Component, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Cheng, Xu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Ultrahigh-strength AerMet100 steel thick plate was fabricated by laser additive manufacturing process. The as-deposited microstructures of the test steel were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were then examined using vickers-hardness test and tensile test. Results indicate that the as-deposited microstructures of the steel mainly consist of grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite (GBA), grain interior irregular proeutectoid ferrite, plate-like upper bainite, needle-like lower bainite and retained austenite, which result in a good strength and some ductility anisotropy. The low deformation compatibility of specimen at the transverse direction (perpendicular to the deposition direction) mainly ascribes to the poor cracking resistance of the prior-austenite columnar grain boundary with coarse GBA phases. Compared to the almost intergranular cracking taken place in the transverse tensile specimen, the fracture mode of the longitudinal tensile specimen is a mixed mode of the predominant transgranular cracking and minor intergranular cracking.

  3. Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

    2014-04-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

  4. Study on microstructures in the steel for nuclear power large forgings under different cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lizhan; Gu Jianfeng; Xu Jun; Pan Jiansheng; Long Zhinan

    2012-01-01

    The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been investigated for the SA508 Gr.3 steel used as the large forgings of nuclear power using the thermal simulator Gleeble 3500, the microstructures obtained under different cooling rates and isothermal temperatures have also been observed carefully with the SEM and OM. The results show that the critical cooling rate of martensite is larger than 20 ℃/s, and that for bainite is about 1℃/s. The bad microstructures such as the granular bainite, and acicular ferrite form when the cooling rate less than 0.5℃/s. The medium harden ability of steel SA508 Gr.3 proposes very high requirement for heat treatment, and it is very difficult to get uniform microstructure and property throughout the whole section of a large forging for nuclear power. Thus, highly attention should be paid on the manufacture of nuclear power equipment and corresponding fundamental research in this aspect should be carried out intensively. (authors)

  5. Effect of welding conditions on transformation and properties of heat-affected zones in LWR [light-water reactor] vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.; Mohammed, S.

    1990-11-01

    The continuous cooling transformation behavior (CCT) and isothermal transformation (IT) behavior were determined for SA-508 and SA-533 materials for conditions pertaining to standard heat treatment and for the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The resulting diagrams help to select welding conditions that produce the most favorable microconstituent for the development of optimum postweld heat treatment (PWHT) toughness levels. In the case of SA-508 and SA-533, martensite responds more favorably to PWHT than does bainite. Bainite is to be avoided for the optimum toughness characteristics of the HAZ. The reheat cracking tendency for both steels was evaluated by metallographic studies of simulated HAZ structures subjected to PWHT cycles and simultaneous restraint. Both SA-533, Grade B, Class 1, and SA-508, Class 2, cracked intergranularly. The stress rupture parameter (the product of the stress for a rupture life of 10 min and the corresponding reduction of area) calculated for both steels showed that SA-508, Class 2, was more susceptible to reheat cracking than SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Cold cracking tests (Battelle Test and University of Tennessee modified hydrogen susceptibility test) indicated that a higher preheat temperature is required for SA-508, Class 2, to avoid cracking than is required for SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Further, the Hydrogen Susceptibility Test showed that SA-508, Class 2, is more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than is SA-533, Grade B, Class 1

  6. Effect of Composition and Deformation on Coarse-Grained Austenite Transformation in Nb-Mo Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasti, N.; Jorge-Badiola, D.; Taheri, M. L.; López, B.; Uranga, P.

    2011-12-01

    Thermomechanical processing of microalloyed steels containing niobium can be performed to obtain deformed austenite prior to transformation. Accelerated cooling can be employed to refine the final microstructure and, consequently, to improve both strength and toughness. This general rule is fulfilled if the transformation occurs on a quite homogeneous austenite microstructure. Nevertheless, the presence of coarse austenite grains before transformation in different industrial processes is a usual source of concern, and regarding toughness, the coarsest high-angle boundary units would determine its final value. Sets of deformation dilatometry tests were carried out using three 0.06 pct Nb microalloyed steels to evaluate the effect of Mo alloying additions (0, 0.16, and 0.31 pct Mo) on final transformation from both recrystallized and unrecrystallized coarse-grained austenite. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were created, and detailed microstructural characterization was achieved through the use of optical microscopy (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The resultant microstructures ranged from polygonal ferrite (PF) and pearlite (P) at slow cooling ranges to bainitic ferrite (BF) accompanied by martensite (M) for fast cooling rates. Plastic deformation of the parent austenite accelerated both ferrite and bainite transformation, moving the CCT curves to higher temperatures and shorter times. However, an increase in the final heterogeneity was observed when BF packets were formed, creating coarse high-angle grain boundary units.

  7. Microstructure characterization and mechanical behavior of laser additive manufactured ultrahigh-strength AerMet100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Xianzhe; Liu, Dong; Li, An; Wang, Huaming; Tang, Haibo; Cheng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh-strength AerMet100 steel thick plate was fabricated by laser additive manufacturing process. The as-deposited microstructures of the test steel were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were then examined using vickers-hardness test and tensile test. Results indicate that the as-deposited microstructures of the steel mainly consist of grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite (GBA), grain interior irregular proeutectoid ferrite, plate-like upper bainite, needle-like lower bainite and retained austenite, which result in a good strength and some ductility anisotropy. The low deformation compatibility of specimen at the transverse direction (perpendicular to the deposition direction) mainly ascribes to the poor cracking resistance of the prior-austenite columnar grain boundary with coarse GBA phases. Compared to the almost intergranular cracking taken place in the transverse tensile specimen, the fracture mode of the longitudinal tensile specimen is a mixed mode of the predominant transgranular cracking and minor intergranular cracking.

  8. The significance of ultrafine film-like retained austenite in governing very high cycle fatigue behavior in an ultrahigh-strength MN–SI–Cr–C steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Zhang, B.; Cheng, C.; Misra, R.D K.; Gao, G.; Bai, B.; Weng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We elucidate here the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of an ultrahigh-strength medium carbon Mn–Si–Cr–C steel processed using the approach of bainite-based quenching and partitioning (BQ&P). The microstructure of BQ&P process comprised of bainite, carbon-depleted martensite, retained austenite (RA) and small amount of martensite/austenite island (M/A). The tensile strength (R m ) and fatigue limit strength after 10 9 cycles (σ w9 ) and in the non-failed condition were 1688 MPa and 875 MPa, respectively such that σ w9 /R m exceeded conventional steels and was 0.52. Two types of failure modes were observed depending on the surface and microstructure, notably surface-induced failure and non-inclusion-induced failure, where the non-inclusion-induced failure was influenced by the microstructure. Inclusion-induced failure was absent. The study underscores that film-like retained austenite was the underlying reason for superior fatigue properties, hitherto not previously obtained

  9. Microstructural Evolution of AerMet100 Steel Coating on 300M Steel Fabricated by Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Jia; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Huaming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the process of coating AerMet100 steel on forged 300M steel with laser cladding was investigated, with a thorough analysis of the chemical composition, microstructure, and hardness of the substrate and the cladding layer as well as the transition zone. Results show that the composition and microhardness of the cladding layer are macroscopically homogenous with the uniformly distributed bainite and a small amount of retained austenite in martensite matrix. The transition zone, which spans approximately 100 μm, yields a gradual change of composition from the cladding layer to 300M steel matrix. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) can be divided into three zones: the sufficiently quenched zone (SQZ), the insufficiently quenched zone (IQZ), and the high tempered zone (HTZ). The SQZ consists of martensitic matrix and bainite, as for the IQZ and the HTZ the microstructures are martensite + tempered martensite and tempered martensite + ferrite, respectively. These complicated microstructures in the HAZ are caused by different peak heating temperatures and heterogeneous microstructures of the as-received 300M steel.

  10. Improvement in the production of cylinder shirt of inner diesel combustion engines; Mejoras en la construccion de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustion interna ciclo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Perez, F.; Barroso-Moreno, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system piston segment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project. (Author)

  11. Improvement in the production of cylinder shirt of inner diesel combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Perez, F.; Barroso-Moreno, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system piston segment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project. (Author)

  12. Study on the Toughness of X100 Pipeline Steel Heat Affected Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueda; Shang, Chengjia; Ma, Xiaoping; Subramanian, S. V.

    Microstructure-property correlation of heat affected zone (HAZ) in X100 longitudinal submerged arc welding (LSAW) real weld joint was studied in this paper. Coarse grained (CG) HAZ and intercritically reheated coarse grained (ICCG) HAZ were characterized by optical microscope (OM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure of CGHAZ is mostly composed of granular bainite with low density of high angle boundaries (HAB). Prior austenite grain size is 80μm. In ICCGHAZ, coarse prior austenite grains were decorated by coarse necklacing martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents. Different layers were observed within M-A constituent, which may be martensite and austenite layers. Charpy absorbed energy of two different HAZ regions (ICCGHAZ containing and non-containing regions) was recorded using instrumental Charpy impact test machine. The results showed that the existence of ICCGHAZ resulted in the sharp drop of Charpy absorbed energy from 180J to 50J, while the existence of only CGHAZ could still lead to good toughness. The fracture surface was 60% brittle in the absence of ICCGHAZ, and 100% brittle in the presence of ICCGHAZ in the impact tested samples. The underlying reason is the microstructure of ICCGHAZ consisted of granular bainite and upper bainite with necklace-type M-A constituent along the grain boundaries. Cleavage fracture initiated from M-A constituent, either through cracking of M-A or debonding from the matrix, was observed at the fracture surface of ICCGHAZ. The presence of necklace type M-A constituent in ICCGHAZ notably increases the susceptibility of cleavage microcrack nucleation. Furthermore, the study of secondary microcracks beneath the CGHAZ and the ICCGHAZ through EBSD suggested that the fracture mechanism changes from nucleation-controlled in the CGHAZ to propagation-controlled in the ICCGHAZ because of the presence of necklace-type M-A constituent in the ICCGHAZ region. Both fracture mechanism contribute to the poor

  13. Effect of Cooling Mode on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pipeline Steel for Strain Based Design and Research on its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesong, Zhang; Yonglin, Kang

    With the rapid development of oil and gas industry long distance pipelines inevitably pass through regions with complex geological activities. In order to avoid large deformation the pipelines must be designed based on strain criteria. In this paper the alloy system of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was designed which was 0.25%Mo-0.05%C-1.75%Mn. The effect of controlled cooling process on microstructure and mechanical properties of X80 high deformability pipeline steel were systematically investigated. Through the two-stage controlled cooling process the microstructure of the X80 high deformability pipeline steel were ferrite, bainite and M/A island. There were two kinds of ferrite which were polygonal ferrite (PF) and quasi-polygonal ferrite (QF). The bainite was granular bainite ferrite (GF). Along with the decrease of the start cooling temperature, the volume fraction of ferrite and M/A both increased, the yield ratio (Y/T) decreased, the uniform elongation (uEl) increased firstly with the content of ferrite increased but then decreased with the content and size of M/A increased. When the finish cooling temperature decreasing, the size of M/A became finer. As the start cooling temperature was 690 °C and the finish cooling temperature was 450 °C the volume fraction of ferrite was 23%, the size of ferrite grain was 5μm, the size of M/A island was below 1μm and the structure uniformity was the best. The deformation mechanism of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was analyzed. The best way to improve the work hardening rate was reducing the size of M/A islands on the premise of a certain volume fraction. The decreasing path of instantaneous strain hardening index (n*-value) showed three stages in the deformation process. The n*-value kept stable in the second stage, the reason was that the retained austenite transformed into martensite and the phase transition improved the strain hardening ability of the microstructure. This phenomenon was called

  14. Effect of Microstructure on Retained Austenite Stability and Tensile Behaviour in an Aluminum-Alloyed TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jasmine Sheree

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels have excellent strength, ductility and work hardening behaviour, which can be attributed to a phenomenon known as the TRIP effect. The TRIP effect involves a metastable phase, retained austenite (RA), transforming into martensite as a result of applied stress or strain. This transformation absorbs energy and improves the work hardening rate of the steel, delaying the onset of necking. This work describes two distinct TRIP steel microstructures and focuses on how microstructure affects the RA-to-martensite transformation and the uniaxial tensile behaviour. A two-step heat treatment was applied to an aluminum-alloyed TRIP steel to obtain a microstructure consisting of equiaxed grains of ferrite surrounded by bainite, martensite and RA -- the equiaxed microstructure. The second microstructure was produced by first austenitizing and quenching the steel to produce martensite, followed by the two-step heat treatment. The resulting microstructure (labelled the lamellar microstructure) consisted of elongated grains of ferrite with bainite, martensite and RA grains. Both microstructural variants had similar initial volume fractions of RA. A series of interrupted tensile tests and ex-situ magnetic measurements were conducted to examine the RA transformation during uniform elongation. Similar tests were also conducted on an equiaxed microstructure and a lamellar microstructure with similar ultimate tensile strengths. Results show that the work hardening rate is directly related to the RA transformation rate. The slower transformation rate, or higher RA stability, that was observed in the lamellar microstructure enables sustained work hardening at high strains. In contrast, the equiaxed microstructure has a lower RA stability and thus exhibits high values of work hardening at low strains, but the effect is quickly exhausted. Several microstructural factors that affect RA stability were examined, including RA grain size, aspect

  15. The effect of chemical composition and austenite conditioning on the transformation behavior of microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H.; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Yue, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, by using continuous cooling torsion (CCT) testing, the transformation behavior of four microalloyed steels under two circumstances of austenite conditioning and non-conditioning was studied. A full scale hot-rolling schedule containing a 13-pass deformation was employed for the conditioning of the austenite. The CCT tests were then employed till temperature of ∼ 540 °C and the flow curves obtained from this process were analyzed. The initial and final microstructures of the steels were studied by optical and electron microscopes. Results show that alloying elements would decrease the transformation temperature. This effect intensifies with the gradual increase of Mo, Nb and Cu as alloying elements added to the microalloyed steels. As well, austenite conditioning increased the transformation start temperature due mainly to the promotion of polygonal ferrite formation that resulted from a pancaked austenite. The final microstructures also show that CCT alone would decrease the amount of bainite by inducing ferrite transformation in the two phase region. In addition, after the transformation begins, the deformation might result in the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in the ferrite region. This could lead to two different ferrite grain sizes at the end of the CCT. Moreover, the Nb bearing steels show no sign of decreasing the strength level after the transformation begins in the non-conditioned situation and their microstructure is a mix of polygonal ferrite and bainite indicating an absence of probable dynamic recrystallization in this condition. In the conditioned cases, however, these steels show a rapid decrease of the strength level and their final microstructures insinuate that ferrite could have undergone a dynamic recrystallization due to deformation. Consequently, no bainite was seen in the austenite conditioned Nb bearing steels. The pancaking of austenite in the latest cases produced fully polygonal ferrite structures

  16. Studying a multilayer material based on stainless steels and produced by hot pack rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Plokhikh, A. I.; Del'gado Reina, S. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    The structure of a multilayer metal material produced from a composite blank based on sheets of the 08Kh18 and 08Kh18N10 steels by hot pack rolling has been studied using optical microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that two processing cycles are completed in the formation of a laminated structure that is characterized by structural and chemical inhomogeneities due to diffusion and relaxation processes. It has been shown that, during pack rolling, an ultradispersed structure is formed, which is a mixture of ferrite layers elongated in the direction of rolling and of packet martensite layers or layers of carbide-free bainite that has a subgrain structure.

  17. An austempering study of ductile iron alloyed with copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVERA ERIC

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has proved to be an excellent material as it possesses attractive properties: high strength, ductility and toughness are combined with good wear resistance and machinability. These properties can be achieved upon adequate heat treatment which yields the optimum microstructure for a given chemical composition. In this paper the results of an investigation the austempering of ADI alloyed with 0.45 % Cu for a range of times and temperatures are reported. The microstructure and fracture mode developed throughout these treatments have been identified by means of light and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that the strength, elongation and impact energy strongly depend on the amounts of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Based on these results, and optimal processing window was established.

  18. The austempering study of alloyed ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric, Olivera [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)]. E-mail: oliverae@vin.bg.ac.yu; Jovanovic, Milan [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Sid-baranin, Leposava [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Rajnovic, Dragan [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Zec, Slavica [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) proved to be an excellent material as it possesses attractive properties: high strength, ductility and toughness are combined with good wear resistance and machinability. These properties can be achieved upon adequate heat treatment which yields optimum microstructure for a given chemical composition. In this paper an investigation has been conducted on ADI alloyed with 0.45%Cu and austempered in a range of times and temperatures. The microstructure and fracture mode developed throughout these treatments have been identified by means of light and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that strength, elongation and impact energy strongly depend on amounts of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Based on these results an optimal processing window has been established.

  19. Effect of fully and semi austempering treatment on the fatigue properties of ductile cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gun; Lim, Bok Kyu; Hwang, Jung Gak [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Youl [Samcheok National Univ., Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-01

    Single phase bainite structure which is obtained by the conventional austempering treatment reduces the ductility of ductile cast iron. Because of the reduction of ductility it is possible to worsen the fatigue properties. Therefore, semi austempered ductile iron which is treated from {alpha}+{gamma} is prepared to investigate the static strength and fatigue properties in comparison with fully austempered ductile iron (is treated from {gamma}). In spite of semi austempered ductile iron shows the 86% increase of ductility. Also, semi austempered ductile iron shows the higher fatigue limit and lower fatigue crack growth rate as compared with fully austempered ductile iron. By the fractographical analysis, it is revealed that the ferrite obtained by semi austempering process brings about the plastic deformation (ductile striation) of crack tip and gives the prior path of crack propagation. The relatively low crack growth rate in semi austempered specimen is caused by above fractographical reasons.

  20. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  1. Effect of cooling rates on the weld heat affected zone coarse grain microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Celin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a cooling rate on the S690Q quenched and tempered steel welded joint coarse grain heat affected zone microstructure was investigated using a dilatometer with controlled heating and cooling fixture. Steel samples were heated to a peak temperature of 1350 °C and cooled at the different cooling time Dt8/5. A dilatometric analysis and hardness measurements of the simulated thermal cycle coarse grain samples were done. Transformation start and finish temperature were determined using dilatation vs. temperature data analysis. The microstructure of the sample with a cooling time 5 s consists of martensite, whereas at cooling time 80 s a bainitic microstructure was observed. The investigated steel cooling cycle using simulation approach makes possible to determine the range of an optimum CG HAZ cooling time for the welding.

  2. Experimental study and simulation of transformation induced plasticity, and multiphase behaviour of the 16MND5 vessel steel under aniso-thermal multiaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coret, M.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the aniso-thermal multiphase behaviour of the French vessel steel and more specially about the transformation plasticity in the cases of multiaxial non-proportional loadings paths. The first part of this report is devoted to the presentation of a high temperature tension-torsion experimental device enable of obtaining a large range of cooling rate. This experimental set-up is used to explore the transformation plasticity under proportional or non-proportional loading paths, during austenitic, bainitic and martensitic transformations. The results of the tests are compared to the Leblond's model. In the last part, we propose a two-scale behaviour model in which the type of each phase behaviour can be different. This meso-model is finally used to simulate two real tests on structures. (author) [fr

  3. Influence of Martensite Volume Fraction on Impact Properties of Triple Phase (TP) Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Ahmad; Ekrami, A.

    2013-03-01

    Ferrite-bainite-martensite triple phase (TP) microstructures with different volume fractions of martensite were obtained by changing heat treatment time during austempering at 300 °C. Room temperature impact properties of TP steels with different martensite volume fractions ( V M) were determined by means of Charpy impact testing. The effects of test temperature on impact properties were also investigated for two selected microstructures containing 0 (the DP steel) and 8.5 vol.% martensite. Test results showed reduction in toughness with increasing V M in TP steels. Fracture toughness values for the DP and TP steels with 8.5 vol.% martensite were obtained from correlation between fracture toughness and the Charpy impact energy. Fractography of Charpy specimens confirmed decrease in TP steels' toughness with increasing V M by considering and comparing radial marks and crack initiation regions at the fracture surfaces of the studied steels.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel relative to different heat input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hakan; Nelson, Tracy W.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel at different heat inputs. Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness. Heat input during friction stir welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties in the hard zone along the advancing side of the weld nugget. Based on the results, the linear relationships between heat input and post-weld microstructures and mechanical properties in the hard zone of friction stir welded X80 steels were established. It can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone strength increases

  5. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  6. Nickel and Copper-Free Sintered Structural Steels Containing Mn, Cr, Si, and Mo Developed for High Performance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to study the sinterability of potential high-strength nickel-free sintered structural steels containing Mn, Cr, Si and Mo compacts were prepared based on sponge and water atomised iron powders and on Astaloy prealloyed powders. To these were admixed ferromanganese, ferroslicon, and graphite. The samples were sintered at temperatures 1120 and 1250°C in laboratory tube furnaces in hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen atmospheres with dew points better than -60°C or in nitrogen in a semiclosed container in a local microatmosphere. After sintering the samples were slowly cooled or sinterhardened. Generally resultant microstructures were inhomogeneous, consisted of pearlite/ bainite/martensite, but were characterised by an absence of oxide networks. Sintering studies performed over a range of compositions have shown that superior strength, ranging beyond 900 MPa, along with reasonable tensile elongation, can be achieved with these new steels.

  7. Numerical modelling of tools steel hardening. A thermal phenomena and phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in the solid state are presented. In the modelling of thermal phenomena the heat equations transfer has been solved by Finite Elements Method. The graph of continuous heating (CHT and continuous cooling (CCT considered steel are used in the model of phase transformations. Phase altered fractions during the continuous heating austenite and continuous cooling pearlite or bainite are marked in the model by formula Johnson-Mehl and Avrami. For rate of heating >100 K/s the modified equation Koistinen and Marburger is used. Modified equation Koistinen and Marburger identify the forming fraction of martensite.

  8. Effects of austenitization temperature on the microstructure of 15BCr30 and PL22 boron steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Suski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies boron precipitation and segregation at austenitic grain boundaries for low carbon boron steels types: PL22 and 15BCr30. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of martensite/bainite, size and nucleation sites of austenitic grains and precipitates sizes. Three austenitization temperatures were studied (870, 1050 and 1200 °C. The highest martensite percentage occurred for 1050 °C. Iron-borocarbides were detected at grain boundaries for all tested temperatures. At 870 °C the coarse iron-borocarbides are due to non-solubility and coalescence. The highest martensite percentage at 1050 °C is caused by the discrete precipitation of iron-borocarbides at austenitic grains boundaries. The discrete precipitation was due to the low non-equilibrium segregation of boron at grain boundaries. The low non-equilibrium segregation and the small grain size at 1050 °C reduce the total boron concentration at grain boundaries.

  9. Pearlitic and martensitic transformations under tensile stress in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeby-Gautier, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis deals with the study of stress interactions on phase transformations: many studies showed that alloy transformation kinetics is affected (accelerated or slowed down) by a stress or a strain, and that the material displays a much higher plasticity during phase transformation under mechanical loading (the so-called transformation plasticity). Based on a bibliographical study, the author first reports the effect of plastic strains and stresses on the three types of phase transformation met in steels: ferritic or pearlitic, bainitic, and martensitic. She reports the study of kinetic parameters of transformation and transformation plasticity by either obtaining these parameters directly, or by means of directly proportional measurement which is not influenced by the applied stress or strain. The pearlitic transformation is more particularly studied on eutectoid steel. The martensitic transformation is studied on two synthetic Fe-Ni-C alloys, and on 60 NCD steel [fr

  10. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-02-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

  11. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-02-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

  12. Partial transformation of austenite in Al-Mn-Si TRIP steel upon tensile straining: an in situ EBSD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Nybo; Adachi, Y.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos

    2013-01-01

    of the stability of austenite grains against strain-induced transformation, with particular focus on the grain size and the location of the austenite grains. The findings confirm that size and location of austenite grains are significant parameters for their stability. Small austenite grains were observed......The transformation of austenite to martensite in an Al–Mn–Si transformation-induced plasticity steel was investigated with in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements under tensile straining. The visualisation of the microstructure upon straining allows for an investigation...... to be more stable than large grains, while austenite grains located beside bainitic ferrite are the most stable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that austenite grains transform gradually...

  13. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the creep life of a 2.25% Cr1% Mo Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, D.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressures on the creep life of a 2.25% Cr 1% Mo steel, with a bainitic microstructure, is examined. Creep tests have been carried out at 923K with uniaxial stresses in the range 55 to 80 MPa and superimposed hydrostatic pressures up to 35 MPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have been used to evaluate the contribution of the hydrostatic stress to grain boundary cavitation. Increasing the hydrostatic pressure for a given uniaxial stress suppresses cavitation, but little changes the secondary creep rate, thereby excending the creep life. Furthermore, the time to failure depends on both the applied uniaxial stress and the hydrostatic pressure and not simply the principal stress. (orig.) [de

  14. Evaluation of ferritic alloy Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo after neutron irradiation: Microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1986-10-01

    As part of a program to provide a data base on the bainitic alloy Fe-2-1/4-1Mo for fusion energy applications, microstructural examinations are reported for nine specimen conditions for 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel which had been irradiated by fast neutrons over the temperature range 390 to 510 0 C. Void swelling is found following irradiation at 400 0 C to 480 0 C. Concurrently dislocation structure and precipitation developed. Peak void swelling, void density, dislocation density and precipitate number density formed at the lowest temperature, approximately 400 0 C, whereas mean void size, and mean precipitate size increased with increasing irradiation temperature. The examination results are used to provide interpretation of in-reactor creep, density change and post irradiation tensile behavior

  15. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, Alexander G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  16. Research on Microstructure and Properties of Welded Joint of High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengxiao; Li, Yi; Chen, Bo; Ma, Xuejiao; Zhang, Dongya; Tang, Cai

    2018-01-01

    BS960 steel plates were welded by Laser-MAG and MAG. The microstructure and properties of the welded joints were investigated by optical microscope, micro-hardness tester, universal tensile testing machine, impact tester, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fatigue tester. By a series of experiments, the following results were obtained: The grain size of the coarse grain zone with Laser-MAG welded joint is 20μm, and that with MAG welded joint is about 32μm, both of the fine grain region are composed of fine lath martensite and granular bainite; the width of the heat affected region with Laser-MAG is lower than that with MAG. The strength and impact energy of welded joints with Laser-MAG is higher than that with MAG. The conditioned fatigue limit of welded joint with Laser-MAG is 280MPa; however, the conditioned fatigue limit of welded joint with MAG is 250MPa.

  17. Influence of plasma nitro carburization on fatigue properties in a 4340 steel with different microstructure; Infuencia da nitrocarbonetacao a plasma nas propriedades de fadiga de um aco 4340 com diferentes microestruturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranieri, A.; Hashimoto, T.M. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia (FEG); Baggio-Scheid, V.H.; Abdalla, A.J., E-mail: abdalla@ieav.cta.b [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    2010-07-01

    Three different routes of heat treatments were applied in samples of 4340 steel in order to modify the microstructures and mechanical properties. After this initial treatment was applied a plasma nitrocarburizing thermochemical treatment in a part of the samples, forming a layer of nitride (Fe{sub 4}N and Fe{sub 3}N{sub 2}) of about 10{mu}m, with high hardness, in order to improve the surface characteristics. The layer and microstructure were characterized with X-ray analysis, optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning and hardness test by microindentation. Tensile and fatigue tests show the influence of microstructure formed on the mechanical properties, the microstructure predominantly bainitic phase showed a better combination of ductility, toughness and fatigue life. After treatment nitrocarburizing was observed the effect of tempering, with a reduction in hardness of substrate and tensile strength. In steel with martensitic microstructure the fatigue life decreases. (author)

  18. Research on Manufacture and Quality Control of Medium Carbon Vessels for Resistance to Hydrogen Induced Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinyu, Zhao; Yang, Zou; Yang, Liu; Nan, Zhao; Yanqiu, Fan; Liye, Qin; Yanchun, Lv

    With the exploitation of gas mixed with sulfur, the requirement of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance for medium carbon vessels serving at environmental with hydrogen sulfide solution become more rigorous. Through the research on HIC, the formation reasons of those are: MnS inclusions, Al2O3 inclusions, P segregation, Bainites and Macro segregation of slab. Thus if these parameters are controlled appropriately, the qualified medium carbon vessels for resistance to HIC steel will be produced. The conclusions are following: the controlled measurements to cleanliness on liquid steel, macro segregation controlled on slab, large reduction at rolling and normalizing are used to produce the HIC resistance vessels. The properties of tensile strength and low temperature impact meet the standard properly. Meanwhile there aren't hydrogen induced cracking found in any samples.

  19. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A MULTISCALE MICROSTRUCTURE BY ANISOTROPIC TESSELLATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Altendorf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the area of tessellation models, there is an intense activity to fully understand the classical models of Voronoi, Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl. Still, these models are all simulations of isotropic growth and are therefore limited to very simple and partly convex cell shapes. The here considered microstructure of martensitic steel has a much more complex and highly non convex cell shape, requiring new tessellation models. This paper presents a new approach for anisotropic tessellation models that resolve to the well-studied cases of Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl for spherical germs. Much better reconstructions can be achieved with these models and thus more realistic microstructure simulations can be produced for materials widely used in industry like martensitic and bainitic steels.

  20. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of C-Mn-Al-Si-Nb Hot-Rolled TRIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B.; Y Lu, M.; Y Yang, W.; Li, L. F.; Y Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A novel thermomechanical process to manufacture hot-rolled TRIP steels has been proposed based on dynamic transformation of undercooled austenite (DTUA). The cooling rate between DTUA and isothermal bainitic treatment in the novel process is important. In the present study, effect of this cooling rate on the final microstructures and mechanical properties of a C-Mn-Al-Si-Nb TRIP steel was investigated. The results showed that the volume fractions of acicular ferrite and retained austenite were increased with the increment of cooling rate. As a consequence, higher yield strength and larger total elongation were obtained for the investigated steel with higher cooling rate. In addition, a value of 30.24 GPa% for the product of tensile strength and total elongation was acquired when the cooling rate was 25 K/s. This value has met the standard of the “Third Generation” of advanced high strength sheet steels.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a high Al-low Si TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By using optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD and tensile test, the effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a high Al-low Si TRIP steel was investigated. The results show that TRIP effect can be obtained when annealing temperature is above Ac3 due to the existence of δ-ferrite in this high Al-low Si TRIP steel. That is to say, the microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite can be obtained when annealing temperature is above Ac3. Furthermore, the tensile strength and the product of strength and elongation decrease with increasing annealing temperature when annealing temperature is above Ac3.

  2. THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING OF CHROMOMOLIBDENUM ROLLING IN THE CONDITIONS OF JSC BMZ – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING BMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that after thermo-mechanical processing of chrome-molybdenic rolled metal including cooling with a speed of 0,6-0,8 ° C / sec, the quantity of bainite increases to 75% and the amount of lamellar pearlite decreases to 5-10% in structure that promotes reduction of the mode of subsequent softening processing. It is established that at cooling with a specified speed the transformations in chrome-molybdenic steel come to an end at temperatures of 350-370 ° C. The offered technology of the reduced mode of thermomechanical processing provides necessary quality of rolled metal and promotes decrease of energy resources consumption.

  3. Effect of Microstructure on HIC Susceptibility of API X70MS Linepipe Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Joon-Ho; Sim, Ho-Seop; Park, Byung-Gyu [Dongkuk Steel R and D Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Mox [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The resistance of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) was investigated with different microstructures of API X70MS steel. Ferrite/acicular ferrite (F/AF), deformed ferrite/acicular ferrite, ferrite/bainite (F/B) and single acicular ferrite (AF) were obtained by thermo-mechanical controlled process (TMCP) with changing rolling and cooling conditions. HIC resistance was found to be affected by the type as well as morphology of the microstructure, and thus the behavior of crack initiation and propagation could be analyzed. It was found that single AF and deformed F/AF with uniformly distributed dislocation reduced HIC initiation. Banded microstructure with a hardness value below 250 HV, such as AF, showed good HIC propagation resistance due to high toughness. AF generally exhibited excellent crack initiation and propagation resistance, namely the best HIC susceptibility performance. AF might redeem the HIC resistance for the banded microstructure also.

  4. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  5. Finite element modelling of TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatriantafillou, I.; Aravas, N.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    A constitutive model that describes the mechanical behaviour of steels exhibiting ''Transformation Induced Plasticity'' (TRIP) during martensitic transformation is presented. Multiphase TRIP steels are considered as composite materials with a ferritic matrix containing bainite and retained austenite, which gradually transforms into martensite. The effective properties and overall behaviour of TRIP steels are determined by using homogenization techniques for non-linear composites. The developed constitutive model considers the different hardening behaviour of the individual phases and estimates the apportionment of plastic strain and stress between the individual phases of the composite. A methodology for the numerical integration of the resulting elastoplastic constitutive equations in the context of the finite element method is developed and the constitutive model is implemented in a general-purpose finite element program. The prediction of the model in uniaxial tension agrees well with the experimental data. The problem of necking of a bar in uniaxial tension is studied in detail. (orig.)

  6. Austenite Continuous Cooling Transformation of Wear-Resistant Steel with Hardness 500HBW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Feng; Xiaodong, Liu; Demin, Sun

    The phase transformation rule, microstructures and properties of 500HBW wear-resistant steel produced in Jinan Company of Shandong Iron and Steel Co. ltd. have been investigated in this paper. When the chemical composition of steel is given, the cooling rates after austeniting affect on the properties of steel greatly. The hardness and tensile strength increasing as increasing of cooling rates. The main cause is due to appearance and increasing of Bainite and Martensite other than Ferrite and Pearlite at room temperature. The cooling rate has distinct effects upon the mechanical properties of steel plates. With the 3-55°C/s cooling rate, the tensile strength vary in 979-1690MPa, the hardness changed from 341 to 596HV10. In the procedure of manufacture of 500HBW wear-resistant steels, the quickly cooling rate should be got to keep suitable microstructure and good hardness and toughness.

  7. Study of surface plasma coating of 4340 steel with different microstructure for high temperature use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrer, Isabela Reis; Abdalla, Antonio Jorge; Barboza, Miguel Justino Ribeiro; Suzuki, Paulo Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    This paper has as main objective the formation of different microstructures by the specific heat treatments and applies the plasma thermochemical treatments to increase surface hardness. These two types of treatments will be evaluated in creep mechanical properties in steel 4340 for aeronautic uses. It will be evaluated, at first, the influence of heat treatments that changes the material microstructure. It was prepared specimen with three kinds of different microstructures (ferritic- perlitic, bainitic and martensitic), have been formed by the different heat treatments. After that, part of specimen will be submitted to plasma coating to evaluate the influence of this kind of surface treatment on creep properties. To better understand the microstructure and the relations between his properties, it was realized microscopic analyses, hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints of TWIP and TRIP steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujica, L.; Weber, S.; Pinto, H.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of investigating a laser-welded dissimilar joint of TWIP and TRIP steel sheets, the microstructure was characterized by means of OM, SEM, and EBSD to differentiate the fusion zone, heat-affected zone, and the base material. OIM was used to differentiate between ferritic, bainitic, and martensitic structures. Compositions were measured by means of optical emission spectrometry and EDX to evaluate the effect of manganese segregation. Microhardness measurements and tensile tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joint. Residual stresses and XRD phase quantification were used to characterize the weld. Grain coarsening and martensitic areas were found in the fusion zone, and they had significant effects on the mechanical properties of the weld. The heat-affected zone of the TRIP steel and the corresponding base material showed considerable differences in the microstructure and properties.

  9. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joint of High Strength Steel Grade S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błacha S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of metallographic examination and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joint of quenched and tempered steel grade S690QL are presented. Metallographic examination revealed that the concentrated electron beam significantly affect the changes of microstructure in the steel. Parent material as a delivered condition (quenched and tempered had a bainitic-martensitic microstructure at hardness about 290 HV0.5. After welding, the microstructure of heat affected zone is composed mainly of martensite (in the vicinity of the fusion line of hardness 420 HV0.5. It should be noted, however, that the microstructure of steel in the heat affected zone varies with the distance from the fusion line. The observed microstructural changes were in accordance with the CCT-S transformation diagram for the examined steel.

  10. The Numerical Analysis of the Phenomena of Superficial Hardening of the Hot-Work Tool Steel Elements / Analiza Numeryczna Zjawisk Przypowierzchniowego Hartowania Elementów Ze Stali Narzędziowej Do Pracy Na Gorąco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokota A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the complex model of hardening of the hot-work tool steel is presented. Model of estimation of phase fractions and their kinetics is based on the continuous heating diagram (CHT and cooling diagram (CCT. Phase fractions which occur during the continuous heating and cooling (austenite, pearlite or bainite are described by Johnson-Mehl (JM formula. To determine of the formed martensite the modified Koistinen-Marburger (KM equation is used. Model takes into account the thermal, structural, plastic strains and transformation plasticity. To calculate the plastic strains the Huber-Mises plasticity condition with isotopic hardening is used. Whereas to determine transformations induced plasticity the Leblond model is applied. The numerical analysis of phase compositions and residual stresses in the hot-work steel (W360 element is considered.

  11. A Modified Approach to Modeling of Diffusive Transformation Kinetics from Nonisothermal Data and Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangjun; Xiao, Namin; Cai, Minghui; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Guangyao; Sun, Guangyong; Rolfe, Bernard F.

    2016-09-01

    An inverse model is proposed to construct the mathematical relationship between continuous cooling transformation (CCT) kinetics with constant rates and the isothermal one. The kinetic parameters in JMAK equations of isothermal kinetics can be deduced from the experimental CCT kinetics. Furthermore, a generalized model with a new additive rule is developed for predicting the kinetics of nucleation and growth during diffusional phase transformation with arbitrary cooling paths based only on CCT curve. A generalized contribution coefficient is introduced into the new additivity rule to describe the influences of current temperature and cooling rate on the incubation time of nuclei. Finally, then the reliability of the proposed model is validated using dilatometry experiments of a microalloy steel with fully bainitic microstructure based on various cooling routes.

  12. A New Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for AISI M4 High-Speed Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Jalel; Ben Slima, Souad

    2008-12-01

    The increasing evolution of dilatometric techniques now allows for the identification of structural transformations with very low signal. The use of dilatometric techniques coupled with more common techniques, such as metallographic, hardness testing, and x-ray diffraction allows to plot a new CCT diagram for AISI M4 high-speed tool steel. This diagram is useful for a better selection of alternate solutions, hardening, and tempering heat treatments. More accurate determination of the various fields of transformation of austenite during its cooling was made. The precipitation of carbides highlighted at high temperature is at the origin of the martrensitic transformation into two stages (splitting phenomena). For slow cooling rates, it was possible to highlight the ferritic, pearlitic, and bainitic transformation.

  13. Prediction of microstructure in HAZ of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, S.P.; Yancey, R.; Jung, G.

    2004-01-01

    A modeling technique for predicting microstructure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the hypoeutectoid steels is presented. This technique aims at predicting the phase fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite present in the HAZ after the cool down of a weld. The austenite formation kinetics and austenite decomposition kinetics are calculated using the transient temperature profile. The thermal profile in the weld and the HAZ is calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). Two kinds of austenite decomposition models are included. The final phase fractions are predicted with the help of a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the material. In the calculation of phase fractions either the experimental CCT diagram or the mathematically calculated CCT diagram can be used

  14. Prediction of Microstructure in HAZ of Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, S. P.; Yancey, R.; Jung, G.

    2004-06-01

    A modeling technique for predicting microstructure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the hypoeutectoid steels is presented. This technique aims at predicting the phase fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite present in the HAZ after the cool down of a weld. The austenite formation kinetics and austenite decomposition kinetics are calculated using the transient temperature profile. The thermal profile in the weld and the HAZ is calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). Two kinds of austenite decomposition models are included. The final phase fractions are predicted with the help of a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the material. In the calculation of phase fractions either the experimental CCT diagram or the mathematically calculated CCT diagram can be used.

  15. Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Transformations in a High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Studied from the Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Thomas; Stanford, Nicole; Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phase transformation and precipitation in a high-strength low-alloy steel have been studied over a large range of cooling rates, and a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been produced. These experiments are unique because the measurements were made from samples cooled directly from the melt, rather than in homogenized and re-heated billets. The purpose of this experimental design was to examine conditions pertinent to direct strip casting. At the highest cooling rates which simulate strip casting, the microstructure was fully bainitic with small regions of pearlite. At lower cooling rates, the fraction of polygonal ferrite increased and the pearlite regions became larger. The CCT diagram and the microstructural analysis showed that the precipitation of NbC is suppressed at high cooling rates, and is likely to be incomplete at intermediate cooling rates.

  16. Numerical model to predict microstructure of the heat treated of steel elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In work the presented numerical models of tool steel hardening processes take into account thermal phenomena and phase transformations. Numerical algorithm of thermal phenomena was based on the Finite Elements Methods of the heat transfer equations. In the model of phase transformations, in simulations heating process continuous heating (CHT was applied, whereas in cooling process continuous cooling (CCT of the steel at issue. The phase fraction transformed (austenite during heating and fractions during cooling of ferrite, pearlite or bainite are determined by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formulas. The nescent fraction of martensite is determined by Koistinen and Marburger formula or modified Koistinen and Marburger formula. In the simulations of hardening was subject the fang lathe of cone (axisymmetrical object made of tool steel.

  17. Development of medical guide wire of Cu-Al-Mn-base superelastic alloy with functionally graded characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Akihisa; Takahashi, Yukinori; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Shuzo; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2004-04-15

    A new type of medical guide wire with functionally graded hardness from the tip to the end was developed with the use of Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys. The superelasticity (SE) of the Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys in the tip is drastically improved by controlling the grain size, whereas the end of the wire is hardened using bainitic transformation by aging at around 200-400 degrees C. Therefore, the tip of the guide wire shows a superelasticity and its end has high stiffness. This guide wire with functionally graded characteristics shows excellent pushability and torquability, superior to that of the Ni-Ti guide wire. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  19. Numerical model of phase transformation of steel C80U during hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns numerical modelling of the phase transformations in solid state hardening of tool steel C80U. The transformations were assumed: initial structure – austenite, austenite – perlite, bainite and austenite – martensite. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics based on continuous heating diagram (CHT and continuous cooling diagram (CCT. The dilatometric tests on the simulator of thermal cycles were performed. The results of dilatometric tests were compared with the results of the test numerical simulations. In this way the derived models for evaluating phase content and kinetics of transformations in heating and cooling processes were verified. The results of numerical simulations confirm correctness of the algorithm that were worked out. In the numerical example the simulated estimation of the phase fraction in the hardened axisimmetrical element was performed.

  20. Embrittlement of Intercritically Reheated Coarse Grain Heat-Affected Zone of ASTM4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Han, Tao; Han, Bin

    2018-04-01

    In this investigation, a thermal welding simulation technique was used to investigate the microstructures and mechanical properties of the intercritically reheated coarse grain heat-affected zone (IR CGHAZ) of ASTM4130 steel. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the toughness of IR CGHAZ was also analyzed. The toughness of IR CGHAZ was measured by means of Charpy impact, and it is found that IR CGHAZ has the lowest toughness which is much lower than that of the base metal regardless of whether PWHT is applied or not. The as-welded IR CGHAZ is mainly composed of ferrite, martensite, and many blocky M-A constituents distributing along grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. Also, the prior austenite grains are still as coarse as those in the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). The presence of the blocky M-A constituents and the coarsened austenite grains result in the toughness deterioration of the as-welded IR CGHAZ. Most of the blocky M-A constituents are decomposed to granular bainite due to the effect of the PWHT. However, PWHT cannot refine the prior austenite grains. Thus, the low toughness of IR CGHAZ after PWHT can be attributed to two factors, i.e., the coarsened austenite grains, and the presence of the remaining M-A constituents and granular bainite, which are located at grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. The absorbed energy of the IR CGHAZ was increased by about 3.75 times, which means that the PWHT can effectively improve the toughness but it cannot be recovered to the level of base metal.

  1. Microstructural heterogeneities and fatigue anisotropy of forged steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessard, Etienne; Morel, Franck; Verdu, Catherine; Flaceliere, Laurent; Baudry, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Tomography result: fibering is composed of non-metallic inclusions bands. → Elongated inclusions decreases the: ductility, fracture toughness and fatigue limit. → Cracks initiate from both inclusion clusters and from the bainitic matrix. → The classical self-heating method does not predict the effect of the inclusions. - Abstract: In this study, various experimental methods are employed to determine the anisotropic fatigue behavior of a 25MnCrSiVB6 forged steel (Metasco MC). This material has a bainitic microstructure and contains many elongated non-metallic inclusions in the rolled direction, which are grouped into clusters. Specimens with different orientations relative to the rolling direction have been extracted from a hot rolled bar and the ability of certain experimental techniques to capture the fatigue anisotropy has been tested. Results obtained from monotonic tensile tests and Charpy impact tests show that the material has isotropic fracture strength and anisotropic ductility. The influence of the 'inclusion clusters' is clearly demonstrated via observation of the fracture surfaces. Concerning the fatigue behavior, results from a classical staircase experimental procedure are compared to results from self-heating fatigue tests. For specimens orientated at 0 o relative to the rolled direction, microcrack initiation is controlled by the material matrix and the prediction of the fatigue strength with the self-heating method has been observed to be correct. For specimens orientated at 45 o and 90 o , the elongated manganese sulfide inclusion clusters are the origin of crack initiation and the fatigue strength drops significantly. For this case, it appears that the self-heating method has difficulty predicting the fatigue behavior.

  2. Microstructure Characterization of Fiber Laser Welds of S690QL High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoming; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui; Gong, Hongying; Cui, Haichao; Liu, Chuangen

    2018-02-01

    The use of fiber laser welding to join S690QL steels has attracted interest in the field of construction and assembly. Herein, 13-mm-thick S690QL welded joints were obtained without filler materials using the fiber laser. The as-welded microstructures and the impact energies of the joints were characterized and measured using electron microscopy in conjunction with high-resolution transmission electron images, X-ray diffraction, and impact tests. The results indicated that a single-sided welding technique could be used to join S690QL steels up to a thickness of 12 mm (fail to fuse the joint in the root) when the laser power is equal to 12 kW (scan speed 1 m/min). Double-side welding technique allows better weld penetration and better control of heat distribution. Observation of the samples showed that the fusion zone exhibited bainitic and martensitic microstructures with increased amounts of martensites (Ms) compared with the base materials. Also, the grains in the fusion zone increased in coarseness as the heat input was increased. The fusion zone exhibited increased hardness (397 HV0.2) while exhibiting a simultaneous decrease in the impact toughness. The maximum impact energy value of 26 J was obtained from the single-side-welded sample, which is greater than those obtained from the double-side-welded samples (maximum of 18 J). Many more dislocations and plastic deformations were found in the fusion zone than the heat-affected zone in the joint, which hardened the joints and lowered the impact toughness. The microstructures characterized by FTEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer also exhibited laths of M, as well as stacking faults and dislocations featuring high-density, interfacial structure ledges that occur between the high-angle grain boundaries and the M and bainite.

  3. Effects of Oxides on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties and Fracture Toughness in Heat Affected Zones of Oxide-Containing API X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Sohn, Seok Su; Shin, Sang Yong; Oh, Kyung Shik; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-06-01

    This study is concerned with effects of complex oxides on acicular ferrite (AF) formation, tensile and Charpy impact properties, and fracture toughness in heat affected zones (HAZs) of oxide-containing API X80 linepipe steels. Three steels were fabricated by adding Mg and O2 to form oxides, and various HAZ microstructures were obtained by conducting HAZ simulation tests under different heat inputs. The no. of oxides increased with increasing amount of Mg and O2, while the volume fraction of AF present in the steel HAZs increased with increasing the no. of oxides. The strengths of the HAZ specimens were generally higher than those of the base metals because of the formation of hard microstructures of bainitic ferrite and granular bainite. When the total Charpy absorbed energy was divided into the fracture initiation and propagation energies, the fracture initiation energy was maintained constant at about 75 J at room temperature, irrespective of volume fraction of AF. The fracture propagation energy rapidly increased from 75 to 150 J and saturated when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 30 pct. At 253 K (-20 °C), the total absorbed energy increased with increasing volume fraction of AF, as the cleavage fracture was changed to the ductile fracture when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 45 pct. Thus, 45 vol pct of AF at least was needed to improve the Charpy impact energy, which could be achieved by forming a no. of oxides. The fracture toughness increased with increasing the no. of oxides because of the increased volume fraction of AF formed around oxides. The fracture toughness did not show a visible correlation with the Charpy absorbed energy at room temperature, because toughness properties obtained from these two toughness testing methods had different significations in view of fracture mechanics.

  4. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  5. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  6. Microstructure–hardness relationship in the fusion zone of TRIP steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.S.; Baltazar Hernandez, V.H.; Okita, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fusion zone of TRIP steels in resistance spot welding was analyzed. ► Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for characterizing microstructure. ► Fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on the chemistry. ► Hardness values were in accordance with the microstructural constituents in the fusion zone. - Abstract: Fusion zone of three TRIP steels, categorized as AT: C–Mn–Al, AST: C–Mn–Al–Si and ST: C–Mn–Si, in resistance spot welding was characterized with respect to microstructure, phase analysis, and hardness. The fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on chemistry: (i) AT steel contained ferrite phase surrounded by bainite and martensite regions, (ii) AST steel showed a bainite structures along with martensite laths and interlath retained austenite, whereas (iii) ST steel constituted single phase martensite laths with interlath austenite. X-ray diffraction study indicated that retained austenite fraction in the fusion zone increases with increase in Si content in it. The AST fusion zone hardness lies between those of the AT and ST steels; the ST fusion zone hardness was higher than that of AT steel because of the single phase martensite microstructure. Comparison of fusion zone microstructure and hardness to earlier study on laser welding of the TRIP steels with similar chemistries revealed that higher cooling rate in resistance spot welding led to higher fusion zone hardness compared to laser welding; which was attributed either to decrease in softer ferrite phase (AT steel) in the microstructure or refinement of martensite laths (ST steel).

  7. Surface hardening of 30CrMnSiA steel using continuous electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yulei; Hu, Jing; Shen, Xianfeng; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Wansheng

    2017-11-01

    30CrMnSiA high strength low alloy (HSLA) carbon structural steel is typically applied in equipment manufacturing and aerospace industries. In this work, the effects of continuous electron beam treatment on the surface hardening and microstructure modifications of 30CrMnSiA are investigated experimentally via a multi-purpose electron beam machine Pro-beam system. Micro hardness value in the electron beam treated area shows a double to triple increase, from 208 HV0.2 on the base metal to 520 HV0.2 on the irradiated area, while the surface roughness is relatively unchanged. Surface hardening parameters and mechanisms are clarified by investigation of the microstructural modification and the phase transformation both pre and post irradiation. The base metal is composed of ferrite and troostite. After continuous electron beam irradiation, the micro structure of the electron beam hardened area is composed of acicular lower bainite, feathered upper bainite and part of lath martensite. The optimal input energy density for 30CrMnSiA steel in this study is of 2.5 kJ/cm2 to attain the proper hardened depth and peak hardness without the surface quality deterioration. When the input irradiation energy exceeds 2.5 kJ/cm2 the convective mixing of the melted zone will become dominant. In the area with convective mixing, the cooling rate is relatively lower, thus the micro hardness is lower. The surface quality will deteriorate. Chemical composition and surface roughness pre and post electron beam treatment are also compared. The technology discussed give a picture of the potential of electron beam surface treatment for improving service life and reliability of the 30CrMnSiA steel.

  8. Corrosion Resistance of The Bearing Steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 with Nanobainitic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a comparative study of the corrosion resistance of bearing steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 after two kinds of nanostructuring treatments and two kinds of conventional quenching and tempering treatments. The nanostructuring treatment consisted of austempering with an isothermal quenching at 240°C and 300°C. The conventional heat treatment consisted on quenching and tempering at 350°C for 1 h and quenching and tempering at 550°C for 1 h. Time and temperature of tempering was chosen so that the hardness of both samples (nanostructured as well as quenched and tempered was similar. The microstructure of steel after each heat treatment was described with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was shown, that the austempering conducted at 240°C produced homogenous nanobainitic structure consisting of carbide-free bainite plates with nanometric thickness separated by the layers of retained austenite. The austempering at 300°C produced a sub-micrometric carbide-free bainite with retained austenite in form of layers and small blocks. The conventional heat treatments led to a tempered martensite microstructure. The corrosion resistance study was carried out in Na2SO4 acidic and neutral environment using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The corrosion resistance of nanostructured steel samples were compared to the steel samples with tempered martensite. The obtained results indicate, that the corrosion resistance of bearing steel with nanobainitic structure is similar to steel with tempered martensite in both acidic and neutral environment. This means that the high density of intercrystalline boundaries in nanobinite does not deteriorate the corrosion properties of the bearing steel.

  9. Modelling of transformations in TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsamas, A.I.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    Industrial processing of low-alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels involves various stages of heat-treating, such as Intercritical Annealing (IA) and Bainitic Isothermal Treatment (BIT), in order to produce a dispersion of retained austenite ({gamma}{sub R}) particles and bainite ({alpha}{sub B}) in a ferritic matrix ({alpha}). Retained austenite then transforms to martensite ({alpha}') during forming processes undergone by the steel. In the present work an effort was made to model these stages of processing, i.e. IA, BIT and the {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' strain-induced transformation. Simulation of heat-treatment stages was implemented using computational kinetics methods. Investigation of the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation kinetics was performed by means of a simple analytical model. Simulation of IA and comparison with available experimental data showed that the amount of austenite ({gamma}) forming during IA reaches the values predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium only at high annealing temperatures (>825 C). It was also observed that kinetic and thermodynamic predictions set a lower and an upper limit, respectively, within which the actual amount of austenite experimentally observed is contained. Results from the simulation of the BIT indicated considerable carbon enrichment, and thus stabilization of {gamma}{sub R}, in agreement with recent experimental observations. As regards the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation, the analytical model employed in the present work was fitted to available experimental results, showing reasonably good adaptation to the kinetic behaviour of the microstructure during plastic deformation. (orig.)

  10. Numerical methods for calculating thermal residual stresses and hydrogen diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.B.; Devaux, J.; Dubois, D.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal residual stresses and hydrogen concentrations are two major factors intervening in cracking phenomena. These parameters were numerically calculated by a computer programme (TITUS) using the FEM, during the deposition of a stainless clad on a low-alloy plate. The calculation was performed with a 2-dimensional option in four successive steps: thermal transient calculation, metallurgical transient calculation (determination of the metallurgical phase proportions), elastic-plastic transient (plain strain conditions), hydrogen diffusion transient. Temperature and phase dependence of hydrogen diffusion coefficient and solubility constant. The following results were obtained: thermal calculations are very consistent with experiments at higher temperatures (due to the introduction of fusion and solidification latent heats); the consistency is not as good (by 70 degrees) for lower temperatures (below 650 degrees C); this was attributed to the non-introduction of gamma-alpha transformation latent heat. The metallurgical phase calculation indicates that the heat affected zone is almost entirely transformed into bainite after cooling down (the martensite proportion does not exceed 5%). The elastic-plastic calculations indicate that the stresses in the heat affected zone are compressive or slightly tensile; on the other hand, higher tensile stresses develop on the boundary of the heat affected zone. The transformation plasticity has a definite influence on the final stress level. The return of hydrogen to the clad during the bainitic transformation is but an incomplete phenomenon and the hydrogen concentration in the heat affected zone after cooling down to room temperature is therefore sufficient to cause cold cracking (if no heat treatment is applied). Heat treatments are efficient in lowering the hydrogen concentration. These results enable us to draw preliminary conclusions on practical means to avoid cracking. (orig.)

  11. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy of a JRQ steel subjected to different heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno G, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a study was conducted on the steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 of reference JRQ, for the purpose of carrying out a study by transmission electron microscopy on the size and distribution of precipitates in steel samples JRQ previously subjected to heat treatments. This because the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, are made of a steel Astm A-533 Grade B, Class 1. It is known that the neutron radiation causes damage primarily embrittlement in materials that are exposed to it. However, observable damage through mechanical tests result from microstructural defects and atomic, induced by the neutron radiation. In previous studies hardening by precipitation of a JRQ steel (provided by the IAEA) was induced by heat treatments, finding that the conditions of heat treatment that reproduce the hardness and stress mechanical properties of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 irradiated for 8 years to a fluence of 3.5 x 10 17 neutrons/cm 2 and to a temperature of 290 grades C are achieved with annealing treatments at 550 grades C. In the studied samples it was found that the more hardening phase both the heat treatments as the neutron radiation, is the bainite, being the ferrite practically unchanged. Which it gave the tone to believe that the ferrite is the phase that provides at level macro the mechanical properties in stress, since in the irradiated samples such properties remained unchanged with respect to the non-irradiated material, however changes were observed in material ductility, which may be attributable to the change of hardness in the bainite, which opens a possibility for modeling the micromechanical behavior of this material. (Author)

  12. Strengthening and Toughening of a Heavy Plate Steel for Shipbuilding with Yield Strength of Approximately 690 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Cheng, Binggui; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    HSLA-100 steel with high content of alloying elements (nominally in wt pct, 3.5 Ni, 1.6 Cu, and 0.6Mo) is now used to produce heavy plates for constructing a hull and drilling platform. We proposed here a substantially leaner steel composition (containing 1.7 Ni, 1.1 Cu, and 0.5Mo) to produce a heavy plate to 80 mm thickness with mechanical properties comparable with those of the HSLA-100 grade. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the steel was constructed. Key parameters of thermal treatment and revealing mechanisms of strengthening and toughening were derived based on industrial production trials. The microstructures of the 80-mm-thick plate were lath-like bainite (LB) at near surface of the quarter thickness ( t/4), and granular bainite (GB)+LB at center thickness ( t/2) after solutionizing and water quenching (Q). The effect of tempering (T) on the microstructures and properties of the plate was investigated. Excellent combination of room temperature strength and low-temperature Charpy V-notch (CVN) toughness approximately equivalent to that of the HSLA 100 grade (YS > 690 MPa, CVN energy >100 J even at 193 K [-80 °C]) was achieved in the plate treated by the QT process with tempering temperature of 898 K (625 °C). The combination of strength and toughness at t/4 is superior to that at t/2 of the plate under both as-quenched and QT conditions. This result is attributed to that the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) at t/4 is higher than that at t/2.

  13. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy of a JRQ steel subjected to different heat treatments; Caracterizacion por microscopia electronica de transmision de un acero JRQ sometido a diferentes tratamientos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno G, N.

    2014-07-01

    In this work a study was conducted on the steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 of reference JRQ, for the purpose of carrying out a study by transmission electron microscopy on the size and distribution of precipitates in steel samples JRQ previously subjected to heat treatments. This because the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, are made of a steel Astm A-533 Grade B, Class 1. It is known that the neutron radiation causes damage primarily embrittlement in materials that are exposed to it. However, observable damage through mechanical tests result from microstructural defects and atomic, induced by the neutron radiation. In previous studies hardening by precipitation of a JRQ steel (provided by the IAEA) was induced by heat treatments, finding that the conditions of heat treatment that reproduce the hardness and stress mechanical properties of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 irradiated for 8 years to a fluence of 3.5 x 10 {sup 17} neutrons/cm{sup 2} and to a temperature of 290 grades C are achieved with annealing treatments at 550 grades C. In the studied samples it was found that the more hardening phase both the heat treatments as the neutron radiation, is the bainite, being the ferrite practically unchanged. Which it gave the tone to believe that the ferrite is the phase that provides at level macro the mechanical properties in stress, since in the irradiated samples such properties remained unchanged with respect to the non-irradiated material, however changes were observed in material ductility, which may be attributable to the change of hardness in the bainite, which opens a possibility for modeling the micromechanical behavior of this material. (Author)

  14. Microstructure design of low alloy transformation-induced plasticity assisted steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruixian

    The microstructure of low alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels has been systematically varied through the combination of computational and experimental methodologies in order to enhance the mechanical performance and to fulfill the requirement of the next generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). The roles of microstructural parameters, such as phase constitutions, phase stability, and volume fractions on the strength-ductility combination have been revealed. Two model alloy compositions (i.e. Fe-1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C, and Fe-3Mn-1Si-0.3C in wt%, nominal composition) were studied. Multiphase microstructures including ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite were obtained through conventional two step heat treatment (i.e. intercritical annealing-IA, and bainitic isothermal transformation-BIT). The effect of phase constitution on the mechanical properties was first characterized experimentally via systematically varying the volume fractions of these phases through computational thermodynamics. It was found that martensite was the main phase to deteriorate ductility, meanwhile the C/VA ratio (i.e. carbon content over the volume fraction of austenite) could be another indicator for the ductility of the multiphase microstructure. Following the microstructural characterization of the multiphase alloys, two microstructural design criteria (i.e. maximizing ferrite and austenite, suppressing athermal martensite) were proposed in order to optimize the corresponding mechanical performance. The volume fraction of ferrite was maximized during the IA with the help of computational thermodyanmics. On the other hand, it turned out theoretically that the martensite suppression could not be avoided on the low Mn contained alloy (i.e. Fe- 1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C). Nevertheless, the achieved combination of strength (~1300MPa true strength) and ductility (˜23% uniform elongation) on the low Mn alloy following the proposed design criteria fulfilled the

  15. Diseño de nuevos aceros bainíticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, F. G.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed microstructures consisting of fine plates of upper bainitic ferrite separated by thin films of stable retained austenite have seen many applications in recent years because of their impressive combination of strength and toughness. There may also be some martensite present in the microstructure, but its formation can be controlled increasing the stability of the retained austenite. On the other hand, carbides are avoided by the judicious use of silicon as an alloying element. The aim of the present work was to see how far these concepts can be extended in order to achieve the highest ever combination of strength and toughness in bulk-samples subjected to continuous cooling transformation. Three alloys were proposed and manufactured, and the results of metallographic characterisation and mechanical tests have shown that the designed steels have the highest ever combination of strength and toughness for bainitic microstructures, matching even the maraging steels which are at least thirty times more expensive. The experimental results confirm the alloy design procedures.

    En los últimos años se han diseñado aceros con microestmcturas formadas por placas de ferrita bainítica superior y finas regiones de austenita retenida que, por su excelente combinación de propiedades de resistencia y tenacidad, han sido empleados para numerosas aplicaciones. Aunque en estas microestructuras puede haber algo de martensita, su formación puede controlarse aumentando la estabilidad de la austenita retenida. Por otra parte, la presencia de carburos en la bainita, causa de importantes disminuciones de tenacidad en los aceros bainíticos convencionales, se evita gracias al uso del silicio como elemento de aleación. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la posibilidad de optimizar la citada combinación de propiedades, generalmente antagónicas, en muestras masivas para aplicación industrial sujetas a transformaciones por enfriamiento continuo. Para

  16. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  17. Phase Transformation Behavior of Medium Manganese Steels with 3 Wt Pct Aluminum and 3 Wt Pct Silicon During Intercritical Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binhan; Fazeli, Fateh; Scott, Colin; Yue, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Medium manganese steels alloyed with sufficient aluminum and silicon amounts contain high fractions of retained austenite adjustable to various transformation-induced plasticity/twinning-induced plasticity effects, in addition to a reduced density suitable for lightweight vehicle body-in-white assemblies. Two hot rolled medium manganese steels containing 3 wt pct aluminum and 3 wt pct silicon were subjected to different annealing treatments in the present study. The evolution of the microstructure in terms of austenite transformation upon reheating and the subsequent austenite decomposition during quenching was investigated. Manganese content of the steels prevailed the microstructural response. The microstructure of the leaner alloy with 7 wt pct Mn (7Mn) was substantially influenced by the annealing temperature, including the variation of phase constituents, the morphology and composition of intercritical austenite, the Ms temperature and the retained austenite fraction. In contrast, the richer variant 10 wt pct Mn steel (10Mn) exhibited a substantially stable ferrite-austenite duplex phase microstructure containing a fixed amount of retained austenite which was found to be independent of the variations of intercritical annealing temperature. Austenite formation from hot band ferrite-pearlite/bainite mixtures was very rapid during annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C), regardless of Mn contents. Austenite growth was believed to be controlled at early stages by carbon diffusion following pearlite/bainite dissolution. The redistribution of Mn in ferrite and particularly in austenite at later stages was too subtle to result in a measureable change in austenite fraction. Further, the hot band microstructure of both steels contained a large fraction of coarse-grained δ-ferrite, which remained almost unchanged during intercritical annealing. A recently developed thermodynamic database was evaluated using the experimental data. The new database achieved a better agreement

  18. Influence of microstructure on high-stress abrasive wear behaviour of a microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Bhattacharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines two-body abrasive wear behaviour of ferrite–pearlite (FP, ferrite–bainite (FB and ferrite–martensite (FM microstructures of a microalloyed steel with nearly same amount of second phase/phase mixture to understand the role microstructure on high-stress abrasive wear performance of steel. Wear tests of differently heat treated specimens against SiC abrasive paper have been conducted over a wide range of sliding distance and normal load. This has been supplemented by the examinations of worn surfaces and generated wear debris in addition to the characterization of microstructures and evaluation of mechanical properties. It has been observed that for all type of microstructures, wear rate increases with increasing load but remains constant with sliding distance. Interestingly, the magnitude of wear rate at any particular wear condition is found to decrease considerably in the order of FP, FB and FM structure due to increased resistance to plastic deformation and microcutting encountered during the course of abrasion.

  19. Mechanisms of poor machinability of austempered ductile iron; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no nansaku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakajima, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    For the purpose of high strength distempered ductile iron (ADD) has the potential to reduce the size and weight of automotive parts, however poor machinability has made it difficult to achieve broad commercial application. To clarify the mechanism of poor machinability of ADI, (1) the chips was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, (2) the cutting front was observed after instantaneously stopping using a quick stop device, (3) for the turning tool wear was measured and (4) sawability of material was compared using a saw test. The results were as follows: In the low cutting-speed range, it was fount teat strain induced transformation from retained austerity ({gamma}R) to martensite ({alpha}{prime}) occurred, and this corresponded to the poorest machinability in the saw test. In the high cutting-speed range. {gamma}R{yields}{alpha}{prime} transformation was limited to the damaged layer, because the temperature of chips exceeded Md point. The tool wear during turning of ADI was generated closer to the cutting edge, as compared with turning of steels. Observation of chip forming state showed that this phenomenon resulted from the following two factors: (a) the formation of saw-tooth like chips ant the decrease of the tool-chip contact length due to the spheroidal graphite, and (b) the increase of cutting force due to the high hardness of the bainitic phase and the damaged layer hardened by the {gamma}R{yields}{alpha}{prime} transformation. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ameliorated Austenite Carbon Content Control in Austempered Ductile Irons by Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron has emerged as a notable material in several engineering fields, including marine applications. The initial austenite carbon content after austenization transform but before austempering process for generating bainite matrix proved critical in controlling the resulted microstructure and thus mechanical properties. In this paper, support vector regression is employed in order to establish a relationship between the initial carbon concentration in the austenite with austenization temperature and alloy contents, thereby exercising improved control in the mechanical properties of the austempered ductile irons. Particularly, the paper emphasizes a methodology tailored to deal with a limited amount of available data with intrinsically contracted and skewed distribution. The collected information from a variety of data sources presents another challenge of highly uncertain variance. The authors present a hybrid model consisting of a procedure of a histogram equalizer and a procedure of a support-vector-machine (SVM- based regression to gain a more robust relationship to respond to the challenges. The results show greatly improved accuracy of the proposed model in comparison to two former established methodologies. The sum squared error of the present model is less than one fifth of that of the two previous models.

  1. Wear resistance studies of an austempered ductile iron with the aid of a single pass grooving pendulum; Estudo do comportamento em desgate de um ferro fundido nodular austemperado atraves da tecnica da tecnica de esclerometria pendular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, J.M.; Tschiptschin, A.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1995-12-31

    The abrasive wear resistance of an austempered ductile iron was studied with the aid of a single pass grooving pendulum. Specimens were austenitized at 860 deg C and austempered at 370 deg C for 30, 60, 90, 180 and 240 min. Austenite transformation kinetics was measured by quantitative metallography. Specimens for pendulum tests were gridded as squared based prisms (50 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm) and one of the faces submitted to metallographic polishing before the test. A hard metal cutting tool was used as abrasive. The absorbed energy as well as the loss of matter were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to analyze the surface topography of the scratched specimen. It was observed a maximum in the absorbed specific energy for the specimen treated for 60 min. with a microstructure of bainite ferrite plus plus 42% volume fraction of retained austenite. All other structures (ferrite plus carbides, ferrite plus lower contents of austenite and martensite plus austenite) gave lower values of absorbed specific energy. Observation of scratches and chips formed on the surface of the specimen can explain the above mentioned behaviour 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the structure depends mainly on annealing temperature, less on the time of the heat treatment. It was concluded that high temperature annealing caused precipitation of Fe3C type carbides, which morphology and distribution depend on temperature. In case of 400oC annealing the carbides precipitates inside bainitic ferrite lath in specific crystallographic planes and partly at the grain boundaries. The annealing at the temperature 550oC caused disappearing of characteristic for ADI needle or lath – like morphology, which is replaced with equiaxed grains. In this case Fe3C carbides take the form very fine precipitates with spheroidal geometry.

  3. Effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on toughness of specially austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, S. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Production Systems Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) finds wide application in the industry because of its high strength and toughness. The QB{prime} process has been developed to produce a fine microstructure with high fracture toughness in ADI. This process involves reaustenitizing a prequenched ductile iron in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range followed by an isothermal treatment in the bainitic transformation temperature range. In the present work, the effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on the structure and un-notched toughness of ADI has been studied. Prior to the austempering treatment, the as-cast ductile iron was heat treated to obtain martensitic, ferritic, and pearlitic matrix structures. In the case of prequenched material (martensitic matrix), the un-notched impact toughness increased as a function of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range. The reaustenitization heat treatment also resulted in the precipitation of fine carbide particles, identified as (Fe,Cr,Mn){sub 3}C. It was shown that the increase in holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range leads to a reduction in the number of carbide particles. In the case of a ferritic prior structure, a long duration hold in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range resulted in the coarsening of the structure with a marginal increase in the toughness. In the case of a pearlitic prior structure, the toughness increased with holding time. This was attributed to the decomposition of the relatively stable carbide around the eutectic cell boundary with longer holding times.

  4. Effects of austempering heat treatment conditions on fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron; Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no hakai jinsei ni oyobosu austemper shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Arai, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    Discussions were given in various manners to learn effects of treatment conditions with respect to fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron. Austenitizing temperature and isothermal transforming conditions that result in comprehensively most excellent fracture toughness including tensile strength were 1173 K and 648 K - 3.6 ks, respectively. The austenitizing temperature as low as 1123 K reduces quantity of residual austenite, resulting in residual inclusion of free ferrite in the structure. If as high as 1223 K, reduction in the fracture toughness is caused under any condition as a result of increase in unstable austenite and growth of austenite into coarse particles. With respect to the isothermal transforming conditions, high fracture toughness may be achieved at a relatively high temperature. However, a structure that has been transformed from austenite to bainite causes a secondary reaction in a short time, and deposits particulates of cementite and graphite, leading to a prediction of decrease in the fracture toughness. Therefore, it is preferable that the treatment time is decreased in order to suppress the secondary reaction. 9 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Calorimetric examinations of austempered ductile iron ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of calorimetric examinations during heating and cooling of austempered ductile iron ADI after austempering at temperatures of 280, 330 and 380oC. The samples for examinations were taken from cast rods of 20 and 60 mm diameter. Examinations were carried out on a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60. During heating, on a DSC curve one strong exothermic effect has been noted to occur (it does not occur in the case of common-grade cast iron, accompanied by two endothermic effects. The exothermic effect occurs within the range of about 20oC. Depending on the temperature of austempering treatment, its beginning falls to the temperatures from 469 to 490oC. The heat of this effect is proportional to the austenite content in ADI matrix after austempering. The endothermic effects are related with decomposition of pearlite (or bainite and with phase transformation α → γ (ferrite as a constituent of ausferritic matrix.

  6. Development of austempered ductile iron timing gears; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu timing gear no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Numajiri, S.; Nakajima, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To reduce vibration and noise of gears compared with ordinary steel gears for four cycle diesel engine of small commercial vehicles, austempered ductile iron (ADI) gears have been developed, which have excellent mechanical properties and vibration damping properties equivalent to steel gears. ADI is a material with tensile strength of 1,000 MPa, which is made by austempering the ductile iron to change matrix texture into tough bainite. For a new process method of ADI gears, austempering is conducted after gear cutting, and shaving is conducted, finally. Gear materials before austempering can be smoothly machined without deteriorating their machinability, to produce highly accurate gears. Fifteen percent of noise can be reduced for ADI gears during idling of engine, where 0.7 dB can be reduced in the noise level. The ADI gears provide superior pitting resistance to ordinary steel gears. They have nearly equivalent dedendum bending fatigue strength to ordinary soft nitrided steel gears. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Tratamiento isotérmico de los aceros aleados al silicio Tipo SAE 92XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez, J. L.

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available SAE 9260 type steels have silicon and carbon contents similar to those of the ductile iron matrix, and present a bainitic transformation with the same characteristics as ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron. The hypothesis is that excellent mechanical properties can be obtained by means of austempering (in times so short as to be accessible from the industrial point of view, the same as in ADI and even better because it is a rolling material instead of a cast material. It will be compared with the mechanical properties obtained by quenching and tempering at different temperatures.

    La composición química de los aceros SAE 92XX es similar a la de la matriz metálica de una fundición esferoidal, por lo que se pensó en someter a un acero de ese tipo a tratamientos de austempering similares a los que se aplican para lograr una ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron, y verificar si se alcanzaban valores aceptables de plasticidad con elevados valores de resistencia a la tracción para el mismo acero, tal y como sucede con aquellas fundiciones, y comparar dichos resultados con los obtenidos en el mismo acero con tratamientos convencionales de temple y revenido. Se alcanzaron valores que demostraron que, por austempering, se logran excelentes valores de plasticidad, muy superiores a los alcanzados por temple y revenido para durezas del mismo orden.

  8. Influence of the amount and morphology of retained austenite on the mechanical properties of an austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranzabal, J. [INASMET, San Sebastian (Spain); Gutierrez, I.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.; Urcola, J.J. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Materials

    1997-05-01

    High Si contents in nodular cast irons lead to a significant volume fraction of retained austenite in the material after the austempering treatment. In the present work, the influence of the amount and morphology of this phase on the mechanical properties (proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation, and toughness) has been analyzed for different austempering conditions. After 300 C isothermal treatments at intermediate times, the austenite is plastically stable at room temperature and contributes, together with the bainitic ferrite, to the proof stress and the toughness of the material. For austenite volume fractions higher than 25 pct, the proof stress is controlled by this phase and the toughness depends mainly on the stability of {gamma}. In these conditions (370 C and 410 C treatments), the present material exhibits a transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect, which leads to an improvement in ductility. It is shown that the strain level necessary to initiate the martensitic transformation induced by deformation depends on the carbon content of the austenite. The martensite formed under TRIP conditions can be of two different types: autotempered plate martensite, which forms at room temperature from an austenite with a quasi-coherent epsilon carbide precipitation, and lath martensite nucleated at twin boundaries and twin intersections.

  9. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  10. Precipitation of carbides in Cr – Mo – V cast steel after service and regenerative heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on precipitation processes in chromium – molybdenum – vanadium cast steel. Theexamined material was the following cast steel grade: L21HMF and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF after long-term operation at elevatedtemperatures and after regenerative heat treatment. Identification of precipitates was performed by means of the transmission electronmicroscope using carbon extraction replicas and thin foils. On the basis of identifications it has been proved that in the structure ofinvestigated cast steel grades, degraded by long-term operation, there are a few sorts of carbides with diverse stability, such as: M3C; M2C, M23C6, MC, M7C3. Moreover, the occurrence of compound complexes of precipitates – the so called “H-carbides” – has been revealed. Heat treatment of the examined cast steels contributed to changes in morphology and precipitation type. Whilst in the bainitic structure, obtained through heat treatment, only the occurrence of carbide types, such as: M3C; M23C6 and MC has been noticed.

  11. Migration du carbone et évolution structurale de liaisons hétérogènes soudées entre aciers ``ferritiques'' 2.25Cr-Mo et 9.5Cr-Mo-Nb-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Ali Asghar; Leclou, André

    1981-02-01

    Les caractéristiques mécaniques et structurales des liaisons hétérogènes soudées entre aciers ferritiques 2.25Cr-Mo et 9.5Cr-Mo-Nb-V (EM 12) ont été étudiées en fonction du temps de maintien aux températures 550, 650, 725 et 750°C. Ces études ont mis en évidence l'apparition d'une zone à gros grains du côté de 2.25Cr-Mo dont la largeur varie en fonction du temps et surtout de la température de maintien. Lorsque la partie courante de métal de base 2.25Cr-Mo présente une structure du type bainite revenue, la zone à gros grains présente une structure ferritique appauvrie en précipités. L'évolution de cette zone est décrite d'après le modèle du déplacement du front de diffusion et la largeur et la quantité de carbone migrée sont calculées pour les conditions de fonctionnement des générateurs de vapeur des réacteurs rapides.

  12. Damage Evolution in Complex-Phase and Dual-Phase Steels during Edge Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Nikky; Butcher, Cliff; Worswick, Michael James; Bellhouse, Erika; Gao, Jeff

    2017-03-27

    The role of microstructural damage in controlling the edge stretchability of Complex-Phase (CP) and Dual-Phase (DP) steels was evaluated using hole tension experiments. The experiments considered a tensile specimen with a hole at the center of specimen that is either sheared (sheared edge condition) or drilled and then reamed (reamed edge condition). The damage mechanism and accumulation in the CP and DP steels were systematically characterized by interrupting the hole tension tests at different strain levels using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and optical microscopy. Martensite cracking and decohesion of ferrite-martensite interfaces are the dominant nucleation mechanisms in the DP780. The primary source of void nucleation in the CP800 is nucleation at TiN particles, with secondary void formation at martensite/bainite interfaces near the failure strain. The rate of damage evolution is considerably higher for the sheared edge in contrast with the reamed edge since the shearing process alters the microstructure in the shear affected zone (SAZ) by introducing work-hardening and initial damage behind the sheared edge. The CP microstructures were shown to be less prone to shear-induced damage than the DP materials resulting in much higher sheared edge formability. Microstructural damage in the CP and DP steels was characterized to understand the interaction between microstructure, damage evolution and edge formability during edge stretching. An analytical model for void evolution and coalescence was developed and applied to predict the damage rate in these rather diverse microstructures.

  13. Effect of Deformation Parameters on Microstructure and Properties During DIFT of X70HD Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Liang-liang; Qin, Hao; Yu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Grain refinement is a critical approach to improve the strength of materials without damaging the toughness. The grains of deformation-induced ferrite are considerably smaller than those of proeutectoid ferrite. Grain refinement is crucial to the application of deformation-induced ferrite. The composition of ferrite and bainite or martensite is important in controlling the performance of X70HD pipeline steel, and cooling significantly influences the control of their ratio and grain size. By analyzing the static and dynamic phase-transition points using Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator, thermal simulations were performed through two-stage deformations in the austenite zone. Ferrite transformation rules were studied with thermal simulation tests under different deformation and cooling parameters based on the actual production of cumulative deformation. The influence of deformation parameters on the microstructure transformation was analyzed. Numerous fine-grain deformation-induced ferrites were obtained by regulating various parameters, including deformation temperature, strain rate, cooling rate, final cooling temperature and other parameters. Results of metallographic observation and microtensile testing revealed that the selection of appropriate parameters can refine the grains and improve the performance of the X70HD pipeline steel.

  14. Twin-spot laser welding of advanced high-strength multiphase microstructure steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, Adam; Morawiec, Mateusz; Różański, Maciej; Stano, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The study addresses the results concerning the laser welding of TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steel using a beam focused at two spots (also referred to as twin-spot laser welding). The analysis involved the effect of variable welding thermal cycles on the properties and microstructure of welded joints. The tests were performed using a linear energy of 0.048 and 0.060 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 50%:50%, 60%:40% and 70%:30%. The tests also involved welding performed using a linear energy of 0.150 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 70%:30%. In addition, the research included observations of the microstructure of the fusion zone, heat affected zone and the transition zone using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fusion zone was composed of blocky-lath martensite whereas the HAZ (heat-affected zone) was characterised by the lath microstructure containing martensite, bainite and retained austenite. The distribution of twin-spot laser beam power significantly affected the microstructure and hardness profiles of welded joints. The highest hardness (480-505 HV), regardless of welding variants used, was observed in the HAZ.

  15. Upset Resistance Welding of Carbon Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel Narrow Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlati, Ashkaan; Movahedi, Mojtaba; Mohammadkamal, Helia

    2016-11-01

    Effects of welding current (at the range of 2-4 kA) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of upset resistance welds of AISI-1035 carbon steel to AISI-304L austenitic stainless steel rods were investigated. The results showed that the joint strength first increased by raising the welding current up to 3 kA and then decreased beyond it. Increasing trend was related to more plastic deformation, accelerated diffusion, reduction of defects and formation of mechanical locks at the joint interface. For currents more than 3 kA, decrease in the joint strength was mainly caused by formation of hot spots. Using the optimum welding current of 3 kA, tensile strength of the joint reached to 76% of the carbon steel base metal strength. Microstructural observations and microhardness results confirmed that there was no hard phase, i.e., martensite or bainite, at the weld zone. Moreover, a fully austenitic transition layer related to carbon diffusion from carbon steel was observed at the weld interface.

  16. Microstructure and Hardness Profiles of Bifocal Laser-Welded DP-HSLA Steel Overlap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, A.; Matter, P.; Stano, S.; Wilk, Z.; Różański, M.

    2017-04-01

    The article presents results related to the bifocal laser welding of overlap joints made of HSLA and DP high-strength steels. The joints were made using a disk laser and a head enabling the 50-50% distribution of laser power. The effects of the laser welding rates and the distance between laser spots on morphological features and hardness profiles were analyzed. It was established that the positioning of beams at angles of 0° or 90° determined the hardness of the individual zones of the joints, without causing significant differences in microstructures of the steels. Microstructural features were inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Both steels revealed primarily martensitic-bainitic microstructures in the fusion zone and in the heat-affected zone. Mixed multiphase microstructures were revealed in the inter-critical heat-affected zone of the joint. The research involved the determination of parameters making it possible to reduce the hardness of joints and prevent the formation of the soft zone in the dual-phase steel.

  17. Effects of C and Si on strain aging of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoo, Jang Yong; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2017-05-01

    Four types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the C and Si contents, and the effects of C and Si on strain aging were investigated. The 0.05 wt% C steels consisted mainly of polygonal ferrite (PF), whereas the 0.08 wt% C steels consisted of acicular ferrite (AF). The volume fraction of AF increased with increasing C content because C is an austenite stabilizer element. The volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) of the 0.15 wt% Si steels were higher than those of the 0.25 wt% Si steels, whereas the volume fractions of the secondary phases were lower. From the tensile properties before and after the aging process of the strainbased API X60 pipeline steels, the yield strength increased and the uniform and total elongation decreased, which is the strain aging effect. The strain aging effect in the strain-based API X60 pipeline steels was minimized when the volume fraction of AF was increased and secondary phases were distributed uniformly. On the other hand, an excessively high C content formed fine precipitates, and the strain aging effect occurred because of the interactions among dislocations and fine precipitates.

  18. Fe-Mn-Si master alloy steel by powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zongyin; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2004-01-28

    Fe-Mn-Si master alloy powders were produced by three methods: milling, atomising, and a combination of atomisation and milling. The effects of sintering temperature, time and atmosphere on the properties of sintered steels with these Fe-Mn-Si master alloy powders were studied. The density of the compacts increases with sintering temperature and time. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness increases with sintering temperature and time mainly due to increasing amounts of bainite and martensite after cooling. Elongation is initially raised with sintering temperature and time probably due to improved bonding between powder particles. The compacts with the milled and atomised-milled master alloy showed about the same mechanical properties. On the other hand, the steel with the atomised powder gave lower strength and elongation in both hydrogen and argon-5% hydrogen. Small dimensional changes have been obtained in the steels with milled and atomised-milled Fe-Mn-Si master alloys sintered at 1200 deg. C. It was shown that transient liquid phase sintering accelerates the sintering process, which leads to improved mechanical properties.

  19. Influence of regenerative heat treatment on structure and properties of G20CrMo2 - 5 (L20HM cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thc papcr prcscnts rcsuSts or rcscarch on thc influence of rcgcncratic hcat treatment on thc structurc and propcrtics [hardncss. impactcncrgy or L2O11M cnst stccl. Invcstipatcd material was taken from outer fmmc of a turbinc which was scrviccd for t 67 424 hours a! thctcmpcrauirc or 535 "C and prcssurc or 12.75 MPa. In psi-operating condition ~hicnv cstigntcd cast steel was cl~aracteri~cbdy low impactcncrpy of II I ant1 hart3ncss of 139HV30. Analysis uF the irlflue~~uuel ;lustcniriz;~ti on pariimctcrs (tcrnpcr;lturc and lime has rcvealcd rhntat thc tcinpcr;~turcr angc o f 895 + 955 "C (i-e. h3 - +I IO + 70 "C.fo r both 3 and 5 hours of holtl timc. rhc ohtaincd grain sizc amounls to 20+ 2511m. I has hccn pmved that tempcred bainitic-rcrri~ica nd remit ic-hainiric-pearlit ic stn~cturco f thc invcstigatcd cast stccl msurcs highimpact cncrgy, i.c. KV > 1001. as well a5 hardncss. i.e. 11Y30. just at thc tcrnpcmturc of OXl "C. 'I'crnpcmliirc or 7110 "C causcs i'~tnhcrincrclrsc of impact cncrgy along with a slight dccrcasc of hardncss. Morcovcr. it has hccn concludd that nppl ying oS under-annealinginstcad or tcmpcring. nflcr standardizalion. guarantees scquircd impact cncrgy of KY r 271.

  20. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC RELATIONS OF CEMENTITE–AUSTENITE–FERRITE IN THE DIFFUSIVE DECOMPOSITION OF AUSTENITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. It was made a search for new and more accurate orientation relations between the crystal lattice in the pearlite and bainite austenite decomposition products. Methods. It were used the methods: transmission electron microscopy, the micro-, mathematical matrix and stereographic analysis. The purpose of the research is with theoretical, numerical and experimental methods to set up to a 0.2 degree angular orientation relations between the lattices of ferrite and cementite in the austenite decomposition products in the temperature range 400 ... 700С. Results. It was established a new, refined value for grids in the diffusion decay of γ → α + (α + θ. Practical significance. It was proposed a new oriented dependence and the corresponding double gnomonic projection with poles to planes α and θ phases, which can be used in patterns of crystallographic lattices relations studies at phase transitions, as well as the subsequent modeling of complex physical processes of structure formation in metals and binary systems.

  1. Multiscale mechanics of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: I. Characterization and mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.J.; Furnemont, Q.; Lani, F.; Pardoen, T.; Delannay, F.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels is addressed based on three different microstructures generated from the same steel grade. The mechanisms responsible for the work-hardening capacity and the resulting balance between strength and resistance to plastic localization are investigated at different length scales. The macroscopic mechanical response is determined by simple shear, uniaxial tension, Marciniak and equibiaxial tension supplemented by earlier tensile tests on notched and cracked specimens. It is shown that the transformation rate reaches a maximum for stress states intermediate between uniaxial tension and equibiaxial tension. At an intermediate length scale, the true in situ flow properties of the individual ferrite-bainite and retained austenite phases are determined by combining neutron diffraction and digital image correlation. This combined analysis elucidates the partitioning of stress and strain between the different constitutive phases. Based on these results, supplemented by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction observations, a general overview of the hardening behaviour of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels is depicted

  2. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, M L; Athmani, M; Khettache, A; Khelfaoui, Y

    2012-01-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M 23 C 6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  3. Effect of Alloying Type and Lean Sintering Atmosphere on the Performance of PM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, M. Vattur; Shvab, R.; Millot, S.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2017-12-01

    In order to be cost effective and to meet increasing performance demands, powder metallurgy steel components require continuous improvement in terms of materials and process development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of manufacturing structural components using two different alloys systems, i.e. lean Cr-prealloyed and diffusion bonded water atomised powders with different processing conditions. The components were sintered at two different temperatures, i.e. 1120 and 1250 °C for 30 minutes in three different atmospheres: vacuum, N2- 10%H2 atmosphere as well as lean N2-5%H2-0.5%CO-(0.1-0.4)%CH4 sintering atmosphere. Components after sintering were further processed by either low pressure carburizing, sinterhardening or case hardening. All trials were performed in the industrial furnaces to simulate the actual production of the components. Microstructure, fractography, apparent and micro hardness analyses were performed close to the surface and in the middle of the sample to characterize the degree of sintering (temperature and atmosphere) and the effect of heat treatment. In all cases, components possess mostly martensitic microstructure with a few bainitic regions. The fracture surface shows well developed sinter necks. Inter- and trans-granular ductile and cleavage fracture modes are dominant and their fraction is determined by the alloy and processing route.

  4. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  5. Elevated-Temperature Ferritic and Martensitic Steels and Their Application to Future Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, RL

    2005-01-31

    In the 1970s, high-chromium (9-12% Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels became candidates for elevated-temperature applications in the core of fast reactors. Steels developed for conventional power plants, such as Sandvik HT9, a nominally Fe-12Cr-1Mo-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.25V-0.2C steel (composition in wt %), were considered in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Now, a new generation of fission reactors is in the planning stage, and ferritic, bainitic, and martensitic steels are again candidates for in-core and out-of-core applications. Since the 1970s, advances have been made in developing steels with 2-12% Cr for conventional power plants that are significant improvements over steels originally considered. This paper will review the development of the new steels to illustrate the advantages they offer for the new reactor concepts. Elevated-temperature mechanical properties will be emphasized. Effects of alloying additions on long-time thermal exposure with and without stress (creep) will be examined. Information on neutron radiation effects will be discussed as it applies to ferritic and martensitic steels.

  6. Characteristic of retained austenite decomposition during tempering and its effect on impact toughness in SA508 Gr.3 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guanghua; Han, Lizhan; Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Retained austenite(RA) usually presents in the quenched Nuclear Pressure-Vessel SA508 Gr.3 steel. In the present work, the characteristic of RA decomposition and its effect on the impact toughness were investigated by microstructure observation, dilatometric experiments and Charpy impact tests. The results show that the RA transformed into martensite and bainite during tempering at 230 °C and 400 °C respectively, while mixture of long rod carbides and ferrite formed at 650 °C. The long rod carbides formed from RA decomposition decrease the critical cleavage stress for initiation of micro-cracks, and deteriorate the impact toughness of the steel. Pre-tempering at a low temperature such as 230 °C or 400 °C leading to the decomposition of RA into martensite or baintie can eliminate the deterioration of the toughness caused by direct decomposition into long rod carbides. The absorbed energy indicate that pre-tempering at 400 °C can drive dramatically improvement in the toughness of the steel.

  7. Comparison on Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl. 1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N low alloy steels are characterized to compare their properties. To evaluate the fracture toughness in the transition region, the master curve method according to ASTM E1921 was adopted in the cleavage transition region. Tensile tests and Charpy impact tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical properties, and a microstructural investigation was carried out. The microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl2 and Gr.4N low alloy steels were characterized.. The predominant microstructure of SA508 Gr.4N model alloy is tempered martensite, while SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 and Cl.2 steels show a typical tempered upper bainitic structure. SA508 Gr. 4N model alloy shows the best strength and transition behavior among the three SA508 steels. SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel also has quite good strength, but there is a loss of toughness.

  8. Influence of local mechanical properties of high strength steel from large size forged ingot on ultrasonic wave velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohamad; Lafreniere, Serge; Belanger, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In the metallurgical industry, ultrasonic inspection is routinely used for the detection of defects. For the non-destructive inspection of small high strength steel parts, the material can be considered isotropic. However, when the size of the parts under inspection is large, the isotropic material hypothesis does not necessarily hold. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the variation in mechanical properties such as grain size, Young's modulus, Poissons ratio, chemical composition on longitudinal and transversal ultrasonic wave velocities. A 2 cm thick slice cut from a 40-ton bainitic steel ingot that was forged and heat treated was divided into 875 parallelepiped samples of 2x4x7 cm3. A metallurgical study has been performed to identify the phase and measure the grain size. Ultrasonic velocity measurements at 2.25 MHz for longitudinal and transversal waves were performed. The original location of the parallelepiped samples in the large forged ingot, and the measured velocities were used to produce an ultrasonic velocity map. Using a local isotropy assumption as well as the local density of the parallelepiped samples calculated from the chemical composition of the ingot provided by a previously published study, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio were calculated from the longitudinal and transversal wave velocities. Micro-tensile test was used to validate Youngs modulus obtained by the ultrasonic wave velocity and an excellent agreement was observed.

  9. A micro-mechanical analysis and an experimental characterisation of the behavior and the damaging processes of a 16MND5 pressure vessel steel at low temperature; Etude micromecanique et caracterisation experimentale du comportement et de l'endommagement de l'acier de cuve 16MND5 a basses temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesci, R

    2004-06-15

    As part of an important experimental and numerical research program launched by Electricite De France on the 16MND5 pressure vessel steel, sequenced and in-situ tensile tests are realized at low temperatures [-196 C;-60 C]. They enable to associate the observation of specimens, the complete cartography of which has been made with a scanning electron microscope (damaging processes, initiation and propagation of microcracks), with the stress states determined by X-ray diffraction, in order to establish relevant criteria. All these measurements enable to supply a two-scale polycrystalline modeling of behavior and damage (Mori-Tanaka/self-consistent) which is developed concurrently with the experimental characterization. This model proves to be a very efficient one, since it correctly reproduces the influence of temperature experimentally defined: the stress state in ferrite remains less important than in bainite (the difference never exceeds 150 MPa), whereas it is much higher in cementite. The heterogeneity of strains and stresses for each crystallographic orientation is well rendered; so is cleavage fracture normal to the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes in ferrite (planes identified by electron back scattered diffraction during an in-situ tensile test at -150 C), which occurs sooner when temperature decreases, for a constant stress of about 700 MPa in this phase. (author)

  10. Structure of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus-steel blades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical composition, structure, and hardness of samples of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus steels), namely, an Anosov bulat blade (1841), Obukhov bulat blade (1859), and a Shvetsov forged bulat-steel blank (crucible steel) have been investigated. The Anosov bulat possesses all signs of the classical Damascus steel; this is a hypereutectoid carbon steel with a structure formed from chains of carbides against the background of fine pearlite (troostite). A banded pattern is revealed on the surface of the blade. The Obukhov blade cannot be referred to classical Damascus steel. The pattern on the surface of the blade is absent, despite the fact that the initial steel is hypereutectoid. The structure of the blade does not correspond to the structure of classical Damascus steel; this is bainite with numerous cementite particles. The Shvetsov sample cannot be regarded as Damascus steel since it is made from a hypereutectoid steel alloyed by managanese and tungsten. The pattern on the surface of the metal is a consequence of the dendritic structure of the ingot which is developed during forging. The structure of this pattern differs from classical damascene pattern, since the latter is formed due to a specific arrangement of a variety of carbide particles against the pearlitic or some other background obtained during heat treatment.

  11. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  12. Effect of Controlled Cooling on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Low C Nb-Ti-Containing HSLA Steel for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP of low carbon (C Nb-Ti-containing HSLA steel with different cooling rates from 5 to 20 °C/s was simulated using a Gleeble 3500 system. The samples’ microstructure was characterized and the tensile properties measured. The results show that a microstructure mainly consisting of quasi-polygonal ferrite (QPF, granular bainitic ferrite (GBF, and martensite/austenite (M/A constituent formed in each sample. Furthermore, the accelerated cooling led to a significant grain refinement of the QPF and GBF, and an increase in the density of dislocations, as well as suppressed the precipitation of nanoscale particles; however, the overall yield strength (YS still increased obviously. The accelerated cooling also brought about a decrease in amount of M/A constituent acting as a mixed hard phase, which weakened the overall strain-hardening capacity of the QPF + GBF + M/A multiphase steel and simultaneously elevated yield-to-tensile strength ratio (YR. In addition, the mechanisms in dominating the influence of controlled cooling on the final microstructure and tensile properties were discussed.

  13. Influence of thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of a microalloyed (Nb + V) weather-resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.N.; Sarma, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermomechanical treatment after soaking at 1000 and 1100 deg. C on the structure and properties of a microalloyed (Nb + V) weather-resistant steel has been studied. The steel contains 0.2% C, 1% Mn, 0.3% Si, 0.5% Cr, 0.45% Cu, 0.3 % Ni, 0.054% Nb and 0.046% V. It has been found that after soaking at 1000 deg. C, the yield strength of the steel has increased considerably when rolled to 25 or 50% on decreasing the rolling temperature from 900 to 700 deg. C. The UTS and hardness have not been significantly affected by the rolling temperatures between 800 and 900 deg. C. However, there has been a considerable increase in UTS and hardness after rolling at 700 deg. C. The steel has given ferrite-pearlite microstructure at all rolling temperatures studied. The ferrite grain size decreases with decreasing rolling temperature and increasing deformation. While the ferrite morphology is polygonal after rolling at 900 and 800 deg. C, it is non-polygonal after rolling at 700 deg. C. After soaking at 1100 deg. C, the yield strength increases slightly after rolling 50% at 800 deg. C while the UTS increases markedly. The microstructure changes to that of mixed ferrite and granular bainite with the preponderance of martensite/austenite constituent as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Thermomechanical treatment (with ≥50% deformation at ∼800 deg. C) is very effective in increasing YS and UTS

  14. Overload effects on a ferritic-baintic steel and a cast aluminium alloy: two very different behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saintier, N. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech, I2M, UMR CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, Talene Cedex (France); El Dsoki, C.; Kaufmann, H.; Sonsino, C.M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Dumas, C. [RENAULT, Technocentre, Guyancourt Cedex (France); Voellmecke, F.J. [BORBET GmbH, Hallenberg-Hesborn (Germany); Palin-Luc, T.; Bidonard, H.

    2011-10-15

    Load controlled fatigue tests were performed up to 10{sup 7} cycles on flat notched specimens (K{sub t} = 2.5) under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loadings with and without periodical overloads. Two materials are studied: a ferritic-bainitic steel (HE400M steel) and a cast aluminium alloy (AlSi7Mg0.3). These materials have a very different cyclic behaviour: the steel exhibits cyclic strain softening whereas the Al alloy shows cyclic strain hardening. The fatigue tests show that, for the steel, periodical overload applications reduce significantly the fatigue life for fully reversed load ratio (R{sub {sigma}} = -1), while they have no influence under pulsating loading (R{sub {sigma}} = 0). For the Al alloy overloads have an effect (fatigue life decreasing) only for variable amplitude loadings. The detrimental effect of overloads on the steel is due to ratcheting at the notch root which evolution is overload's dependent. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Multiaxial creep of fine grained 0.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.25V and coarse grained 1Cr-0.5Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, R.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Lonsdale, D.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the multiaxial creep response of materials used for electrical power generating plant, two steels, a fine grained 0.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.25V steel in a normalised and tempered condition with high creep ductility and a coarse grained 1Cr-0.5Mo steel in a quenched and tempered condition with low uniaxial creep ductility, have been selected. A range of multiaxial stress testing techniques which span the stress states that would allow identification of any technique dependent variables has been used. The deformation and failure of the normalised and tempered 0.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.25V steel for a range of multiaxial test techniques and, therefore, stress states may be described by an equivalent stress criterion. The results from the multiaxial tests carried out on the fully bainitic 1Cr-0.5Mo steel show that the multiaxial stress rupture criterion (MSRC) varies with stress state; at high triaxiality (notch), it is controlled by the maximum principal stress, whereas at low triaxiality (shear) it is dependent on both maximum principal stress and equivalent stress. Furthermore, a simple description of stress state based on maximum principal and equivalent stress does not define this uniquely, since the MSRC derived from uniaxial and torsion testing does not describe the failure of notch, tube, or double shear tests. (author)

  16. Fabrication of Fe-Cr-Mo powder metallurgy steel via a mechanical-alloying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Jeong, Gowoon; Kang, Singon; Lee, Seok-Jae; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we employed a mechanical-alloying process to manufacture low-alloy CrL and CrM steel powders that have similar specifications to their water-atomized counterparts. X-ray diffraction showed that Mo and Cr are alloyed in Fe after four cycles of planetary milling for 1 h at 150 RPM with 15-min pauses between the cycles (designated as P2C4 process). Furthermore, the measured powder size was found to be similar to that of the water-atomized counterparts according to both scanning electron microscope images and laser particle size analysis. The samples were sintered at 1120 °C, after which the P2C4-milled CrL showed similar hardness to that of water-atomized CrL, whereas the P2C4-milled CrM showed about 45% lower hardness than that of its water-atomized counterpart. Water-atomized CrM consists of a well-developed lathtype microstructure (bainite or martensite), while a higher fraction of polygonal ferrite is observed in P2C4-milled CrM. This phase difference causes the reduction of hardness in the P2C4-milled CrM, implying that the phase transformation behavior of specimens produced via powder metallurgy is influenced by the powder fabrication method.

  17. EBSD ANALYSIS OF PHASE COMPOSITIONS OF TRIP STEEL ON VARIOUS STRAIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Man

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flat test bar made of TRIP steel was sequentially strained in tension. Eeach deformation step was made on a predefined strain level in which the phase composition was measured using EBSD; the analyses were made ex-situ exactly in the same area of 30x30µm. Retained austenite (RA was present in the form of elongated grains (plates and roughly equiaxial ones. The RA content was initially 14.5% and decreased with imposed strain down to approximately 5% in selected strain range from 0% to 10%. This is in agreement to some extent with outcomes of both in-situ and ex-situ experiments presented by other authors, the difference beeing supposed either in data clean up or in variation in micriostruct ure of particular steel. Kernel average misorientation method was confirmed as useful tool to discern bainite and grainy ferrite in lightly deformed specimen. Problem arose in distinguishing between martensite and deformed ferrite at higher deformation levels because of high dislocation density and/or lattice distortion in both components. The ferrite and retained austenite fraction were analysed with sufficient accuracy; martensite fraction was established with high degree of uncertainty.

  18. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids. Annual progress report, June 1, 1993--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing has achieved a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The degree of transformation interaction is sensitive to both strength level and degree of constraint. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A reformulated numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has allowed a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions, including local processes of microvoid nucleation. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability, and new compositions are designed for improved stability.

  19. Further application of the cleavage fracture stress model for estimating the T{sub 0} of highly embrittled ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, P.R.

    2016-02-15

    The semi-empirical cleavage fracture stress model (CFS), based on the microscopic cleavage fracture stress, s{sub f}, for estimating the ASTM E1921 reference temperature (T{sub 0}) of ferritic steels from instrumented impact testing of unprecracked Charpy V-notch specimens is further confirmed by test results for additional steels, including steels highly embrittled by thermal aging or irradiation. In addition to the ferrite-pearlite, bainitic or tempered martensitic steels (which was examined earlier), acicular or polygonal ferrite, precipitation-strengthened or additional simulated heat affected zone steels are also evaluated. The upper limit for the applicability of the present CFS model seems to be T{sub 41J} ∝160 to 170 C or T{sub 0} or T{sub Qcfs} (T{sub 0} estimate from the present CFS model) ∝100 to 120 C. This is not a clear-cut boundary, but indicative of an area of caution where generation and evaluation of further data are required. However, the present work demonstrates the applicability of the present CFS model even to substantially embrittled steels. The earlier doubts expressed about T{sub Qcfs} becoming unduly non-conservative for highly embrittled steels has not been fully substantiated and partly arises from the necessity of modifications in the T{sub 0} evaluation itself at high degrees of embrittlement suggested in the literature.

  20. Aging effect in parent phase and martensitic transformation in Au-47.5at.%Cd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, T.; Komachi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Nakamura, S.

    1999-01-01

    Au-Cd alloy is one of the typical alloys which shows martensitic transformation. There are two martensites close to the 1:1 composition: one is γ' 2 martensite and the other is ζ' 2 martensite. When the phonon dispersion curve was measured in the composition for Au-47.5at.%Cd which produces γ' 2 martensite, phonon softening was observed at the Brillouin zone boundary and at ζ=0.35 of the [ζζ0]TA 2 branch and a peculiar behavior was observed. One is that the M s temperature determined in this experiment was lower than the ordinary value. The other is the time dependence of the 1/3 elastic reflection, which was observed prior to the martensitic transformation. Electrical resistance measurements were performed in this alloy in order to clarify this peculiar behavior. A decrease of the M s temperature was observed after aging at 393 K, in the parent phase. The lower M s observed in neutron experiments can be explained by an aging effect in the parent phase. There are two possibilities of explaining the time-dependence of the 1/3 reflection; one is the transformation with diffusion (bainite transformation above M s ) and the other is embryo growing. (orig.)

  1. Methods of acicular ferrite forming in the weld bead metal (Brief analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович Лебедєв

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief analysis of the methods of acicular ferrite formation as the most preferable structural component in the weld metal has been presented. The term «acicular ferrite» is meant as a structure that forms during pearlite and martensite transformation and austenite decomposition. Acicular ferrite is a packet structure consisting of battens of bainitic ferrite, there being no cementite particles inside these battens at all. The chemical elements most effectively influencing on the formation of acicular ferrite have been considered and their combined effect as well. It has been shown in particular, that the most effective chemical element in terms of impact toughness and cost relation is manganese. Besides, the results of multipass surfacing with impulse and constant feed of low-alloy steel wire electrode have been considered. According to these results acicular ferrite forms in both cases. However, at impulse feed of the electrode wire high mechanical properties of surfacing layer were got in the first passes, the form of the acicular ferrite crystallite has been improved and volume shares of polygonal and lamellar ferrite have been reduced. An assumption has been made, according to which acicular ferrite in the surfacing layer may be obtained through superposition of mechanical low-frequency oscillation on the welding torch or on the welding pool instead of periodic thermal effect due to electrode wire periodic feed

  2. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP steel specimens, displaying the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP, are presented. The advancement of ferrite formation during transformation in conditioned austenite is investigated at different transformation temperatures and has been monitored using neutron diffraction method. The relevant information on transformation proceeding is extracted from neutron diffraction spectra. The integrated intensities of austenite and ferrite neutron diffraction profiles developed during the transformation are then assumed as a measure of the phase volume fractions of both phases in dependence on transformation temperature and austenite conditioning. According to the yielding information on ferrite volume fractions from isothermal transformation kinetics data the thermo mechanical processing of bulk specimen was designed in order to support austenite stabilization through bainitic transformation. The volume fractions of retained austenite resulting at alternating transformation conditions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction respectively. The stability of retained austenite in bulk specimens during room temperature mechanical testing was characterized by in situ neutron diffraction experiments as well.

  3. Effect of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced via strip casting simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Z.P.; Kostryzhev, A.G.; Stanford, N.E.; Pereloma, E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The strip casting is a recently appeared technology with a potential to significantly reduce energy consumption in steel production, compared to hot rolling and cold rolling. However, the quantitative dependences of the steel microstructure and mechanical properties on strip casting parameters are unknown and require investigation. In the present work we studied the effects of strain and interrupted cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties in conventional dual phase steel (0.08C–0.81Si–1.47Mn–0.03Al wt%). The strip casting process was simulated using a Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The steel microstructures were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were measured using microhardness and tensile testing. Microstructures consisting of 40–80% polygonal ferrite with remaining martensite, bainite and very small amount of Widmanstätten ferrite were produced. Deformation to 0.17–0.46 strain at 1050 °C refined the prior austenite grain size via static recrystallisation, which led to the acceleration of ferrite formation and the ferrite grain refinement. The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with a decrease in ferrite fraction, while the total elongation decreased. The improvement of mechanical properties via deformation was ascribed to dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening. - Highlights: • A processing route of strip casting was developed to produce dual phase steel. • The mechanical properties were comparable to cold rolled and hot rolled DP steels.

  4. Investigation of phenomena brought about by hydrogen using image analysis methods in relationship with microstructure and failure morphology of A508.3 and Z2 CND 22 05 steels and of Fe-Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozanska, Maria

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis report the study, by means of image analysis methods, of phenomena brought about by the hydrogenation of metals. Three materials have been studied: an austeno-ferritic duplex steel (Z2 CND 22 05) which is often used in severe conditions in the oil industry, a bainitic steel (A 508.3) which is used in severe conditions in nuclear plants, and the Fe31pcNi alloy. For the first one, the author characterized the microstructure in relationship with yield strength, and the recovery of mechanical properties with a decrease of hydrogen quantity after thermal treatment and through a detailed examination of the fracture surface. For the second one, the fracture surface has been examined after tensile tests at different temperatures (from -196 to 20 C), and profile parameters obtained with image analysis methods have been correlated with mechanical properties. For the Fe-Ni alloy, image analysis methods have been used to track the variations of the martensitic transformation with or without hydrogen. Martensite morphology has been studied

  5. Radio-induced brittleness of austenitic stainless steels at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    1969-02-01

    In a first part, the author recalls some metallurgical characteristics and properties of iron (atomic properties, crystalline structure, transformation), of iron carbon systems and steels (ferrite, austenite, cementite, martensite, bainite, phase diagrams of iron chromium alloy and iron nickel alloy), aspects regarding the influence of addition elements in the case of stainless steels (mutual interaction of carbon, chromium and nickel in their iron alloys, indication of the various stainless steels, i.e. martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, austenitic-ferritic, and non ferrous), and presents and discusses various mechanical tests (tensile tests, torsion tests, resilience tests, hardness tests, creep tests). In a second part, he discusses the effects of irradiation on austenitic stainless steels: irradiation and deformation under low temperature, irradiation at intermediate temperature, irradiation at high temperature. The third part addresses mechanisms of intergranular fracture in different temperature ranges (400-600, 700-750, and about 800 C). The author then discusses the effect of Helium on the embrittlement of austenitic steels, and finally evokes the perspective of development of a damage model

  6. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Friction Tapered Stud Overlap Welding for X65 Pipeline Steel Under Wet Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. C.; Jing, H. Y.; Han, Y. D.; Xu, L. Y.

    2017-08-01

    This paper exhibits a novel in situ remediation technique named friction tapered stud overlap welding (FTSOW) to repair a through crack in structures and components in extremely harsh environments. Furthermore, this paper presents variations in process data, including rotational speed, stud displacement, welding force, and torque for a typical FTSOW weld. In the present study, the effects of welding parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the welding joints were investigated. Inapposite welding parameters consisted of low rotational speeds and welding forces, and when utilized, they increased the occurrence of a lack of bonding and unfilled defects within the weld. The microstructures with a welding zone and heat-affected zone mainly consisted of upper bainite. The hardness value was highest in the welding zone and lowest in the base material. During the pull-out tests, all the welds failed in the stud. Moreover, the defect-free welds broke at the interface of the lap plate and substrate during the cruciform uniaxial tensile test. The best tensile test results at different depths and shear tests were 721.6 MPa and 581.9 MPa, respectively. The favorable Charpy impact-absorbed energy was 68.64 J at 0 °C. The Charpy impact tests revealed a brittle fracture characteristic with a large area of cleavage.

  7. Microstructure-property relationship in microalloyed high-strength steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    High-strength steels are favoured materials in the industry for production of safe and sustainable structures. The main technology used for joining the components of such steel is fusion welding. Steel alloy design concepts combined with advanced processing technologies have been extensively investigated during the development of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels. However, very few studies have addressed the issue of how various alloy designs, even with limited microalloy addition, can influence the properties of high-strength steel welds. In high-strength steel welding practices, the challenges regarding microstructure evolution and the resulting mechanical properties variation, are of great interest. The main focus is the debate regarding the role of microalloy elements on phase transformation and weld performance. Limited Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) softening and limited austenite grain coarsening are significant design essentials, but the primary goal is to ensure excellent toughness and tensile properties in the steel weld. To achieve this purpose, microalloy elements such as Ti, Nb, or V were intentionally added to modern high-strength steels. The focus of this work was to understand the mechanical properties of HSLA steels resulting from differences in alloy design after joining by modern welding processes. To begin, three microalloyed S690QL steels (Nb, Ti, and Ti+V addition) were investigated. Optical microscopy confirmed that similar mixtures of tempered bainite and martensite predominated the parent microstructure in the three steels, different types of coarse microalloy precipitates were also visible. These precipitates were analysed by using a thermodynamic-based software and then identified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results of mechanical testing revealed that all three steels performed above the standard toughness and tensile strength values, but with varied yielding phenomena. During the welding operation, each of the three steels

  8. Microstructural characterization of welded zone for Fe{sub 3}Al/Q235 fusion-bonded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Haijun [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province, Jing Shi Road 73, Shandong (China)], E-mail: hjma123@mail.sdu.edu.cn; Li Yajiang [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province, Jing Shi Road 73, Shandong (China); Material Science Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Puchkov, U.A. [Material Science Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Wang Juan [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province, Jing Shi Road 73, Shandong (China)

    2008-12-20

    The microstructural characterization of Fe{sub 3}Al/Q235 welded zone were analysed to investigate the welding behavior of Fe{sub 3}Al intermetallic. The results indicated that a crack-free Fe{sub 3}Al/Q235 joint was obtained when Cr25-Ni13 alloy was adopted as the filler metal. The microstructure of the welded zone presented different morphology due to the severe fluctuation of Al, Ni, Mn and Cr elements near the fusion zone. The fish-bone like structures in Q235 side fusion zone were composed of {alpha}-Fe(Cr, Al, Ni) solid solutions. Fe{sub 3}Al/Q235 joint fractured in the Fe{sub 3}Al HAZ, and shear strength of 533.33 MPa was achieved. The fracture mode of Fe{sub 3}Al side fracture surface was mainly transgranular cleavage, occured along [1 1 1] orientation on {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. And the Q235 side fracture surface was in intergranular and quasi-cleavage mode. The phase relations of {gamma} and {alpha} in Fe{sub 3}Al side fusion zone, constituent of lower bainite in the weld and the Fe{sub 3}Al ordered transformation in HAZ were also determined.

  9. ACICULAR FERRITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate austenite transformation develops in the temperature between the regions pearlitic and martensitic transformation [4]. Under continuous cooling steel at speeds below the critical value, but higher than those necessary for the decomposition of austenite by the diffusion mechanism, the formation of a mixture of different types of structures whose identification is not always unambiguous. This resulted in a different classification systems of microstructures of low-carbon steel after accelerated cooling and the absence of a common terminology relating to the products of austenite decomposition [3; 5 – 11]. In modern terminology, all of the intermediate transformation product classifications based on the differentiation of the following features – the morphology of bainite ferrite component (rack or plate, the presence of iron carbide precipitates, their distribution and morphology, as well as the presence or absence of residual austenite or martensite-austenite mixture. Identification of the products of the intermediate conversion not morphology ferrite component, and other characteristics by light microscopy is extremely difficult, and in some instances impossible due to the limited resolution of the light microscope, so for these purposes should be to use the method of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. Electron microscopy studies show that low-carbon steels lamellar morphology of intermediate products decomposition of austenite is extremely rare, which is confirmed by foreign authors [2; 7; 9; 10].

  10. Micro-mechanical analysis and modelling of the behavior and brittle fracture of a french 16MND5 steel: role of microstructural heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, J.Ph.

    2006-10-01

    Reactor Pressure Vessel is the second containment barrier between nuclear fuel and the environment. Electricite de France's reactors are made with french 16MND5 low-alloyed steel (equ. ASTM A508 Cl.3). Various experimental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction...) are set up in order to characterize mechanical heterogeneities inside material microstructure during tensile testing at different low temperatures [-150 C;-60 C]. Heterogeneities can be seen as the effect of both 'polycrystalline' and 'composite' microstructural features. Interphase (until 150 MPa in average between ferritic and bainitic macroscopic stress state) and intra-phase (until 100 MPa in average between ferritic orientations) stress variations are highlighted. Modelling involves micro-mechanical description of plastic glide, mean fields models and realistic three-dimensional aggregates, all put together inside a multi-scale approach. Calibration is done on macroscopic stress-strain curves at different low temperatures, and modelling reproduces experimental stress heterogeneities. This modelling allows to apply a local micro-mechanical fracture criterion for crystallographic cleavage. Deterministic computations of time to fracture for different carbides random selection provide a way to express probability of fracture for the elementary volume. Results are in good agreement with hypothesis made by local approach to fracture. Hence, the main difference is that no dependence to loading nor microstructure features is supposed for probability of fracture on the representative volume: this dependence is naturally introduced by modelling. (author)

  11. Effects of available energy and impact rate on Charpy absorbed energy in the upper shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Bouchard, R.; Tyson, W.R.

    2005-07-01

    This study formed part of a project on ductile fracture control in pipelines. It examined whether the amount of excess energy affects the Charpy absorbed energy in the upper shelf. Two structural steels equivalent to linepipe X80 were used. One was an experimental steel, the other a commercial steel, both with bainite/ferrite microstructures but with different toughnesses. Tests were carried out at room temperature using both a conventional Charpy pendulum machine and a vertical drop-weight impact machine. The effect of excess energy on the absorbed energy was discussed in terms of initial and final impact velocities and their effect on strain rate and flow strength. The strain distribution in the Charpy test was modeled by 3D finite element analysis. The opening strain was found to be concentrated at the notch tip and decreased rapidly away from the notch tip. At an impact rate of 5.1 m/s, the highest strain rate reached at the notch tip during deformation was 991 per second. The yield strength in the vicinity of the notch tip between the impact rate velocities of 5.1 m/s and 2.28 m/s was predicted to decrease by only about 3 per cent. The results support the requirement stated in ASTM E 23, and confirm the acceptability of absorbed energy values up to 80 per cent of the machine capacity. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Grade X70 Steel Linepipe Produced by Non-conventional Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, C.; García, R.; López, V. H.; Falcón, L. A.; Salazar, M.

    A nonconventional heat treatment in API X70 steel samples was carried out by heating the steel up to 1050 °C and holding for 30 min at this temperature. Subsequently, the samples were cooled in water and air. There has been recently a growing demand for higher-grade linepipes that can help to reduce the total cost of long linepipes. The application of high-strength linepipes such as API X70 and X80 grades has been increasing in recent years. The use of high-strength linepipe steels improves the efficiency of transportation by enabling large volumes under high internal pressure. Increasing yield strength and therefore thinner wall thickness enable the industry to reduce the costs of all components through the limitation of string weight. In this work, an API X70 has been developed through nonconventional heat treatment to create the suitable microstructure (acicular ferrite) which provides good toughness and sour service properties due to the bainite obtained in the microstructure. To assess the effect of the heat treatment, mechanical properties were evaluated. These results were related with the microstructures and precipitate distribution in the steel.

  13. Micro-mechanical analysis and modelling of the behavior and brittle fracture of a french 16MND5 steel: role of microstructural heterogeneities; Analyse et modelisation micromecanique du comportement et de la rupture fragile de l'acier 16MND5: prise en compte des heterogeneites microstructurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, J.Ph

    2006-10-15

    Reactor Pressure Vessel is the second containment barrier between nuclear fuel and the environment. Electricite de France's reactors are made with french 16MND5 low-alloyed steel (equ. ASTM A508 Cl.3). Various experimental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction...) are set up in order to characterize mechanical heterogeneities inside material microstructure during tensile testing at different low temperatures [-150 C;-60 C]. Heterogeneities can be seen as the effect of both 'polycrystalline' and 'composite' microstructural features. Interphase (until 150 MPa in average between ferritic and bainitic macroscopic stress state) and intra-phase (until 100 MPa in average between ferritic orientations) stress variations are highlighted. Modelling involves micro-mechanical description of plastic glide, mean fields models and realistic three-dimensional aggregates, all put together inside a multi-scale approach. Calibration is done on macroscopic stress-strain curves at different low temperatures, and modelling reproduces experimental stress heterogeneities. This modelling allows to apply a local micro-mechanical fracture criterion for crystallographic cleavage. Deterministic computations of time to fracture for different carbides random selection provide a way to express probability of fracture for the elementary volume. Results are in good agreement with hypothesis made by local approach to fracture. Hence, the main difference is that no dependence to loading nor microstructure features is supposed for probability of fracture on the representative volume: this dependence is naturally introduced by modelling. (author)

  14. Effect of Macrosegregation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Pressure-Vessel Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guanghua; Han, Lizhan; Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Macrosegregation refers to the chemical segregation, which occurs quite commonly in the large forgings such as nuclear reactor pressure vessel. This work assesses the effect of macrosegregation and homogenization treatment on the mechanical properties of a pressure-vessel steel (SA508 Gr.3). It was found that the primary reason for the inhomogeneity of the microstructure was the segregation of Mn, Mo, and Ni. Martensite, and coarse upper bainite with M-A (martensite-austenite) islands have been obtained, respectively, in the positive and negative segregation zone during a simulated quenching process. During tempering, the carbon-rich M-A islands decomposed into a mixture of ferrite and numerous carbides which deteriorated the toughness of the material. The segregation has been substantially minimized by a homogenizing treatment. The results indicate that the material homogenized has a higher impact toughness than the material with segregation, due to the reduction in M-A island in the negative segregation zone. It can be concluded that the microstructure and mechanical properties have been improved remarkably by means of homogenization treatment.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel has been developed, and its microstructures and mechanical properties at different temperatures were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the boron alloyed high silicon cast steel comprises a dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic borides in as-cast condition. The dendritic matrix is made up of pearlite, ferrite, and the interdendritic eutectic boride is with a chemical formula of M2B (M represents Fe, Cr, Mn or Mo which is much like that of carbide in high chromium white cast iron. Pure ausferrite structure that consists of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite can be obtained in the matrix by austempering treatment to the cast steel. No carbides precipitate in the ausferrite structure and the morphology of borides remains almost unchanged after austempering treatments. Secondary boride particles precipitate during the course of austenitizing. The hardness and tensile strength of the austempered cast steel decrease with the increase of the austempering temperature, from 250 篊 to 400 篊. The impact toughness is 4-11 J昪m-2 at room temperature and the impact fracture fractogragh indicates that the fracture is caused by the brittle fracture of the borides.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  17. Study of MA Effect on Yield Strength and Ductility of X80 Linepipe Steels Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Lazor, Robert; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2017-09-01

    Multipass GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) welding was used to join X80 linepipe materials using two weld metals of slightly different compositions. Welding wires with diameters of 0.984 and 0.909 mm were used while applying the same heat input in each pass. The slight difference in the wire diameters resulted in different HAZ microstructures. The microstructures in the doubly reheated HAZ of both welds were found to contain bainite-ferrite. However, etching also revealed a difference in martensite-austenite (MA) fraction in these reheated zones. The MA exhibited twice the hardness of ferrite when measured by nanoindentation. Tensile testing from the reheated zone of both welds revealed a difference in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the transverse weld specimens. In the reheated zone of weld A, (produced with a 0.984 mm wire) a higher fraction of MA was observed, which resulted in higher strength but lower elongation compared to weld B. The ductility of weld A was found severely impaired (to nearly half of weld B) due to formation of closely spaced voids around the MA, along with debonding of MA from the matrix, which occurs just above the yield stress.

  18. Effect of Welding Thermal Cycles on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone for a Weldox 1300 Ultra-High Strength Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węglowski M. St.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the investigation of weldability of ultra-high strength steel has been presented. The thermal simulated samples were used to investigate the effect of welding cooling time t8/5 on microstructure and mechanical properties of heat affected zone (HAZ for a Weldox 1300 ultra-high strength steel. In the frame of these investigation the microstructure was studied by light and transmission electron microscopies. Mechanical properties of parent material were analysed by tensile, impact and hardness tests. In details the influence of cooling time in the range of 2,5 ÷ 300 sec. on hardness, impact toughness and microstructure of simulated HAZ was studied by using welding thermal simulation test. The microstructure of ultra-high strength steel is mainly composed of tempered martensite. The results show that the impact toughness and hardness decrease with increase of t8/5 under condition of a single thermal cycle in simulated HAZ. The increase of cooling time to 300 s causes that the microstructure consists of ferrite and bainite mixture. Lower hardness, for t8/5 ≥ 60 s indicated that low risk of cold cracking in HAZ for longer cooling time, exists.

  19. Effect of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced via strip casting simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z.P., E-mail: zuileniwota@126.com [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kostryzhev, A.G. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Stanford, N.E. [Institute of Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Pereloma, E.V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia)

    2016-01-10

    The strip casting is a recently appeared technology with a potential to significantly reduce energy consumption in steel production, compared to hot rolling and cold rolling. However, the quantitative dependences of the steel microstructure and mechanical properties on strip casting parameters are unknown and require investigation. In the present work we studied the effects of strain and interrupted cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties in conventional dual phase steel (0.08C–0.81Si–1.47Mn–0.03Al wt%). The strip casting process was simulated using a Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The steel microstructures were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were measured using microhardness and tensile testing. Microstructures consisting of 40–80% polygonal ferrite with remaining martensite, bainite and very small amount of Widmanstätten ferrite were produced. Deformation to 0.17–0.46 strain at 1050 °C refined the prior austenite grain size via static recrystallisation, which led to the acceleration of ferrite formation and the ferrite grain refinement. The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with a decrease in ferrite fraction, while the total elongation decreased. The improvement of mechanical properties via deformation was ascribed to dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening. - Highlights: • A processing route of strip casting was developed to produce dual phase steel. • The mechanical properties were comparable to cold rolled and hot rolled DP steels.

  20. Effects of Mn and Al on the Intragranular Acicular Ferrite Formation in Rare Earth Treated C-Mn Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingming; Song, Bo; Yang, Zhanbing; Zhang, Shenghua; Hu, Chunlin

    2017-07-01

    The influence of Al, Mn and rare earth (RE) on microstructure of C-Mn steel was investigated. The capacities of different RE inclusions to induce intragranular acicular ferrite (AF) formation were compared. Result shows that RE treatment could make C-Mn steel from large amounts of intragranular AF. Al killed is detrimental to the formation of intragranular AF in RE-treated C-Mn steel. An upper bainite structure would replace the AF when Al content increased to 0.027 mass %. The optimal Mn content to form AF is about 0.75-1.31 mass %. The effective RE inclusion which could induce AF nucleation is La2O2S. When patches of MnS are attached on the surface of La2O2S inclusion, AF nucleation capacity of RE-containing inclusion could enlarge obviously. The existence of manganese-depleted zone and low lattice misfit would be the main reason of La-containing inclusion inducing AF nucleation in C-Mn steel.

  1. Effect of Hot-Bending Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of K65 Submerged ARC Welded Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liming; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Xin; Wang, Yinbai

    Hot-bended pipes are essential parts in the construction of long distance pipeline. They are usually made from longitudinally submerged arc welding (LSAW) pipes subjected to hot bending process including quenching and tempering process, which often deteriorates the impact property of the welded pipe. A hot-bended LSAW pipe with a wall thickness of 30.8 mm was fabricated by double-sided four wires submerged arc welding with solid wire and fused flux. Microstructural and property of both as-weld and as-bended pipe were examined. The pipes in two states show a similar tensile strength of 665-670 MPa, and fail in the heat affected zone during the tensile test. The weld metal of as-welded pipe consists of acicular ferrite and small fraction bainite and M-A constituents, while mixture of polygonal ferrite, degenerate perlite and precipitated carbides of metal elements was found in the weld metal of the as-bended pipe. The hot bending process decreases the fraction of acicular ferrite from 66.4 to 47.5%, and the fraction of high angle grain boundary from 76.8 to 67.1%. Therefore, both the type of microstructure and the fraction of ductile microstructures were the influencing factors of weld metal impact toughness, which lead to a reduction from 162 J to 84 J at -40°C.

  2. Effect of molybdenum addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Menghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has two main objectives; first is optimization of welding process parameters of submerged arc welding (SAW using Taguchi philosophy and second is to improve the mechanical properties such as strength and microhardness of weld joint by alloying with varying amounts of molybdenum. For optimization of welding process, parameters Taguchi philosophy have been applied on a mild steel plate (AISI C- 1020 of 10 mm thickness with 60o groove angle with arc voltage and welding speed as variables and bead width as output variables. A mathematical relationship between bead width, arc voltage and welding speed has also been found using multiple regression analysis for the present base metal plate geometry. After optimizing welding parameters, molybdenum has been added individually to the welding area in varying percentages. The properties of alloyed and unalloyed weld metal bead are compared. The mechanical characterization of weld has been done in terms of microhardness, tensile strength, whereas microstructural characterization has been performed using optical microscopy, XRD and EDS. The presence of molybdenum resulted in bainite structure in weld bead having a refined grain structure, enhancement in tensile strength and microhardness. The XRD results showed the formation of molybdenum carbides justifying the increase in microhardness value.

  3. Development of Low Carbon Niobium Bearing High Strength F-B Dual Phase Steel with High Hole Expansion Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Xia, Ming-sheng; Xiong, Zi-liu; Du, Yan-bing; Qiao, Zhi-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo

    In the study a low carbon niobium bearing high strength F-B dual phase automobile steel with high hole expansion property has been investigated. Steels of different chemical composition have been investigated by simulation experiments of controlled rolling and cooling process to study the influences of chemical elements, especially for C,Nb and Ti, and cooling pattern on the mechanical properties, flangeability and microstructure of strips. So-called 3-stages cooling pattern was adopted in simulation experiments, combining ultra fast cooling in first stage, air cooling in middle stage and fast cooling in the last stage, and at the end of run-out table the temperature of rolled pieces drop to below Bs point. Optical microstructure and SEM morphology have been observed. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain dual phase microstructure of polygonal ferrite plus bainite in adopting 3-stages cooling pattern. The low temperature coiling method using 3-step controlled cooling pattern after hot rolling is effective to produce low carbon Nb bearing steel with high balance of strength-ductility-flangeability, in addition, higher carbon content of steel tend to be detrimental to flangeability of steel, due to much carbide precipitation at ferrite boundary. Based on the results of simulation experiments mill trial has been carried out and hot rolled high strength steel with tensile strength higher as 600Mpa and hole expansion ratio higher as 100% has been developed successfully.

  4. Effects of boron addition and austempering time on microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra L, F.V. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Bedolla-Jacuinde, A., E-mail: abedollj@icloud.com [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Mejía, I. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Zuno, J. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Maldonado, C. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-11

    The present work analyzes the effect of boron addition to an Austempered Ductile Iron, in amounts from zero to 120 ppm. It has been found that boron has a strong effect on the equivalent carbon content, resulting in an increase on the precipitated graphite volume and a decrease in the dissolved carbon content in the matrix. This in turn, increases the ferrite volume fraction in the as-cast conditions from 0.24 in the base alloy to 0.78 for the iron with 120 ppm of boron. Furthermore, a decrease in the nodularity from 100% in the base alloy to 83% with 120 ppm of boron has been observed. During austempering, the transformation to ausferrite was faster and lower volumes of martensite and unstable austenite were detected when boron increased; this promoted lower hardness values, 239 HV for the base iron and 189 HV for the 120 ppm boron alloy. The increase in hardness and strength, typical for the start of bainite formation, were not observed in the boron added irons, but just in the base alloy. Under this basis, it is assumed that at least the addition of 60 ppm of boron extended the optimal processing window. The higher values of strength and ductility were obtained for the alloy with 60 ppm of boron; these results are discussed in terms of the graphitizing effect of boron in these irons and the reduced amount of carbon dissolved in austenite.

  5. Effect of heat input on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex stainless steel and high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian, M.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of weld metal consists of austenite and ferrite. • The HAZ of the API X-65 shows different transformation. • Impact strength of sample with low heat input was lower than base metals. • The heat input at 0.506 kJ/mm is not the suitable for dissimilar joining between UNS S32750/API X-65. - Abstract: In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of UNS S32750 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS)/API X-65 high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) dissimilar joint were investigated. For this purpose, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used in two different heat inputs: 0.506 and 0.86 kJ/mm. The microstructures investigation with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction showed that an increase in heat input led to a decrease in ferrite percentage, and that detrimental phases were not present. It also indicated that in heat affected zone of HSLA base metal in low heat input, bainite and ferrite phases were created; but in high heat input, perlite and ferrite phases were created. The results of impact tests revealed that the specimen with low heat input exhibited brittle fracture and that with high heat input had a higher strength than the base metals

  6. Characterization on the Microstructure Evolution and Toughness of TIG Weld Metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV Steel after Post Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and toughness of tungsten inert gas (TIG backing weld parts in low-pressure steam turbine welded rotors contribute significantly to the total toughness of the weld metal. In this study, the microstructure evolution and toughness of TIG weld metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV steel low-pressure steam turbine welded rotor under different post-weld heat treatment (PWHT conditions are investigated. The fractography and microstructure of weld metal after PWHT are characterized by optical microscope, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The Charpy impact test is carried out to evaluate the toughness of the weld. The optical microscope and SEM results indicate that the as-welded sample is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and blocky martensite/austenite (M-A constituent. After PWHT at 580 °C, the blocky M-A decomposes into ferrite and carbides. Both the number and size of precipitated carbides increase with holding time. The impact test results show that the toughness decreases dramatically after PWHT and further decreases with holding time at 580 °C. The precipitated carbides are identified as M23C6 carbides by TEM, which leads to the dramatic decrease in the toughness of TIG weld metal of 25Cr2Ni2MoV steel.

  7. Fracture toughness improvement of austempered high silicon steel by titanium, vanadium and rare earth elements modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Li Yanxiang

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of austempered high silicon (AHS) steel before and after treating with a modifier containing titanium, vanadium and rare earth elements (so-called Ti-V-RE modifier) and austempered at different temperatures has been investigated. The plane strain fracture toughness of the steel in room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The microstructure was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography and correlated to the fracture toughness of the steel. The results show that the primary austenite grains are refined, the dendritic austempered structure is eliminated, and the volume of blocky shaped retained austenite is reduced by the addition of Ti-V-RE modifier. Modification with Ti-V-RE modifier can prompt the bainitic ferrite transformation and reduce the volume fraction of retained austenite. High fracture toughness is obtained for AHS steel with the addition of Ti-V-RE modifier when austempered between 350 and 385 deg. C with a retained austenite of 30-35% and the carbon content in the austenite is about 1.9-2%. The fracture toughness of AHS steel by the modification treatment can increase 10-40% than that of unmodified, an optimum value of 85 MPa m 1/2 was obtained when austempered at 385 deg. C

  8. Fracture toughness improvement of austempered high silicon steel by titanium, vanadium and rare earth elements modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Yanxiang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: yanxiang@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-01-25

    The microstructure of austempered high silicon (AHS) steel before and after treating with a modifier containing titanium, vanadium and rare earth elements (so-called Ti-V-RE modifier) and austempered at different temperatures has been investigated. The plane strain fracture toughness of the steel in room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The microstructure was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography and correlated to the fracture toughness of the steel. The results show that the primary austenite grains are refined, the dendritic austempered structure is eliminated, and the volume of blocky shaped retained austenite is reduced by the addition of Ti-V-RE modifier. Modification with Ti-V-RE modifier can prompt the bainitic ferrite transformation and reduce the volume fraction of retained austenite. High fracture toughness is obtained for AHS steel with the addition of Ti-V-RE modifier when austempered between 350 and 385 deg. C with a retained austenite of 30-35% and the carbon content in the austenite is about 1.9-2%. The fracture toughness of AHS steel by the modification treatment can increase 10-40% than that of unmodified, an optimum value of 85 MPa m{sup 1/2} was obtained when austempered at 385 deg. C.

  9. Effect of Nitrogen on Transformation Behaviors and Microstructure of V-N Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baochun; Zhao, Tan; Li, Guiyan; Lu, Qiang

    Multi-pass deformation simulation tests were performed on V-N microalloyed steels with different nitrogen addition by using a Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator and the corresponding continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were determined by thermal dilation method and metallographic method. The deformed austenite transformation behavior and resultant microstructure of the tested steels were studied. Furthermore, the effect of nitrogen addition on the transformation behavior and microstructure evolution was analyzed. The results show that the transformed microstructures in the three tested steels are ferrite, pearlite and bainite respectively while the transformation temperatures are not the same. For the two tested steel with higher nitrogen additions, higher ferrite start temperature and critical cooling rates are observed. Furthermore, an increase in nitrogen addition leads to increasing quantities of ferrite and the transformed ferrite is smaller in size. The hardness test results reveal that the hardness number increases with increasing nitrogen addition at low cooling rate while the value tends to be smaller due to increasing nitrogen addition at high cooling rate. Therefore, the hardness number of the steel with high nitrogen addition is not so sensitive to cooling rate as that of the steel with low nitrogen addition.

  10. Modification of the Stress-Strain Curve for High-Strength Line Pipe Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents work performed to improve the work hardening behaviour of an X80 microalloyed steel through various Interrupted Thermal Treatments (ITT). The aim of this work was to determine the relationships between thermal history, microstructure and mechanical properties through both qualitative and quantitative measures. Prior to the ITT experiments, a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was constructed under no-strain conditions to identify the transformation temperatures and products that are achievable in X80 steel. The thermal treatments were applied using a Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator to generate a variety of microstructures in various fractions and morphologies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate and quantify the microstructures in terms of phase fraction and grain size. The ITT experiments successfully generated microstructures comprised of ferrite, bainitic ferrite, martensite and martensite-austenite (M-A) without the addition of strain. The effect of cooling rates, interrupt temperature, re-heat temperature and hold times were investigated and the mechanical performance was correlated with the quantified microstructures. Although the ITT experiments did not improve the strength relative to a continuously cooled sample, the work hardening coefficient was increased as a result of the interrupted thermal treatments.

  11. Material development for grade X80 heavy-wall hot induction bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Xiao Furen; Fu Yanhong; Chen Xiaowei; Liao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new material for X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bend was designed. ► The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were determined. ► The steel adapts to manufacture of X80 heavy-wall thickness hot induction bend. ► The optimum manufactural processes were obtained. ► The bending temperature is about 990 °C, and tempering is about 600 °C. - Abstract: A new steel for grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends was designed based on the chemical compositions of commercial X80 steels in this work. Then, its continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was determined with Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. Furthermore, the effects of heat treatment technology on its microstructure and mechanical property were investigated, and the technology parameters of the heat treatment were optimized. The results show that the acicular ferrite and/or bainite transformations are promoted, the polygonal ferrite and pearlite transformation are restrained, because proper amount of alloying elements were added into the new steel. Therefore, the strength of this new steel is improved markedly, even if the cooling rate is lower, which ensure the higher strength distribution along cross section of the heavy wall thickness. It is significant for the manufacture of grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends in the second West-to-East gas transportation pipeline project of China.

  12. Effects of titanium on ferrite continuous cooling transformation curves of high-thickness Cr-Mo steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Na, Hye-Sung; Park, Gi-Deok; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Song, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2013-09-01

    The effect of Ti on the ferrite-phase transformation in the middle portion of high-thickness Cr-Mo steel vessels was studied. The phase diagrams and ferrite continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were calculated thermodynamically, and dilatometry tests were performed to determine the start and finish times of the ferrite transformation. When the Ti concentration was 0.015 mass%, Δ( F s - F f ) of ferrite CCT curve decreased owing to an increase in the concentration of Mn dissolved as a result of (Mn, Ti) oxide formation. When the Ti concentration was 0.03 mass% or greater, the ferrite CCT curves shifted considerably to the right along the time axis owing to an increase in Ti oxide formation and the precipitation of Ti4C2S2, both of which affect the concentration of Mn dissolved in the austenite matrix. As a result, a completely bainitic structure was obtained when the Ti concentration was 0.03 mass% or greater.

  13. The Effect of Simulated Thermomechanical Processing on the Transformation Behavior and Microstructure of a Low-Carbon Mo-Nb Linepipe Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, P.; Wynne, B. P.; Davies, C. H. J.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigates the transformation behavior of a low-carbon Mo-Nb linepipe steel and the corresponding transformation product microstructures using deformation dilatometry. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams have been constructed for both the fully recrystallized austenite and that deformed in uniaxial compression at 1148 K (875 °C) to a strain of 0.5 for cooling rates ranging from 0.1 to about 100 K/s. The obtained microstructures have been studied in detail using electron backscattered diffraction complemented by transmission electron microscopy. Heavy deformation of the parent austenite has caused a significant expansion of the polygonal ferrite transformation field in the CCT diagram, as well as a shift in the non-equilibrium ferrite transformation fields toward higher cooling rates. Furthermore, the austenite deformation has resulted in a pronounced refinement in both the effective grain (sheaf/packet) size and substructure unit size of the non-equilibrium ferrite microstructures. The optimum microstructure expected to display an excellent balance between strength and toughness is a mix of quasi-polygonal ferrite and granular bainite (often termed "acicular ferrite") produced from the heavily deformed austenite within a processing window covering the cooling rates from about 10 to about 100 K/s.

  14. Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

    1990-06-01

    A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 μm in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

  15. Thermodynamic Alloy Design of High Strength and Toughness in 300 mm Thick Pressure Vessel Wall of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-sung Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, there is an increasing need for high-capacity, high-efficiency, and environmentally friendly power generation systems. The environmentally friendly integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC technology has received particular attention. IGCC pressure vessels require a high-temperature strength and creep strength exceeding those of existing pressure vessels because the operating temperature of the reactor is increased for improved capacity and efficiency. Therefore, high-pressure vessels with thicker walls than those in existing pressure vessels (≤200 mm must be designed. The primary focus of this research is the development of an IGCC pressure vessel with a fully bainitic structure in the middle portion of the 300 mm thick Cr-Mo steel walls. For this purpose, the effects of the alloy content and cooling rates on the ferrite precipitation and phase transformation behaviors were investigated using JMatPro modeling and thermodynamic calculation; the results were then optimized. Candidate alloys from the simulated results were tested experimentally.

  16. Effect of composition and austenite deformation on the transformation characteristics of low-carbon and ultralow-carbon microalloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, P.; Wynne, B. P.; Davies, C. H. J.; Muddle, B. C.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2002-05-01

    Deformation dilatometry has been used to simulate controlled hot rolling followed by controlled cooling of a group of low- and ultralow-carbon microalloyed steels containing additions of boron and/or molybdenum to enhance hardenability. Each alloy was subjected to simulated recrystallization and nonrecrystallization rolling schedules, followed by controlled cooling at rates from 0.1 °C/s to about 100 °C/s, and the corresponding continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed. The resultant microstructures ranged from polygonal ferrite (PF) for combinations of slow cooling rates and low alloying element contents, through to bainitic ferrite accompanied by martensite for fast cooling rates and high concentrations of alloying elements. Combined additions of boron and molybdenum were found to be most effective in increasing steel hardenability, while boron was significantly more effective than molybdenum as a single addition, especially at the ultralow carbon content. Severe plastic deformation of the parent austenite (>0.45) markedly enhanced PF formation in those steels in which this microstructural constituent was formed, indicating a significant effective decrease in their hardenability. In contrast, in those steels in which only nonequilibrium ferrite microstructures were formed, the decreases in hardenability were relatively small, reflecting the lack of sensitivity to strain in the austenite of those microstructural constituents forming in the absence of PF.

  17. Phase Transformation Study in Nb-Mo Microalloyed Steels Using Dilatometry and EBSD Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasti, Nerea; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Taheri, Mitra L.; Uranga, Pello

    2013-08-01

    A complete microstructural characterization and phase transformation analysis has been performed for several Nb and Nb-Mo microalloyed low-carbon steels using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and dilatometry tests. Compression thermomechanical schedules were designed resulting in the undeformed and deformed austenite structures before final transformation. The effects of microalloying additions and accumulated deformation were analyzed after CCT diagram development and microstructural quantification. The resulting microstructures ranged from polygonal ferrite and pearlite at slow cooling ranges, to a combination of quasipolygonal ferrite and granular ferrite for intermediate cooling rates, and finally, to bainitic ferrite with martensite for fast cooling rates. The addition of Mo promotes a shift in the CCT diagrams to lower transformation start temperatures. When the amount of Nb is increased, CCT diagrams show little variations for transformations from the undeformed austenite and higher initial transformation temperatures in the transformations from the deformed austenite. This different behavior is due to the effect of niobium on strain accumulation in austenite and its subsequent acceleration of transformation kinetics. This article shows the complex interactions between chemical composition, deformation, and the phases formed, as well as their effect on microstructural unit sizes and homogeneity.

  18. Phase Transformations During Cooling of Automotive Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Matthew C.

    This thesis explores the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and phases in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the manufacturing of automobiles, the primary joining mechanism for steel is resistance spot welding (RSW), a process that produces a high heat input and rapid cooling in the welded metal. The effect of RSW on the microstructure of these material systems is critical to understanding their mechanical properties. A dual phase steel, DP-600, and a transformation induced plasticity bainitic-ferritic steel, TBF-1180, were studied to assess the changes to their microstructure that take place in controlled cooling environments and in uncontrolled cooling environments, i.e. resistance spot welding. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were developed using strip specimens of DP-600 and TBF-1180 to determine the phase transformations that occur as a function of cooling rate. The resulting phases were determined using a thermal-mechanical simulator and dilatometry, combined with light optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The resulting phases were compared with RSW specimens where cooling rate was controlled by varying the welding time for two-plate welds. Comparisons were drawn between experimental welds of DP-600 and simulations performed using a commercial welding software. The type and quantity of phases present after RSW were examined using a variety of techniques, including light optical microscopy using several etchants, hardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction (XRD).

  19. Simulated HAZ continuous cooling transformation diagram of a bogie steel of high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yan; Hang, Zongqiu

    2017-07-01

    Simulated HAZ continuous cooling transformation (SH-CCT) diagram presents the start and end points of phase transformation and the relationships of the microstructures of HAZ, temperature and cooling rates. It is often used to assess the weldability of materials. In this paper, a weathering steel Q345C which is widely used in the bogies manufacturing was studied. The cooling times from 800∘C to 500∘C (t8/5) were from 3 s to 6000 s, aiming to study the microstructures under different cooling rates. Different methods such as color metallography were used to obtain the metallography images. The results show that ferrite nucleates preferentially at the prior austenite grain boundaries and grows along the grain boundaries with a lath-like distribution when t8/5 is 300 s. Austenite transforms into ferrite, pearlite and bainite with decreasing t8/5. Pearlite disappears completely when t8/5 = 150 s. Martensite gradually appears when t8/5 decreases to 30 s. The hardness increases with decreasing t8/5. The SH-CCT diagram indicates that the welding input and t8/5 should be taken into consideration when welding. This work provides the relationships of welding parameters and microstructures.

  20. A Microstructure Evolution Model for Hot Rolling of a Mo-TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Fazeli, F.; Militzer, M.; Poole, W. J.

    2007-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microstructure evolution for a Mo-TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel under hot strip rolling conditions has been conducted. This investigation includes austenite grain growth during reheating, deformation behavior, and static recrystallization kinetics of austenite as well as the effect of cooling rate and austenite conditioning on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior. The physically based Kocks Mecking model has been employed to describe the deformation behavior of austenite, while the Johnson Mehl Avrami Kolmogorov (JMAK) approach has been used to predict static recrystallization, and an empirical equation has been formulated for the recrystallized austenite grain size. Ferrite transformation start is described by a model considering early growth of corner nucleated ferrite. The fraction of ferrite transformed from austenite during continuous cooling is predicted by the semiempirical JMAK approach in combination with Scheil’s equation of additivity. The effect of carbon enrichment on ferrite transformation kinetics is explicitly included in the model. In addition, a phenomenological model for the bainite formation has been proposed. Martensite transformation start is described by an empirical equation taking into account carbon enrichment of remaining austenite. Finally, the entire hot strip rolling and controlled cooling process have been simulated by hot torsion tests, and the optimum coiling temperatures for the formation of TRIP microstructures have been determined.

  1. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and increasing the surface area. Data collected were used to generate laser cut-edge hole projections in order to identify the optimum cutting speed, edge condition, cost and deformation performance. These parameters resulted in the generation of a surface, with less stress raising features. This can result in a distribution of stress across the wider surface. Provided that appropriate process parameters are used to generate laser cut edges, then the hardness properties of the surface can be controlled. This is due to compressive residual stresses produced in the near edge region as a result of metallurgical transformations. This way the traverse cutting speed parameter can be adjusted to alter critical surface characteristics and microstructural properties in close proximity to the cut-edge. A relationship was identified between the width of the laser HAZ and the hardness of the cut edge. It is the thickness of the HAZ that is affected by the laser process parameters which can be manipulated with adjusting the traverse cutting speed.

  2. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  3. Microstructure and properties of 700 MPa grade HSLA steel during high temperature deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Huang, Yuming; Lei, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot deformation behavior of 700 MPa HSLA steel above 1200 °C in was detailed studied. • Uniform and granular bainite is formed when the deformation amount is 40%. • Deformation resistance value under steady-equilibrium state is about 56 MPa. - Abstract: A high temperature deformation experiment was conducted on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel Q690 using Thermecmastor-Z thermal/physical simulator. During the experiment, the specimens were heated from room temperature to 1200 °C with the heating rate of 10 °C/s and 50 °C/s, respectively. The deformation temperature was 1200 °C and the deformation amounts were 0%, 10% and 40%, respectively. The microstructures, stress–strain diagram and hardness were obtained. The results revealed that the microstructure transformation of deformed austenite was quite different from that of the normal situation. With the increasing of deformation amount, more lath-shaped microstructure and less granulous microstructure were observed. The compressive deformation effectively prevented the precipitation of carbides. Larger deformation amount or lower heating rate was conducive to the atomic diffusion, which led to the microstructure uniformity and hardness decreasing. The maximum stress was 68.4 MPa and the steady stress was about 56 MPa

  4. Microstructural Evolution and the Precipitation Behavior in X90 Linepipe Steel During Isothermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Wang, H. T.; Wang, Z. D.; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, G. D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermomechanical controlled processing of 560-MPa (X90) linepipe steel was simulated in the laboratory using a thermomechanical simulator to study the microstructural evolution and precipitation behavior during isothermal holding. The results indicated that martensite was obtained when the steels were isothermally held for 5 s at 700 °C. Subsequently, granular bainite and acicular ferrite transformation occurred with increased holding time. Different amount of polygonal ferrite formed after isothermally holding for 600-3600 s. Pearlite nucleated after isothermally holding for 3600 s. Precipitation occurred after isothermal holding for 5 s and continuous precipitation occurred at grain boundaries after isothermally holding for 600 s. After isothermally holding for 3600 s, large Nb/Ti carbide precipitated. The presence of MX-type precipitates was confirmed by diffraction pattern. The interphase precipitation (IP) occurred between 5 and 30 s. Maximum hardness was obtained after isothermally holding for 600 s when IP occurred and rapidly decreased to a low value, mainly because polygonal ferrite dominated the microstructure after isothermally holding for 3600 s.

  5. Effect of Capping Front Layer Materials on the Penetration Resistance of Q&T Steel Welded Joints Against 7.62-mm Armor-Piercing Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Parameswaran, P.

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of capping front layers on the ballistic performance of shielded metal arc-welded armor steel joints which were fabricated with a chromium carbide-rich hardfaced middle layer on the buttered/beveled edge. Two different capping front layer materials were chosen for achieving better ballistic performance, namely, low hydrogen ferritic (LHF) and austenitic stainless steel (SS) fillers. On the other hand, the bottom layers are welded with SS filler for both joints. The consequent sandwiched joint served the dual purpose of weld integrity and penetration resistance of the bullet. It is observed that the penetration resistance is due to the high hardness of the hardfacing layer on the one hand and the energy-absorbing capacity of the soft backing SS weld deposits on the other hand. The complementary effect of layers successfully provided resistance to the projectile penetration. On a comparative analysis, the joint fabricated using the LHF filler capping front layer offered superior ballistic performance with respect to depth of penetration. This is mainly due to the presence of acicular ferrite along the bainitic structure in the LHF capping front layer, which caused a shallow hardness gradient along the weld center line.

  6. An Investigation of TIG welding parameters on microhardness and microstructure of heat affected zone of HSLA steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, M. H. A.; Maleque, M. A.; Ali, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays a wide variety of metal joining methods are used in fabrication industries. In this study, the effect of various welding parameters of the TIG welding process on microhardness, depth, and microstructure of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of L450 HSLA steel and optimizing these process parameters following Taguchi experimental design was investigated. The microhardness tended to increase significantly with the increase of welding speed from 1.0 to 2.5 mm/s whereas the width of HAZ decreased. The current and arc voltage was found to be less significant in relative comparison. Microstructures of the welded samples were also studied to analyze the changes in the microstructure of the material in terms of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite formations. Welding speed was found to be the most significant factors leading to changes in microhardness and metallurgical properties. The increase of welding heat input caused an increase in width (depth) of HAZ and the growth of prior austenite grains and then enlarged the grain size of coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ). However, the amount of martensite in the HAZ decreased accompanied by an opposite change of paint. It was observed that the hardness properties and the microstructural feature of HAZ area was strongly affected by the welding parameters.

  7. Microstructural evolution and mechanical characterization for the A508-3 steel before and after phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanyang; He, Yanming; Gao, Zengliang; Yang, Jianguo; Jin, Weiya; Xie, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear power, as a reliable clean and economical energy source, has gained great attention from all over the world. The A508-3 steel will be introduced as the structural materials for Chinese nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). This work investigated the temperature-dependence microstructural evolution during high-temperature heat treatments, and built the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties for the steel before and after phase transition. The results show that the original steel consists of the bainite, allotriomorphic ferrite, retained austenite and few Mo-rich M2C carbides. The phase-transition temperature of the steel is determined to be 750 °C. The tensile tests performed at 20-1000 °C indicate that both of the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease monotonously with increasing the temperature. Before phase transition, precipitation of cementite from the retained austenite and coarsening of cementite at the austenite-ferrite interphases should be responsible for their sharp decrease. After phase transition, the growth of austenite grain reduces the strength moderately. As for the elongation, however, it increases dramatically when the testing temperature is over 750 °C, due to the dissolution of cementite and formation of austenite. The obtained results will provide some fundamental data to understand and implement the In-Vessel Retention strategy.

  8. Microstructure-property relationship in microalloyed high-strength steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    High-strength steels are favoured materials in the industry for production of safe and sustainable structures. The main technology used for joining the components of such steel is fusion welding. Steel alloy design concepts combined with advanced processing technologies have been extensively investigated during the development of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels. However, very few studies have addressed the issue of how various alloy designs, even with limited microalloy addition, can influence the properties of high-strength steel welds. In high-strength steel welding practices, the challenges regarding microstructure evolution and the resulting mechanical properties variation, are of great interest. The main focus is the debate regarding the role of microalloy elements on phase transformation and weld performance. Limited Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) softening and limited austenite grain coarsening are significant design essentials, but the primary goal is to ensure excellent toughness and tensile properties in the steel weld. To achieve this purpose, microalloy elements such as Ti, Nb, or V were intentionally added to modern high-strength steels. The focus of this work was to understand the mechanical properties of HSLA steels resulting from differences in alloy design after joining by modern welding processes. To begin, three microalloyed S690QL steels (Nb, Ti, and Ti+V addition) were investigated. Optical microscopy confirmed that similar mixtures of tempered bainite and martensite predominated the parent microstructure in the three steels, different types of coarse microalloy precipitates were also visible. These precipitates were analysed by using a thermodynamic-based software and then identified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results of mechanical testing revealed that all three steels performed above the standard toughness and tensile strength values, but with varied yielding phenomena. During the welding operation, each of the three steels

  9. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanghang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17% compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5% treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels.

  10. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T L; Kelley, R; Winiarski, B; Contreras, L; Daly, M; Gholinia, A; Burke, M G; Withers, P J

    2016-02-01

    Ga(+) Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga(+) FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe(+) Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC-Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (WC-Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60nA at 30kV. Xe(+) PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Probabilistic approaches applied to damage and embrittlement of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the long-term mechanical behaviour and damage of structural materials in nuclear power plants. An experimental way is first followed to study the thermal fatigue of austenitic stainless steels with a focus on the effects of mean stress and bi-axiality. Furthermore, the measurement of displacement fields by Digital Image Correlation techniques has been successfully used to detect early crack initiation during high cycle fatigue tests. A probabilistic model based on the shielding zones surrounding existing cracks is proposed to describe the development of crack networks. A more numeric way is then followed to study the embrittlement consequences of the irradiation hardening of the bainitic steel constitutive of nuclear pressure vessels. A crystalline plasticity law, developed in agreement with lower scale results (Dislocation Dynamics), is introduced in a Finite Element code in order to run simulations on aggregates and obtain the distributions of the maximum principal stress inside a Representative Volume Element. These distributions are then used to improve the classical Local Approach to Fracture which estimates the probability for a microstructural defect to be loaded up to a critical level. (author) [fr

  12. Mejoras en la construcción de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustión interna ciclo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Pérez, F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system pistonsegment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project.El análisis del sistema tribológico pistón-segmentos-cilindro durante el funcionamiento de un motor de combustión, permitió valorar las características, mediante el empleo de métodos de ingeniería usados en el mundo, para calcular las tasas de desgaste y otros parámetros resultantes en cada uno de los componentes del sistema antes mencionado. Se definió la camisa de cilindro, como elemento fundamental de los usados en el sistema tribológico y se analizaron las características metalográficas predominantes en su construcción actual de aleaciones de hierro fundido gris con matriz perlítica, lo que permitió proponer una nueva aleación con matriz bainítica que brindara una mayor resistencia al desgaste. Para demostrar el rendimiento de este nuevo producto propuesto se llevó a cabo una técnica experimental basada en el

  13. Evaluation of Heat-affected Zone Hydrogen-induced Cracking in High-strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xin

    Shipbuilding is heavily reliant on welding as a primary fabrication technique. Any high performance naval steel must also possess good weldability. It is therefore of great practical importance to conduct weldability testing of naval steels. Among various weldability issues of high-strength steels, hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) following welding is one of the biggest concerns. As a result, in the present work, research was conducted to study the HAZ HIC susceptibility of several naval steels. Since the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) is generally known to be the most susceptible to HIC in the HAZ region, the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior of the CGHAZ of naval steels HSLA-65, HSLA-100, and HY-100 was investigated. The CGHAZ microstructure over a range of cooling rates was characterized, and corresponding CCT diagrams were constructed. It was found that depending on the cooling rate, martensite, bainite, ferrite and pearlite can form in the CGHAZ of HSLA-65. For HSLA-100 and HY-100, only martensite and bainite formed over the range of cooling rates that were simulated. The constructed CCT diagrams can be used as a reference to select welding parameters to avoid the formation of high-hardness martensite in the CGHAZ, in order to ensure resistance to hydrogen-induced cracking. Implant testing was conducted on the naval steels to evaluate their susceptibility to HAZ HIC. Stress vs. time to failure curves were plotted, and the lower critical stress (LCS), normalized critical stress ratio (NCSR) and embrittlement index (EI) for each steel were determined, which were used to quantitatively compare HIC susceptibility. The CGHAZ microstructure of the naval steels was characterized, and the HIC fracture behavior was studied. Intergranular (IG), quasi-cleavage (QC) and microvoid coalescence (MVC) fracture modes were found to occur in sequence during the crack initiation and propagation process. This was

  14. Effects of short immersion time and cooling rates of copperizing process to the evolution of microstructures and copper behavior in the dead mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Sutarsis, Cunika, Aprida Ulya

    2017-01-01

    In a dead mild steel with maximum carbon content of 0.15%, carbon does not contribute much to its strength. By adding copper as an alloying element, a balance between strength and ductility could be obtained through grain refining, solid solution, or Cu precipitation. This research aimed to analyse the changes in microstructures and copper behaviour on AISI 1006, including the phases formed, composition, and Cu dispersion. The addition of cooper was done by immersing steel into molten copper or so we called, copperizing using the principles of diffusion. Specimens were cut with 6 × 3 × 0.3 cm measurement then preheated to 900°C and melting the copper at 1100°C. Subsequently, the immersion of the specimens into molten copper varied to 5 and 7 minutes, and also varying the cooling rate to annealing, normalizing, and quenching. A series of test being conduct were optical microscope test, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the longer the immersion time and slower cooling rate, the more Cu diffused causing smaller grain size with the highest Cu diffused recorded was 0.277% in the copperized AISI 1006 steel with 7 minutes of immersion and was annealed. The grain size reduced to 23041.5404 µm2. The annealed specimens show ferrite phase, the normalized ones show polygonal ferrite phase, while the quenched ones show granular bainite phase. The phase formed is single phase Cu. In addition, the normalized and quenched specimens show that Cu dissolved in Fe crystal forming solid solution.

  15. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  16. Effect of high-temperature water and hydrogen on the fracture behavior of a low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Seifert, H.-P.; Spätig, P.; Que, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is critical for safety and lifetime. Possible degradation of fracture resistance of RPV steel due to exposure to coolant and hydrogen is a concern. In this study tensile and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) tests in air (hydrogen pre-charged) and EFPM tests in hydrogenated/oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) was done, using a low-alloy RPV steel. 2–5 wppm hydrogen caused embrittlement in air tensile tests at room temperature (25 °C) and at 288 °C, effects being more significant at 25 °C and in simulated weld coarse grain heat affected zone material. Embrittlement at 288 °C is strain rate dependent and is due to localized plastic deformation. Hydrogen pre-charging/HTW exposure did not deteriorate the fracture resistance at 288 °C in base metal, for investigated loading rate range. Clear change in fracture morphology and deformation structures was observed, similar to that after air tests with hydrogen. - Highlights: • Hydrogen content, microstructure of LAS, and strain rate affects tensile properties at 288 °C. • Strength affects hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility to a greater extent than grain size. • Hydrogen in LAS leads to strain localization and restricts cross-slip at 288 °C. • Possible hydrogen pickup due to exposure to 288 °C water alters fracture surface appearance without affecting fracture toughness in bainitic base material. • Simulated weld heat affected zone microstructure shows unstable crack propagation in 288 °C water.

  17. TRANSFORMATION ISOTHERME D'UN ACIER A HAUTE RESISTANCE 40 CDV 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUTEFNOUCHET

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude dilatométrique du comportement de l'austénite en condition isotherme d'un acier ternaire, à haute résistance mécanique de nuance 40 CDV 13, nous a permis de tracer son diagramme TTT. L'austénitisation a été réalisée pendant 10 minutes à  qg = 950°C (utilisée dans  l'industrie. Les températures de maintien sont comprises entre Ac1 = 810°C et Ms  = 310°C. Dans ce diagramme TTT, on distingue deux domaines de transformation isotherme de l'austénite. Le domaine I (625°C £  qiso < Ac1 = 810°C dans lequel l'austénite se transforme en ferrite et en perlite, et le domaine II (325°C  £  qiso £ 475°C où l'austénite se transforme en bainite ou en ferrite probainitique. Ces transformations sont précédées pour toutes les températures de maintien isotherme d'une précipitation de carbures. En outre, ces deux domaines de transformation de l'austénite sont séparés par une large zone de stabilité de l'austénite comprise entre 500°C et 600°C. L'analyse approfondie des courbes dilatométriques enregistrées durant le maintien isotherme et le refroidissement final jusqu'à l'ambiante, nous a permis de déterminer qualitativement et quantitativement les phase mises en jeu par ces transformations isothermes de l'austénite.

  18. Effect of tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.W.; Han, L.Z.; Luo, X.M.; Liu, Q.D.; Gu, J.F., E-mail: gujf@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel were investigated after tempering at different temperatures ranging from 580 to 700 °C for 5 h. With increasing tempering temperature, the impact toughness, which is qualified by Charpy V-notch total absorbed energy, initially increases from 142 to 252 J, and then decreases to 47 J, with a maximum value at 650 °C, while the ultimate tensile strength varies in exactly the opposite direction. Comparing the microstructure and fracture surfaces of different specimens, the variations in toughness and strength with the tempering temperature were generally attributed to the softening of the bainitic ferrite, the agminated Fe{sub 3}C carbides that resulted from decomposition of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents, the precipitation of Mo{sub 2}C carbides, and the newly formed M/A constituents at the grain boundaries. Finally, the correlation between the impact toughness and the volume fraction of the M/A constituents was established, and the fracture mechanisms for the different tempering conditions are explained. - Highlights: • The dependence of the deterioration of impact toughness on tempering temperature has been analysed. • The instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test has been employed to study the fracture mechanism. • The influence of M/A constituents on different fracture mechanisms based on the hinge model has been demonstrated. • A correlation between the mechanical properties and the amount of M/A constituents has been established.

  19. Real-time structural analysis of quenching and partitioning (Q and P) in an experimental martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigg, Timothy D.; Edmonds, David V.; Eardley, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We present an innovative method of studying the Q and P heat treatment process. •A specially engineered steel was used to study carbon partitioning in real-time. •Measurements were obtained using a neutron diffractometer with an in situ furnace. •Real-time evidence of partitioning was observed in the form of lattice dilatation. •Carbon ‘trapping’ is hypothesised to reduce the carbon available for partitioning. -- Abstract: Quenching and Partitioning (Q and P) is a new concept in martensitic steel heat treatment which, as well as other opportunities, offers potential for expansion of the elongation versus strength envelope available to steel users, especially the automotive industry. The Q and P steel concept shares similarities with TRIP steel in that both promote multiphase microstructures of stabilised retained austenite and a harder phase of bainite (TRIP) or martensite (Q and P), although in Q and P the two stages of martensite formation and austenite stabilisation by carbon partitioning are separated. The procedure also provides for both protection and temper strengthening of the martensite fraction. However, confirmatory study of reaction mechanisms has been frustrated by the elevated temperatures required to date to apply Q and P heat treatment to commercial steel compositions. Consequently, a model alloy has been used to separate the various stages of the Q and P heat treatment process, thus allowing diffraction experiments, particularly real-time in situ neutron diffractometry, to measure lattice parameter, lattice strain and phase fraction in order to deduce the concentration and distribution of carbon at different stages during the Q and P treatment

  20. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapetto, M., E-mail: mchiapet@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Domain, C. [EDF R& D, Département Matériaux et Mécanique des Composants, Les Renardières, F-77250 Moret sur Loing (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a “grey alloy” approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe–C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe–C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  1. Effects of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of as-cast high-strength low-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Pan; Yu, Hao; Fan, Yongfei; Fu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on microstructure evolution was investigated. • Fracture mechanism of tensile and impact after different intercritical heat treatment has been analyzed. • The crack initiation and propagation after different intercritical heat treatment was compared in details. - Abstract: The effect of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast steel produced by electroslag casting was investigated. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical performance was evaluated by tensile testing at ambient temperature and Charp V-notch impact tests at various temperatures (−40 °C, −20 °C, 20 °C). The tensile and impact fracture micromechanisms were discussed in details. The results of microstructure investigation indicated that water cooling after intercritical heat treatment led to a mixed microstructure of ferrite and tempered martensite, while a composite microstructure of ferrite and tempered bainite was obtained after air cooling. The carbides of Cr, Mo and Nb in matrix after water quenching were finer than the ones after air cooling. Compared with water cooling, a good balance of strength and toughness was obtained after air cooling. The crack propagation path in the steel after water cooling can propagate along the long axis direction of ferrite bands, directly across the intersecting banded ferrite and martensite as well as along the interfaces between ferrite and martensite. However, the crack propagation path in the steel after air cooling depends on the shape, size and distribution of M/A islands

  2. A preliminary study of material homogeneity for size effect investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Kalkhof, D.

    1999-06-01

    The forged material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906) with a heat treatment of 900 {sup o}C, water quenched, 730 {sup o}C, air cooled, was subjected to an intensive quality control consisting of chemical analysis, metallography, hardness tests, tensile tests, and impact tests. Six plates of the material were investigated, and all specimens were taken from a diagonal of each plate in three positions, outer margins and the centre of the plates. The quality control exhibits the following results: (1) The material fulfill the material specification in all respects. (2) This material is a fine grained homogeneous ferritic material of bainitic structure; neither from the chemical analysis, metallography, nor from hardness tests influences from the position of the specimens taken from the plates could be derived. (3) The tensile tests clearly revealed position dependent material properties. With the exception of one plate, one of the selected positions exhibits no natural yield strength, higher rupture strength, and lower elongation to fracture compared with the other two positions at 293 K and 573 K. (4) Many of the data obtained from the impact tests at room temperature were larger than the capacity of the impact machine, i.e. 225 Joule; the experimental condition was changed from tests at 573 K to tests at 253 K to obtain data from the transition region. The main conclusions drawn for the size effect experiments where that all the tensile test results for different specimen sizes have to be discussed with respect of the specimen positions within the plates, and that for all bend bar as well as impact experiments with different specimen sizes the notch depth to specimen width ratio a/w has to be changed from a/w = 0.2 to a/w = 0.3 to get reasonable results within the frame of the available test equipment. (author)

  3. Stability and constitutive modelling in multiphase TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Katsamas, A.I.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Multiphase TRIP steels are a relatively new class of steels exhibiting excellent combinations of strength and cold formability, a fact that renders them particularly attractive for automotive applications. The present work reports models regarding the prediction of the stability of retained austenite, the optimisation of the heat-treatment stages necessary for austenite stabilization in the microstructure, as well as the mechanical behaviour of these steels under deformation. Austenite stability against mechanically-induced transformation to martensite depends on chemical composition, austenite particle size, strength of the matrix and stress state. The stability of retained austenite is characterized by the M{sub s}{sigma} temperature, which can be expressed as a function of the aforementioned parameters by an appropriate model presented in this work. Besides stability, the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steels also depends on the amount of retained austenite present in the microstructure. This amount is determined by the combinations of temperature and temporal duration of the heat-treatment stages undergone by the steel. Maximum amounts of retained austenite require optimisation of the heat-treatment conditions. A physical model is presented in this work, which is based on the interactions between bainite and austenite during the heat-treatment of multiphase TRIP steels, and which allows for the selection of treatment conditions leading to the maximization of retained austenite in the final microstructure. Finally, a constitutive micromechanical model is presented, which describes the mechanical behaviour of multiphase TRIP steels under deformation, taking into account the different plastic behaviour of the individual phases, as well as the evolution of the microstructure itself during plastic deformation. This constitutive micromechanical model is subsequently used for the calculation of forming limit diagrams (FLD) for these complex steels, an issue of great

  4. Technological impact in steels degree API 5L X-70 for the manufacture of resistant ducts of 36 inches of diameter to the bitter gas; Impacto tecnologico de aceros grado API 5L X-70 para la fabricacion de ductos de 36 pulgadas de diametro resistentes al gas amargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo Perez, G.; Garcia Galan, S.; Perez Campos, R.; Juarez Islas, J.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    Several steel plates in the as-hot rolled plus cooled condition were studied, in order to evaluate the impact of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical processing plus the cooling media. The steelmaking route to produce the slabs involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously cast. After soaking, a controlled thermomechanical processing the resulting steel plates cooled in air showed a banded structure, which sometimes presented a central segregation region. The worst plates with a central segregation region showed intermetallic compounds in it. After modifications of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical/cooling schedule, a steel plate with a ferritic microstructure plus 0.5% in vol of bainite was obtained. This microstructure together with the resulting mechanical properties, fulfilled the API grade 5LX-70 properties, required by the petroleum industry. [Spanish] Se evaluo el impacto del proceso en la fabricacion de planchones de acero grado APIX-70, asimismo, el proceso de deformacion termomecanico controlado, mas enfriamiento de placas. El proceso para producir los planchones involucra el uso de 100% de hierro esponja, el cual es alimentado a un horno electrico, desgasificado al vacio y colado continuamente. Al planchon resultante se le aplica un programa de laminacion en caliente controlado y a las placas resultantes se le aplica un enfriamiento al aire o acelerado. La mayoria de las placas enfriadas al aire mostraron una estructura bandeada, algunas presentaron una region con segregacion central y otras las segregacion central mas la presencia de intermetalicos. Despues de modificar el proceso de fabricacion del acero, su control termomecanico y su programa de enfriamiento, se obtuvo una placa con una microestructura ferrifica mas un 0.5% en volumen de bainita. Esta microestructura junto con el resultado de sus propiedades mecanicas

  5. Modeling macro-and microstructures of Gas-Metal-Arc Welded HSLA-100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Debroy, T.

    1999-06-01

    Fluid flow and heat transfer during gas-metal-arc welding (GMAW) of HSLA-100 steel were studied using a transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model. The temperature and velocity fields, cooling rates, and shape and size of the fusion and heat-affected zones (HAZs) were calculated. A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was computed to aid in the understanding of the observed weld metal microstructure. The computed results demonstrate that the dissipation of heat and momentum in the weld pool is significantly aided by turbulence, thus suggesting that previous modeling results based on laminar flow need to be re-examined. A comparison of the calculated fusion and HAZ geometries with their corresponding measured values showed good agreement. Furthermore, “finger” penetration, a unique geometric characteristic of gas-metal-arc weld pools, could be satisfactorily predicted from the model. The ability to predict these geometric variables and the agreement between the calculated and the measured cooling rates indicate the appropriateness of using a turbulence model for accurate calculations. The microstructure of the weld metal consisted mainly of acicular ferrite with small amounts of bainite. At high heat inputs, small amounts of allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite were also observed. The observed microstructures are consistent with those expected from the computed CCT diagram and the cooling rates. The results presented here demonstrate significant promise for understanding both macro-and microstructures of steel welds from the combination of the fundamental principles from both transport phenomena and phase transformation theory.

  6. Influence of molybdenum content on transformation behavior of high performance bridge steel during continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Tang, Shuai; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bainite transformation field was refined. ► The empirical equation to estimate the GF s was established. ► Transformation behavior was studied with serially increasing Mo addition. ► The molybdenum content can be lowered as the cooling rate is increased. ► GF transformation field is also shifted to right by increasing Mo content. - Abstract: The continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of high performance bridge steel with different molybdenum content were plotted by means of a combined method of dilatometry and metallography. The results show that the molybdenum addition of 0.17 wt% does not noticeably alter the transformation behavior, whereas 0.38 wt% significantly. In addition, the molybdenum addition of 0.38 wt% completely eliminates the formation of polygonal ferrite (PF) and significantly lower the granular ferrite (GF) transformation starting temperatures throughout the range of cooling rates studied. At lower cooling rates, with the increase of the molybdenum content, the martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents are noticeably refined, whereas the effects are not obvious at higher cooling rates. Moreover, the molybdenum addition of 0.38 wt% can significantly increase the Vickers hardness, but the Vickers hardness increments (by comparison of Mo-0.17wt% steel and Mo-0.38wt% steel) are sharply reduced at the cooling rate of 30 °C/s, indicating that at higher cooling rate, the molybdenum usage can be saved and the higher strengthen can be also gained. It could be found the GF transformation starting temperature is linear with the cooling rate. The empirical equation was established to calculate GF transformation starting temperatures, and the calculated values are in good agreement with measured ones

  7. Effect of Boron on the Strength and Toughness of Direct-Quenched Low-Carbon Niobium Bearing Ultra-High-Strength Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Jaakko; Kömi, Jukka; Porter, David A.; Somani, Mahesh C.; Kaijalainen, Antti; Suikkanen, Pasi; Yang, Jer-Ren; Tsai, Shao-Pu

    2017-11-01

    The effect of boron on the microstructures and mechanical properties of laboratory-control-rolled and direct-quenched 6-mm-thick steels containing 0.08 wt pct C and 0.02 wt pct Nb were studied. The boron contents were 24 ppm and a residual amount of 4 ppm. Two different finish rolling temperatures (FRTs) of 1093 K and 1193 K (820 °C and 920 °C) were used in the hot rolling trials to obtain different levels of pancaked austenite prior to DQ. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed to reveal the effect of boron on the transformation behavior of these steels. Microstructural characterization was carried out using various microscopy techniques, such as light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). The resultant microstructures after hot rolling were mixtures of autotempered martensite and lower bainite (LB), having yield strengths in the range 918 to 1067 MPa with total elongations to fracture higher than 10 pct. The lower FRT of 1093 K (820 °C) produced better combinations of strength and toughness as a consequence of a higher degree of pancaking in the austenite. Removal of boron lowered the 34 J/cm2 Charpy-V impact toughness transition temperature from 206 K to 158 K (-67 °C to -115 °C) when the finishing rolling temperature of 1093 K (820 °C) was used without any loss in the strength values compared to the boron-bearing steel. This was due to the finer and more uniform grain structure in the boron-free steel. Contrary to expectations, the difference was not caused by the formation of borocarbide precipitates, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, but through the grain coarsening effect of boron.

  8. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF WAVELET-MULTIFRACTAL ANALYSIS IN PROBLEMS OF METAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLCHUK V. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In order to obtain acceptable results of the evaluation of the metal structure developed methodology should include the use of both classical and modern methods of its evaluation and the properties of the produced goods. Thus, to establish the relationship between mechanical properties and structural elements of metal to use multifractal theory. The proposed method is the most appropriate to quantify the majority of real structures, which are integral approximation figures Euclid introduces some uncertainty, and therefore not always acceptable in practical problems of modern materials science. According to the proposed method, each of heterogeneous objects, which are the structures most metals can be characterized by variety of statistical Renyi dimensions. The range of dimensions multifractals interpreted as some of the physical laws, which have a separate statistical properties that make it possible to their financial performance. Application of statistical dimensions of the structural elements for the assessment of qualitative characteristics of metal contributes to their formalization as a function of the fractal dimension. This in turn makes it possible to identify and anticipate the physical and mechanical properties of the metal without producing special mechanical tests. Purpose  obtain information about the possible application of wavelet-multifractal analysis to assess the microstructure of the metal. Conclusion. Using the methods of wavelet multifractal analysis, a statistical evaluation of the structural elements of steel St3ps. An analysis of the characteristics of uniformity, consistency and regularity of the structural elements has shown that most of the change observed in the samples subjected to accelerated cooling water in the temperature range of the intermediate (bainitic conversion 550 – 4500С, less - in samples cooled in the temperature range 650 pearlite transformation  6000С and the smallest

  10. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Determination of the key microstructural parameter for the cleavage fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.C.; Lee, B.S.; Hong, J.H.; Yang, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the microstructural parameters, such as the prior austenite grain size and carbide size, on the cleavage fracture toughness were investigated in the transition region of Mn-Mo-Ni bainitic low alloy steels. Cleavage fracture toughness was evaluated by the ASTM standard E 1921 Master curve method. In order to clarify the effects of each microstructure, the grain size and carbide size of the test materials were independently controlled by modifying the heat treatment process. Firstly, the grain sizes were changed from 25 to 110 without any significant changes in the carbide size and shape. Secondly, the average carbide sizes were changed from 0.20 to 0.29 but maintaining the initial grain sizes. As a result, the fracture toughness in the transition region did not show any significant dependency on the austenite grain size, while the carbide size showed a close relation to the fracture toughness. Fracture toughness was decreased with an increase of the average carbide size. From the microscopic observation of the fractured surface, the cleavage initiation distance (CID) from the original crack tip showed no direct relationship to the prior austenite grain sizes but a strong relationship to the carbide sizes. However, the measured cleavage fracture toughness was strongly related to the distance from the crack tip to the cleavage initiation site. From the viewpoint of the weakest link theory, the particle size and their distribution in front of the crack tip is probably more important than the grain size in the transition temperature range where the fracture was controlled by the cleavage crack initiation. (orig.)

  12. The Silumin Coat Structure on Alloy Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the research results of the silumin coat structure applied on the carbidic alloy ductile iron with the metal matrix: pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic. The coats were made in the AlSi5 silumin bath at the temperature tk = 750±5°C. The holding time of cast iron element in the bath was τ = 180s. Irrespective of the kind of tested ductile iron the obtained coat consisted of three layers with a different phase composition. The first layer from the cast iron ground “g1`” is built from Fe4CSi carbide which contains selected alloy additives of the cast iron. On it the second layer “g1``” crystallizes. It consists of the AlFeSi inter-metallic phase which can appear in its pure form or contain a small quantity of the alloy additives of the cast iron. The last external part of the layer “g2” mainly consists of the hypo-eutectic phases of silumin. The AlFeSi inter-metallic phases in the form of free precipitations with a lamellar or faceted morphology can also appear there. These phases also can contain a small quantity of the alloy additives of the cast iron. More than that, in all the layers of the coat there are graphite precipitations. The phenomenon of graphite movement to the coat is caused by intensive dissolving of the cast iron element surface by the aluminum of the silumin bath.

  13. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a &apos

  14. Experimental and numerical studies of the effect of plasticity mechanisms on the brittle rupture by cleavage in low alloy steels; Etudes experimentale et numerique de l'effet des mecanismes de plasticite sur la rupture fragile par clivage dans les aciers faiblement allies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M

    2007-09-15

    It is indispensable to guarantee the integrity of PWR reactor vessels during an accidental running: in this context, the understanding and the modelling of the mechanisms of brittle rupture of steels are decisive elements of the complicated estimation of the service life of reactor vessels. The models of local approach of rupture by cleavage are one of the main tools of anticipation of the tensile strength of low alloy steels. In this work, the effect of the stresses heterogeneities in a local criteria of initiation of cleavage has been taken into account. The results of the microstructure calculations are used for proposing a statistical description of the local stresses distribution evolution. This statistical approach allows to propose a local approach model of the rupture depending both of the mechanical heterogeneities and of the sizes distributions of the defects. The behaviour of the material and its evolution are characterized at the microscopic and macroscopic scales in the temperature range [25 C, -196 C]. Simple tensile tests, velocity and temperature rises tests and toughness tests have been carried out. A micro-mechanical behaviour model describing the plastic behaviour below the transition temperature T{sub a} has been proposed. The behaviour law is based on the deformation mechanisms described in bibliography and identified by an inverse method from mechanical tests. The TEM observations and the characterization of the behaviour thermally activated allow to determine several parameters of the model. Simulations are carried out in order to model the main stress distributions {sigma}{sub 1} in two bainite microstructures corresponding to the elementary volume of the local approach of the rupture. The temperature and the triaxiality effects on the evolutions of the heterogeneities is characterized. A distribution function describing the distribution of the local values of {sigma}{sub 1} in terms of the main and equivalent mean stresses {sigma}{sub 1

  15. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design.El desarrollo de nuevos grados de acero se tropieza con frecuencia con la necesidad de incrementar la resistencia mecánica al mismo tiempo que se reduce la temperatura de transición dúctil-frágil y se eleva la energía del palier dúctil. Hacer frente a este reto requiere un diseño microestructural. La tenacidad en aceros está controlada por diferentes constituyentes microestructurales. Algunos de ellos, como las inclusiones son intrínsecos, pero otros que se manifiestan a diferentes escalas microestructurales dependen de las condiciones de proceso. Existen algunas ecuaciones empíricas que permiten calcular para ferrita-perlita en aceros de bajo carbono la temperatura de transición como suma de contribuciones de elementos en solución sólida, nitrógeno libre, carburos, fracción de perlita, tamaño de grano y, eventualmente

  16. S-N Curves of high resistance steels in the gigacyclic regime; Curvas S-N de aceros de alta resistencia dentro del regimen gigaciclico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez G, I [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers-Institut des Technologies et des Materiaux Avances (CNAM-ITMA), Paris (France); Dominguez A, G [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bathias, C [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers-Institut des Technologies et des Materiaux Avances (CNAM-ITMA), Paris (France)

    2004-04-15

    In this paper, the fatigue behavior of high strength steel used for mechanical parts has been investigated in the gigacycle fatigue regime. An experimental study has been carried out with both: R = 0.1 (perlitic-ferritic steel) and R = -1 (perlitic-ferritic steel, bainitic steel, martensitic steels) loads, at a high frequency of 20 khz up to 1010 cycles, to determine the S-N curves when fatigue life is more than 107 cycles. Comparison of experimental results at frequencies of 20 khz and 30 Hz with R = -1, shows that the S-N curve has a good agreement between 105 and 107 cycles for the high strength steels, Furthermore, fracture surface observations are made by SEM; the transition of crack initiation site is described. The generalization of gigacycle fatigue behavior is analyzed. More often initiation of fatigue crack at 109 cycles is a bulk phenomenon with an important effect of stress concentration due to mineral inclusions or perlitic platelets. Thus, the Murakami model is efficient when we can measure the defects associated with fracture, but it can not take into account the microstructure effect related to platelets phenomenon. [Spanish] En este trabajo se investigo el comportamiento en fatiga gigaciclica de varios aceros de alta resistencia utilizados en la industria automotriz. El estudio experimental se llevo a cabo utilizando dos diferentes valores de carga: R = 0.1 (acero perlitoferritico) y R = -1 (acero perlito-ferritico, acero bainitico, aceros martensiticos), a una frecuencia de ensayo de 20 kHz y hasta 1010 ciclos, para determinar las curvas S-N arriba de 107 ciclos. La comparacion de resultados experimentales obtenidos utilizando frecuencias de ensayo de 20 kHz y 30 Hz con la relacion de carga R = - 1, muestran la continuidad de las curvas S-N entre 105 y 107 ciclos para estos aceros de alta resistencia. Por otro lado, observaciones de la superficie de fractura se efectuaron utilizando el microscopio electronico de barrido; se describe la transicion

  17. Prototype evaluation of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.

    2007-07-01

    Application of a systems approach to computational materials design led to the theoretical design of a transformation toughened ultratough high-strength plate steel for blast-resistant naval hull applications. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (C v > 85 ft-lbs or 115 J corresponding to K Id≥ 200 ksi.in1/2 or 220 MPa.m1/2) at strength levels of 150 180 ksi (1,030 1,240 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A continuous casting process was simulated by slab casting the prototype alloy as a 1.75‧‧ (4.45 cm) plate. Consistent with predictions, compositional banding in the plate was limited to an amplitude of 6 7.5 wt% Ni and 3.5 5 wt% Cu. Examination of the oxide scale showed no evidence of hot shortness in the alloy during hot working. Isothermal transformation kinetics measurements demonstrated achievement of 50% bainite in 4 min at 360 °C. Hardness and tensile tests confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 65% in Charpy energy. Predicted Cu particle number densities and the heterogeneous nucleation of optimal stability high Ni 5 nm austenite on nanometer-scale copper precipitates in the multi-step tempered samples was confirmed using three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis. Charpy impact tests and fractography demonstrate ductile fracture with C v > 80 ft-lbs (108 J) down to -40 °C, with a substantial toughness peak at 25 °C consistent with designed transformation toughening behavior. The properties demonstrated in this first

  18. Experimental and numerical studies of the effect of plasticity mechanisms on the brittle rupture by cleavage in low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libert, M.

    2007-09-01

    It is indispensable to guarantee the integrity of PWR reactor vessels during an accidental running: in this context, the understanding and the modelling of the mechanisms of brittle rupture of steels are decisive elements of the complicated estimation of the service life of reactor vessels. The models of local approach of rupture by cleavage are one of the main tools of anticipation of the tensile strength of low alloy steels. In this work, the effect of the stresses heterogeneities in a local criteria of initiation of cleavage has been taken into account. The results of the microstructure calculations are used for proposing a statistical description of the local stresses distribution evolution. This statistical approach allows to propose a local approach model of the rupture depending both of the mechanical heterogeneities and of the sizes distributions of the defects. The behaviour of the material and its evolution are characterized at the microscopic and macroscopic scales in the temperature range [25 C, -196 C]. Simple tensile tests, velocity and temperature rises tests and toughness tests have been carried out. A micro-mechanical behaviour model describing the plastic behaviour below the transition temperature T a has been proposed. The behaviour law is based on the deformation mechanisms described in bibliography and identified by an inverse method from mechanical tests. The TEM observations and the characterization of the behaviour thermally activated allow to determine several parameters of the model. Simulations are carried out in order to model the main stress distributions σ 1 in two bainite microstructures corresponding to the elementary volume of the local approach of the rupture. The temperature and the triaxiality effects on the evolutions of the heterogeneities is characterized. A distribution function describing the distribution of the local values of σ 1 in terms of the main and equivalent mean stresses σ 1 and σ m in the microstructure is

  19. An investigation of rolling-sliding contact fatigue damage of carburized gear steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Patrick C.

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in RSCF performance between vacuum and gas carburized steels as well as to investigate the evolution of damage (wear and microstructure changes) leading to pitting. Vacuum and gas carburizing was performed on two gear steels (4120 and 4320) at 1010°C. The carburized specimens were tested in the as-carburized condition using a RSCF machine designed and built at the Colorado School of Mines. The tests were conducted at 3.2 GPa nominal Hertzian contact stress, based on pure rolling, 100°C, and using a negative twenty percent slide ratio. Tests were conducted to pitting failure for each condition for a comparison of the average fatigue lives. Pure rolling tests were also conducted, and were suspended at the same number of cycles as the average RSCF life for a comparison of fatigue damage developed by RCF and RSCF. Incremental tests were suspended at 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles for the vacuum carburized steels to evaluate the wear and damage developed during the initial cycles of RSCF testing and to relate the wear and damage to pitting resistance. Incremental damage was not investigated for gas carburizing due to the limited number of available specimens. The vacuum carburized samples showed a decreased pitting fatigue resistance over the gas carburized samples, possibly due to the presence of bainite in the vacuum carburized cases. Pitting was observed to initiate from surface micropitting and microcracking. A microstructural change induced by contact fatigue, butterflies, was shown to contribute to micropitting and microcracking. Incremental testing revealed that the formation of a microcrack preceded and was necessary for the formation of the butterfly features, and that the butterfly features developed between 10,000 and 100,000 cycles. The orientation and depth of butterfly formation was shown to be dependent upon the application of traction stresses from sliding. RSCF butterflies formed

  20. Evaluation of the AISI 904L Alloy Weld Overlays Obtained by GMAW and Electro-Slag Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Jorge C. F.; Meira, O. G.; Madalena, F. C. A.; de Souza, L. F. G.; Araujo, L. S.; Mendes, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of superaustenitic stainless steels (SASS) as an overlay replacement for nickel-based alloys can be an interesting alternative for the oil and gas industries, due to its lower cost, when compared to superalloys. Usually, the deposition is made with several welding passes by using conventional arc welding processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. In this respect, electro-slag welding (ESW), which promotes high heat inputs and low dilution of the welds, can also be attractive for this application, as it provides a higher productivity, once only one layer is needed for the deposition of the minimum thickness required. The present work evaluates the behavior of an AISI 904L SASS weld overlay deposited on a carbon steel ASTM A516 Grade 70 by ESW and GMAW processes. Both as-welded and heat-treated conditions were evaluated and compared. A multipass welding by GMAW process with three layers and 48 passes was performed on 12.5 × 200 × 250 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 1.0 kJ/mm. For ESW process, only one layer was deposited on 50 × 400 × 400 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 11.7 kJ/mm. After welding, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 620 °C for 10 h was performed in half of the steel plate, in order to allow the comparison between this condition and the as-welded one. For both processes, the austenitic microstructure of the weld deposits was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction. A low proportion of secondary phases were observed in all conditions, and the PWHT did not promote significant changes on the hardness profile. Martensite for GMAW process and bainite for ESW process were the microstructural constituents observed at the coarse grain heat-affected zone, due to the different cooling rates. For ESW process, no evidences of partially diluted zones were found. As a consequence of the microstructural

  1. Production of 415-ton ingots for backup rolls in the conditions of PJSC "Energomashspetsstal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Victorovich Efimov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of work on melting, pouring, forging and heat treatment of 415-ton 45H3M1F steel ingots as semiproducts for manufacturing large backup rolls at the request of  «Severstal» Company. For the production of rollers, a new grade of steel based on 0.45%С and 3%Cr, additionally alloyed by Mo and V, was developed in PJSC «Energomashspetsstal» and applied in industry. Steel of bainite class provides the best combination of strength and plasticity properties. Metal was prepared by melting 7 heats in arc steel-melting furnaces with the capacity of 100 and 50 tons with subsequent out-of-furnace treatment on ladle – furnace and ladle – degassing units. The pouring of steel was carried out from four steel-pouring ladles into a vertical mould under vacuum through a tundish ladle with the protection of stream by argon. The forging of ingots was conducted on the automated 150MN forging system. The obtained billets were exposed to primary heat treatment which consisted of heating for recrystallization, isothermal soaking, in order to provide the removal of residual stresses, additional dehydrogenization to give the material lower hardness and controlled cooling for the prevention of snowflake formation. Heating of ingots for forging and preliminary heat treatment was carried out in heat treatment furnaces with the carrying capacity of up to 500 tons. For the heat treatment of the backup roll, a horizontal sprayer unit was applied. The tooling of the backup roll was executed on a lathe with one pace-plate and the final mechanical treatment was conducted on the machine-tool of Hercules NWD 1500×18000 CNC. Finished products with 225-ton mass of the following dimensions: a barrel with a diameter and a length of 2,360 mm and 4,800 mm, respectively, at a general length of 10,650 mm were obtained.  

  2. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  3. Microdomain Yield Behaviour in an Ultra-High Strength Low Alloy Steel for Marine Use with Low Sensitivity of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Tao, Anxiang; Xu, Pingguang; Ping, Dehai

    The present paper involves a fundamental research on microdomain yield behavior of an ultrahigh strength low alloy steel with high temperature tempered bainite. The smooth cylinder specimen was took from deep water mooring chain links from the steel with the chemical composition of 0.23C-0.25Si -0.70Mn-3.55 (Cr+Ni+Mo) -0.13 (V+Nb+Ti) (mass %) ,which was quenched from 1253K and then tempered at 873K Its macroscopic yield strength is 1120MPa and the tensile strength is 1250MPa In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of loading tension have suggested that a good linear elastic deformation can be kept up to 500MPa stress, and then (200) priority non-linear elastic strain, that is the yield of crystal lattice occur at 700MPa and the (110) non-linear elastic strain was found at 800MPa. The (200) and (110) nonlinear elastic strain increases gradually when the stress was further increased, however, the (211) kept its linear elastic deformation stage as before. The sub-microstructural analysis carried out using TEM and additional determine the nature and quantitative analysis has revealed that there are three kinds of alloy carbides: (1) θ-M3C cementites with an average particle size of less than 50 nm which inside laths and lath boundaries; (2) ɛ-M2C formed uniformly within the ferrites with a length of less than 200 nm and width of less than 20 nm; (3) ultra-fine high density MC cohered with matrix α-Fe and its particle size is about 2 nm. The whole microdomain yield behaviour of the material was possibly influenced by the fcc-MC with high density. The results of CLT (constant load), SSRT (slow strain rate) and KIscc test of the present chain in seawater solution indicate, that threshold value of SCC (stress corrosion cracking) stress exceed 0.8 tensile strength and the chain's KIscc value is double of KIscc value of 4340 steel type parts. MC not only form strong hydrogen trap, but also slow down microdomain yield likely by means of increasing yield strength of

  4. PERFORM 60 - Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sylvain; Lidbury, David; Van Dyck, Steven; Moinereau, Dominique; Alamo, Ana; Mazouzi, Abdou Al

    2010-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, materials may undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and the potential degradations of some essential structures of the power plant to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. So far, the material databases needed to take account of these degradations in the design and safe operation of installations mainly rely on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. A first step towards this goal has been successfully reached through the development of the RPV-2 and Toughness Module numerical tools by the scientific community created around the FP6 PERFECT project. These tools allow to simulate irradiation effects on the constitutive behaviour of the reactor pressure vessel low alloy steel, and also on its failure properties. Relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the 4 years Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop multi-scale tools aimed at predicting the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals (austenitic stainless steels) and also to improve existing ones on RPV (bainitic steels). PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects: (i) RPV and (ii) internals. In addition to these technical sub-projects, the Users' Group and Training sub-project shall allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations… from Europe, USA and Japan to receive the information and training to get their own appraisal on limits and potentialities of the developed tools. An important effort will also be made to teach young

  5. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld-bonded and resistance spot welded magnesium-to-steel dissimilar joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Chen, D.L.; Liu, L.; Mori, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adhesive reduces shrinkage porosity and stress concentration around the weld nugget. ► Adhesive promotes the formation of intermetallic compounds during weld bonding. ► In Mg/steel joints fusion zone appears only at the Mg side with dendritic structures. ► Weld-bonded Mg/steel joints are considerably stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints. ► Fatigue strength is three-fold higher for weld-bonded joints than for RSW joints. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) magnesium-to-magnesium (Mg/Mg) similar joints and magnesium-to-steel (Mg/steel) dissimilar joints, in comparison with resistance spot welded (RSW) Mg/steel dissimilar joints. In the WB Mg/Mg joints, equiaxed dendritic and divorced eutectic structures formed in the fusion zone (FZ). In the dissimilar joints of RSW and WB Mg/steel, FZ appeared only at Mg side with equiaxed and columnar dendrites. At steel side no microstructure changed in the WB Mg/steel joints, while the microstructure in the RSW Mg/steel joints consisted of lath martensite, bainite, pearlite and retained austenite leading to an increased microhardness. The relatively low cooling rate suppressed the formation of shrinkage porosity but promoted the formation of MgZn 2 and Mg 7 Zn 3 in the WB Mg/steel joints. The added adhesive layer diminished stress concentration around the weld nugget. Both WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints were significantly stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints in terms of the maximum tensile shear load and energy absorption, which also increased with increasing strain rate. Fatigue strength was three-fold higher for WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints than for RSW Mg/steel joints. Fatigue failure in the RSW Mg/steel joints occurred from the heat-affected zone near the notch root at lower load levels, and in the mode of interfacial fracture at higher load levels, while it occurred in the Mg base metal at a maximum cyclic load up to ∼10 kN in

  7. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of a 2CrMoNiWV rotor steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng

    A wide range of experiments have been carried out on a 2CrMoNiWV low alloy steel to investigate the effect of various heat treatment conditions on microstructural change, alloy carbide transformation mechanism and mechanical properties.Two complete continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed for this steel on the basis of experimental dilatometry thermal analysis, metallographic examination and current phase transformation theory. The significance of these two diagrams is in that they can be directly utilised in industrial practice as a reference during heat treatment for this material. Meanwhile it was confirmed that this 2CrMoNiWV steel can be transformed to a fully bainitic microstructure over a wide range of cooling rates and this feature proved this steel suitable for large diameter steam turbine rotor application.An innovative carbide extraction technique for the XRD identification of carbide phase has been developed. The detailed description of this new technique and its advantages are discussed in this thesis. The extensive work using TEM/EDX has set up essential "finger prints" for the quick examination of large amounts of individual carbide existing at various heat treated conditions. Simultaneous measurements and determinations were made on particle composition, morphological change, the type, amount and distribution of these carbide phases. Thus the sequence of carbide transformation for this 2CrMoNiWV steel during tempering has been established.The characteristic microstructures of various heat treated specimens were carefully examined and discussed. Theoretical thermodynamic equilibria predictions were calculated using MTDATA. A very good agreement was found between experimental results and theoretical predictions on those critical transformation temperatures and a good correlation of carbide evolution sequences was obtained. Based on experimental results and theoretical predictions, the role of tungsten in promoting creep

  8. Results from Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants - Irradiation Embrittlement of RPV Steels -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Onizawa, Kunio; Katsuyama, Jinya; Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Iwata, Tadao; Katano, Yoshio; Sekimura, Naoto; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Tamura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    microstructure. The typical RPV steel, A533B steel, is bainite, which consists of colonial distribution of carbides embedded in ferrite matrix. The mechanical property and its susceptibility to irradiation were investigated systematically. It was found that the regions nearby the carbide colonies were harder and more susceptible to irradiation hardening than the ferrite matrix. Irradiation induced hardening was proportional to the square root of dose up to 1dpa under irradiations with 2.8MeV Fe 2+ ions with dose rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 dpa/s at 563K. Electrical resistivity measurement was applied to achieve indispensable insights into diffusion of solute atoms for the correlation equations which includes microstructural evolutions based on solute and defect diffusion. Trapping of vacancies by solute atoms retards vacancy annihilation and enhance solute diffusion were evident. (author)

  9. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, T.L. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kelley, R. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Winiarski, B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Contreras, L. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J., E-mail: P.J.Withers@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); BP International Centre for Advanced Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Ga{sup +} Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga{sup +} FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe{sup +} Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga{sup +} FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe{sup +} PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe{sup +} PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga{sup +} FIB systems with

  10. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    amount of dissipated heat from each source should be differentiated. An intermediate heat source model was employed for this purpose. The latter model is after Myhr and Grong that is called distributed point heat sources. This model can be accurately fit to the weld cross section geometry if calibrated accurately. The calibrated parameters were found to be very close to the ones required by Double-ellipsoidal heat source model. By using this approach, not only the effect of welding parameters on weld bead geometry can be categorized, but also the spent time for double-ellipsoidal heat source adjustments will be cut by 90%.A Gaussian heat source was also employed for welding thermal cycle simulations. Accompanying experiments suggested that the thermal gradients hardly change as pressure elevates. However, it was found that the increased pressure level might not necessarily result in higher or lower cooling rates despite the geometrical changes. In a parallel investigation, the metallurgical effect of different shielding environments on phase transformation and mechanical properties of the bead-onplate weld samples was studies. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) techniques were used to identify the effect of five different shielding environments on the phase transformation. Argon and Helium chamber gases offer the conditions that facilitate the highest amount of acicular ferrite transformation, yet, they show some differences in a number of crystallographic details. Co2 gas provided conditions for a lot of porosity in addition to the dominant polygonal ferrite/bainite transformation. He+1/2Co2 mixture resulted in bainite transformation that was found to follow the maximum heat flow direction in terms of crystallographic orientations.(Author)

  11. Mise en oeuvre et caracterisation de pieces autotrempantes elaborees avec de nouveaux alliages meres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchemit, Arslane Abdelkader

    : L'autotrempabilite des aciers en metallurgie des poudres (MP) permet d'obtenir des pieces ayant une microstructure de trempe (martensite et/ou bainite), et ce, directement lors du refroidissement a la sortie du four de frittage (frittage industriel : 10 45 °C/min [550 a 350 °C]). Cela permet entre autres d'eliminer les traitements thermiques d'austenisation et de trempe (a l'eau : ≈ 2700 °C/min ou a l'huile : ≈ 1100 °C/min [550 a 350 °C] [17]) generalement requis apres le frittage afin d'obtenir une microstructure martensitique. Ainsi, le procede de fabrication est simplifie, moins couteux et la distorsion des pieces due au refroidissement rapide lors de la trempe est evitee. De plus, l'utilisation des bains d'huile est eliminee ce qui rend le procede plus securitaire et ecologique. Les principaux parametres commandant l'autotrempabilite sont : le taux de refroidissement et la composition chimique de l'acier. De nos jours, les systemes de refroidissement a convection forcee combines aux fours industriels permettent d'obtenir des taux de refroidissement eleves a la sortie des fours (60 300 °C/min [550 a 350 °C]) [18, 19]. De plus, le taux de refroidissement critique induisant la formation de la structure de trempe est largement influence par la composition chimique de l'acier. Ainsi, plus l'acier est allie (jusqu'a une certaine limite), plus ce taux de refroidissement critique est moindre. Le molybdene, le nickel et le cuivre sont les elements usuellement utilises en MP. Cependant, le manganese et le chrome sont moins couteux et ont un impact plus marque sur l'autotrempabilite, malgre cela, ils sont rarement utilises a cause de leur susceptibilite a l'oxydation et la degradation de la compressibilite causee par le manganese. L'objectif principal de ce projet est de developper des melanges autotrempants en ajoutant des alliages meres (MA : MA1, MA2 et MA4) fortement allies au manganese (5 15 %m) et au chrome (5 15 %m) qui contiennent beaucoup de carbone

  12. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    to 600 C. On the other hand, the material at 600 C just before isothermal bainite transformation after the austenitization during cooling process also has higher fracture toughness than the one at 600 C before austenitization. These two conclusions are consistent well with the result of 15-5PH. But the final situation of 16MND5 after one cycle heat treatment has a slightly smaller J1C than the receiving situation. It means that one cycle heat treatment hasn't an significant influence on 16MND5 fracture toughness. Conclusions show that one should pay attention to the heating period before austenitization of the substrate material when people do the welding as the higher temperature will bring the lower fracture toughness during this process. While during cooling period, the fracture toughness doesn't change a lot during, before or after the cooling induced phase transformation. Even for 15-5PH, it has a better fracture toughness after the martensite transformation than before. (author)

  13. Influence of crystallographic texture in X70 pipeline steels on toughness anisotropy and delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabr, Haytham M.

    orientation based on grain size and texture. The calculated DBTTs correlated well with the experimental values. The {001} and {113} components are the main preferred orientations that cause brittleness in the D direction, since their {001} planes make an angle less than 20° with the primary fracture plane of the samples oriented in the D direction. It was also concluded that delamination occurs due to banded bainite regions that were oriented such that their {001} planes make a small angle with the rolling plane leading to degradation in crack arrestability. The texture of the banded regions consisted of {001}, {113} or {111} orientations. It was concluded that the {001} and {113} orientations promote splitting because their fracture strengths in the normal direction are low. The {111} orientation has a calculated fracture strength more than twice the {001} and {113} orientations and therefore banded regions with the {111} texture are more susceptible to cleavage fracture perpendicular to the normal direction.

  14. PERFORM 60: Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mazouzi, A.; Alamo, A.; Lidbury, D.; Moinereau, D.; Van Dyck, S.

    2011-01-01

    stress corrosion behaviour of these materials in a primary coolant environment. Recently, relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the FP7 Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 was launched with the overall objective of building on the success of PERFECT to develop similar tools that would allow simulation of the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals, in addition to a further improvement of the existing tools which model irradiation effects in RPV bainitic steels. From a managerial viewpoint, PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects, namely (i) RPV and (ii) Internals. In addition, a User's Group and training scheme have been initiated in order to allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations, etc. from Europe, USA and Japan to participate actively in the process of appraising the limits and potentialities of the developed tools and to assess their validation against qualified experimental data. Furthermore, significant efforts are being made to share knowledge and experience with young researchers in the field of nuclear materials degradation and to disseminate the results as widely as possible both within the project, and in international conferences, peer reviewed journals and via a dedicated website, that the latter serving as an 'open window' for internal communications and as a close link with similar projects underway worldwide. PERFORM 60 officially kicked off on March 1st, 2009 for a duration of 4 years. There are 20 participants. These comprise European organizations and Universities active in the nuclear field: all are engaged directly in the consortium to provide the intended software tools and to ensure that these are underpinned by physical understanding of the main mechanisms behind the observed in-service degradation phenomena.

  15. Estructura y textura de un meteorito metálico de tipo octaedrita (Gibeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Sevillano, J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample from the meteoritic iron Gibeon (fine octahedrite has been studied combining optical and scanning electron microscopy, crystallographic microtexture by EBSP (Electron Back Scattered Patterns and macrotexture by X-ray diffraction. The sample (approx. 24x23x3 mm, 14.3 g shows the classical Widmastätten structure of intersecting ferrite (kamacite plates grown along {111}γ octahedric previous austenite (taenite planes. Residual layers of austenite are also seen between the ferrite plates as well as larger domains of more complex structures of bainitic type (plessite produced by the last fraction of austenite transformed during extra-terrestrial cooling. The sample structure shows few signs of impact modifications (Neumann bands, etc.. Kamacite plates are divided in weakly misoriented (< 2º subgranular domains. The measurement of individual orientations by EBSP or the macroscopic texture measurement show a single austenite orientation (although with a non-negligible dispersion around the average orientation and a limited number of ferrite orientations compatible with the variants of the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship.

    Se ha estudiado un fragmento del hierro meteorítico Gibeon (Namibia, 1847, con estructura de octaedrita fina, combinando técnicas de microscopía óptica, microscopía electrónica de barrido, análisis EDX, medida de orientaciones cristalográficas mediante EBSP (Electron Back Scattered Patterns y difracción de rayos X. La muestra (aprox. 24x23x3 mm, 14.3 g presenta la clásica estructura de Widmanstätten, producto de la intersección de placas lenticulares de ferrita (kamacita, orientadas según planos octaédricos, con la sección metalográfica de la muestra. Se observan también una fracción residual de austenita (taenita retenida entre las placas ferríticas y estructuras más complejas (plesita, producto de la descomposición extraterrestre de la última fracción de austenita. La muestra

  16. Effects of the heat input in the mechanical integrity of the welding joints welded by GMAW and LBW process in Transformation Induced Plasticity steel (TRIP used in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. López Cortéz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work an Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS sheet of the Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP type currently employed in the automotive sector was welded using a Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW and a CO2 Laser Beam Welding (LBW processes. The mechanical properties of welded tensile specimens including microhardness were determined and the results were related to the exhibited microstructures. It was found that LBW lead to relatively high hardness in the fusion zone (FZ indicating that the resultant microstructure was predominantly martensite. In the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, a mixture of phases consisting of bainite and ferrite was present. Similar phase mixtures were found in the HAZ and Fusion Zone (FZ of the GMAW samples. The exhibited microstructure did not result in mechanical degradation when the GMAW specimens were tested in tension as all the fractures occurred in the BM. In contrast, the region adjacent to the HAZ of most tensile specimens welded using LBW failed by brittle cleavage. Apparently, in this region tempering effects due to heat dissipation in the LBW process promoted carbide growth and a relatively coarse microstructure. No embrittlement was found that could be associated with the development of martensite.Neste trabalho, uma chapa de aço de alta resistência (AHSS - Advanced High Strength Steel tipo TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity empregado atualmente no setor automotivo foi soldado usando o processo de soldagem a arco com arame solido sob proteção gasosa (GMAW e soldagem com LASER de CO2 (LBW. As propriedades mecânicas das amostras soldadas quanto a tração e microdureza foram determinadas e os resultados foram relacionados com as microestruturas apresentadas. Verificou-se que a solda com LBW chegou a valores realtivamente altos de dureza na zona fundida (ZF, indicando que a microestrutura resultante foi predominantemente de martensita. Na zona termicamente afetadas (ZTA, encontrou-se uma mistura de fases

  17. Thermo-mechanical lifetime assessment of components for 700 °C steam turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, F.

    2014-01-01

    ranges and hold periods. The effectiveness of the deformation model was verified in a Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) experiment. The cycle definition was determined from a lifetime-limiting location in a 700°C high-pressure steam turbine rotor. The CF lifetime assessment methodology for Alloy 617 was verified with the help of post-test microstructural investigations. CF experiments with representative strain ranges and sufficiently long hold durations are to be performed to further investigate the apparent CF damage mechanism. The post-test metallographic investigation on the TMF test has revealed extensive creep damage development. The second main objective of this work was the identification of the maximum application temperatures of dissimilar metal welded (DMW) joints between the Ni-base Alloy 617 and a 1% CrMoV low alloy bainitic rotor steel as well as a higher-alloyed 10% Cr martensitic rotor steel. A testing procedure for the static creep and cyclic testing of the DMW joints was developed. The fatigue and CF endurance characteristics have been determined as well as the creep rupture (CR) strength curves, whereas CR strength extrapolation was only possible up to maximum rupture times of 30 kh. Post-test metallographic investigations revealed Type IV creep damage in the fine grained heat affected zone of the steels. Fusion line cracking associated with a Type I precipitate condition at the interface between Alloy 617 weld metal and the steel heat-affected zone was observed in the investigated Alloy 617 -1% CrMoV and Alloy 617 - 10% Cr DMW joints. Whereas the Type I carbide layer was apparent in Alloy 617 - 1% CrMoV DMW joint specimens even after short duration high temperature exposure, the situation was not clearly visible within the Alloy 617 - 10% Cr DMW joint. One major reason for the development of these Type I precipitates are the cross fusion line chemical composition gradients, mainly for the constituents C and Cr, which are obviously larger for the low

  18. Weldability of Advanced High Strength Steels using Ytterbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet high power laser for Tailor-Welded Blank applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajashekhar Shivaram

    transverse direction were evaluated. Metallographic examinations determined that most of the fusion zone is martensitic with small regions of bainite and ferrite. High microhardness values of the order of 550--600 Hv were noted in most joints, which are attributed to high alloy content of the fusion zone as well as high rates of cooling typical of laser welds. During tensile, fatigue and formability tests, no fractures in the fusion or heat affected zones were observed. Geometric variability evaluations indicated that coatings such as aluminum (in the case of USIBOR) and galvanized zinc (TRIP780) can affect the variability of the weld zone and the surface roughness on the top of the weld. Excessive variability in the form of weld concavity in the weld zones can lead to fractures in the weld region, even though higher hardness can, to some extent, compensate for these surface irregularities. The 2-factor design of experiments further confirmed that coatings adversely affect the surface roughness on the top of the welds. Although thickness differentials alone do not make a significant impact on surface roughness, together with coatings, they can have an adverse effect on roughness. Tensile tests in the direction of rolling as well as in the transverse direction indicate that TRIP780 seems weaker in the direction of rolling when compared to transverse direction while mild steel is stronger in the direction of rolling. Weldability analyses revealed that the typical melting efficiency is on the order of 50--70% for full penetration welding. Formability tests showed that TR/MS joints fractured in a direction parallel to the weld line when tested with the loads perpendicular to the weld line. Tests have also confirmed that weld speed and power have no impact on the outcome of formability results. Overall, this work conclusively proves that high power Yb:YAG lasers can effectively join high strength materials such as DP980, TRIP780, USIBOR, as well as mild steel, for use in tailor

  19. Applied Crystallography - Proceedings of the XVth Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawiec, H.; Ströż, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * The International Centre for Diffraction Data and Its Future Developments * The Rietveld Method - A Historical Perspective * Real Structure in Quantitative Powder Diffraction Phase Analysis * Neutron Focusing Optics in Applied Crystallography * The Crystal Structures of Oxygen Deficient Rare Earth Oxides * Short-Range Order in Layer-Structured Ba1-xSrxBi2Nb2O9 Ferroelectrics * Radial Distribution Function as a Tool of Structural Studies on Noncrystalline Materials * Determination of Radial Distribution Function (RDF) of Electrodeposited Cu-Cd Alloys After Annealing * Spheres Packing as a Factor Describing the Local Environment and Structure Stability * X-Ray Stress Measurement of Samples Combined with Diffraction Line Analysis * Phase Stability and Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn and Cu-Zn-Al Single Crystals * Order, Defects, Precipitates and the Martensitic Transformation in β Cu-Zn-Al * Effect of γ Precipitates on the Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn-Al Alloys * Phase Transitions and Shape Memory Effect in a Thermomechanically Treated NiTi Alloy * Structure of Martensite and Bainite in CuAlMn Alloys * Glass-Ceramics * Mechanism of Texture Formation at the Rolling of Low Stacking Fault Energy Metals and Alloys * Shear Texture of Zinc and the Conditions of Its Occuring * The Development of Texture of ZnAlMg Sheets Depending on Deformation Geometry * Texture Stability of the D.S. NiAlMoCrTi Alloy After Heat Treatment * X-Ray Diffraction Method for Controlling of Texture Evolution in Layers * Texture and Lattice Imperfections Study of Some Low Alloyed Copper Alloys * Selected Examples of the Calculation of the Orientation Distribution Function for Low Crystal and Sample Symmetries * Automatical X-Ray Quantitative Phase Analysis * Application of a PC Computer for Crystallographic Calculations * Electron Diffraction Analysis using a Personal Computer * CA.R.INE Crystallography Version 2

  20. The influences of the parameters in the welding process to the refinement of the zone by affected the temperature in the Cr-Mo-V steels; Influencia de los parametros del proceso de soldadura a la refinacion de la zona afectada por la temperatura en los aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw

    2001-07-01

    obtained results of the prediction of the microstructure in the ZAT of a fillet weld are sufficiently reliable and justify the use of the model to simulate the microstructure of the ZAT in the multiple cord welds in order to obtain the refinement of grains of heavy bainite of the ZAT and to improve the behavior of the weld union during the operation. In the second stage of the work a methodology of prediction of the microstructure of the zone affected by the temperature (ZAT) in the multiple cord deposits of two layers was developed, applied to the low alloy steel 1.25 Cr-1 Mo-0.25 V by the welding process with protected electric arc (SMAW). A computer program was developed to calculate the extension of the regions of interest in the ZAT of multiple cords of two layers and to predict the percentage of refinement of heavy grains of the ZAT for certain parameters of welding, preheating temperature and cords overlapping. The validation of the model was carried out experimentally depositing several fillet welds in two layers, obtaining a reasonable agreement between the prediction of the model and the structural distribution of the ZAT measured during the experiment. It was confirmed that the microstructure and its space distribution in the ZAT of multiple cords in the heavy sections can be predicted in base of the knowledge of the dimensions of the fillet weld, the weld process variables and basic metallurgy. It was found that the control of the relation of heat induction of second and first undercoat of fillet welds is essential to achieve the success of the refinement of heavy grains of the ZAT. Practically, this can be achieved by a selection of the size of electrodes, selection of amperage and velocity. [Spanish] La fisuracion de las uniones por soldadura que operan en la temperatura y presion elevada es un problema considerable. El comportamiento de las uniones por soldadura en ambos casos durante el proceso de soldadura y durante su operacion, dependen de manera