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Sample records for bainite

  1. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  2. Nucleation Mechanism for Bainite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the experimental results that solute-depleted zone was observed in Cu-28Zn-4Al (mass fraction) at 523 K,△G is calculated as a positive according to the thermodynamic criteria for the spinodal decomposition of a ternarysystems. So, the solute-depleted zone cannot be formed by spinodal decomposition. Dislocation density requiredby the formation of solute-depleted zone is estimated greater than 7.89×109 cm-2 according to the segregationof solute atoms around dislocations, which is not consistent with the practical situation for the alloy at 523 K.Associated with the internal friction experimental fact that internal friction peaks appear within the incubation forbainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloy, the equilibrium temperature, T0, is evaluated as 433 K for solute-depletedCu-25Zn-3.4Al, which is lower than the experimental temperature 523 K. Thus, nucleation by shear mechanism isimpossible in this circumstance. Therefore, it is concluded that , like bainite in steels and Ag-Cd, bainite in Cu-Zn-Alalloys nucleates by diffusional mechanism, just implied by the experimental existence of solute-depleted zone.

  3. Recent Development of Air-Cooled Bainitic Steels Containing Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hong-sheng; YANG Fu-bao; BAI Bing-zhe; YANG Zhi-gang; YIN Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The superiorities of air-cooled bainitic steels were described.A series of air-cooled bainitic steels containing manganese were developed and presented,which include low carbon granular bainitic steels,low carbon grain-boundary allotriomorphic ferrite/granular bainite dual phase steels,medium and medium high carbon bainite/martensite dual phase steels and casting bainitic steels.The development of ultra-low carbon bainitic steels in China was also introduced.

  4. Bainite transformation as a displacive decomposition of austenite. Sendan gata hentai to shite toraeta bainite hentai

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    Omori, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1990-07-20

    In the typical textures of hypo-eutictoid steel (hyper-eutictoid steel), there are pro-eutictoid ferrite and pearlite which are generated by the diffusion mechanism and martensite ({alpha}') which is generated by non-diffusion transformation. However, when austenite ({gamma}) is decomposed in the temperature range between about 900K and the Ms point at which martensite transformation starts, bainite is generated. Concerning the bainite generation mechanism, the views are separated into the standpoint of considering that transformation of substitutional atoms progresses in a manner of non-diffusion (the displacive transformation group) and the standpoint that such transformation is basically diffusion transformation only with shorter diffusion distance (the diffusion transformation group). In this article, the concept that the above transformation is displacive transformation is explained. In other words, after stating in detail on bainite transformation behavior, crystals of bainite transformation, and so forth, it discusses on what is bainite. Finally in this article, it is pointed out that the bainite texture has the nature that it cannot be decided simply either the diffusion transformation texture or the non-diffusion transformation texture. 95 refs., 11 figs.

  5. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

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    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  6. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

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    Avishan, Behzad, E-mail: b_avishan@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yazdani, Sasan, E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  7. Effects of Deformation on Bainite Transformation During Continuous Cooling of Low Carbon Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hot deformation experiments were carried out on Gleeble 1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The bainite transformation after deformation was investigated by optical microstructure analysis. The results indicated that the deformation accelerated the bainite transformation when the deformation was carried out at high temperature and no or little ferrite was precipitated before bainite transformation; when the deformation was carried out at low temperature, the deformation hindered the bainite transformation because a lot of ferrite precipitated before bainite transformation.

  8. Nanostructured Bainite-Austenite Steel for Armours Construction

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    Burian W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite-austenite steels are applied in the armours construction due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility which enables to lower the armour weight and to improve the protection efficiency. Mechanical properties of the bainite-austenite steels can be controlled in the wide range by chemical composition and heat treatment. In the paper the results of investigation comprising measuring of quasi - static mechanical properties, dynamic yield stress and firing tests of bainite-austenite steel NANOS-BA® are presented. Reported results show that the investigated bainite-austenite steel can be used for constructing add-on armour and that the armour fulfils requirements of protection level 2 of STANAG 4569. Obtained reduction in weight of the tested NANOS-BA® plates in comparison with the present solutions is about 30%.

  9. Kinetics of the Bainite Transformation in Austempered Ductile Iron ADI

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    Ławrynowicz Z.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to check an analytical model of the kinetics of bainite transformation that will enable the producers of ADI to optimise the microstructure and mechanical properties and minimise the expensive and extensive experimental trials. A combination of thermodynamics and kinetic theory was used successfully to estimate the evolution of bainite as a function of temperature, time, chemical composition and austenite grain size and predict the processing window in austempered ductile iron using a bainite transformation model developed previously for high silicon steels. The results of the present research show that the bainitic model developed for high silicon steels is applicable for calculations of the processing window for ADI.

  10. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

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    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  11. Isothermal Transformation of a Commercial Super-Bainitic Steel: Part I Microstructural Characterization and Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Xiu, Wencui; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The effects of isothermal treatment on the microstructure and hardness of commercial super-bainitic steel were investigated. A series of isothermal treatments were carried out at temperatures of 210-250 °C for different time periods. The results indicate that the bainitic reaction and hardness were very sensitive to the isothermal transformation temperature. The fine super-bainitic microstructure, containing the carbide-free bainitic ferrite lath and the carbon-enriched retained austenite film, can be produced by heating to 210 °C for 30 h, resulting in a hardness of 662 HV. By increasing the isothermal transformation temperature, the bainitic transformation kinetic is accelerated; however, this is at the expense of coarsening bainitic ferrite laths and decreasing the bainitic ferrite quantity. The relationship between hardness and microstructures obtained under different isothermal treatments, which is correlated with the carbon concentration, dislocation density, bainitic amount and super-bainite size, is discussed in detail.

  12. Creation of Air-Cooled Mn Series Bainitic Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hong-sheng; FENG Chun; ZHENG Yan-kang; YANG Zhi-gang; BAI Bing-zhe

    2008-01-01

    The development and mechanical performances of new type air-cooled Mn series bainitie steels including granular bainitie steels,FGBA/BG duplex steels,CFB/M duplex steels,medium carbon bainite/martensite steels,cast hainitic steels invented by the authors are summarized.The novel series of bainitie steels are alloyed with Mn,and several series bainitic duplex microstructures can be easily obtained under the condition of air cooling through unique composition design.The invented idea,the principle of alloying design,the strengthening mechanism,and the evolution of the microstructure of new type air-cooled Mn series bainitic steels are presented.Furthermore,the applications in different fields of these Mn series air-cooled bainitic steels with different strength level are also introdueed.It is suggested that the significance of the development of the air-cooled Mn series bainitic steel can be summarized as follows:reducing costs of both raw materials and production;good combination of strength and toughness;self-hardening with high bainitic hardenability by air cooling from hot working without additional quenching-tempering treatment or quenching procedure;large savings in energy resources;and reduced environmental pollution.

  13. Analysis of Carbon Diffusion during Bainite Transformation in ADI

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    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the time required for the diffusion of carbon out of supersaturated sub-units of ferrite into the retained austenite. The analytical model estimates the decarburisation time of the sub-units of supersaturated bainitic ferrite. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate how a thermodynamic method can be used for solving a problem of the decarburisation of bainite subunits and carbon diffusion distances in the matrix of ADI. This should in principle enable to examine the partitioning of carbon from supersaturated ferrite plates into adjacent austenite and the carbon content in retained austenite using analytical method. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in austenite is very sensitive to the carbon concentration and this has to be taken into account in treating the large concentration gradients that develop in the austenite. The results are discussed in the context of displacive mechanism of bainite transformation. Experimental measurements of volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and volume of the untransformed austenite indicate that there is a necessity of carbides precipitation from austenite. The necessary carbon diffusion distance in austenite also illustrates that the estimated time is not capable of decarburising the ferrite subunits during the period of austempering. A consequence of the precipitation of cementite from austenite during austempering is that the growth of bainitic ferrite can continue to larger extent and that the resulting microstructure is not an ausferrite but is a mixture of bainitic ferrite, retained austenite and carbides.

  14. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

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    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  15. Bainite Morphology in Two Experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti Steels

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    Ławrynowicz Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the bainite morphology in two experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti steels using TEM, high speed dilatometry backed by thermodynamic analysis. The microstructure was investigated using metallography and TEM method. After austenitisation at 1200oC followed by bainitic reaction in upper and lower temperatures of isothetmal transformation the bainite was in the form of classical sheaves. The amont, distribution and morphology of retained austenite and bainitic ferrite depend on prior austenitisation and isothermal transformation temperatures within the bainitic range.

  16. TEM and HREM study on the fine structure and the interfacial structure of bainite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤照; 敖青; 顾英妮; 姜江; 孙东升; 戴吉岩; 彭红樱

    1996-01-01

    The fine structure of bainite,the morphology and distribution of carbide in steels and the morphology of bainite in Cu-Zn-Al alloys have been investigated with TEM.The interfacial structure ledges and interfacial crystal lattice images of Cu-Zn-Al alloys have also been investigated with HREM.The addition of alloying microelements can fine the structure of bainitic ferrite markedly.The bainitic ferrite is composed of subunits or subchunks.The carbides differ in morphologies and are distributed in between laths,inside the plates and on the boundaries of subunits.There are abundant fine structures in bainitic ferrite.In the primary bainite of Cu-Zn-Al alloy there are interfacial structure ledges,the height of which is about 3 -40 nm,equal to 15-200 atomic layers.The phase transformation mechanism of bainite is discussed.

  17. Crystallographic similarity between the lath martensite and lower bainite in medium-carbon alloy steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiangwen; LUO Chengping; WU Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    Progress in the crystallography of lath martensitic and lower bainitic transformations is briefly reviewed, followed by a presentation of the experimentally measured crystallographic characteristics of both lath martensite and lower bainite formed in mediumcarbon steels containing Si, Mn and Mo. It is found that the bainite plates relate to each other by a relative rotation of 54.7°or 60°about the normal to their common close-packed planes {110} b, which ensures a pseudo- {112}b twin relationship between two adjacent plates,and that all bainite variants formed in a single packet keep a unique G-T orientation relationship with the austenite matrix. These two types of OR of lower bainite are similar to that of the lath martensite, respectively. Furthermore, the measured habit planes of both the lower bainite and lath martensite are all {335} f type, which can verify the crystallographic similarity between the lath martensite and lower bainite.

  18. Carbon distribution in bainitic steel subjected to deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu. F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Nikitina, E. N., E-mail: Nikitina-EN@mail.ru; Gromov, V. E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Analysis of the formation and evolution of carbide phase in medium carbon steel with a bainitic structure during compressive deformation was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Qualitative transformations in carbide phase medium size particles, their density and volume concentration depended on the degree of deformation.

  19. Estimation of bainite transformation temperatures in steels by the empirical formulas; Hagane no bainite hentai ondo no jikkenshiki ni yoru suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kunitake, T.

    1998-01-25

    Relational formulas were proposed for bainite transformation temperatures and chemical compositions in steels. Thirty-one isothermal transformation charts were selected, whose forms are such that transformation regions in both of pearlite stage and bainite stage are separated, and bainite transformation starting temperature reaches a constant value on the longer duration side in isothermal retention. Multiplex analysis was performed on the charts. Then, an experimental formula was presented to derive the bainite transformation temperature from chemical compositions of the steels. An assessed value very close to the measured value was derived. Another experimental formula was presented to estimate the bainite transformation temperature from the chemical compositions of the steels during continuous cooling, which is more practicable than isothermal transformation in heat treatment of the steels. Two kinds of parameters, B {sub 1} and B {sub 2} were introduced into the formula. The parameter B {sub 1} is a bainite transformation starting temperature in the case when cooling is performed at a critical cooling rate in which the pearlite transformation can appear, and B {sub 2} is a bainite transformation starting temperature when cooling is performed at such a critical cooling rate that a structure containing bainite is transformed completely to a pearlite transformed structure. A formula more versatile than conventional formulas was obtained. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Bainitic stabilization of austenite in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, M.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Stabilization of retained austenite via bainitic transformation was studied in a triple-phase, ferrite/bainite/austenite steel 0.26C1.52Si-1.2Mn. Volume fraction and stability of retained austenite are varied by isothermal transformation time at 752F following intercritical annealing at 1418F. Austenite stability is measured using the Bolling-Richman technique. Austenite content is measured by and austenite carbon content is estimated from lattice parameters. Strength and ductility measured in both uniaxial and plane-strain tension are correlated with austenite amount and stability. While austenite content peaks at 3 minutes transformation time, stability continues to increase out to 5 minutes associated with a saturation of austenite carbon content and continued refinement of austenite particle size. Despite the reduced austenite content of 8 percent, the higher stability provided by the 5 minutes treatment gives superior mechanical properties.

  1. Bainitic stabilization of austenite in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, M.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1992-12-31

    Stabilization of retained austenite via bainitic transformation was studied in a triple-phase, ferrite/bainite/austenite steel 0.26C1.52Si-1.2Mn. Volume fraction and stability of retained austenite are varied by isothermal transformation time at 752F following intercritical annealing at 1418F. Austenite stability is measured using the Bolling-Richman technique. Austenite content is measured by and austenite carbon content is estimated from lattice parameters. Strength and ductility measured in both uniaxial and plane-strain tension are correlated with austenite amount and stability. While austenite content peaks at 3 minutes transformation time, stability continues to increase out to 5 minutes associated with a saturation of austenite carbon content and continued refinement of austenite particle size. Despite the reduced austenite content of 8 percent, the higher stability provided by the 5 minutes treatment gives superior mechanical properties.

  2. Correlative microscopy of a carbide-free bainitic steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christina; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Verdiere, An; Petrov, Roumen; Winkelhofer, Florian; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    In this work a carbide-free bainitic steel was examined by a novel correlative microscopy approach using transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The individual microstructural constituents could be identified by TKD based on their different crystal structure for bainitic ferrite and retained austenite and by image quality for the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. Subsequently, the same area was investigated in the TEM and a good match of these two techniques regarding the identification of the area position and crystal orientation could be proven. Additionally, the M-A constituent was examined in the TEM for the first time after preceded unambiguous identification using a correlative microscopy approach. The selected area diffraction pattern showed satellites around the main reflexes which might indicate a structural modulation.

  3. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young’s modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomec...

  4. Mechanism of Bainite Nucleation in Steel, Iron and Copper Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mokuang KANG; Ming ZHU; Mingxing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    During the incubation period of isothermal treatment(or aging) within the bainitic transformation temperature range in a salt bath (or quenching in water) immediately after solution treatment, not only are the defects formed at high temperatures maintained, but new defects can also be generated in alloys, iron alloys and steels. Due to the segregation of the solute atoms near defects through diffusion, this leads to non-uniform distributions of solute atoms in the parent phase with distinct regions of both solute enrichment and solute depletion. It is proposed that when the Ms temperature at the solute depleted regions is equal to or higher than the isothermal (or aged) temperature,nucleation of bainite occurs within these solute depleted regions in the manner of martensitic shear. Therefore it is considered that, at least in steel, iron and copper alloy systems, bainite is formed through a shear mechanism within solute depleted regions, which is controlled and formed by the solute atoms diffusion in the parent phase.

  5. Bainite Formation in Medium-Carbon Low-Silicon Spring Steels Accounting for Chemical Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, C.; Mecozzi, M. G.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the effect of chemical inhomogeneity on the isothermal bainite formation is investigated in medium-carbon low-silicon spring steel by dilatometry and microscopy. The analysis of the microstructure at different times during transformation shows that chemical segregation of substitutional alloying elements resulting from casting strongly affects the bainite formation by retarding the transformation kinetics and limiting the maximum achievable bainite fraction. During holding at temperatures close to and above the martensite start temperature, a homogeneous lower bainitic microstructure can be eventually obtained, whereas at higher temperatures, incomplete bainitic reaction is evident. It was also found that at the early stages of the transformation, differences in the bainite formation kinetics, due to local inhomogeneities in Cr and Mn concentration, result in retardation of the growth of bainite in the high Mn and Cr concentration regions. The calculated difference in driving force for nucleation between the enriched and the depleted areas is not by itself sufficient to explain the microstructures obtained and thus significant influence of growth on bainite formation is observed. Particularly, it was calculated and experimentally observed that Cr partitions in the carbides in the high Mn, Cr regions during the isothermal treatment, limiting the transformation kinetics.

  6. In situ measured growth rates of bainite plates in an Fe-C-Mn-Si superbainitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-wei Hu; Guang Xu; Hai-jiang Hu; Li Wang; Zheng-liang Xue

    2014-01-01

    The growth rates of bainite plates in an Fe-C-Mn-Si superbainitic steel were investigated by in situ observation. The lengthening rates of ferrite bainite during both cooling and isothermal holding processes were observed and the growth rates of bainite plates nucleating at grain boundaries, within grains and on preformed bainite were measured. It is indicated that the lengthening rates of bainite plates during the cooling and isothermal processes were different, and that the growth rates of bainite plates nucleating at different types of sites also demon-strated diversity. The bainite plates initiating at grain boundaries during cooling grew the fastest, while the plates nucleating on preformed bainite did the slowest. However, the growth rate of the bainite plates nucleating at grain boundaries during isothermal transformation de-creased the most, whereas the bainite plates initiating within grains grew the fastest. In addition, the growth rate of ferrite bainite in the study supported the diffusion transformation mechanism of bainite from the viewpoint of growth rate.

  7. The bainite reaction kinetics in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taran, Yu.N.; Uzlov, K.I.; Kutsov, A.Yu. [State Metall. Acad., Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Phys. Metall. Dept.

    1997-11-01

    Bainitic reaction kinetics in ductile iron contained according to Ukrainian standard (weight%) 3.60-3.80 carbon, 2.60-2.80 Si, {proportional_to}0.12 Mn, {proportional_to}0.60 Cu and additionally alloyed by Mo (0.15-0.20) has been studied. It was found that the overall transformation kinetics becomes slower as transformation temperature increase. This is because more intensive redistribution of carbon into austenite at higher temperatures. Two austenites with different carbon content have been fixed and kinetics of their lattices parameters has been studied. (orig.). 6 refs.

  8. Effect of B and B + Nb on the bainitic transformation in low carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Kangying, E-mail: kangying.zhu@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Oberbillig, Carla, E-mail: carla.oberbillig@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Musik, Celine, E-mail: celine.musik@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Loison, Didier, E-mail: didier.loison@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Iung, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.iung@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} B retards slightly the bainite transformation kinetics. {yields} Combined addition of B + Nb delayed dramatically bainite transformation kinetics. {yields} B refines the microstructure and promotes lath morphology of bainite. {yields} Larger packets of laths and longer laths are observed in the B + Nb steel. {yields} More free boron/finer borocarbide precipitates on {gamma} grain boundaries in B + Nb steel. - Abstract: Development of new, advanced high and ultra-high strength bainitic steels requires the selection of the optimum balance of bainite promoting elements allowing the production of the desired bainitic microstructure over a wide range of cooling rates. The addition of boron or a combined addition of boron and niobium is well known to retard strongly the polygonal ferrite formation but very little knowledge has been acquired on the bainitic transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of boron and boron plus niobium on the bainite transformation kinetics, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in a low carbon steel (Fe-0.05C-1.49Mn-0.30Si). Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined and followed by a detailed quantitative characterisation of the bainite microstructure and morphology using complementary advanced metallographic techniques (FEG-SEM-EBSD, SIMS and TEM). The relationship between microstructure and hardness has been evaluated. Finally, results of SIMS and TEM analyses coupled with microstructural investigations enable to propose a mechanism to explain the effect of the synergy between boron and niobium on the bainitic transformation and the resultant microstructure.

  9. Design of novel bainitic steels; Diseno de nuevos aceros bainiticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F. G.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Mawella, K. J. A.; Jones, D. G.; Brown, P.

    2002-07-01

    Mixed microstructures consisting of fine plates of upper bainitic ferrite separated by thin films os stable retained austenite have seen many applications in recent years because of their impressive combination of strength and toughness. There may also be some martensite present in the microstructure, but its formation can be controlled increasing the stability of the retained austenite. On the other hand. carbides are avoided by the judicious use of silicon as an alloying element. The aim of the present work was to see how far these concepts can be extended in order to achieve the highest ever combination of strength and toughness in bulk-samples subjected to continuous cooling transformation. Three alloys were proposed and manufactured, and the results of metallographic characterisation and mechanical tests have shown that the designed steels have the highest ever combination of strength and toughness for bainitic microstructures, matching even the maraging steels which are at least thirty times more expensive. The experimental results confirm the alloy design procedures. (Author) 29 refs.

  10. Modeling the austenite decomposition into ferrite and bainite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Fateh

    2005-12-01

    Novel advanced high-strength steels such as dual-phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, are considered as promising materials for new generation of lightweight vehicles. The superior mechanical properties of these steels, compared to classical high strength steels, are associated with their complex microstructures. The desired phase configuration and morphology can only be achieved through well-controlled processing paths with rather tight processing windows. To implement such challenging processing stages into the current industrial facilities a significant amount of development efforts, in terms of mill trials, have to be performed. Alternatively, process models as predictive tools can be employed to aid the process development' and also to design new steel grades. Knowledge-based process models are developed by virtue of the underlying physical phenomena occurring during the industrial processing and are validated with experimental data. The goal of the present work is to develop an integrated microstructure model to adequately describe the kinetics of austenite decomposition into polygonal ferrite and bainite, such that for complex thermal paths simulating those of industrial practice, the final microstructure in advanced high strength steels can reasonably be predicted. This is in particular relevant to hot-rolled DP and TRIP steels, where the intercritical ferrite evolution due to its crucial influence on the onset and kinetics of the subsequent bainite formation, has to be quantified precisely. The calculated fraction, size and spatial carbon distribution of the intercritical austenite are employed as input to characterize adequately the kinetic of the bainite reaction. Pertinent to ferrite formation, a phenomenological, physically-based model was developed on the ground of the mixed-mode approach. The model deals with the growth stage since nucleation site saturation at prior austenite grain boundaries is likely to be attained

  11. Subgrains and boron distribution of low carbon bainitic steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin Wang; Bing Cao; Chengjia Shang; Xueyi Liu; Xinlai He

    2005-01-01

    The structure variation of deformed austenite during the relaxation stage after deformation at various temperatures in an Nb-B ultra low carbon bainitic steel and Fe-Ni alloy was studied by the thermo-simulation. Optical microscope and TEM were applied to analyze the microstructure after RPC (Relaxation-precipitation-controlling phase transformation technique) and the evolution of dislocation configuration. The particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) technique, revealing the distribution of boron, was employed to show the change of boron segregation after different relaxation times. The results indicate that during the relaxation stage the recovery occurs in the deformed austenite, the dislocations rearrange and subgrains form. During the subsequent cooling the boron will segregate at the boundaries of subgrains.

  12. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rivas, Lucia; González-Orive, Alejandro; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Caballero, Francisca G.; Vázquez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young’s modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PF-QNM) measurements. We have addressed critically the limits and advantages of these techniques and been able to measure some elastoplastic parameters of both phases. Specifically, we have analyzed by PF-QNM two nanostructured bainitic steels, with a finer and a coarser structure, and found that both phases have a similar Young’s modulus. PMID:26602631

  13. Influence of isothermal bainitic processing on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization of TRIP steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Jiang; Hubin Wu; Di Tang; Qiang Liu

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel are strongly affected by the conditions of iso-thermal bainitic processing. The multiphase microstructure of TRIP steel under different conditions of isothermal bainitic processing was investigated using OM, SEM, XRD and TEM. The volume fraction of retained anstenite and the carbon content in anstenite were determined quantitatively using X-ray diffraction patterns. The relationship between mechanical properties and isothermal bainitic processing parameters was investigated. The stability of retained anstenite was analyzed by the volume fraction of retained austenite and the carbon content in retained anstenite. The experimental results show that the multiphase microstructure consists of ferrite,bainite and metastable retained austenite. To obtain good mechanical properties, the optimal conditions of isothermal bainitic tem-perature and holding time are 410-430℃ and 180-240 s, respectively. After isothermal bainitic processing under the optimal condi-tions, the corresponding volume fraction of retained anstenite is 5vol%-15vol%, which can provide enough retained austenite and plastic stability for austenite with high carbon content.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy study of high temperature bainitic transformation in 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadabadi, M.N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Niyama, E. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Echigoya, J. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    A 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron austenitized at 900 C for 90 min and austempered at 375 C for different periods was used to study some aspects of bainitic reaction in high Mn austempered ductile iron with reference to carbide precipitation in bainitic ferrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) study shows that precipitation of carbide in the ferritic component of bainite is a function of the local concentration of alloying elements. In other words, in the region near graphite where Si segregates and there is negative Mn segregation as well as carbon, the bainitic ferrite is carbide free. However, in the intercellular region where Mn segregates and Si is depleted, the ferritic component of bainite occurs together with very fine and almost uniformly distributed carbide. Furthermore, TEM-EDXA results show that the increase in Mn content not only delays stage I (the initial transformation of austenite to ferrite and retained austenite) of the bainitic reaction, but also delays stage II (decomposition of retained austenite to ferrite and carbide). ((orig.))

  15. Effect of Mo Content on Microstructure and Property of Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three low-carbon bainitic steels, with different Mo contents, were designed to investigate the effects of Mo addition on microstructure and mechanical properties. Two-step cooling, i.e., initial accelerated cooling and subsequent slow cooling, was used to obtain the desired bainite microstructure. The results show that the product of strength and elongation first increases and then shows no significant change with increasing Mo. Compared with Mo-free steel, bainite in the Mo-containing steel tends to have a lath-like morphology due to a decrease in the bainitic transformation temperature. More martensite transformation occurs with the increasing Mo, resulting in greater hardness of the steel. Both the strength and elongation of the steel can be enhanced by Mo addition; however, the elongation may decrease with a further increase in Mo. From a practical viewpoint, the content of Mo could be ~0.14 wt. % for the composition design of low-carbon bainitic steels in the present work. To be noted, an optimal scheme may need to consider other situations such as the role of sheet thickness, toughness behavior and so on, which could require changes in the chemistry. Nevertheless, these results provide a reference for the composition design and processing method of low-carbon bainitic steels.

  16. Mechanical properties of steels with a microstructure of bainite/martensite and austenite islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syammach, Sami M.

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are continually being developed in order to reduce weight and improve safety for automotive applications. There is need for economic steels with improved strength and ductility combinations. These demands have led to research and development of third generation AHSS. Third generation AHSS include steel grades with a bainitic and tempered martensitic matrix with retained austenite islands. These steels may provide improved mechanical properties compared to first generation AHSS and should be more economical than second generation AHSS. There is a need to investigate these newer types of steels to determine their strength and formability properties. Understanding these bainitic and tempered martensitic steels is important because they likely can be produced using currently available production systems. If viable, these steels could be a positive step in the evolution of AHSS. The present work investigates the effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of steels with a microstructure of bainite, martensite, and retained austenite, so called TRIP aided bainitic ferrite (TBF) steels. The first step in this project was creating the desired microstructure. To create a microstructure of bainite, martensite, and austenite an interrupted austempering heat treatment was used. Varying the heat treatment times and temperatures produced microstructures of varying amounts of bainite, martensite, and austenite. Mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, strain hardening, and hole-expansion ratios were then evaluated for each heat treatment. Correlations between mechanical properties and microstructure were then evaluated. It was found that samples after each of the heat treatments exhibited strengths between 1050 MPa and 1350 MPa with total elongations varying from 8 pct to 16 pct. By increasing the bainite and austenite volume fraction the strength of the steel was found to decrease, but the ductility increased. Larger

  17. Composition dependence of the rate of bainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloys; Cu-Zn-Al gokin ni okeru bainite hentai sokudo no gokin sosei izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, M.; Marukawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-20

    The bainitic transformation is known to have an intermediate nature between the martensitic transformation and the diffusional transformation, while its transformation mechanism has not yet been clarified precisely. If this transformation involves lattice shearing like the martensitic transformation, it should take place more easily in those alloys which have a higher tendency to transform martensitically. On this expectation, the composition dependence of bainitic transformation kinetics has been studied in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. Especially, the relation between the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and the bainitic transformation rate was examined. The transformation process was traced by measuring the electrical resistivity of specimens during aging. It was found that the transformation rate is higher in those alloys having a higher Ms temperature. The activation energy for the process, obtained from its temperature dependence, is independent of the alloy composition and roughly equal to that for solute diffusion in the parent alloy. This indicates that the transformation is controlled by diffusion of solute atoms. The composition dependence of the bainitic transformation rate is discussed in terms of a diffusion controlled growth theory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. In situ heating SEM observation of the bainitic transformation process in Cu-17Al-11Mn (at.%) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Shunichi; Soejima, Yohei; Miyoshi, Takayuki; Hara, Toru; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Nishida, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    To understand the bainitic transformation behavior in Cu-17Al-11Mn (at.%) alloys, dynamicin situobservation during heating was carried out in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this study, after optimizing the sample preparation method and observation conditions, we successfully observed the transformation process with sufficient resolution and contrast. From the observation results, bainite is first formed preferentially at the grain boundaries of the parent phase. Bainite is also formed inside the grains to relax the elastic strain generated by the initial bainite. Regarding the growth mode, in the early stage of the transformation, bainite grows along the longitudinal direction, and in the late stage, it grows along the lateral direction. The growth rate of the bainite was also evaluated by continuous observation of the same plate. Dynamicin situobservation of a martensitic transformation in the same alloy was also performed to compare the growth mode with that of bainite, and it was found that the behavior is considerably different between bainitic and the martensitic transformations.

  19. In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Liu; Guang Xu; Yu-long Zhang; Hai-jiang Hu; Lin-xin Zhou; Zheng-liang Xue

    2013-01-01

    In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel were conducted on a high-temperature laser scanning confocal microscope during continuous heating and subsequent isothermal holding at 850, 1000, and 1100◦C for 30 min. A grain growth model was proposed based on experimental results. It is indicated that the austenite grain size increases with austenitizing temperature and holding time. When the austenitizing temperature is above 1100◦C, the austenite grains grow rapidly, and abnormal austenite grains occur. In addition, the eff ect of heating rate on austenite grain growth was investigated, and the relation between austenite grains and bainite morphology after bainitic transformations was also discussed.

  20. The Varying Effects of Uniaxial Compressive Stress on the Bainitic Transformation under Different Austenitization Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal simulation experiments under different austenitization temperatures and different stress states were conducted. High-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, thermal dilatometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to quantitatively investigate the effects of the uniaxial compressive stress on bainitic transformation at 330 °C following different austenitization temperatures. The transformation plasticity was also analyzed. It was found that the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the austenitization temperature due to larger prior austenite grain size as well as stronger promoting effect of mechanical driving force on selected variant growth at higher austenitization temperatures. The grain size and the yield strength of prior austenite are other important factors which influence the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation, besides the mechanical driving force provided by the stress. Moreover, the transformation plasticity increases with the austenitization temperature.

  1. Modeling of mechanical behaviour of HSLA low carbon bainitic steel thermomechanically processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D. B.; Rodrigues, P. C. M.; Cota, A. B.

    2003-10-01

    A comparative study of the microstructure characterization and mechanical properties was done in a HSLA low carbon (0.08%) bainitic steel containing boron, developed by industry as a bainitic steel grade APIX80. The steel was submitted to two different thermomechanical processes. In the first one, controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling was applied in laboratory mill. In the second processing, specimens of the same steel were submitted to hot torsion testing. The influence of cooling conditions like start cooling temperature, cooling rates and finish cooling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The final microstructure obtained was a complex mixture of polygonal ferrite, perlite, bainite and martensite/retained austenite constituent. The use of multiple regression analysis allowed the establishment of quantitative relationships between the accelerated cooling variables and mechanical properties of the steel available from Vickers microhardness and tensile tests.

  2. Continuous Cooling Bainite Transformation Characteristics of a Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel under the Simulated Welding Thermal Cycle Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangwei Kong; Chunlin Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Continuous cooling transformation of a low carbon microalloyed steel was investigated after it was subjected to the simulation welding thermal cycle process and the interrupted cooling test.Microstructure observation was performed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.On the basis of the dilatometric data and microstructure observation,the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was determined,which showed that the main microstructure changes from a mixture of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite to full granular bainite with the increase in the cooling time t8/5 from 10 to 600 s,accompanied with a decrease in the microhardness.The interrupted cooling test confirmed that the bainitic ferrite can form attached to grain boundaries at the beginning of transformation even if the final microstructure contains a mixture of granular bainite and bainitic ferrite.

  3. Effect of zirconium addition on the austenite grain coarsening behavior and mechanical properties of 900 Mpa low carbon bainite steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-free bainitic microstructure of a 900 MPa low carbon bainitic Cu-Ni-Mo-B steel was obtained by a newly developed relaxation precipitation control (RPC) phase transformation processing.In a pan-cake like prior-anstenite grain,the microstructure consisted of lath bainite,a little of abnormal granular bainite,and acicular ferrite.The effect of zirconium carbonitrides on the austenite grain coarsening behavior was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results show that,the lath is narrower with increasing cooling rate.The ratio of all kinds of bainitic microstructure is proper with the intermediate cooling rate;and Zr-containing precipitates distribute uniformly,which restrains austenite grain growing in heat-affected welding zone.

  4. A study on controlled cooling process for making bainitic ductile iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In the present research, TTT curve of bainitic ductile iron under the condition of controlled cooling was generated. The cooling rate of grinding ball and its temperature distribution were also measured at the same time. It can be concluded that the bainitic zone of TTT curve is separated from the pearlitic zone. As compared to the water-quenching condition, more even cooling rate and temperature distribution can be achieved in the controlled cooling process. The controlled cooling can keep away from pearlitic zone in the high temperature cooling stage and produce similar results to the process of traditional isothermal cooling with a low cooling rate in the low temperature cooling stage.

  5. Bainite Formation in Medium-Carbon Low-Silicon Spring Steels Accounting for Chemical Segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, C.; Mecozzi, M.G.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of chemical inhomogeneity on the isothermal bainite formation is investigated in medium-carbon low-silicon spring steel by dilatometry and microscopy. The analysis of the microstructure at different times during transformation shows that chemical segregation of substitution

  6. Characterization of coarse bainite transformation in low carbon steel during simulated welding thermal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Liangyun, E-mail: lanly@me.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Kong, Xiangwei [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu, Chunlin [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Coarse austenite to bainite transformation in low carbon steel under simulated welding thermal cycles was morphologically and crystallographically characterized by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction technology. The results showed that the main microstructure changes from a mixture of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite to granular bainite with the increase in cooling time. The width of bainitic laths also increases gradually with the cooling time. For a welding thermal cycle with relatively short cooling time (e.g. t{sub 8/5} is 30 s), the main mode of variant grouping at the scale of individual prior austenite grains changes from Bain grouping to close-packed plane grouping with the progress of phase transformation, which results in inhomogeneous distribution of high angle boundaries. As the cooling time is increased, the Bain grouping of variants becomes predominant mode, which enlarges the effective grain size of product phase. - Highlights: • Main microstructure changes and the width of lath structure increases with cooling time. • Variant grouping changes from Bain zone to close-packed plane grouping with the transformation. • The change of variant grouping results in uneven distribution of high angle grain boundary. • Bain grouping is main mode for large heat input, which lowers the density of high angle boundary.

  7. Bainitic transformation in austempered ductile iron with reference to untransformed austenite volume phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadabadai, M.N. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    Much interest has been focused on austempered ductile iron (ADI) because of its superior mechanical properties, which might be improved by further control of microstructure. It has so far been assumed that segregation of alloying elements in the intercellular region just delays bainitic reaction in these regions. However, the existence of bainite-free regions (UAV) even after 10,000 minutes at test temperature, e.g., 375 C, indicates something intrinsic to the mechanism of bainitic transformation. The bainitic transformation start (B{sub s}) temperature is a function of alloying elements; segregation of alloying elements can also alter the B{sub s} temperature. In other words, B{sub s} temperature in the region near graphite should be different from the intercellular region. Therefore, the intercellular region with higher concentration of alloying elements such as Mn should have a lower B{sub s} temperature, which leads to formation of UAV even after a long high-temperature austempering time (hereafter, this stable UAV will be named as the minimum UAV value). To examine this concept, theoretical and experimental procedures were employed.

  8. Investigation of deformation and microstructure of bainite in Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%mn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldirmaz E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some physical and mechanical properties in Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%Mn (wt% alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and compression deformation test. Bainite phase were obtained in the samples according to SEM and XRD analyses. Compression stress was applied on the alloy in order to investigate the deformation effect on the bainite phase transformation. On the surface of the Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%Mn alloy after the deformation, both bainite and martensite variants formed.

  9. The bainite transformation and the carbide precipitation of 4.88% aluminium austempered ductile iron investigated using electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani-Rashid, A.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fkiana@yahoo.com

    2009-04-17

    The transformation to a bainitic microstructure during austempering under different conditions was examined for the most successful of the experimental casts. Austenitising temperature of 920 deg. C and austempering temperature of 350 deg. C for different holding times have been used. Microstructures have been examined by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that isothermal transformation at 350 deg. C for different soaking times gave a typical bainitic microstructure that increased with increasing austempering time. Extension of isothermal transformation time leads to precipitation of carbides which also depended on the bainitic phase transformation.

  10. A Rationalization of Sympathetic Nucleation-Ledgewise Growth Theory of Bainite Transformation in Fe-C Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the classic diffusion controlled nucleation and growth theory, the sympathetic nucleationledgewise growth mechanism of bainite was studied theoretically for Iow carbon Fe-C alloys. The rationality of the occurrence of sympathetic nucleation on the terraces of ledges competing with lateral ledge growth and other sites nucleation was demonstrated by the present work quantitatively. The calculations indicated that Iow reaction temperatures and high carbon concentrations may favor the sympathetic nucleation, thus accounting for the formation of multilayer structures of bainite.

  11. Superplasticity of low carbon HSLA steel during bainite transformation. Teitanso teigokinko no beinaito hentai ni okeru chososei kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H.; Furubayashi, E. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Recently, the development of high strength low alloy steel (HSLA steel) of untempered type is advanced by using the comparatively high strength and excellent tenacity of the bainite or martensite of carbon remained being transformed. In the present researches, the superplasticity during the bainite transformation due to the continuous cooling and changes of the structure as well as the mechanical properties due to the superplastic deformation are examined with the samples of Mn-Cr-Mo system HSLA steel. The results obtained therefrom are shown as follows. The temperatre range of B[sub S] and bainite transformation is moving to the higher temperature side along with the increasing of the applied stress when it is over 60 MPa. The bainitic structure is composed of the mixture lath-like bainitic ferrite and granular bainitic ferrite in the use of having no applied stress, while the percentage of the latter increases simultaneously with the increasing of the applied stress. Transformation superplastic strain is increasing together with the increasing of the applied stress, and its increasing is over the linear function when the applied stress is above about 50 MPa. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels.

  13. Study on laser welded heat-affected zone in new ultralow carbon bainitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhao; Wuzhu Chen; Xudong Zhang; Jiguo Shan

    2007-01-01

    800 MPa grade ultralow carbon bainitic (NULCB) steel is the recently developed new generation steel, which was produced by thermo mechanical controlled processing & relaxation-precipitation controlling transformation (TMCP&RPC) technique. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in NULCB steel under laser welding conditions were investigated by using a Gleeble-1500 thermal simulator. The experimental results indicate that the simplex microstructure in the HAZ is granular bainite that consists of bainite-ferrite (BF) lath and M-A constituent when the cooling time from 800 to 500°C (t8/5) is 0.3-30 s, and the M-A constituent consists of twinned martensite and residual austenite. As t8/5 increases, the hardness and tensile strength of HAZ decreases, but they are higher than that of the base metal, indicating the absence of softened zone after laser welding. The impact toughness of HAZ increases at first and then decreases when tw increases. The impact energy of HAZ is much higher than that of the base metal when t8/5 is between 3 and 15 s. It indicates that excellent low temperature toughness can be obtained under appropriate laser welding conditions.

  14. Continuous Cooling Transformation Behavior and Kinetic Models of Transformations for an Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-min; CAI Qing-wu; YU Wei; LIXiao-lin; WANG Li-dong

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate transformation behavior and transformation kinetics of an ultra-low carbon bai- nitic steel during continuous cooling. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves of tested steel were measured by thermal dilatometer and metallographic structures at room temperature were observed by optical microscope. Then transformation kinetic equation of austenite to ferrite as well as austenite to bainite was established by analyzing the relationship of lnln]-l/(1--f)] and lnt in the kinetic equation on the basis of processed experimental data. Finally, the measured and calculated kinetic behaviors of the steel during continuous cooling were compared and growth pat- terns of transformed ferrite and bainite were analyzed. Results showed that calculated result was in reasonable agree- ment with the experimental data. It could be concluded that the growth modes of transformed ferrite and bainite were mainly one dimension as the Avrami exponents were between 1 and 2.

  15. Second Stage of Upper Bainite in a 0.3 Mass Pct C Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-03-01

    Upper bainite forms in at least two stages, the formation of parallel plates of ferrite and the transformation of the interspaces to a mixture of cementite and ferrite. The first stage was examined in a preceding metallographic study of the formation of ferrite in hypoeutectoid steels and the second stage, which is initiated by the occurrence of cementite in the interspaces, is the subject of the present study. The alloy from the preceding study will also be used here. The band of austenite in the interspaces between parallel plates is generally transformed by a degenerate eutectoid transformation when this band is thin. When it is thicker, it will transform by a more cooperative growth mechanism and result in a eutectoid colony, often with cementite platelets. A series of sketches are presented which illustrate in detail how the second stage of upper bainite progresses according to the present observations. The cooperative manner did not increase as the temperature was lowered because the tendency to form plates of ferrite was still increasing at lower temperatures, making the interspaces too narrow for the cooperative reaction to dominate over the formation of fine plates of ferrite.

  16. Phase Equilibrium and Austenite Decomposition in Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grajcar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the phase equilibrium analysis and austenite decomposition of two Nb-microalloyed medium-Mn steels containing 3% and 5% Mn. The pseudobinary Fe-C diagrams of the steels were calculated using Thermo-Calc. Thermodynamic calculations of the volume fraction evolution of microstructural constituents vs. temperature were carried out. The study comprised the determination of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT diagrams and continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of the investigated steels. The diagrams were used to determine continuous and isothermal cooling paths suitable for production of bainite-based steels. It was found that the various Mn content strongly influences the hardenability of the steels and hence the austenite decomposition during cooling. The knowledge of CCT diagrams and the analysis of experimental dilatometric curves enabled to produce bainite-austenite mixtures in the thermomechanical simulator. Light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to assess the effect of heat treatment on morphological details of produced multiphase microstructures.

  17. In-situ tensile test of high strength nanocrystalline bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Mike, E-mail: mike.haddad@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Ivanisenko, Yulia; Courtois-Manara, Eglantine [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fecht, Hans-Jörg [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2015-01-03

    Because of its great importance in modern engineering and technology applications, steel continues to be highly relevant in the modern research field of nanocrystalline materials. Innovative processing methods and procedures are required for the production of such materials, which possess superior properties compared to their conventional counter parts. In this research, the original microstructure of a commercial C45 steel (Fe, 0.42–0.5 wt% C, 0.5–0.8 wt% Mn) was modified from ferritic–pearlitic to bainitic. Warm high pressure torsion for 5 rotations at 6 GPa and 350 °C was used to process the bainitic sample leading to an ultrafine/nano-scale grain size. A unique nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of equiaxed and elongated ferrite grains with a mean size smaller than 150 nm appeared in images taken by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Results of in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope showed very high tensile strength, on the order of 2100 MPa with a total elongation of 4.5% in comparison with 800 MPa and around 16% in the original state. Fracture occurred abruptly, without any sign of necking, and was typically caused by the stress concentration at a surface flaw. Also, stress concentrations near all surface defects were observed on the sample, visualized by the formation of shear bands. The fracture surface was covered with dimples, indicating ductile fracture. These properties are fully comparable with high strength, high alloyed steels.

  18. Structural characterization of “carbide-free” bainite in a Fe–0.2C–1.5Si–2.5Mn steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Christina, E-mail: christina.hofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Leitner, Harald [Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria); Winkelhofer, Florian [voestalpine Stahl Linz GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4020 Linz (Austria); Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Low-alloyed, low C containing carbide-free bainitic steels are attractive candidates for applications in the automotive industry due to their well-balanced combination of high strength and ductility achieved in an economic way. In this work, their complex microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite, austenite with different morphologies and stabilities, martensite, M/A constituent and a few carbides has been investigated with metallographic and high-resolution techniques. After specific isothermal heat treatments in a dilatometer, a combination of LePera and Nital etching was applied to distinguish between bainite and martensite. Site-specific atom probe tips were prepared by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and focused ion beam, revealing that “carbide-free” bainite consists of C depleted bainitic ferrite, C enriched retained austenite and occasional ε-carbides. Furthermore, it was found that the M/A constituent is highly dislocated and mainly martensitic. Its C content is increased compared to the nominal composition, but below the values obtained for retained austenite, explaining the lower transformation resistance. - Highlights: • Detailed top-down characterization of low C “carbide-free” bainitic steel • APT of all constituents in “carbide-free” bainite • Identification of ε-carbide based on its C content determined by APT • M/A constituent is mainly martensitic with austenitic areas at the boundaries • Lower C content of M/A constituent explains its lower stability.

  19. Microstructure and Property of Mn-Nb-B Low Carbon Bainite High Strength Steel Under Ultra-fast Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bing-xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel with the reducing production technology as the research target, the deformation behavior and phase transformation behavior were studied by the thermal simulation testing machine. Combining with the characteristics of the medium and heavy plate production line, the controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology based on ultra-fast cooling were designed to produce low cost high strength construction machinery steel with superior comprehensive mechanical properties. The strengthening mechanisms such as grain refinement strengthening, precipitation strengthening are effective to produce the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel. The yield strength and tensile strength of the product reach to 678MPa and 756 MPa respectively, the elongation A50 is 33% and the impact energy at -20℃ is 261J. The microstructure of the steel is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and lath bainite. A large number of fine, point, granular M/A constituents and dislocation structures dispersively distributed inside the matrix, and also tiny and dispersed (Nb,Ti (C,N precipitates are observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Effect of Chromium on CCT Diagrams of Novel Air-Cooled Bainite Steels Analyzed by Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Wei; XU Wei-hong; LIU Ya-xiu; BAI Bing-zhe; FANG Hong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative effects of chromium content on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of novel air-cooled bainite steels were analyzed using artificial neural network models. The results showed that the chromium may retard the high and medium-temperature martensite transformation.

  1. Research on microstructural evolution and dynamic recrystallization behavior of JB800 bainitic steel by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingjun Chen; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu; Chunmei Wang; Chengxiang Li

    2008-01-01

    Single pass compression tests were conducted on Gleeble1500 thermal simulator. The effect of different deformation parameters on the grain size of dynamically recrystallized austenite was analyzed. A mathematical model of dynamic recrystallization and a material database of JB800 steel, whose tensile strength is above 800 Mpa, were set up. A subprogram was compiled using Fortran language and called by Marc finite element software. A thermal coupled elastoplastic finite element model was established to simulate the compression process. The grain size of recrystallized austenite obtained by different recrystailization models was simulated. The results show that the optimized dynamic recrystallization model of JBS00 bainitic steel has a higher precision and yields good agreement with metallographic observations.

  2. The Impact of Retained Austenite Characteristics on the Two-Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ultrahigh Strength Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Balaji; Hodgson, Peter; Timokhina, Ilana; Beladi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, a high-carbon, high-alloy steel (0.79 pct C, 1.5 pct Si, 1.98 pct Mn, 0.98 pct Cr, 0.24 pct Mo, 1.06 pct Al, and 1.58 pct Co in wt pct) was subjected to an isothermal bainitic transformation at a temperature range of 473 K to 623 K (200 °C to 350 °C), resulting in different fully bainitic microstructures consisting of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. With a decrease in the transformation temperature, the microstructure was significantly refined from ~300 nm at 623 K (350 °C) to less than 60 nm at 473 K (200 °C), forming nanostructured bainitic microstructure. In addition, the morphology of retained austenite was progressively altered from film + blocky to an exclusive film morphology with a decrease in the temperature. This resulted in an enhanced wear resistance in nanobainitic microstructures formed at low transformation temperature, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). Meanwhile, it gradually deteriorated with an increase in the phase transformation temperature. This was mostly attributed to the retained austenite characteristics ( i.e., thin film vs blocky), which significantly altered their mechanical stability. The presence of blocky retained austenite at high transformation temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C) resulted in an early onset of TRIPing phenomenon during abrasion. This led to the formation of coarse martensite with irregular morphology, which is more vulnerable to crack initiation and propagation than that of martensite formed from the thin film austenite, e.g., 473 K (200 °C). This resulted in a pronounced material loss for the fully bainitic microstructures transformed at high temperature, e.g., 623 K (350 °C), leading to distinct sub-surface layer and friction coefficient curve characteristics. A comparison of the abrasive behavior of the fully bainitic microstructure formed at 623 K (350 °C) and fully pearlitic microstructure demonstrated a detrimental effect of blocky retained austenite with low mechanical stability on

  3. Crystallographic Analysis of Isothermally Transformed Bainite in 0.2C-2.0Mn-1.5Si-0.6Cr Steel Using EBSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasi P.Suikkanen; Cyril Cayron; Anthony J.DeArdo; L.Pentti Karjalainen

    2013-01-01

    The crystallography of bainite,transformed isothermally at 450 ℃ in 0.2C-2.0Mn-1.5Si-O.6Cr steel,was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis.The orientation relationship (OR) was found to be closer to Nishiyama-Wassermann (N-W) than Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship.Bainite microstructure consisted of parallel laths forming a morphological packet structure.Typically,there were three different lath orientations in a morphological packet.These orientations were dictated by a three specific N-W OR variants sharing the same {111} austenite plane.A packet of bainite laths with common {111}austenite plane was termed as crystallographic packet.Generally,the crystallographic packet size corresponded to the morphological packet size.Locally,crystallographic packets with only two dominant orientations were observed.This indicates strong local variant selection during isothermal bainite transformation.The relative orientation between the variants in crystallographic packets was found to be near 60°/<110>.This appears to explain the strong peak observed in the grain boundary misorientation distribution near 60°.Bainite also contained pronounced fraction of boundaries with their misorientation in the range of 2.5°-8° with quite widely dispersed rotation angles.Spatially these boundaries were found to locate inside the bainite laths,forming lath-like sub-grains.

  4. Preperation of carbide-free bainitic steels for EBSD investigations; Praeparation von karbidfreien bainitischen Staehlen fuer EBSD-Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Christina; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Dept. Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung

    2015-10-01

    Carbide-free bainitic steels are composed of bainitic ferrite laths, which are separated by films and larger islands of austenite, which is stabilized by carbon enrichment. Due to their multi-phase microstructure, the preparation of such steels for a characterization by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) represents a challenge. Attention must particularly be paid to prevent the transformation of the retained austenite to martensite during the preparation. This study compares the sample preparation by vibratory polishing using different suspensions to the electrolytic preparation. During vibratory polishing, it must be ensured that very little force is applied in order to prevent the metastable austenite from transforming. No influence of the different suspensions could be found. Electropolishing with a voltage of 40 V for 10 s at 23 C is well suited for microstructural investigations. However, the surface relief is too pronounced for EBSD analyses. OP-U polishing for 15 min subsequent to electropolishing accomplishes the best results.

  5. Creep-rupture behavior of 3Cr-3W-V bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)]. E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Evans, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    A nominally Fe-3.0Cr-3.0W-0.25 V (3Cr-3WV) steel and this composition with 0.07% Ta (3Cr-3WVTa) were developed for elevated-temperature service in the power-generation and petrochemical industries. Creep-rupture strengths of the new steels to 600 deg. C exceeded those of the two advanced commercial 2.25Cr steels T23 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.6W-0.25V-0.05Nb-0.07C) and T24 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V-0.07Ti-0.005B-0.07C). Moreover, the strength of 3Cr-3WVTa approached that of modified 9Cr-1Mo (T91) at 650 deg. C. Elevated-temperature strength in the new steels is obtained from a bainitic microstructure with a high number density of fine needle-like MX precipitates in the matrix. The presence of tantalum promotes a finer MX precipitate in the 3Cr-3WVTa than in the 3Cr-3WV, and it suppresses the coarsening of these fine precipitates during creep.

  6. A Unified Constitutive Equation of a Bainite Steel During Hot Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Ye, Ben; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Shengde; Liao, Hanqing

    2016-10-01

    A constitutive model has been established based on dislocation theory, work hardening and dynamic recovery theory, and softening mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization. The stress-strain curves of a bainite steel have been measured with hot compression experiments at temperatures of 1173, 1273, 1373 and 1473 K with strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 s-1 on a thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble-1500). The material constants involved in the constitutive model have been optimized by an inverse analysis of the stress-strain curves using the method of coordinate rotation, determining the strain-stress relationship or the constitutive equation, the kinetic models of dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, and a few material constants of the investigated steel. Comparison of the calculated flow stress with the experimental data suggests that the relationship between the flow stress and the strain rate, temperature, strain of the steel during hot deformation can be described by the constitutive model, and that the underlying materials science can be captured from the material constants determined by the stress-strain curves.

  7. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF PEARLITIC AND BAINITIC CAST IRON IN A SYNTHETIC SOLUTION OF CONDENSED GAS FROM COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Matos Cordeiro Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of engine components of the combustion chamber is usually related to the formation of acids such as sulfuric and nitric. These acids are generated by the condensation of combustion gases that usually occur in vehicle exhaust systems. However, with the development of new technologies to reduce emissions, condensation is also being promoted in vehicle combustion chambers. This fact is associated with high exhaust gas recirculation rates, known as EGR (English term for Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Consequently, corrosion problems in the engine components are increasing, especially in cylinder liners alloy manufactured using cast iron. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two cast iron alloys, one with a pearlitic microstructure and the other with a bainite microstructure in a solution simulating the composition of the condensate obtained from the combustion gases. It was found that the microstructure of the cast iron is an important factor affecting the corrosion behavior. The results showed that none of the two materials investigated is resistant to corrosion in the test medium, and the small difference observed between the behavior of the two cast iron was related to its microstructure, which are dependent on their chemical compositions. The cast iron with a pearlitic microstructure showed less formation of corrosion products than the bainitic cast iron. This result is related to the presence of steadite phase, highly stable and resistant to corrosion in pearlitic microstructure. This phase (steadite anchors the corrosion products formed on the surface and act as a partial barrier slowing the progress of the corrosion process, that was more pronounced in the bainitic cast iron.

  8. Evolution of microstructure in 100Cr6 steel after cooling from a thixoforming temperature to bainitic transformation ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, Łukasz, E-mail: l.rogal@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korpala, Grzegorz [Institut für Metallformung, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 4 Bernhard-von-Cotta-Straße, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Dutkiewicz, Jan [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-01-29

    A new concept for the isothermal heat treatment of thixo-elements, consisting of controlled cooling from a semi-solid metal processing (SSM) range, was proposed. 100Cr6 steel (0.97% C, 1.4% Cr, 0.4% Si, 0.4% Mn bal. Fe) after forging was used as the starting material. The DSC analysis was used to determine the liquid phase fraction vs temperature in the solidus–liquidus range. The temperatures and kinetics of bainite transformation after cooling the steel in the semi-solid state were calculated based on the Chester and Bhadeshia models. The steel was heated up to 1425 °C in order to obtain about 25% of the liquid fraction. Then it was cooled in oil at three different temperatures: 135 °C, 235 °C and 335 °C, at which the samples were held for 5 h. The microstructure of the samples annealed at 135 °C consisted of globular grains (the average size of 323 µm), where coarse needles of martensite were observed. They were surrounded by an eutectic mixture of chemical composition different from that of the globular grains. The electron diffraction pattern (SAEDP) showed reflections from α′-Fe and from Fe{sub 3}C carbides. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of martensite, austenite and carbides to the amount of 74.5%, 22% and 3.5% respectively. The average hardness of samples was 735HV{sub 10}, while the compression strength attained 3810 MPa at the plastic strain of 8.6%. The samples cooled down to 235 °C also showed globular grains surrounded by the eutectic mixture. The TEM studies allowed researchers to identify lower bainite with a plate thickness of about 500 nm (SAEDP from that area showed reflections from α-Fe and Fe{sub 3}C carbides). X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of 90% ferrite, 6% austenite and 4% carbide. The average hardness of samples annealed at 235 °C decreased to 627HV{sub 10}, while the compression strength decreased to 3100 MPa. The plastic strain increased to 32%. The microstructure of the samples after cooling and

  9. Research on Application and Processing of Bainite Rail in Turnout%贝氏体钢轨在道岔中的应用与加工研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景阁

    2014-01-01

    The stability of structure and properties of bainitic rail are comprehensively analyzed in this paper,with focus on the chemical components,mechanical property,metallographic structure,hydrogen and oxygen content,stretch and im-pact,hardness and physical fatigue of bainitic rail.This paper has studied heel forging and heat treatment etc.the key process of high strength low carbon bainitic switch rail,and test results of acceptance of Tongpu and Daqing heavy-haul lines prove that every performance index of bainitic switch rail head is better than pearlitic switch rail,the service life of some bainitic switch rail is triple of the original laid pearlitic switch rail.Practice has proved that bainitic switch rail is the development direction of turnout switch rail.%对贝氏体钢轨组织及性能的稳定性等进行了全面的分析,重点对贝氏体钢轨的化学成分、机械性能、金相组织、氢氧含量、拉伸及冲击、硬度和实物疲劳方面进行研究,对高强度低碳贝氏体钢尖轨的跟端锻造、热处理方法等关键的工艺过程进行了研究。通过对同蒲和大秦重载线上道的试验结果证明,贝氏体钢尖轨轨头各项性能指标明显优于珠光体钢尖轨,贝氏体钢尖轨的使用寿命比原来铺设的珠光体钢尖轨提高3倍。由此可见,贝氏体尖轨是道岔尖轨的发展方向。

  10. Development of Fine-Grained, Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels with High Strength and Toughness Produced Through the Conventional Hot-Rolling and Air-Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhua, Sanjay Kumar; Sarkar, Partha Pratim; Saxena, Atul; Jha, Bimal Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Low-carbon bainitic steels have created enormous interest among scientists across the world in the past few decades because of their high strength, toughness, and weldability replacing the conventional quenched and tempered medium-carbon steels. Three experimental steels with varying alloy additions were made in a 100-kg laboratory induction furnace and cast into 100-mm-diameter cylindrical ingots. These ingots were hot-rolled and air-cooled to 6-mm plates in an experimental rolling mill with selected thermomechanical parameters. Steels processed through this process provided an ultrafine low-carbon bainitic microstructure with maximum yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) 575 and 705 MPa, respectively. The Charpy impact toughness of the experimental steels was excellent, and at 253 K (-20 °C), it varied from 114 to 170 Joules. Cu-B-added steel was found to give an optimum combination of strength, YS-575 MPa, and toughness, 114 J at 253 K (-20 °C). Thus, fine-grained, low-carbon bainitic steels could be developed with a proper combination of alloying elements and thermomechanical parameters even by air-cooling.

  11. Development of Fine-Grained, Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels with High Strength and Toughness Produced Through the Conventional Hot-Rolling and Air-Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhua, Sanjay Kumar; Sarkar, Partha Pratim; Saxena, Atul; Jha, Bimal Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Low-carbon bainitic steels have created enormous interest among scientists across the world in the past few decades because of their high strength, toughness, and weldability replacing the conventional quenched and tempered medium-carbon steels. Three experimental steels with varying alloy additions were made in a 100-kg laboratory induction furnace and cast into 100-mm-diameter cylindrical ingots. These ingots were hot-rolled and air-cooled to 6-mm plates in an experimental rolling mill with selected thermomechanical parameters. Steels processed through this process provided an ultrafine low-carbon bainitic microstructure with maximum yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) 575 and 705 MPa, respectively. The Charpy impact toughness of the experimental steels was excellent, and at 253 K (-20 °C), it varied from 114 to 170 Joules. Cu-B-added steel was found to give an optimum combination of strength, YS-575 MPa, and toughness, 114 J at 253 K (-20 °C). Thus, fine-grained, low-carbon bainitic steels could be developed with a proper combination of alloying elements and thermomechanical parameters even by air-cooling.

  12. Structure Character of M-A Constituent in CGHAZ of New Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steel under Laser Welding Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHAO; Wuzhu CHEN; Xudong ZHANG; Jiguo SHAN

    2006-01-01

    800 MPa grade new ultra-low carbon bainitic (NULCB) steel is the recently developed new generation steel.The microstructure in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of NULCB steel under laser welding conditions was investigated by thermal simulation. The influence of the cooling time from 800℃ to 500℃,t8/5 (0.3~30 s), on the microstructure of the CGHAZ was discussed. The experimental results indicate that the microstructure of the CGHAZ is only the granular bainite which consists of bainitic ferrite (BF) lath and M-A constituent while t8/5 is 0.3~30 s. The M-A constituent consists of twinned martensite and residual austenite, and the change of the volume fraction of the residual austenite in the M-A constituent is very small when t8/5 is between 0.3 and 30 s. The morphology of the M-A constituent obviously changes with the variation of t8/5. As t8/5 increases, the average width, gross and shape parameter of the M-A constituent increase, while the line density of the M-A constituent decreases.

  13. Ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of high strength steel with carbide-free bainite/martensite complex microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-xia Xu; Yang Yu; Wen-long Cui; Bing-zhe Bai; Jia-lin Gu

    2009-01-01

    The ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of a novel high strength steel with carbide-free bainite/martensite (CFB/M) complex microstructure was studied. The ultra-high cycle fatigue properties were measured by ultrasonic fatigue testing equipment at a fre-quency of 20 kHz. It is found that there is no horizontal part in the S-N curve and fatigue fracture occurs when the life of specimens exceeds 107 cycles. In addition, the origination of fatigue cracks tends to transfer from the surface to interior of specimens as the fa-tigue cycle exceeds 107 , and the fatigue crack originations of many specimens are not induced by inclusions, but by some kind of "soft structure". It is shown that the studied high strength steel performs good ultra-high cycle fatigue properties. The ultra-high fa-tigue mechanism was discussed and it is suggested that specific CFB/M complex microstrueture of the studied steel contributes to itssuperior properties.

  14. Study on High Strength Low Alloy Bainitic Steel Rails%低合金高强度贝氏体钢轨的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝阳; 周清跃; 张银花; 刘丰收; 陈昕

    2013-01-01

    根据我国铁路技术装备发展的需要,开展低合金高强度贝氏体钢轨的实验室研究及工业性试制、显微组织及性能试验研究、焊接性能及铺设使用研究.结果表明:贝氏体钢轨具有优良的强韧性配合,室温抗拉强度达到1 240 MPa,断后伸长率15.3%,平均冲击功达到142 J,-20℃断裂韧性KIC为48 MPa.m1/2;钢轨全断面显微组织为无碳化物贝氏体;焊接性能研究结果表明:贝氏体钢轨具有良好的焊接性,其接触焊、气压焊和铝热焊接头的各项性能均达到我国铁路钢轨的铺设使用要求.试铺结果表明:贝氏体钢轨的耐磨性能与高强度热处理钢轨相当,抗接触疲劳伤损性能突出,综合使用性能优于珠光体型热处理钢轨及热轧钢轨.%To meet the dramatic growth needs of China railways,the systematic research work of bainitic steel rails was conducted,including laboratory study,trial production,microstruture and properties study and welding performance,laying & operation study.The results show as follows:At room temperature,the average tensile strength,tensile elongation and CUN impact toughness of rail cross section reach respectively 1240 MPa,15.3% and 142 J;the fracture toughness (KIC) at-20 ℃ was up to 48 MPa · m1/2 ; the microstructure of the whole rail section is carbon-free bainite;the bainitic rails possess good weldability,their performance with flash butt welding,gas pressure welding and thermit welding all satisfy requirements of laying and operation of rails of China railways;the bainitic rails have better spalling resistance and wear resistance than rolled and heat hardened pearlitic rails so that they provide better comprehensive operating characteristics.

  15. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  16. Effects of bainitic transformation temperature on microstructure and tensile properties of 0.6C-Si-Mn steel; 0.6C-Si-Mn ko no bisai soshiki to hippari tokusei ni oyobosu benaito hentai ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-06-15

    To acquire excellent mechanical properties of Si-Mn steel by using an austempering treatment to have the steel undergo a bainitic transformation, it is important to identify the effect of its transformation temperature. This paper describes a transformation of 0.6% C-Si-Mn steel at temperatures ranging from 593 K to 673 K, and discussions on the effect of the transformation temperature on the microstructure and tensile properties. The following results were obtained: bainitic ferrite containing very little carbon is produced in layers at any transformation temperature, but a trend was shown that the bainitic ferrite is produced with its width grown larger and denser as the transformation temperature rises; the {gamma}R amount increases remarkably with increasing transformation temperature, and at the same time massive {gamma}R begins to remain in addition to thin film {gamma}R that exists between individual bainitic ferrites; and the result of this experiment revealed that when the transformation temperature is sufficiently high, the fracture elongation increases notably because of the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect of the {gamma}R that occurs effectively during the transformation. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Direct Observations of Austenite, Bainite and Martensite Formation During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel using Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T; Babu, S; Zhang, W; DebRoy, T

    2004-02-17

    In-situ Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) experiments were performed during stationary gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. These synchrotron-based experiments tracked, in real time, phase transformations in the heat-affected zone of the weld under rapid heating and cooling conditions. The diffraction patterns were recorded at 100 ms intervals, and were later analyzed using diffraction peak profile analysis to determine the relative fraction of ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases in each diffraction pattern. Lattice parameters and diffraction peak widths were also measured throughout the heating and cooling cycle of the weld, providing additional information about the phases that were formed. The experimental results were coupled with a thermofluid weld model to calculate the weld temperatures, allowing time-temperature transformation kinetics of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation to be evaluated. During heating, complete austenitization was observed in the heat affected zone of the weld and the kinetics of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation were modeled using a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach. The results from the 1045 steel weld were compared to those of a 1005 low carbon steel from a previous study. Differences in austenitization rates of the two steels were attributed to differences in the base metal microstructures, particularly the relative amounts of pearlite and the extent of the allotriomorphic ferrite phase. During weld cooling, the austenite transformed to a mixture of bainite and martensite. In situ diffraction was able to distinguish between these two non-equilibrium phases based on differences in their lattice parameters and their transformation rates, resulting in the first real time x-ray diffraction observations of bainite and martensite formation made during welding.

  18. 评刘宗昌等关于贝氏体铁素体形核的工作%Comment on Works Concerning the Nucleation of Bainitic Ferrite Authored by LIU Zongchang et al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖耀

    2013-01-01

    评述了刘宗昌等关于贝氏体铁素体形核的工作,包括:(1)过少有关贝氏体铁素体形核机制文献综述;(2)实验工作远不够形核所要求的精确;(3)母相(奥氏体)中的成分和结构等起伏(涨落)不能成为贝氏体铁素体形核的基础;(4)提出的所谓“贝氏体形成属非切变非扩散机制”未得到先进相变理论和精细实验的支持。%Comment on works concerning the nucleation of bainitic ferrite , authored by Liu Zongchang et al , containing :(1) few literature concerning nucleation mechanism of bainitic ferrite was cited;(2) the experiments were far away from the required precision; ( 3 ) the composition and structural fluctuations in parent phase (austenite) can not effectively act as the nucleation of bainitic ferrite and (4)the suggested mechanism so called as“non-shear-diffusionless” has not been supported by advanced theory of phase transformation or precise experimental result .

  19. Crystallographic Reconstruction Study of the Effects of Finish Rolling Temperature on the Variant Selection During Bainite Transformation in C-Mn High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicolas; Bracke, Lieven; Malet, Loïc; Godet, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The effect of finish rolling temperature on the austenite-( γ) to-bainite ( α) phase transformation is quantitatively investigated in high-strength C-Mn steels using an alternative crystallographic γ reconstruction procedure, which can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. In particular, the current study aims to clarify the respective contributions of the γ conditioning during the hot rolling and the variant selection during the phase transformation to the inherited texture. The results confirm that the sample finish rolled at the lowest temperature [1102 K (829 °C)] exhibits the sharpest transformation texture. It is shown that this sharp texture is exclusively due to a strong variant selection from parent brass {110}, S {213} and Goss {110} grains, whereas the variant selection from the copper {112} grains is insensitive to the finish rolling temperature. In addition, a statistical variant selection analysis proves that the habit planes of the selected variants do not systematically correspond to the predicted active γ slip planes using the Taylor model. In contrast, a correlation between the Bain group to which the selected variants belong and the finish rolling temperature is clearly revealed, regardless of the parent orientation. These results are discussed in terms of polygranular accommodation mechanisms, especially in view of the observed development in the hot-rolled samples of high-angle grain boundaries with misorientation axes between γ and γ.

  20. Modelling of the plasticity and brittle failure of the irradiated bainitic steels; Modelisation du comportement en plasticite et a rupture des aciers bainitiques irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.N.

    2010-02-15

    Low alloy steels are used in various equipments of nuclear reactors. Subjected to neutron irradiation produced during the operation of reactors, these materials exhibit significant changes in their microstructure, especially with the formation of radiation defects as interstitial loops, void clusters and precipitates. These defects in interactions with dislocations lead to a hardening and embrittlement which are directly related to the received dose and neutron flux. The plastic behaviour of non-irradiated low alloy bainitic steels has been the object of several modelling based on observations from experiments and atomistic simulations. Some of them result from thesis supported by EDF and CEA, which describe different strategies for the micro-mechanical modelling of brittle failure. Improvements in this work come from the integration of new physical characteristics and the attention paid to the representativeness of the microstructure: whereas realistic microstructures in terms of morphology and crystal orientations have been adopted, a dislocation density based constitutive model in the large deformation framework is used to describe crystal plasticity. This choice is justified by the need to take into account, in the constitutive modelling, the interactions between dislocations and irradiation defects under severe loading conditions. The plasticity laws have been implemented in the finite elements code ZeBuLoN in order to perform computations of polycrystalline aggregates. Such aggregates are representative volume elements. They thus provide the database required for the application of brittle failure models to structures. This multi-scale character confers to the modelling the status of 'micro-mechanical local approach of failure'. (author)

  1. Bainitic transformation plasticity during continuous cooling process of A508-3 steel used for large nuclear power forgings%A508-3核电大锻件用钢连续冷却贝氏体的相变塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 韩利战; 顾剑锋; 潘健生

    2013-01-01

    用Gleeble-3500热模拟试验机研究了A508-3钢在单轴压应力下的连续贝氏体相变诱发的相变塑性.借助于从膨胀曲线分离相变塑性应变的数据处理方法,获得了压应力对贝氏体相变塑性的影响规律.结果表明:基于Greenwood-Johnson模型的贝氏体相变塑性参数K随着外加压应力的增大而增大,并且相变塑性应变占总应变的比重显著增加.相变塑性应变随贝氏体相变进行逐渐增大,增速先快后慢.%Transformation plasticity induced by continuous bainitic transformation in A508-3 steel with different applied compressive loads was investigated using a Gleeble 3500 thermal simulator. The effects of compressive stress on bainite transformation plasticity had been obtained with the aid of data processing method by which the transformation plasticity strain can be extracted from dilatometric curves. The results show that the transformation plasticity parameter K based on Greenwood-Johnson model increases with the increasing of the applied compressive loads, and the percentage of transformation plasticity strain in total strain dramatically rises as well. Transformation plasticity gradually augments during the process of bainitic transformation with a decreasing rate.

  2. 钨对贝氏体钢力学性能及氢脆敏感性的影响%Effect of tungsten on properties and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of bainitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 刘凯

    2015-01-01

    通过电化学充氢、慢速率拉伸试验,研究了合金元素钨对贝氏体钢的常规力学性能及氢脆敏感性的影响,并运用扫描电镜(SEM)方法研究了含钨和含钼两种钢氢脆敏感性不同的原因.结果表明,含钨钢的强度及塑性略优于含钼钢,而冲击韧性明显优于含钼钢;含钨钢的氢脆敏感性明显低于含钼钢;含钨钢的氢脆断口为韧性断口,而含钼钢的断口为解理断口;含钨钢的细晶粒组织是氢脆敏感性低的一个重要原因.%Effect of tungsten on properties and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of bainitic steel were investigated using electrochemical hydrogenation and slow strain rate test.The reasons of different susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement for w-containing steel and Mo-containing steel were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results show that strength and plastic properties of W-containing steel are slightly better than that of Mo-containing steel,while impact toughness is obviously better than that of the Mocontaining steel,and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of the W-containing steel is significantly lower than that of the Mo-containing steel.Ductile fracture is occurred on the W-containing H-riched steel,and cleavage fracture is observed on the Mo-containing H-riched steel.Fine microstructure of the W-containing steel is a major cause of low susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.

  3. Transformation of Ferrite in Lower Bainite of 1.5%C UHCS During Tempering Process%1.5%C超高碳钢等温淬火组织在回火过程中的转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳霞; 陈强; 石淑琴; 张振忠

    2012-01-01

    Fe-1.5C-1.5Cr-2.0A1 UHCS austempering at 300 ℃ was treated with tempering treatment at 400-550 ℃. The microstructure was observed by SEM and the micro-zone composition was analyzed by EDS, transformation of ferrite in lower bainite and composition changes during temper process were studied. The results indicate that the dislocations between pieces and pieces of lower bainite disappeares firstly when the Fe-1.5C-1.5Cr-2.0A1 UHCS austempering was treated by temper process, most of these dislocations comes into cystiform structure, and the lower bainite pieces broadens and merges to polygon ferrite, this kind of complex phases microstructure is completely changed to precipitated phase and matrix finally. Nonisometric blocky ferrite and polygon ferrite appears during the tempering process, the blocky ferrite comes from the decomposition of retained austenite, and the polygon ferrite comes from the lower bainite pieces.%对经300℃等温淬火的Fe-1.5C-1.5Cr-2.0A1超高碳钢进行400~550℃回火处理,利用SEM进行组织观察,用EDS能谱分析仪进行微区成分分析,研究了下贝氏体铁素体在回火过程中的组织及其成分变化.结果表明,经等温淬火的超高碳钢中的下贝氏体复相组织在回火过程中发生的变化是按针片组织内部分位错消失,大部分位错形成胞状结构、下贝氏体针片展宽并发生合并形成多边形铁素体,最后转变为完全的析出相和基体组织的顺序进行的;在回火过程中出现非等轴状的条块状和多边形铁素体,其中条块状铁素体由残余奥氏体分解而成,多边形铁素体由片状组织转变而来.

  4. Control of Lower Bainite/Martensite Composite Phase Structure of Dumbbell Steel in Continuous Cooling Process%哑铃用钢在连续冷却过程中下贝氏体/马氏体复相组织的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚玲

    2014-01-01

    Taking the dumbbell steel FF710 as research object,the microstructure of base and transition zone of the FF710 steel after continuous cooling under different cooling rate was observed by metallographic microscope.Experimental results show that,when the cooling rate is between 0.1 ℃/s and 0.3 ℃/s,the microstructure of transition zone is the composite microstructure with carbon-free bainite and middle-carbon martensite,and the matrix is the composite microstructure with carbon-free bainite and low-carbon martensite,they both have a good toughening effect.%以哑铃用钢FF710为研究对象,金相显微镜下观察了哑铃用钢FF710在不同冷却速度下连续冷却后基体以及过渡区的微观组织.实验结果表明,当哑铃用钢FF710冷却速度在0.1℃/s和0.3℃/s之间时,过渡区的组织为无碳化物下贝氏体/中碳马氏体复相组织,基体的组织为无碳化物下贝氏体/低碳马氏体复相组织,均具有良好的强韧化效果.

  5. Carbidic Bainitic and Ausferritic Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumienny G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W arty kule przedstawiono nowe rodzaje żeliwa sferoidalnego z węglikami o różnej mikrostrukturze osnowy metalowej. Żeliwo to otrzymano stosując sferoidyzację metodą Inmold. zapewniającą dużą liczbę kulek grafitu i rozdrobnienie składników osnowy metalowej. Różną mikrostrukturę osnowy metalowej żeliwa otrzymywano bez stosowania obróbki cieplnej (w stanie surowym poprzez odpowiednią kombinację ilościową dodatków stopowych. Wykazano, że dodatek molibdenu, chromu, niklu i miedzi w żeliwie sferoidalnym pozwala uzyskać osnowę metalową złożoną z bainitu górnego, jego mieszaniny z dolnym lub ausferrytu w odlewach o grubości ściany 3^-25 mm. Proces krystalizacji żeliwa przedstawiono i opisano za pomocą krzywych analizy termicznej i derywacyjnej (ATD. Pokazano efekty cieplne od przemiany austenitu w stanie stałym

  6. Fe-C-Mn-Si钢中奥氏体共格孪晶界对贝氏体铁素体变体选择的影响%INFLUENCE OF COHERENT AUSTENITE TWIN BOUNDARIES ON THE VARIANT SELECTION OF BAINITIC FERRITE IN Fe-C-Mn-Si STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王西霞; 郭晖; 王鼎; 白银; 杨善武; 贺信莱

    2012-01-01

    , the variant selection of bainitic ferrite on coherent austenite twin boundaries was studied using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) in Fe-C-Mn-Si steels with 0.05%C or 0.4%C (mass fraction). The orientation relationship between bainitic ferrite and austenite is close to K-S relationship in both steels. It was observed that the variant pairs with the similar crystallographic orientation nucleated on both sides of austenite twin boundaries. The twin grain boundaries were erased after the bainitic ferrite variants grew up. Crystallographic analysis showed that no more than three pairs of variants could be formed on one austenite twin boundary, the habit planes of which were all parallel to the twin boundary. As a result, the bainitic ferrite variant nucleated first would grow and expand along the twin boundary. In 0.05C steel, only one pair of variants was observed on the austenite twin boundary because the first nucleated bainitic ferrite variant pair grew fast due to the low carbon content which covers the twin boundary very soon and leaves no chance for the other variant pairs to nucleate on this twin boundary. In 0.4C steel, all three pairs of variants could be formed on one twin boundary because the higher carbon content slowed down the growth of first nucleated bainitic ferrite and more variant pairs could be nucleated on the twin boundary.

  7. EFFECT OF BAINITIC TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE ON THE MICROSTRUCTURES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HOT ROLLED TRIP STEEL CONTAINING Ti AND Mo AND ITS PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISTICS%贝氏体相变温度对含Ti和Mo低碳热轧TRIP钢的组织与力学性能影响及析出相的微观结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长军; 孙新军; 雍岐龙; 李昭东; 张熹; 江陆

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing consciousness for reducing fuel consumption and improving automobiles safety, the automotive industry is urgent to develop a new-type of steel with high strength and excellent formability. Among many high strength steels, the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel may be a good candidate for automotive applications, as it drastically improves the balance between strength and ductility compared to precipitation hardened and solution hardened steels. While the tensile strength of conventional hot rolled TRIP steels are usually between 500 and 600 MPa, the TRIP steel with higher tensile strength, especially in excess of 750 MPa, is becoming increasingly important for the automotive industry. Thus, many strengthening mechanisms, such as precipitation strengthening, solution strengthening, refinement strengthening and dislocation strengthening, have been employed to improve the strength of the TRIP steel. Among them, microalloying with Nb, V and Ti, may provide effective means for further strengthening via grain refinement and precipitation strengthening. So far, many researches about the Ti-microalloyed high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel have been reported. However, the influences of alloying elements Ti and Mo on the hot rolled TRIP steel, especially the precipitation characteristics and their effects on mechanical properties, were rarely reported. Therefore, in this work the microstructure, retained austenite contents, mechanical properties and precipitation characteristics of the hot rolled TRIP steel containing Ti and Mo after bainitic transformation at different temperatures, were studied by using SEM, XRD and HRTEM. The results show that the bainitic transformation temperature has a significant effect on organizational morphology, retained austenite contents and mechanical properties of the TRIP steel. The optimal bainitic transformation temperature is 400 ℃, in which the retained austenite content and the balance of strength and

  8. Wrought Cr--W--V bainitic/ferritic steel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, Ronald L.; Maziasz, Philip J.; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Santella, Michael L.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Jawad, Maan H.

    2006-07-11

    A high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy includes, generally, about 2.5% to about 4% chromium, about 1.5% to about 3.5% tungsten, about 0.1% to about 0.5% vanadium, and about 0.05% to 0.25% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy is heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled to produce an austenite transformation product.

  9. Martensite and bainite in nanocrystalline steels: understanding, design and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Francisca G.

    2015-01-01

    There are major difficulties in creating novel nanocrystalline structures that have a combination of properties appropriate for large scale applications. An important requirement is to be able to manufacture nanocrystalline components which are large in all dimensions on their macroscale whilst retaining their nanostructure. In addition, the material concerned must be cheap to produce if it is not to be limited to niche applications. Severe plastic deformation has not succeeded in this respec...

  10. Martensite and bainite in nanocrystalline steels: understanding, design and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Francisca G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are major difficulties in creating novel nanocrystalline structures that have a combination of properties appropriate for large scale applications. An important requirement is to be able to manufacture nanocrystalline components which are large in all dimensions on their macroscale whilst retaining their nanostructure. In addition, the material concerned must be cheap to produce if it is not to be limited to niche applications. Severe plastic deformation has not succeeded in this respect since grain growth cannot effectively be suppressed during consolidation processes. Therefore, processing bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural applications still poses a big challenge, particularly in achieving an industrially viable process. Here we describe various processing strategies and alloy developments currently being explored in the modern steel industry that have the potential to create extremely strong and affordable nanocrystalline engineering steels.

  11. INFLUENCE OF BAINITE STRUCTURE ON MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of structure of beynit is explored on mechanical properties after thermal treatment of wire from the steel 80. The structural state of beynit, providing the high complex of mechanical properties of high-carbon wire, is definite.

  12. Fracture Toughness and Strength in a New Class of Bainitic Chromium-Tungsten Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. X.; Sikka, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    This project dealt with developing an understanding of the toughening and stengthening mechanisms for a new class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with Nooter Corporation and other industrial partners. The new steele had 50% higher tensile strength up to 650 degrees Celsius than currently used steels and the potential for not requiring any postweld heat treatment (PWHT) and for reducing equipment weight by 25%. This project was closely related to the Nooter project described in the report Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic steels for Industrial Process Applications (ORNL/TM-2005/82). The project was carried out jointly by the University of Pittsburgh and ORNL. The University of Pittsburgh carried out fracture toughness measurements and microstructural analysis on base metal and welded plates prepared at ORNL. The project focused on three areas. The first dealt with detailed microstructural analysis of base compositions of 3Cr-3WV and 3Cr-3WBV(Ta) in both normalized (N) and normalized and tempered (NT) conditions. The second aspect of the prject dealt with determining tensile properties and fracture toughness values of K{subIC} at room temperature for both 3Cr-3Wv and 3Cr-3WV(Ta) compositions. The third focus of the project was to measure the fracture toughness values of the base metal and the heat-affectged zone (HAZ) of a plate of Fe-3Cr-W(Mo)V steel plate welded by the gas tungsten are (GTA) process. The HAZ toughness was measured in both the as-welded and the PWHT condition.

  13. Vertical Short Crack Initiation in Medium Carbon Bainitic Steel Under Mild Tractive Rolling Contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Peng; SUO Shuang-fu; BAI Bing-zhe; YANG Zhi-gang; LI You-guo

    2008-01-01

    To improve the current grinding procedure of the back-up roll of CVC hot rolling mills so that the back-up roll service life can be extended, the crack initiation and propagation behavior of medium carbon bainitie back-up roll steel was investigated, a kind of asperity-scale, surface originated vertical short cracks occurred at 5 × 102 -1 × 104 cycles. Theoretical analysis indicated that the maximum tensile stress occurring at the back edge of the contact of as-perities keeps at above 1 347. 97 MPa, and ratcheting and cyclic plastic deformation take place at such sites within 1 × 104 cycles. The early initiation of the vertical short cracks is caused by the asperity contact. According to the crack initi-ation mechanism, short crack behavior and preventive grinding strategy, steel consumption can be reduced considera-bly by decreasing the surface roughness and removing the asperity influenced surface thin layer at about 70%-80% of the surface distress life.

  14. Effect of bainite transformation and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Abe, Toshihiko; Tada, Shuji

    1996-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has excellent mechanical properties, but its Young's modulus is low. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel (AGS) has been developed in order to obtain a new material with superior mechanical properties to ADI. Its carbon content (approximately 1.0 pct) is almost one-third that of a standard ADI; thus, the volume of graphite is also less. Young's modulus of AGS is 195 to 200 GPa and is comparable to that of steel. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel has an approximately 200 MPa higher tensile strength than ADI and twice the Charpy absorbed energy of ADI. The impact properties and the elongation are enhanced with increasing volume fraction of carbon-enriched retained austenite. At the austempering temperature of 650 K, the volume fraction of austenite is approximately 40 pct for 120 minutes in the 2.4 pct Si alloy, although it decreases rapidly in the 1.4 pct Si alloy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that appropriate quantity of silicon retards the decomposition of the carbon-enriched retained austenite. For austempering at 570 K, the amount of the carbon-enriched austenite decreases and the ferrite is supersaturated with carbon, resulting in high tensile strength but low toughness.

  15. Effect of bainite transformation and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Abe, Toshihiko; Tada, Shuji [Tohoku National Industrial Research Inst., Sendai (Japan). Materials Engineering Div.

    1996-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has excellent mechanical properties, but its Young`s modulus is low. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel (AGS) has been developed in order to obtain a new material with superior mechanical properties to ADI. Its carbon content (approximately 1.0 pct) is almost one-third that of a standard ADI; thus, the volume of graphite is also less. Young`s modulus of AGS is 195 to 200 GPa and is comparable to that of steel. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel has an approximately 200 MPa higher tensile strength than ADI and twice the Charpy absorbed energy of ADI. The impact properties and the elongation are enhanced with increasing volume fraction of carbon-enriched retained austenite. At the austempering temperature of 650 K, the volume fraction of austenite is approximately 40 pct for 120 minutes in the 2.4 pct Si alloy, although it decreases rapidly in the 1.4 pct Si alloy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that appropriate quantity of silicon retards the decomposition of the carbon-enriched retained austenite. For austempering at 570 K, the amount of the carbon-enriched austenite decreases and the ferrite is supersaturated with carbon, resulting in high tensile strength but low toughness.

  16. Unusually High Fracture Toughness of ASTM A723 Steel from a Mixed Martensite/Bainite Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    V) o J. A. KAPP L. MEISEL (%J J. BARRANCO P. J. COTE I R. N. WRIGHT DTIC’• E-LECTED SJANO0 3 1991 NOVEMBER 19 S E 0 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH...Kapp, J. Barranco , L. M~eisel, P.J. Cote, and R.N. Wright (See reverse) S. PERPORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK

  17. Factors Influencing the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultra Low Carbon Bainitic 100 Tungsten Inert Gas Multipass Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    derived from the hard carbides they form ( Askeland , 1989, p.336). Although beneficial as strengtheners these same carbides can also act quite...1986. Askeland , D.R., The Science and Engineering of Materials, second ed., PWS-KENT, 1989. Blicharski, M.R., Garcia, C.I., Pytel, S. and DeArdo, A.J

  18. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE AND STRAIN RATE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN AN INTERCRITICALLY HEAT-TREATED BAINITE-TRANSFORMED STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Li; D. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Larger amount of austenite could be retained in an intercritically heat-treated bainitetransformed steel. The elongation and the strength-ductility balance of the steel could be enhanced considerably due to strain-induced martensite transformation and transformationinduced plasticity (TRIP) of retained austenite. The effects of test temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties and strain induced transformation behavior of retained austenite in the steel were investigated. Total elongation and strength-ductility balance of the specimen reached maximum when it strained at a strain rate of 2.8×10-4s-1 and at 350℃. The relation between test temperature and tensile properties showed the same tendency at three kinds of strain rates. Flow stress increased considerably with decreasing the strain rate.

  19. Study on Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steel DB800%超低碳贝氏体钢DB800的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠伟; 江雅民

    2009-01-01

    测试和研究了50 kg真空感应炉熔炼、控轧控冷16 mm超低碳贝氏体DB800(%:0.058C、0.29Mo、0.05Nb、0.08V、0.02Ti、0.001B)板材的连续冷却转变(CCT)曲线、组织转变和力学性能.结果表明,该试验钢种在冷却速率约为10℃/s的水冷条件下的组织为贝氏体(TEM下呈板条状行貌).试验钢种具有优良的综合力学性能:抗拉强度885 MPa,屈服强度733 MPa,伸长率15.2%,-20℃纵向冲击韧性值46 J和极优的冷弯性能.

  20. Morphology and constitution of the phases in as-welded microstructure of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.Y.; Zhou, Z.F.; Sun, D.Q.

    2005-06-15

    It was found by optical and electron microscopic examination of the microstructure of as-weld austempered ductile iron that the weld matrix is composed of austenite and bainite, the volume fractions of which were determined. In addition, the carbon content of austenite was measured and therefore the average carbon content of the matrix was calculated. In the matrix of the weld metal two types of bainite, bainite ferrite and lower bainite, were found. According to the morphology and distribution of the bainite plates, the nucleation and growth modes of bainite was inferred. (author)

  1. Measurement of TTT diagrams of 42CrMo4 steel and analysis for separation of upper and lower bainites in the bainite C curve%42CrMo4钢TTT曲线测量及B上与B下的C曲线分离现象的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张逸阳; 陈乃录; 张伟民; 韩利战

    2009-01-01

    为了给42CrMo4钢曲轴调质工艺中淬火冷却过程的计算机模拟提供基础数据,采用热模拟试验机对该材料在奥氏体化温度830℃和850℃的,TTT曲线进行了测量.结果表明,两个奥氏体化温度下的TTT曲线中均出现贝氏体的C曲线上贝氏体B上和下贝氏体B下分离的现象,通过对该现象的分析研究,认为本试验测鼍的TTT曲线中B上与B下的C曲线分离现象符合B上与B下转变机制不同的规律.

  2. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  3. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  4. Low-carbon Bainitic Steel Carburizing and Its Application in Car Gear%低碳贝氏体钢渗碳工艺及在轿车齿轮上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新生; 梁淑荣

    2000-01-01

    对低碳贝氏体钢的渗碳工艺、显微组织、力学性能、淬火变形进行了研究.结果表明,此钢渗碳工艺性能良好,渗碳层组织理想,力学性能优良.采用渗碳气冷淬火,使轿车齿轮淬火变形比20CrMnTi钢的明显减小.

  5. Effect of the Linear Graphite on Austempered Austemper-Bainite Ductile Iron%线状石墨对奥-贝球铁性能影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2009-01-01

    @@ 板簧支座零件,选用奥-贝球铁AD11000-5,性能要求:抗拉强度≥1 000 MPa,伸长率≥5%,硬度300~360 HB;组织要求:球化级别1~3级,石墨大小5~7级,基体组织为中等或细小上贝氏体+20%~30%残余奥氏体.

  6. Effect of austempering isothermal-time at bainite field on retained austenite and mechanical properties in TRIP steel%贝氏体区等温时间对TRIP钢残奥及力学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高绪涛; 孙蓟泉; 赵爱民; 张明明; 唐荻

    2011-01-01

    为研究贝氏体区等温时间对热轧TRIP钢残余奥氏体和力学性能的影响,采用金相显微镜、X射线衍射、拉伸实验等方法对3种不同贝氏体区等温时间下制备的热轧TRIP钢进行分析.结果表明:随着贝氏体等温时间的延长,残余奥氏体量减少而残余奥氏体碳含量增加,残余奥氏体晶粒尺寸及残余奥氏体形貌变化不大;热轧TRIP钢的力学性能随着贝氏体等温时间的延长.表现为低抗拉强度、高延伸率和高屈服强度.

  7. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth.

  8. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  9. 硅锰对室温油分级等温淬火贝氏体球墨铸铁组织和性能的影响%Effects of Si and Mn on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bainite Ductile Iron by Step Austempering in Room-Temperature Machine Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏德强; 恽志东; 刘军

    2008-01-01

    研究了室温油分级等温淬火时,硅和锰对贝氏体球墨铸铁磨球组织和性能的影响.试验结果表明:硅含量在3.3%~3.8%时,对贝氏体相变具有诱发作用,使贝氏体球铁组织细化,力学性能提高,锰使贝氏体球墨铸铁的硬度提高韧性降低,合理的硅锰量可提高贝氏体球墨铸铁的力学性能.

  10. 贝氏体区等温时间对低硅TRIP钢组织和力学性能的影响%Effect of Austempering Isothermal-Time at Bainite Field on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Low Silicon TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景财年; 陈晓辉; 刘在学; 谭启忠; 李亮

    2009-01-01

    研究了0.15C-1.5Mn-1.5Al-0.3Si TRIP钢820 ℃ 2 min加热后快冷至450℃盐浴中保温5~300 s空冷的组织和力学性能.结果表明.随在贝氏体转变区450 ℃等温时间的增加,该钢的屈服强度和伸长率增加,抗拉强度降低,等温时间60 S时强塑积最佳,为23 000 MPa%;等温时间≤60 s时随等温时间增加钢中残余奥氏体含量增加,>60 s时随等温时间的增加钢中残余奥氏体含量降低,60 s时钢中残余奥氏体达到最高值,为14%.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of railway wheels manufactured with low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingru Zhang; Haicheng Gu

    2008-01-01

    The suitability of carbide-free bainite steel as railway wheel materials was investigated. The low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel was designed to make railway wheels by forging and rolling. The slack quenching with water was conducted on the tread of rim section by programmed control to simulate isothermal heat treatment after being austenitized. Microstructures and mechanical properties have been studied. The results indicate that the microstructure of the rim is mainly carbide-free bainite, and the mixed mi- crostructure of bainitic ferrite and granular bainite is observed in web and hub. The mechanical properties are superior to both the standard requirements and the commercial production, such as CL60 plain carbon. The Charpy impact energy is relatively high at room and/or subzero temperatures. The force-displacement curves and fractographies reveal the excellent ability of resistance to crack initiation and propagation.

  12. Electron microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon and aluminum ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, L. (Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Production Engineering); Smallman, R.E.; Young, J.M. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials)

    1994-09-01

    Samples of unalloyed silicon and aluminum spheroidal graphite cast iron have been studied in the austempered condition. Austempering times of up to 3 h at 400 C for Al SG and 1 h at 350 C for Si SG gives a typical ADI microstructure consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite and stable, high carbon enriched, retained austenite. This has an attractive combination of elongation and strength. For longer austempering times transition carbides are precipitated in the bainitic ferrite, [eta]-carbide in the upper bainitic range, i.e. 400 C for Al SG and 350 C for Si SG, and [epsilon]-carbide in the lower bainite range. Increasing amounts of transition carbide reduce the ductility and produce a mixed mode of fracture. For longer austempering times [chi]-carbide is precipitated at the ferrite/austenite boundaries leading to a more brittle fracture mode.

  13. Effect of austempering temperature and time on the kinetics and microstructure of austempered compacted graphite cast irons; Einfluss von Zwischenstufenverguetungstemperatur und -zeit auf die Kinetik und die Mikrostruktur von zwischenstufenverguetetem, Gusseisen mit Vermiculargraphit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymourian, Mehdi [LMI Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Casting Dept.; Boutorabi, Seyed Mohammad Ali [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials

    2012-07-01

    After starting the austempering nucleation of bainitic ferrite was observed within a very short time. Samples that austempered for 2 min. showed martensite in the microstructure. By increasing the austempering time from 30 min to 90 min the retained austenite decomposes and X-ray diffraction observations revealed the greatest volume fraction of retained austenite up to 17.3 and 23.8 percent when austempered for 30 min. Micro-hardness of the bainitic Verbesferrite increased up to 370 and 500 HV and micro-hardness of the retained austenite increased up to 300 and 400 HV at the austempering temperatures of 300 C and 400 C respectively. In comparison to austempered ductile iron, the austempered compacted graphite cast iron shows higher rate of bainitic reaction. Bainite formation driving force and consequently the rate of austempering process are higher in compacted graphite cast irons. (orig.)

  14. 超级贝氏体钢相变的原位观察研究%In situ study of transformation in a superbainite steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海江; 徐光; 刘峰

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the dynamic process of bainite transformation, in situ observation of bainite transformation in a 0. 42%C superbainite steel was conducted on a high temperature laser scanning confocal microscope. It is found that the bainite embryos nucleate not only in parent austenite grain, on grain boundary and previously formed bainite platelet, but also at annealing twin during bainite transformation. In addition, during the process of bainite transition, pre-formed bainite plates and later-formed bainite plates grow in different directions resulting in the impingement between them. With mutual intersection of bainite plates, an interlocked bainite microstructure would be developed finally. In situ observation investigation makes it possible that bainite nucleation and growth can be identified in real time during isothermal holding, providing efficient method for transition theory analysis.%为了探索贝氏体相变形核和长大的动态过程,利用高温激光共聚焦扫描显微镜,对一种含碳质量分数为0.42%的超级贝氏体钢进行了贝氏体相变的原位动态观察研究.结果表明:在贝氏体保温相变期间,贝氏体形核除了发生在原奥氏体晶界、晶内以及预先形成的贝氏体处,退火孪晶还引发贝氏体形核;在贝氏体长大过程中,后形成的贝氏体板条与先形成的贝氏体长大方向不同,使两者发生碰撞,从而产生“互锁”现象,形成一种互锁的贝氏体微观组织.原位观察可以研究和分析贝氏体形核和长大的动态过程,为贝氏体相变的理论研究提供了更有效的手段.

  15. Structural Changes Under Heat Treatment of High-Strength Cast Iron with Globular Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, V. V.; Ziza, A. I.; Mikhailov, M. S.; Tsyganko, L. K.; Shandyba, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    High-strength cast iron of grade VCh50 with globular graphite is studied after isothermal quenching in the bainitic and martensitic ranges. The mechanical properties of the iron and the hardness of its structural components are determined. The fine structure of the iron with bainitic and martensitic matrix is studied. The effect of the tempering temperature after the isothermal quenching on the hardness and structure of the iron is estimated.

  16. Structure and properties of advanced fine grained steels produced using novel thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    Fine grained advanced steels exhibit favourable mechanical properties for applications requiring high strength, ductility and impact toughness. These properties result from a microstructure containing a fine distribution of several phases including ferrite, austenite, martensite and bainite. The bainite phase is in the form of fine lamellas of ferrite and carbon-enriched austenite which due to proper control of the chemical composition is lacking the nanometre scaled carbides associated with ...

  17. Effects of aging treatment on the microstructure and superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-li; Huang, Hai-you; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-10-01

    The effect of aging treatment on the superelasticity and martensitic transformation critical stress in columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy (SMA) at the temperature ranging from 250°C to 400°C was investigated. The microstructure evolution during the aging treatment was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the plate-like bainite precipitates distribute homogeneously within austenitic grains and at grain boundaries. The volume fraction of bainite increases with the increase in aging temperature and aging time, which substantially improves the martensitic transformation critical stress of the alloy, whereas the bainite only slightly affects the superelasticity. This behavior is attributed to a coherent relationship between the bainite and the austenite, as well as to the bainite and the martensite exhibiting the same crystal structure. The variations of the martensitic transformation critical stress and the superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with aging temperature and aging time are described by the Austin-Rickett equation, where the activation energy of bainite precipitation is 77.2 kJ·mol-1. Finally, a columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with both excellent superelasticity (5%-9%) and high martensitic transformation critical stress (443-677 MPa) is obtained through the application of the appropriate aging treatments.

  18. Characterization of dual-phase steel microstructure by combined submicrometer EBSD and EPMA carbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Philippe T; Schwedt, Alexander; Ramazani, Ali; Prahl, Ulrich; Richter, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurements are combined to characterize an industrial produced dual-phase steel containing some bainite fraction. High-resolution carbon mappings acquired on a field emission electron microprobe are utilized to validate and improve the identification of the constituents (ferrite, martensite, and bainite) performed by EBSD using the image quality and kernel average misorientation. The combination eliminates the ambiguity between the identification of bainite and transformation-induced dislocation zones, encountered if only the kernel average misorientation is considered. The detection of carbon in high misorientation regions confirms the presence of bainite. These results are corroborated by secondary electron images after nital etching. Limitations of this combined method due to differences between the spatial resolution of EBSD and EPMA are assessed. Moreover, a quantification procedure adapted to carbon analysis is presented and used to measure the carbon concentration in martensite and bainite on a submicrometer scale. From measurements on reference materials, this method gives an accuracy of 0.02 wt% C and a precision better than 0.05 wt% C despite unavoidable effects of hydrocarbon contamination.

  19. Effect of microstructure on the stability of retained austenite in transformation-induced-plasticity steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhina, I. B.; Hodgson, P. D.; Pereloma, E. V.

    2004-08-01

    Two Fe-0.2C-1.55Mn-1.5Si (in wt pct) steels, with and without the addition of 0.039Nb (in wt pct), were studied using laboratory rolling-mill simulations of controlled thermomechanical processing. The microstructures of all samples were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructural behavior of phases under applied strain was studied using a heat-tinting technique. Despite the similarity in the microstructures of the two steels (equal amounts of polygonal ferrite, carbide-free bainite, and retained austenite), the mechanical properties were different. The mechanical properties of these transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels depended not only on the individual behavior of all these phases, but also on the interaction between the phases during deformation. The polygonal ferrite and bainite of the C-Mn-Si steel contributed to the elongation more than these phases in the C-Mn-Si-Nb-steel. The stability of retained austenite depends on its location within the microstructure, the morphology of the bainite, and its interaction with other phases during straining. Granular bainite was the bainite morphology that provided the optimum stability of the retained austenite.

  20. Rolling contact fatigue strength of successive austempered ductile cast iron; Chikuji austemper shori kyujo kokuen chutetsu no korogari hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawamoto, A. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1998-04-25

    The holding time of austempered spheroidal graphite cast iron material is allowed to vary in heat treatment especially at the lower bainite transformation zone during the process for the preparation of specimens different from each other in the amount of {gamma}-pool, and the specimens are tested for their rolling contact fatigue strength. The effects of the amount of {gamma}-pool, roughness of the bainite structure, and work-hardening, on the rolling fatigue strength are also studied. Findings obtained as the result of experiment are stated below. In the case of an austempered ductile cast iron specimen containing a {gamma}-pool amount that occupies a high rate of 6.52%, the rolling fatigue withstanding limit exhibits a relatively high level of 1310MPa, which becomes approximately 1245MPa when the holding time is extended in the lower bainite transformation zone. The limit rises to approximately 1320MPa at a stage where the {gamma}-pool virtually disappears. In a successive austempering treatment process that aims at improving on machinability and at allowing sufficient fatigue strength to be maintained, it is necessary to allow the holding time in the bainite zone to be long enough for the {gamma}-pool to disappear and for the lower bainite structure to grow sufficiently. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Study of the isothermal transformation of ductile iron with 0.5% Cu by electrical resistance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. Y.; Chen, E. T.; Lei, T. S.

    1995-10-01

    A computer-controlled system for measuring electrical resistance has been developed and used to study the isothermal transformation of austenite in a ductile iron (3.31 % C, 3.12 % Si, 0.22 % Mn, 0.55 % Cu). The ability of the technique to follow the isothermal decomposition of austenite was established by measurements on an AISI4340 steel. The times at which the austenite decomposed to primary ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were accurately detected. In the ductile iron, the formation of pearlite and of bainite was easily detected, and an isothermal transformation diagram was constructed from the results. The temperature range for the formation of bainite is especially important in producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) and was mapped. An initial stage of decomposition of austenite to ferrite and high-carbon austenite is followed by a time delay; then the high-carbon austenite decomposes to bainite. The formation of ADI requires austempering to a structure of ferrite and high-carbon austenite, then quenching to retain this structure, thus avoiding the formation of bainite. This is achieved by isothermal transformation into the time-delay region. For the ductile iron studied here, this time region was about 2.6 h at 400 °C and increased to 277 h at 300 °C.

  2. Improvement of static strength and fatigue crack propagation resistance in ductile cast iron by austempering from (. alpha. +. gamma. ) phase region. Bubun austenpering shori ni yoru kyujo kokuen chutetsu no seiteki kyodo to hiro kiretsu shinten teiko no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Asami, K.; Matsuoka, S. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-15

    The spheroidal graphite cast iron is better characterized in resistivity against the abrasion and heat, and economical efficiency than the normal carbon steel. Notice being taken of treatment temperature (800 to 840 centigrade) in the ({alpha}+{gamma}) phase region for the partial austempering treatment condition, able to improve the spheroidal graphite cast iron simultaneously in both statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance, the present report compared dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite. As a result, the morphological ratio of bainite becomes about 20% to the base morphology at 800 centigrade in treatment temperature. Then with progressively heightening to 815, 830 and 840 centigrade in it, the above ratio so heightens to about 40, 80 and 90%, respectively. The fatigue crack propagation resistance in the low DeltaK (low stress intensity factor) region is heightened by the partial austempering treatment to higher than that of dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite, and most done at 800 centigrade in temperature where the bainite becomes about 20% in morphological ratio. 830 centigrade where the bainite becomes about 80% is judged to be the most appropriate treatment temperature for both the statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance. 3 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Study of the isothermal transformation of ductile iron with 0.5% Cu by electrical resistance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, B.Y.; Chen, E.T.; Lei, T.S. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    1995-10-01

    A computer-controlled system for measuring electrical resistance has been developed and used to study the isothermal transformation of austenite in a ductile iron (3.31% C, 3.12% Si, 0.22% mn, 0.55% Cu). The ability of the technique to follow the isothermal decomposition of austenite was established by measurements on an AISI 4340 steel. The times at which the austenite decomposed to primary ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were accurately detected. In the ductile iron, the formation of pearlite and of bainite was easily detected, and an isothermal transformation diagram was constructed from the results. The temperature range for the formation of bainite is especially important in producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) and was mapped. An initial stage of decomposition of austenite to ferrite and high-carbon austenite is followed by a time delay; then the high-carbon austenite decomposes to bainite. The formation of ADI requires austempering to a structure of ferrite and high-carbon austenite, then quenching to retain this structure, thus avoiding the formation of bainite. This is achieved by isothermal transformation into the time-delay region. For the ductile iron studied here, this time region was about 2.6 h at 400 C and increased to 277 h at 300 C.

  4. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  5. A study on welded joint toughness of X-60 steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Charpy impact test and COD test were performed on the specimens subjected to simulated welded thermal cycle and the specimens taken from welded joint. The optical microscope, TEM, SEM, EDAX and XRD analysis have been used to investigate the behaviors of second phase particles and the effects of microstructure on toughness separately. The results are as follows. The dispersed second phase particles can effectively retard the growth of austenite grain in the coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ), and improve the toughness. When t8/5 is different, the behaviors of the particles are also different in dissolving, coarsening and re-precipitating. The ability of retarding the growth of austenite grain will be affected. When t8/5 increases from 10 s to 70 s, the microstructure of CGHAZ will transform from upper bainite and granular bainite to granular bainite, and the size of austenite grain will grow a little, thus the toughness of the materials decreases slightly.

  6. Analytical Investigation of Prior Austenite Grain Size Dependence of Low Temperature Toughness in Steel Weld Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F. Zhang; P. Hall; H. Terasak; M. Sato; Y. Komizo

    2012-01-01

    Prior austenite grain size dependence of the low temperature impact toughness has been addressed in the bainitic weld metals by in situ observations.Usually,decreasing the grain size is the only approach by which both the strength and the toughness of a steel are increased.However,low carbon bainitic steel with small grain size shows a weakening of the low temperature impact toughness in this study.By direct tracking of the morphological evolution during phase transformation,it is found that large austenite grain size dominates the nucleation of intragranular acicular ferrite,whereas small austenite grain size leads to grain boundary nucleation of bainite.This kinetics information will contribute to meet the increasing low temperature toughness requirement of weld metals for the storage tanks and offshore structures.

  7. Thermo-stability of ultra-fine non-equilibrium microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huibin Wu; Shanwu Yang; Aimin Guo; Shaoqiang Yuan; Chengjia Shang; Xinlai He

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructures and hardness of a bainitic plate steel during tempering at 650℃ has been investigated.The steel was manufactured by RPC (relaxation-precipitation controlling phase transformation) technique. A part of the plate was reheated to 930℃ and held for 1 h before quenched into water (RQ). No obvious change was detected by means of optical microscopy in the RPC steel tempering for 0.5 h, while dislocation cells were formed inside the bainite laths, accompanied by an obvious drop of hardness. The bainite laths started to coalesce in some regions, but the sample hardness kept nearly constant during tempering from 1 to 7 h. With further tempering, polygonal ferrite was formed in local regions while the hardness decreased dramatically. The RQ samples softened faster during tempering and finally transformed into the polygonal ferrite completely. These results indicate that the thermo-stability of fine non-equilibrium microstructures is tightly related to their history.

  8. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiang; Vuorinen Esa; Grahn Jonny

    2009-01-01

    Crack initiation,propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix:crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite;crack propagates along the boundary of ferrite-austenite in bainitic ferrite laths;crack propagates into bainitic ferrite laths;crack nucleates and propagates in the high carbon brittle plate shape martensite which is transformed from some blocky retained austenite due to plastic deformation.Based on the observation and analysis of microfracture processes,a schematic diagram of the crack nucleation and propagation process of high silicon cast steel is proposed.

  9. Experimental study on 830 MPa grade pipeline steel containing chromium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ren; Shuai Zhang; Shuang Wang; Wen-yue Liu

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of microstructure and properties of 830 Mpa grade pipeline steel containing chromium was investigated by optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructures were multiple configurations, containing lath bainite and granule bainite. Mechanical properties test results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength improved with in-creasing chromium content. The toughness and elongation decreased at the same time, so temper process was introduced. Appling proper temper parameters, the values of toughness and elongation were improved dramatically, and the strength decreased slightly.

  10. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI Part 1. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this study describes the methods of obtaining a bainitic structure in ferrous alloys. The TTT diagrams were characterised along with the run of cooling curves for ductile iron in its alloyed, unalloyed and low-alloyed variations. Next, the effect of alloying additions on the hardenability of ferrous alloys was discussed. A formula was given to determine the temperature of the beginning of bainitic transformation with examples of the diagrams illustrating the effect of some selected alloying additions on the hardenability factor. Special attention was paid to a complex role played by boron and vanadium.

  11. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  12. Influence of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of cooling rate on the structure and properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF cast steel. The material for research was a section taken out from an outer cylinder of a steam turbine body after about 250 000 hours of operation at the temperature of 535°C and pressure 9 MPa. The investigated cast steel was subjected to heat treatment which consisted in cooling at the rates corresponding to the processes, such as: bainitic hardening, normalizing and full annealing. Tempering after the process of cooling from austenitizing temperature was carried out at the temperatures of: 700, 720 and 740°C. Performed research has proved that structures obtained after bainitic hardening and normalizing are characterized by a large strength margin which allows to apply high temperatures of tempering. It has been shown that the cast steel of bainitic structure, with similar mechanical properties as the cast steel of bainitic – ferritic structure, is characterized by almost twice as high impact energy. Full annealing and tempering of the examined cast steel ensures only the required impact strength, with mechanical properties comparable to those after service.

  13. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Si-Al-Mn TRIP Steel with Niobium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite can be obtained through intercritical annealing and isothermal treatment in bainite transformation region for low silicon TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steel containing niobium. Effects of strain rate, Nb content and soaking temperature in bainite region on microstructure and mechanical properties of test steels were investigated. It is shown that as strain rate ranges from 10-2 to 10-4 s-1, the volume fraction of transformed martensite from retained austenite,as well as tensile strength, elongation rate and strength-ductility product, increases. When Nb is added, the volume fraction of retained austenite decreases, but tensile strength and yield strength increase. While Nb content reaches 0.014%, the steel exhibits high elongation and combination of strength and ductility. Higher retained austenite volume fraction and good mechanical properties are obtained in the test steels when the soaking temperature in bainite region is 400℃. The maximum values of tensile strength, total elongation rate and strength-ductility product can reach 739 MPa, 38% and 28082 MPa%, respectively.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL WIRE FOR METAL CORD AND RVD AFTER PATENTING IN CONDITIONS OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kurenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of microstructure, quantity, character of bainite allocation at lowering of the lead melt temperature is revealed as a result of investigations of microstructure of the samples of steel 80K after isothermal breakdown of austenite in temperature range 610–400 °C.

  15. The forty years of vermicular graphite cast iron development in China (Part Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 5 Heat treatment of VGCI Research work has shown that the microstructure of VGCI can be modified by heat treatment to give improved properties;martensitic, bainitic, sorbitic and pearlitic structures can be produced by quenching, quenching plus tempering,austempering and normalisation respectively.

  16. Martensite transformation. ; Recent progress and perspectives. Martensite hentai. ; Saikin no shinpo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marukawa, K. (Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-11-20

    A seminar was held at Engineering Dept., Hokkaido Univ. in July, 1991 about martensite transformation. The lectures on the seminar are as follows: Bainite transformation in Cu-Zn-Al and Ag-An alloys'' (K. Kitazawa, Hokkaido Univ.) Overviews of the rate of transformation in these alloys, the experimental result of electron microscope observations, and examination on the transformation mechanism. Mechanism model of bainite transformation'' (K. Marukawa, Hokkaido Univ.) Results of experiments on bainite transformation in copper alloys. Dislocation texture and characteristics of iron-system shape memory alloy'' (Y. Inagaki et al, Steel Lab., NKK) The relation between the dislocation texture and storing characteristic of a newly developed shape memory alloy of stainless steel. Bainite texture and transformation mechanism of steel'' (M. Maki, Kyoto Univ.) Experimental data about Fe-M-C alloys. High-strength high-ductile steel plate utilizing retained austenite'' (N. Uchida et al, Nippon Steel Corp.)

  17. Size Effects in Residual Stress Formation during Quenching of Cylinders Made of Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schemmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the residual stress formation and the evolution of phase fractions during the quenching process of cylindrical specimens of different sizes. The cylinders are made of hot-work tool steel grade X36CrMoV5-1. A phase transformation kinetic model in combination with a thermomechanical model is used to describe the quenching process. Two phase transformations are considered for developing a modelling scheme: the austenite-to-martensite transformation and the austenite-to-bainite transformation. The focus lies on the complex austenite-to-bainite transformation which can be observed at low cooling rates. For an appropriate description of the phase transformation behaviour nucleation and growth of bainite are taken into account. The thermomechanical model contains thermophysical data and flow curves for each phase. Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP is modelled by considering phase dependent Greenwood-Johnson parameters for martensite and bainite, respectively. The influence of component size on residual stress formation is investigated by the finite element package Abaqus. Finally, for one cylinder size the simulation results are validated by X-ray stress measurements.

  18. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Structure In X37CrMoV5-l Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the thermal stability of the nanostructure produced in X37CrMoV5-1 tool steel by austempering heat treatment consisted of austenitization and isothermal quenching at the range of the bainitic transformation. The nanostructure was composed of bainitic ferrite plates of nanometric thickness separated by thin layers of retained austenite. It was revealed, that the annealing at the temperature higher than temperature of austempering led to formation of cementite precipitations. At the initial stage of annealing cementite precipitations occurred in the interfaces between ferritic bainite and austenite. With increasing temperature of annealing, the volume fraction and size of cementite precipitations also increased. Simultaneously fine spherical Fe7C3 carbides appeared. At the highest annealing temperature the large, spherical Fe7C3 carbides as well as cementite precipitates inside the ferrite grains were observed. Moreover the volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and of freshly formed martensite increased in steel as a result of retained austenite transformation during cooling down to room temperature.

  19. 球轴承

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ball bearing components of 100Cr6 (AISI52109), choice of bainitic transformation or martensitic hardening processes?;Bearings for extreme special environment (5) -linear motion bearings and unit products;Chemical mechanical polishing process for silicon nitride ball;Condition monitoring methods for vane axial fans……

  20. Intergranular brittle fracture of a low alloy steel induced by grain boundary segregation of impurities: influence of the microstructure; Rupture intergranulaire fragile d'un acier faiblement allie induite par la segregation d'impuretes aux joints de grains: influence de la microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoul, St

    1999-07-01

    The study contributes to improve the comprehension of intergranular embrittlement induced by the phosphorus segregation along prior austenitic grain boundaries of low alloy steels used in pressurized power reactor vessel. A part of this study was performed using a A533 steel which contains chemical fluctuations (ghost lines) with two intensities. Axi-symmetrically notched specimens were tested and intergranular brittle de-cohesions were observed in the ghost lines. The fracture initiation sites observed on fracture surfaces were identified as MnS inclusions. A bimodal statistic obtained in a probabilistic model of the fracture is explained by the double population of ghost lines' intensities. A metallurgical study was performed on the same class of steel by studying the influence of the microstructure on the susceptibility to temper embrittlement. Brittle fracture properties of such microstructures obtained by dilatometric experiments were tested on sub-sized specimens to measure the V-notched fracture toughness. Fraction areas of brittle fracture modes were determined on surface fractures. A transition of the fracture mode with the microstructure is observed. It is shown that tempered microstructures of martensite and lower bainite are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than tempered upper bainitic microstructure. The intergranular fracture is the most brittle mode. The analysis of crystalline mis-orientations shows a grain boundary structure appreciably more coherent for tempered microstructures of martensite and lower bainite. The higher density of randomgrain boundaries is susceptible to drag the phosphorus in the upper bainitic matrix and to make the quantity of free phosphorus decreasing. Microstructure observations show a difference in the size and the spatial distribution of carbides, essentially cementite, between tempered martensite and upper bainite. It can explain the bigger susceptibility of this last microstructure to cleavage mode

  1. Prediction of the Residual Welding Stress in 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel by Taking into Account the Effect of the Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dean DENG; Yangang TONG; Ninshu MA; Hidekazu MURAKAWA

    2013-01-01

    A computational approach based on the thermal elastic plastic finite element method was developed for predicting welding residual stress in low carbon alloyed steel welds by taking into account the effect of the solid-state phase transformations.The kinetics of phase transformations was described by Johnson Mehl Avrami Kolmogrov (JMAK) equation for bainitic transition and by Koistinen-Marburger (K-M) relationship for martensitic transition.Moreover,an additive rule depending on volumetric phase fraction was adopted to represent the material property changes during heating and cooling.Consequently,the residual welding stresses in a 2.25Cr1Mo steel TIG welded plate were computed.Early calculation results suggest that the bainitic and martensitic transformations took place in the weld the heat-affected zone drastically reduce the residual longitudinal tensile stress in the region.

  2. Controlled Rolling and Controlled Cooling Technology of Ultra-High Strength Steel with 700 Mpa Grade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shi-ze; ZHANG Pi-jun; DU Lin-xiu; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    With Gleeble-1500 system, the influences of rolling temperature, finishing temperature and cooling rate on the mechanical properties of two ultra-high strength steels were analyzed. The microstructure of the hot rolled specimens was observed by optical microscope, TEM and SEM. The TRIP of HSLA steels was studied. The results show that the yield stress of 700 Mpa can be reached for two steels. The controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology has different effects on two steels, but it is rational to adopt finishing temperature 800 ℃ for both of them. The microstructure of the steels is mainly bainite, and the influence factors of mechanical properties are the size of bainite, and the size, distribution, composition and morphology of secondary phases. The deformation of high molybdenum steels at a high temperature with a high cooling rate would promote TRIP.

  3. Effects of the pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining of medium-carbon 5Cr-Mo-V steels; Chutanso 5Cr-Mo-V ko no gyaku hentai sairyuka ni oyobosu zenhentai soshiki no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukauda, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ono, S.; Ishiguro, T. [Nippon Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For the purpose of obtaining refined grains over full cross section for improved ductility in heavy-gage products of a medium carbon 5Cr- Mo-V steel, the effects of pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining during austenitizing were investigated. Samples were prepared to possess either one of three different microstructures , pearlite, bainite and martensite. These samples were heated slowly to the desired austenitizing temperature followed by rapid cooling, and the formation of new austenite grains was examined. Though austenite grains were not refined in cases of martensite and bainite microstructures, these were remarkably refined in case of pearlite. Portions of pearlite were enriched with carbon, where the transformation temperature into austenite was lower, and this is considered to be the reason that finer austenite grains were formed.Above results show that arranging pearlite microstructure before quenching heat treatment is effective for obtaining refined grains over full cross section in heavy-gage products. (author)

  4. Nanocrystalline Steels’ Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement in X37CrMoV5-1 steel with two different microstructures: a nanocrystalline carbide-free bainite and tempered martensite. The nanobainitic structure was obtained by austempering at the bainitic transformation zone. It was found, that after hydrogen charging, both kinds of microstructure exhibit increased yield strength and strong decrease in ductility. It has been however shown that the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of X37CrMoV5-1 steel with nanobainitic structure is higher as compared to the tempered martensite. After hydrogen charging the ductility of austempered steel is slightly higher than in case of quenched and tempered (Q&T steel. This effect was interpreted as a result of phase composition formed after different heat treatments.

  5. Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gumienny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chromium to 1,00% and copper to 1,50% influence at constant molybdenum content of about 1,50% on the nodular cast ironwith carbides microstructure has been presented. It was found, that as a result of synergic addition of above-mentioned elements there isthe possibility obtaining an ausferrite in nodular cast iron with carbides castings. Conditions have been given, when in nodular cast iron with carbides at cooling at first in the form, then air-cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite, its mixture with lower bainite, martensite or ausferrite takes place. Transformations proceed during cooling and the crystallization of cast iron have been determined and the casting hardness has been presented.

  6. TDA method application to austenite transformation in nodular cast iron with carbides assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gumienny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of TDA method using to austenite transformation in nodular cast iron with carbides assessment is presented. Studies were conducted on cast iron with about 2% molybdenum and 0,70% to 4,50% nickel. On diagrams, where TDA curves are pre- sented, on time axis a logarithmic scale was applied. It has not been used up to now. It was found, that during cooling and crystallization of cast iron in TDA probe, on the derivative curve there is a slight thermal effect from austenite to upper bainite or martensite transformation. Depending on nickel concentration austeniteupper bainite transformation start temperature changed (Bus, while MS temperature was independent of it. An influence of nickel on eutectic transformation temperature in nodular cast iron with carbides was determined too.

  7. Theory and Modeling of Phase Transformations under Stress in Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Y. Hsu (XU Zu-yao)

    2004-01-01

    Thermodynamic prediction of the increment of the formation temperature of proeutectoid ferrite by applied stress is nearly consistent with the experimental data. Kinetics models for ferrite, pearlite and bainite transformations can be shown as modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation in which parameter b(σ) varies with the level of applied stress.The effects of tensile and compressive stresses on enhancement of the ferrite/pearlite and bainite transformations are discussed. The necessity and approach of modification of additivity hypothesis are introduced and the results from modified equation in which some parameters are obtained by regression of two experimental results or taken from TTT and CCT diagrams of a certain steel are superior than that from Scheil's equation. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms and nucleation kinetics equations of martensitic transformation under stress are suggested. Modeling of phase transformations under stress in ferrous alloys is briefly described.

  8. The Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment Time on the Microstructure and Properties of 2.11% Al Austempered Ductile Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian-Naziftoosi, H. R.; Haghdadi, N.; Kiani-Rashid, A. R.

    2012-08-01

    In this article, the bainitic transformation during austempering was studied for a 2.11% Al containing ductile iron under different isothermal holding times. The austenitizing time and temperature were selected to be 60 min and 920 °C, respectively, referring to previous studies. The isothermal austempering heat treatments were performed at 350 °C for different durations. Microstructures have been examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural investigations revealed that austempering treatment at 350 °C for durations up to 100 min results in microstructures consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with considerable amounts of retained austenite while the extension of isothermal transformation time leads to precipitation of carbides. Hardness measurements were also carried out the results of which were shown to be consistent with microstructural evolutions.

  9. Fatigue crack propagation characteristics of ductile cast iron austempered from (. alpha. +. gamma. ) phase region. (. alpha. +. gamma. ) iki kara austemper shorishita kyujo kokuen chutetsu no hiro kiretsu shinten tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Asami, K.; Kuroiwa, H. (Musashi Institute of Technoloyg, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-15

    In order to enhance the fatigue crack propagation resistance of ductile cast iron, the effect of austempering from a ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase region was studied. As the dual phase matrix microstructure of ferrite and pearlite in as-casted iron was changed into the dual phase one of ferrite and bainite by partial austempering from 800 {degree} C, the fatigue crack propagation resistance was enhanced over the whole range of a {Delta} K region. The enhancement of the fatigue crack propagation resistance was caused by remarkable development of crack closures from higher {Delta} K regions which was induced by fracture contact and fretting because of an increase in fracture roughness and easy formation of oxide deposits. In addition, the static tensile and ductility of ductile cast iron were possibly enhanced simultaneously by partial austempering for changing pearlite into bainite superior in both tensile and ductility. 9 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Research Progress of Gear Steel for Automobiles%汽车齿轮钢的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 周细应

    2011-01-01

    The performance requirements of automobile gear steel are put forward, then the current applications of gear materials and some of the domestic and abroad research results, which focused on aircooling bainitic steel, meta-bainite steel and austempered ductile iron, are summarized. Finally, the prospects of domestic automotive gear materials are prospected as well.%本文提出了汽车齿轮钢的性能要求,然后概述了近年来国内外汽车齿轮材料的应用现状和研究成果,主要介绍了空冷贝氏体钢、准贝氏体钢、奥-贝球铁.最后对国内汽车齿轮材料的发展方向作了展望.

  11. Abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydogan, M.; Koekden, M.U.; Cimenoglu, H. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science Engineering Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of as cast and austempered GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons was investigated. In the as cast condition, GGG 50 and GGG 80 quality ductile irons were having ferritic and pearlitic matrix structures, respectively. Austempering at 250 C after austenitisation at 900 C for 100 minutes produced bainitic matrix structure in both of the investigated ductile irons. Abrasive wear tests performed by rubbing the as cast and austempered specimens on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasive bands, revealed that austempering treatment improves abrasion resistance about 10-70% depending on the abrasive particle size and composition of the base iron. In the as cast condition, pearlitic GGG 80 grade ductile iron, has higher wear resistance than ferritic GGG 50 grade ductile iron. In the austempered condition GGG 50 and GGG 80 grade ductile irons which have bainitic matrix structure, exhibit almost similar wear resistance. (orig.)

  12. Influence of microstructure on fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.P.; Putatunda, S.K. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1997-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron. Austempered ductile iron (ADI) alloyed with nickel, copper, and molybdenum was austenitized and subsequently austempered over a range of temperatures to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized through optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Plane strain fracture toughness of all these materials was determined and was correlated with the microstructure. The results of the present investigation indicate that the lower bainitic microstructure results in higher fracture toughness than upper bainitic microstructure. Both volume fraction of retained austenite and its carbon content influence the fracture toughness. The retained austenite content of 25 vol pct was found to provide the optimum fracture toughness. It was further concluded that the carbon content of the retained austenite should be as high as possible to improve fracture toughness.

  13. Fatigue of Austempered Ductile Iron with Two Strength Grades in Very High Cycle Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwang; Li, Wei; Song, Qingpeng; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Liantao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, Austempered ductile irons (ADIs) with two different strength grades were produced and the fatigue properties were measured at 109 cycles. The results show that the S-N curves give a typical step-wise shape and there is no fatigue limit in the very high cycle fatigue regime. The two grades ADI have the similar fracture behaviors and fatigue failure can initiate from defects at specimen surface and subsurface zone. On the fracture surfaces of some specimens, the `granular-bright-facet' area with rich carbon distribution is observed in the vicinity of the defect. The microstructure affects the crack behaviors at the early propagation stage. The ADI with upper and lower bainite shows higher fatigue strength compared with the ADI with coarse upper bainite.

  14. Effect of silicon and prior deformation of austenite on isothermal transformation in low carbon steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghui CAI; Hun DING; Jiansu ZHANG; Long LI

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal transformation (TTT) behavior of the low carbon steels with two Si con-tents (0.50 wt pct and 1.35 wt pct) was investigated with and without the prior deformation. The results show that Si and the prior deformation of the austenite have significant effects on the transformation of the ferrite and bainite. The addition of Si refines the ferrite grains, accelerates the polygonal ferrite transformation and the formation of M/A constituents, leading to the improvement of the strength. The ferrite grains formed under the prior deformation of the austenite become more ho-mogeneous and refined. However, the influence of deformation on the tensile strength of both steels is dependent on the isothermal temperatures. Thermodynamic calcu-lation indicates that Si and prior deformation reduce the incubation time of both ferrite and bainite transformation, but the effect is weakened by the decrease of the isothermal temperatures.

  15. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Jabase, L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α{sub 1} phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen Content and Cooling Rate on Transformation Characteristics and Mechanical Properties for 600 MPa High Strength Rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing

    2016-10-01

    To obtain appropriate chemical composition and thermo-mechanical schedules for processing the V-N microalloyed 600 MPa grade high strength rebar, the microstructure analysis during dynamic continuous cooling and tensile tests of three experimental steels with different nitrogen contents were conducted. The results show that increasing nitrogen content promotes ferrite transformation and broadens the bainite transformation interval, when the nitrogen content is in the range of 0.019-0.034 mass%. Meanwhile, the martensite start temperatures decrease and the minimal cooling rate to form martensite increases. To achieve a good combination of strength and ductility, the cooling rates should be controlled in the range of 0.5-3°C/s, leading to the microstructure of ferrite, pearlite and less than 10% bainite (volume fraction). Furthermore, all the experimental steels satisfy the performance requirement of 600 MPa grade rebar and the rebar with nitrogen content of 0.034 mass% shows the highest strength through systematically comparative investigation.

  17. Influence of Partitioning Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Deformability Oil-Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase structure of bainite and M/A constituent can be obtained for X80 oil-gas pipeline through a novel heat online partitioning (HOP technology. The effects of partitioning temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental steels were researched by means of mechanical properties test, microscopic analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that with the increase of the partitioning temperature, the strength of the experimental steel decreases and the ductility increases because of the increase of bainite lath width, the decrease of dislocation density, the increase of retained austenite content, and carbides coarsening. The decrease of the volume content and stability of retained austenite is the key factor, which leads to the increase of strength and the decrease of plasticity in a high range of partitioning temperature.

  18. Effects of Cerium on Microalloying in Low Sulfur Nb-Ti-Bearing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The CCT curves of supercooled austenite were investigated by using THERMECMASTOR-Z simulation machine, test samples refined from 50 kg vacuum induction furnace and two-stage controlled rolling in laboratorial condition.Test results show that influence of cerium (Ce) addition in low sulfur Nb-Ti-Bearing steel is as follows: Ce can increase the transformation point tAr3 and tAr1, enlarge the interval of transformation (tAr3-tAr1). Ce moves CCT curves upwards and rightwards, and reduces hardenability. Ce increases bainitic transformation temperature and enlarges interval of bainite formation. With higher cooling rates, Ce changes the martensite from coarse strip to fine strip. It decreases Ms, enhances the trend of lath martensitic structure and limits the formation of lamellar crystal.

  19. Springback of thick sheet AHSS subject to bending under tension

    OpenAIRE

    Chalal, Hocine; RACZ, Sever-Gabriel; BALAN, Tudor

    2012-01-01

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020740312000677; International audience; The springback behavior of four advanced high-strength sheet steels (Dual-Phase, TRIP, ferrite-bainite) with thicknesses ranging from 1.2 to 4 mm was investigated by means of the bending-under-tension (BUT) test. The applicability of several guidelines from the literature was investigated experimentally and numerically. The monotonic decrease of springback as back force increased was confirmed for this...

  20. Investigation of thick sheet AHSS springback in combined bending under tension

    OpenAIRE

    Chalal, Hocine; RACZ, Sever-Gabriel; BALAN, Tudor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the springback behavior of several advanced high-strength sheet steels (TRIP, Dual-Phase, ferrite-bainite) with thicknesses up to 4 mm. Samples were tested by means of the bending-under-tension (BUT) test. The BUT has been extensively applied, in the literature, to relatively thin (1 mm and thinner) sheet metals for automotive applications; the applicability of several guidelines from the literature was investigated in this work in the context of thick advanced h...

  1. 12MnNiVR钢的连续冷却转变行为及相变动力学%Continuous cooling transformation behavior and transformation kinetics of 12MnNiVR steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志敏; 蔡庆伍; 余伟

    2013-01-01

    用热膨胀仪测定了12MnNiVR钢的连续冷却转变曲线,并结合显微组织观察和硬度测定,研究了低冷速下奥氏体向铁素体转变及向贝氏体转变的动力学,分析了铁素体转变及贝氏体转变的生长方式.实验钢在连续冷却过程中的计算相变动力学结果与实测相变数据吻合很好.研究结果表明实验钢在低冷速下冷却时奥氏体向铁素体转变,形核位置主要在晶棱处,生长方式主要为二维长大,奥氏体向贝氏体转变,形核位置主要在界面处,生长方式主要为一维长大.%Continuous cooling transformation curves of 12MnNiVR steel were measured by a thermal dilatometer, and then transformation kinetics of austenite to ferrite at low cooling rate as well as austenite to bainite was studied and growth modes of transformed ferrite and bainite were analyzed on the basis of measured CCT curves, and observation of microstructure and hardness measurement. The calculated result of transformation kinetics for the tested steel during continuous cooling is in reasonable agreement with experimental data. Results show that nucleation sites of ferrite transformed from austenite at low cooling rate are mainly at crystal edges and ferrite grains grow mainly following two-dimensional mode whereas nucleation sites of transformed bainite are mainly at austenite grain boundaries and bainite grains grow mainly following one-dimensional mode.

  2. 车床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Correcting distortion caused in a book on page turning machine, Cutting speed influence of surface integrity of hard turned bainite steel,Dental amalgam - the effect of the technology of alloy powder preparation on the corrosion behavior and the release of mercury,DEPTH PROFILING OF MACHINED SURFACES USING CROSS CORRELATION OF BARKHAUSEN NOISE BUTTERFLY CURVES,Determination and evaluation of machine tool dynamic characteristics obtained during stable cutting process.

  3. The properties and microstructure of padding welds built up on the surface of forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pytel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents selected results of the examinations of the properties and microstructure of weld overlays built up with the UTOP38,F-812 and F-818 welding wires on a substrate of the 42CrMo4 structural steel. Among others, the following investigations were carriedout: bend tests, hardness measurements and determination of ferrite content in a bainitic-martensitic microstructure of UTOP38 and F-812layers.

  4. 超高強度TRIP鋼の伸びフランジ性に及ぼすYAGレーザ切断の影響

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) of retained austenite is very useful to enhance the press formability of ultra high strength sheet steels. The TRIP steels with different matrix structure and different retained austenite morphology have been developed for weight reduction and shock safety up to now. The conventional TRIP-aided dual-phase steel or "TRIP-aided polygonal ferrite (PF) steel" composing of polygonal ferrite matrix and blocky retained austenite plus bainite second phase ...

  5. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  6. Determination and Analysis of Hardenability for Hot-Forging Die Steels with Deep-Hardening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ERH end-quenching method was us ed to determine the hardenability of four kinds hot-forging die steels with dee p-hardening and hence the order of their hardenability was given. The tempering hardness of the steels was measured and the tempering resistance was studied. It was approved that ERH method is effective for the determination of hardenability of deep-hardening steel and the beginning of hardness drop in the ERH specimen is caused by bainite occurring.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 50SiMnNiNb Steel by a Novel Quenching-Partitioning-Austempering Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongyan; JIN Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing weight of steel parts, save raw materials and keep or even improve safety standards, the development of advanced high strength steels is increasingly demanded in the automotive industry and engineering applications. We have proposed a novel heat treatment (quenching-partitioning-austempering treatment, Q-P-A) to obtain steel parts with high strength and good ductility. The Q-P-A process is intended to produce microstructure consisted of carbon-depleted martensite, carbon-enriched retained austenite and nanostructured bainite. Quenching(Q) treatment fabricates mixed microstructure of carbon-supersaturated martensite and certain amounts of untransformed austenite. Partitioning(P) thermal treatment accomplishes fully diffusing of carbon from the supersaturated martensite phase to the untransformed austenite phase and enriching the amount of carbon in untransformed austenite. Further low-temperature austempering(A) process induces incredible thin bainite from the carbon-enriched untransformed austenite. A study of the microstructure and mechanical properties of 50SiMnNiNb steel subjected to the novel Q-P-A treatment is presented. Microstructure is assessed by optical microscope(OM), field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEM) and transmission electron microscope(TEM), and the corresponding mechanical properties are measured. The experimental results indicate that attractive mechanical properties of steels during the Q-P-A process are attributed to the complex multi-phase structure. Slender plates of bainite with 20-40 nm thick are generated in the medium carbon steel. Meanwhile, with increasing of the volume fraction of nanostructured bainite, yield strength of steel parts is increased with little degradation of ultimate tensile strength. In this paper, a novel quenching-partitioning-austempering heat treatment is proposed, and the attractive mechanical properties of steels are obtained during the Q-P-A process.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of two API steels for iron ore pipelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid,Leonardo Barbosa; Cândido,Luiz Cláudio; Toffolo,Rodrigo Vicente Bayão; Barbosa,Luiz Henrique Soares

    2014-01-01

    This research compares the mechanical behavior of two API steels (X60 and X70) used in the longest pipeline in the world for the conveyance of iron ore. Tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, CTOD tests and fatigue crack growth tests are performed at ambient temperature. Metallographic examination showed a banded microstructure consisting of polygonal ferrite and pearlite in both steels, with smaller grain size and the presence of a small quantity of bainite in the X70 steel. All the mechanical ...

  9. Effect of austempering time on mechanical properties of a low manganese austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putatunda, S.K.; Gadicherla, P.K.

    2000-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of austempering time on the resultant microstructure and the room-temperature mechanical properties of an unalloyed and low manganese ductile cast iron with initially ferritic as-cast structure. The effect of austempering time on the plane strain fracture toughness of this material was also studied. Compact tension and round cylindrical tensile specimens were prepared from unalloyed ductile cast iron with low manganese content and with a ferritic as-cast (solidified) structure. These specimens were then austempered in the upper (371 C) and lower (260 C) bainitic temperature ranges for different time periods, ranging from 30 min. to 3 h. Microstructural features such as type of bainite and the volume fraction of ferrite and austenite and its carbon content were evaluated by X-ray diffraction to examine the influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of this material. The results of the present investigation indicate that for this low manganese austempered ductile iron (ADI), upper ausferritic microstructures exhibit higher fracture toughness than lower ausferritic microstructures. Yield and tensile strength of the material was found to increase with an increase in austempering time in a lower bainitic temperature range, whereas in the upper bainitic temperature range, time has no significant effect on the mechanical properties. A retained austenite content between 30 to 35% was found to provide optimum fracture toughness. Fracture toughness was found to increase with the parameter (X{gamma}C{gamma}/d){sup 1/2}, where X{gamma} is the volume fraction of austenite, C{gamma} is the carbon content of the austenite, and d is the mean free path of dislocation motion in ferrite.

  10. Effect of austempering time on mechanical properties of a low manganese austempered ductile iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putatunda, Susil K.; Gadicherla, Pavan K.

    2000-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of austempering time on the resultant microstructure and the room-temperature mechanical properties of an unalloyed and low manganese ductile cast iron with initially ferritic as-cast structure. The effect of austempering time on the plane strain fracture toughness of this material was also studied. Compact tension and round cylindrical tensile specimens were prepared from unalloyed ductile cast iron with low manganese content and with a ferritic as-cast (solidified) structure. These specimens were then austempered in the upper (371 °C) and lower (260 °C) bainitic temperature ranges for different time periods, ranging from 30 min. to 4 h. Microstructural features such as type of bainite and the volume fraction of ferrite and austenite and its carbon content were evaluated by X-ray diffraction to examine the influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of this material. The results of the present investigation indicate that for this low manganese austempered ductile iron (ADI), upper ausferritic microstructures exhibit higher fracture toughness than lower ausferritic microstructures. Yield and tensile strength of the material was found to increase with an increase in austempering time in a lower bainitic temperature range, whereas in the upper bainitic temperature range, time has no significant effect on the mechanical properties. A retained austenite content between 30 to 35% was found to provide optimum fracture toughness. Fracture toughness was found to increase with the parameter ( XγCγ/d)1/2, where Xγ is the volume fraction of austenite, Cγ is the carbon content of the austenite, and d is the mean free path of dislocation motion in ferrite.

  11. Development of a High Strength Isothermally Heat-Treated Nodular Iron Road Wheel Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-31

    Ductile Iron . ADI = Austempered Ductile I ron. 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Characterization. 23 HAYES-ALBION CORP AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON 200 KSI loo0 U’T.S 20o 1 YIELD KS oo" 10_ 10 - S% * . " ’"ELONGATION E-. I 50 HARDNESS 300 FT.LBS...manufacture, and testing of a proposed road wheel arm for the Ml tank. The material selected is bainitic ductile iron (BDI). This material made by the

  12. Hydrogen-Induced Cold Cracking in High-Frequency Induction Welded Steel Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kumkum

    2016-04-01

    Detailed investigation was carried out on 0.4C steel tubes used for the telescopic front fork of two-wheelers to establish the root cause for the occurrence of transverse cracks at the weld heat-affected zone of the tubes. Fractographic and microstructural observations provide evidences of delayed hydrogen-induced cracking. The beneficial microstructure for avoiding the transverse cracks was found to be the bainitic-martensitic, while martensitic structure was noted to be deleterious.

  13. Microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Li, Shengli, E-mail: lishengli@sdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Xinde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ao, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to further reveal the microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, the microstructure of this type steel was intensively studied with Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), etc. The results show that severe C–Mn segregation exists in the abnormal segregation band region at the center of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, which results from the Mn segregation during solidification process of the continuous casting slab. The C–Mn segregation causes relative displacement of pearlite transformation curve and bainite transformation curve of C curve in the corresponding region, leading to bay-like shaped C curve. The bay-like shaped C curve creates conditions for the transformation from supercooling austenite to bainite at relatively lower cooling rate in this region. The Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone (FASZ) caused by C–Mn segregation can powerfully retard the atomic motion, and increase the lattice reconstruction resistance of austenite transformation. These two factors provide thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the bainite transformation, and result in the emergence of granular bainitic abnormal segregation band at the center of steel plate, which leads to lower plasticity and toughness of this region, and induces the layered fracture. - Highlights: • Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) is applied in the fracture analysis. • The abnormal segregation band region appears obvious C–Mn segregation. • The C–Mn segregation leads to bay-like shaped C curve. • The C–Mn segregation leads to Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone.

  14. Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

  15. HEAT TREATING OF SINTERED Fe-1.5Mo-0.7C STEELS AND THEIR SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A. Wang; Y. He; H. Danninger

    2003-01-01

    The influence of heat treating on mechanical properties as well as on the sliding wearbehavior of sintered Fe-1.SMo-0.7C steels was experimentally studied. The microstruc-tures of sintered steels change from upper bainite to martensite, tempered martensite,pearlite and lower bainite depending on the heat treating conditions. Heat treatingincreases the hardness of sintered steels but high tempering temperature, i.e. 700℃,causes the hardness to be even lower than that of the as-sintered ones. The impactenergy of sintered steels increases with increasing tempering temperature and arrivesthe highest at 700℃, while the steels tempered at 200℃ have the highest transverserupture strength. Austempering results in fair good overall properties, such as hard-ness, impact energy, and transverse rupture strength. When the sintered steels wereaustempered, oil-quenched or tempered below 400℃ after quenched, the wear coef-ficient becomes considerably lower. Fair high hardness, such as HV30 > 380, andstructures of martensite, tempered martensite or lower bainite are beneficial to low-ering the wear coefficient. Under the wear test conditions given, delamination andoxidational wear are the main wear regimes for sintered Fe-1.5Mo-0.7C steels. Fe3O4in the wear debris is beneficial to lowering wear coefficient.

  16. High strength bimetallic composite material fabricated by electroslag casting and characteristics of its composite interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-shun Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel was produced with electroslag casting process, and element distribution of its composite interface was investigated by theoretical calculation and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. Results show that the tensile strength (1,450 MPa, hardness (HRC 41-47 and impact toughness (94.7J·cm-2 of bainitic steel were comparatively high, while its elongation was slightly low (4.0%. Tensile strength (1,100 MPa, hardness (>HRC 31 and elongation (7.72% of the interface were also relatively high, but its impact toughness was low at 20.4 J·cm-2. Results of theoretical calculation of the element distribution in the interface region were basically consistent with that of EDS. Therefore, electroslag casting is a practical process to produce bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel, and theoretical calculation also is a feasible method to study element distribution of their interface.

  17. The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Carpenter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nb on the hardenability of ultra-thin cast strip (UCS steels produced via the unique regime of rapid solidification, large austenite grain size, and inclusion engineering of the CASTRIP© process was investigated. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams were constructed for 0, 0.014, 0.024, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 wt% Nb containing UCS steels. Phase nomenclature for the identification of lower transformation product in low carbon steels was reviewed. Even a small addition of 0.014 wt% Nb showed a potent effect on hardenability, shifting the ferrite C-curve to the right and expanding the bainitic ferrite and acicular ferrite phase fields. Higher Nb additions increased hardenability further, suppressed the formation of ferrite to even lower cooling rates, progressively lowered the transformation start and finish temperatures and promoted the transformation of bainite instead of acicular ferrite. The latter was due to Nb suppressing the formation of allotriomorphic ferrite and allowing bainite to nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries, a lower energy site than that for the intragranular nucleation of acicular ferrite at inclusions. Strength and hardness increased with increasing Nb additions, largely due to microstructural strengthening and solid solution hardening, but not from precipitation hardening.

  18. The Determining Role of Finish Cooling Temperature on the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Behavior in an Nb-V-Ti Microalloyed Steel in the Context of Newly Developed Ultrafast Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhaodong; Deng, Xiangtao; Wang, Guodong; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied here the impact of finish cooling temperature on the microstructural evolution and precipitation behavior in Nb-V-Ti microalloyed steel through thermo-mechanical simulation in the context of newly developed ultrafast cooling system. The microstructural evolution was studied in terms of morphology and crystallography of precipitates using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. At finish cooling temperature of 933 K and 893 K (660 °C and 620 °C), the microstructure primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite, together with a small amount of wedge-shaped acicular ferrite and lamellar pearlite, while, at 853 K and 813 K (580 °C and 540 °C), the microstructure consisted of lath bainite with fine interlath cementite and granular bainite with martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. In all the finish cooling temperatures studied, the near-spherical precipitates of size range ~2 to 15 nm were randomly dispersed in ferrite and bainite matrix. The carbide precipitates were identified as (Nb,V)C with NaCl-type crystal structure. With a decrease in the finish cooling temperature, the size of the precipitates was decreased, while the number density first increased with a peak at 893 K (620 °C) and then decreased. Using Ashby-Orowan model, the contribution of the precipitation strengthening to yield strength was ~149 MPa at the finish cooling temperature of 893 K (620 °C).

  19. Reverse Austenite Transformation and Grain Growth in a Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Thomas; Ueda, Keiji; Militzer, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms controlling the reverse austenite transformation and the subsequent grain growth are examined in a low-carbon steel during slow continuous heating. The ex-situ metallographic analysis of quenched samples is complemented by in-situ dilatometry of the phase transformation and real-time laser ultrasonic measurements of the austenite grain size. Although the initial state of the microstructure (bainite or martensite) has only limited impact on the austenite transformation temperature, it has significant influence on the mean austenite grain size and the rate of grain growth. The coarsening of austenite islands during reverse transformation occurring from the martensitic microstructure is responsible for a large austenite grain structure at the completion of the austenite formation. On the other hand, a much finer austenite grain size is obtained when the austenite transforms from the bainite microstructure. Upon further heating, the rate of austenite grain growth is limited by the presence of nanometric precipitates present in the bainite microstructure leading to a significantly finer austenite grain size. These results give important guidance for the design of thermomechanical-controlled processing of heavy-gage steel plates.

  20. Effects of Cr Content and Annealing Temperature on Microstructure and Wear Characteristics of Cast Ausferrite Nodular Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-peng ZOU; Kazumichi SHIMIZU; Qi-zhou CAI

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Cr content and annealing temperature on abrasive wear characteristics of cast ausferrite nodular iron were investigated with Suga type abrasive wear tester. The surface morphology and Vickers hardness of the tested samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), digital microscope and Vickers hardness tester. The results show that the cast ausferrite nodular iron could be obtained by alloying with Cr in the as-cast ductile cast iron and permanent mold casting, and the bainite con-tent in the matrix increased with increasing Cr content. However, the decomposition of bainite took place during annealing at 500 °C to 800 °C; especially, at 800 °C, the bainite transformed into a mixture of ifne lamellar pearlite and ferrite matrix structure. The wear loss of specimens was reduced with increasing Cr content in the cast ausferrite nodular iron. The wear loss of the sample cast ausferrite nodular iron with 0.4mass% Cr is the least. The wear loss began to increase while the Cr content is 0.6mass%. The wear loss of annealed ductile irons at different annealing temperatures was higher than that of as-cast samples. During the abrasive wear, the shear stress transformed austenite to martensite, and the hardness of specimens increased and the wear resistance of as-cast duc-tile cast iron was improved.

  1. Development of third generation advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Meghan Colleen

    Lightweight duplex steels with combinations of either bainite, acicular ferrite, and austenite or martensite and austenite were investigated as third generation advanced high strength steels targeted for automotive applications. Large additions of manganese (> 13 wt%) and carbon (Strength and ductility were increased while density was decreased with aluminum additions between 2.4 and 5.5 wt% to the steel. This research addressed the dependence of alloying on microstructures and mechanical behavior for high manganese and aluminum duplex steels that were cast and subsequently hot rolled. Duplex steels with different volume fractions of primary delta-ferrite were used to study the crystallography of austenite fanned during the peritectic reaction. Solute profiles across the peritectic interface showed aluminum segregated near the interface which promoted bainitic ferrite formation. Thermal treatments were used to manipulate the concentration and type of oxides and the ferrite plate density was found to correlate with inclusions of low misfit in steels with austenite grain size of 16.5 microm. A steel with bainite and acicular ferrite produced an ultimate tensile strength of 970 MPa and elongation of 40%. The mechanical prope1iies depended on the strengths and size of the microstructural constituents. Work hardening behavior was examined in a steel exhibiting multiple martensitic transformation induced plasticity (gamma-austenite→epsilon-smartensite→alpha-martensite). A strain hardening exponent as high as 1.4 was observed with ultimate tensile strength and elongation as high as 1,165 MPa and 34%.

  2. Stacking faults in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermida, J.D. [CNEA, San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    1996-06-01

    During last decade, Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) has been successfully used as an acceptable replacement material for steel in many applications, due to the relatively high strength and reasonable ductility obtained. These properties are the result of the special microstructure exhibited by this material at the end of the upper bainite reaction: ferrite platelets surrounded by high carbon stabilized austenite. However, at the beginning of the austempering treatment, the existence of interdendritic low carbon austenite is revealed by its transformation to martensite when cooling the sample or during subsequent deformation. The completion of the upper bainite reaction is of decisive importance to mechanical properties because the remaining martensite reduces ductility. It was observed that the rate of the upper bainite reaction is governed by the carbon content difference between the low and high carbon austenites. The carbon content is obtained by the lattice parameter measurement, because there exists a known expression that relates both magnitudes. Several works have used X-ray diffraction to measure the lattice parameter and phase concentrations as a function of austempering time. In these works, the lattice parameters were obtained directly from the {l_brace}220{r_brace} and {l_brace}311{r_brace} peaks position. The purpose of this work is to show more precise lattice parameters measurement and, very closely related to this, the existence of stacking faults in austenite, even at times within the processing window.

  3. Carbon Concentration of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to examine the influence of temperature and times of austempering process on the maximum extend towhich the bainite reaction can proceed and the carbon content in retained austenite. It should be noted that a small percentage change in theaustenite carbon content can have a significant effect on the subsequent austempering reaction changing the volume fraction of the phasespresent and hence, the resulting mechanical properties. Specimens were prepared from an unalloyed ductile cast iron, austenitised at 950oCfor 60 minutes and austempered by the conventional single-step austempering process at four temperatures between BS and MS, eg., 250,300, 350 and 400oC. The samples were austempered at these temperatures for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes and finally quenched toambient temperature. Volume fractions of retained austenite and carbon concentration in the residual austenite have been observed byusing X-ray diffraction. Additionally, carbon concentration in the residual austenite was calculated using volume fraction data of austeniteand a model developed by Bhadeshia based on the McLellan and Dunn quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The comparison ofexperimental data with the T0, T0' and Ae3' phase boundaries suggests the likely mechanism of bainite reaction in cast iron is displacive rather than diffusional. The carbon concentration in retained austenite demonstrates that at the end of bainite reaction the microstructure must consist of not only ausferrite but additionally precipitated carbides.

  4. Characterization of microstructural morphology of austempered ductile iron by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X L; Su, H Q; Wu, B Y; Liu, Z G

    1998-02-15

    Mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are mainly controlled by its unique microstructure. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the microstructural morphology and the phase distribution of ADI using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to determine the mechanism of strengthening and toughening of ADI. The experimental results show that, in the microstructure of ADI composing of upper bainite, retained austenite, graphitic nodule, and a small amount of martensite, the upper bainite is composed of sub-units of ferrite in the shape of "wheat ears" on which the "wheat grains" grow at an angle of about 60 degrees to the long axis of the "wheat ears." The retained austenite is connected with each other in the shape of a continuous net. The wheat-ear like bainite with a homogeneous distribution in the continuous austenite net plays an important role to the strengthening and toughening of ADI. The metastable austenite appears in the shape of a large plate in which the martensite is preferentially formed. The appearance of martensite can be suppressed at the time when retained austenite remains stable, which is of benefit to the continuity and homogeneity of austenite net.

  5. Weldability of 780 MPa Super-High Strength Heavy-Duty Truck Crossbeam Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-nan; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Chit; DU Lin-xiu; DONG Xue-xir

    2012-01-01

    CO2-shielded welding experiments of newly developed, 780 MPa super-high strength heavy-duty truck crossbeam steel were conducted, and the microstructure, microhardness, mechanical properties, and impact tough- hess of the welded joint were studied. The evolution of the microstructure of the welded joint occurred as follows.. welding seam (acicular ferrite+proeutectoid ferrite)→fusion zone (granular bainite-long strip M/A island)→coarse grain zone (granular bainite-long strip or short bar M/A island)→fine grain zone (ferrite+ pearlite+ blocky M/A is- land)→mixed grained zone (ferrite+granular bainite+blocky M/A island)→base metal (proeutectoid ferrite+gran- ular bainite-hlocky or granular M/A island). Increasing the density of the grain boundaries can effectively improve the impact toughness, and the blocky M/A island hindered crack propagation more effectively than the long strip M/A island. The new hot-rolled 780 MPa super-high strength steel had excellent weldability. The welding technology was applied under the following conditions: welding voltage was 20 to 21 V, welding current was 200 to 210 A, and the gas flow rate was 25 L/rain.

  6. Microstructures and Toughness of Weld Metal of Ultrafine Grained Ferritic Steel by Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xudong ZHANG; Wuzhu CHEN; Cheng WANG; Lin ZHAO; Yun PENG; Zhiling TIAN

    2004-01-01

    3 mm thick 400 MPa grade ultrafine grained ferritic steel plates were bead-on-plate welded by CO2 laser with heat input of 120~480 J/mm. The microstructures of the weld metal mainly consist of bainite, which form is lower bainite plates or polygonal ferrite containing quantities of dispersed cementite particles, mixed with a few of low carbon martensite laths or ferrite, depending on the heat input. The hardness and the tensile strength of the weld metal are higher than those of the base metal, and monotonously increase as the heat input decreases. No softened zone exists inheat affected zone (HAZ). Compared with the base metal, although the grains of laser weld are much larger, the toughness of the weld metal is higher within a large range of heat input. Furthermore, as the heat input increases, the toughness of the weld metal rises to a maximum value, at which point the percentage of lower bainite is the highest, and then drops.

  7. Friction Stir Welding of Steel: Heat Input, Microstructure, and Mechanical Property Co-relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Md. M.; Sarkar, R.; Pal, T. K.; Prabhu, N.; Ghosh, M.

    2015-09-01

    Friction stir welding was performed to join carbon steel plates at tool rotational rate of 800-1400 rpm. Microstructure and microhardness of welded specimens were evaluated across weld centerline. Torque base index, peak temperature, cooling rate, strain, strain rate, volumetric material flow rate, and width of extruded zone at weld nugget were calculated. Peak temperature at weld nugget was ~1300-1360 K. At this temperature, ferrite transformed to austenite during welding. Austenite was decomposed in to ferrite and bainite at cooling rate of ~4-7.5 K/s. The presence of bainite was endorsed by increment in microhardness with respect to base material. Ferrite grain size at weld nugget was finer in comparison to as-received alloy. With the increment in tool rotational rate strain, strain rate, total heat input, and peak temperature at weld nugget were increased. High temperature at weld nugget promoted increment in ferrite grain size and reduction in area fraction of bainite. Heat-affected zone also experienced phase transformation and exhibited enhancement in ferrite grain size in comparison to base alloy at all welding parameters with marginal drop in microhardness. Maximum joint strength was obtained at the tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm. Increment in tool rational rate reduced the joint efficiency owing to increment in ferrite grain size and reduction in pearlite area fraction at heat-affected zone.

  8. Effect of Coiling Temperature on Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of a Hot-Rolled Ferritic Lightweight Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Yang, Qi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Effects of coiling temperature (CT) ranging from 673 K to 973 K (400 °C to 700 °C) on microstructure and tensile property of a hot-rolled ferritic lightweight steel containing 0.35 wt pct C and 4.1 wt pct Al are investigated in the present study. Basically, the microstructure of the hot-rolled steel is composed of δ-ferrite grain bands and secondary phase bands which are originated from the decomposition of antecedent austenite. The secondary phase band is a bainite band at coiling temperatures (CTs) lower than 723 K (450 °C). More specifically, the bainite band mainly consists of lower bainite together with blocky retained austenite at the CT of 673 K (400 °C), while it primarily contains carbide-free bainite being an aggregate of lath-shaped ferrite and austenite at the CT of 723 K (450 °C). The secondary phase band is a carbide band which mainly contains a pearlite structure at CTs higher than 773 K (500 °C). There are three types of carbides in the steel matrix: transitional ɛ-carbide present inside lower bainite, cementite present within carbide bands as well as at the boundaries between carbide bands and δ-ferrite bands, and κ-carbide present at δ-ferrite grain boundaries which is clearly seen at CTs higher than 773 K (500 °C). The volume fraction of retained austenite reaches the peak value of 9.6 pct at the CT of 723 K (450 °C), and abruptly drops to zero when the CTs are higher than 773 K (500 °C). Lath-shaped retained austenite with a higher volume fraction induces significant enhancement of elongation through the TRIP effect, leading to a uniform elongation of 25 pct and an elongation-to-failure of 32 pct at the CT of 723 K (450 °C). Crack initiation and propagation inside the tested specimens are tracked and fracture surface is observed to help understand the deformation and fracture behavior of the hot-rolled steel.

  9. Study on Phase Transformation Rule of 12Cr2Mo1R Steel%12Cr2Mo1R钢相变规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋善玉

    2013-01-01

      The continuous cooling transformation temperature of deformation austenite of 12Cr2Mo1R steel was determined and the phase transformation rule was studied by thermal dilation method and combining with metallurgical microstructure analysis and hardness change. The results showed that in continuous cooling transformation of undeformed austenite of 12Cr2Mo1R steel, the cooling speed is less than 0.27℃/s, the microstructure is bainite+ferrite+pearlite;the cooling speed is between 0.27 and 8.4℃/s, the microstructure is bainite and more than 8.4℃/s, the microstructure is martensite+bainite. In continuous cooling transformation of the deformed austenite, the cooling speed is less than 5℃/s, the microstructure is ferrite+pearlite+bainite;the cooling speed is between 5 and 20 ℃/s, the microstructure is bainite and more than 20 ℃/s, the microstructure is martensite + bainite. The deformation accelerates the continuous phase transformation of the austenite and makes the continuous transformation temperature increase. The Cr, Mo and other alloy elements in steel improve the stability of overcooling austenite;make metastable austenite area appear in the transformation process and increase the hardenability of bainitic.%  采用热膨胀法并结合金相组织分析及硬度变化来测定12Cr2Mo1R钢变形奥氏体的连续冷却转变温度,研究了钢的相变规律,结果表明,12Cr2Mo1R钢未变形奥氏体连续冷却转变,冷却速度<0.27℃/s时,组织为贝氏体+铁素体+珠光体;在0.27~8.4℃/s之间时,组织为贝氏体;>8.4℃/s时,组织为马氏体+贝氏体。变形奥氏体连续冷却转变,冷却速度<5℃/s时,组织为铁素体+珠光体+贝氏体;在5~20℃/s之间时,主要为贝氏体组织;>20℃/s时,得到的组织为马氏体+贝氏体。形变加速了奥氏体连续相变,使连续冷却相变温度提高。钢中Cr、Mo等合金元素,提高了

  10. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  11. Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of annealing time 30, 60 and 120 min at 1000°C for quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 bronze in 10% water solution of NaCl, on the microstructure and mechanical properties. The presented results concern the species newly developed aluminum-iron-nickel bronze, with additions W and Si.In order to determine changes in the microstructure of the hardened bronze metallographic studies were performed on cylindrical samples of diameter 10 mm, on the metallographic microscope with digital image analysis, X-ray phase analysis, EDX point with the digital recording on the computer. Specified percentage of the microstructure of martensite and bainite, participation of proeutectoid α phase in the microstructure, grain size of former β phase, the amount of dissolved κ phase.It was found that in the microstructure of bronze in the cast state, there are a number of intermetallic phases of κ type. At interphase boundaries of primary intermetallic faceted precipitates, especially rich in tungsten (IM_W, nucleate and grow dendritic primary intermetallic κI phases, with chemical composition similar to the type of Fe3Si iron silicide.Dissolved, during the heating, in the β phase are all the intermediate phase included in the microstructure, with the exception of primary intermetallic phases of tungsten and κI. Prolongation of the isothermal annealing causes coagulation and coalescence of primary phases. In microstructure of the bronze after quenching obtained the α phase precipitation on the grain boundary of secondary β phase, coarse bainite and martensite, for all annealing times. With the change of annealing time are changed the relative proportions of individual phases or their systems, in the microstructure. In the microstructure of bronze, hold at temperature of 1000°C for 60 min, after quenching martensitic microstructure was obtained with the primary phases, and the least amount of bainite.

  12. Study on continuous cooling transformation of offshore platform steel FAO%海洋平台用钢E40的连续冷却转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫磊; 狄国标; 杨春卫

    2012-01-01

    The thermal dilation method was used to test CCT curves on both undeformed and deformed offshore platform steel E40, and the metallographic analysis and hardness detection are carried out. The influences of cooling rate and deforming degree on phase transformation and structure of the steel were obtained. The influences of deform processing parameter on ferrite and bainite transformation were also studied. The results show that the bainite increases and ferrite decreases with increasing cooling rate, meanwhile, the ferrite grain is fined; and with the increasing of deformation extent both the ferrite and bainite grain are fined.%采用热膨胀法测定了未变形和不同变形条件下海洋平台用钢E40的连续冷却转变曲线,对E40钢的显微组织与硬度进行观察。通过分析不同变形量及冷却速度对试验钢相变及组织的影响规律,研究了变形工艺参数对铁素体相变和贝氏体相变的影响。结果表明,随着冷却速度的增加,贝氏体量增多,铁素体量减少,铁素体的晶粒变细;随着变形量增加,铁素体与贝氏体晶粒均能得到细化。

  13. Deformation and fracture of low alloy steels at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F.; Leckie, F.A.; Muddle, B.

    1988-12-01

    This project formed part of the initiative in the AR TD program to characterize high temperature, time-dependent damage processes in low alloy steels, for use in the construction of coal-gasification plant. This project was broadly aimed at adding to the knowledge base for this bainitic form of 2.25Cr 1Mo steel, as it related to time-dependent performance at elevated temperature. Its original intention was to obtain information in specific grades of 2.25Cr 1Mo steel, in particular those containing reduced residual elements and microalloyed modifications, which were being considered as candidate materials at the time. This objective was subsequently modified, in the course of the contract period, to a more generic study of bainitic steel, using the 2.25Cr 1Mo material as a representative of the class. The main thrust of the project was directed initially at the detrimental effect of cyclic loading on creep resistance and manifesting itself in an apparently severe creep-fatigue interaction. Three subtasks were eventually identified. These are: a study of the evolution of microstructural changes in bainitic materials during steady load creep and under constant amplitude cyclic deformation, investigation of the effect of cyclic softening on the fatigue and creep strength of complex geometries, focusing on circumferentially notched bars, and investigation of the influence of environment as a possible cause of observed fatigue/elevated temperature interaction through its effects on crack initiation and propagation, using EDM notched specimens tested in air and vacuum. Results are discussed. 24 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Mechanical properties of chromium steels for back up rolling rolls; Propiedades mecanicas de los aceros aleados al cromo utilizados en la fabricacion de cilindros de apoyo de trenes de laminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, A.; Belzune, F. J.; Rodirguez, C.; Torre, M.; Poveda, S.; Garcia, J.

    2003-07-01

    Back up rolling rolls are very large mechanical components which have to be designed to withstand very high contact stresses produced, under the rolling load, in the region between the working and the back up rolls, along with severe wear actions. In this investigation, the thermal treatment (bainitic isotermic quenching followed by several temper treatments) of these components is described and their most characteristic properties related to the in-service behaviour of these products are determined, using hardness, compression, fracture toughness and sliding wear tests. (Author) 7 refs.

  15. Effect of the Carbides and Matrix on the Wear Resistance of Nodular Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gumienny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the abrasive wear resistance of selected types of nodular cast iron, including ADI, cooperating with quartz sand and 100 grit abrasive paper. It has been shown that carbides in nodular cast iron cause an increase in wear resistance of 6 to 12% depending on the surface fraction of the carbides and type of the matrix. For the same unit pressure the mass loss of the cast iron cooperating with quartz sand is many times larger than the cast iron cooperating with abrasive paper. For both abrasives the highest wear resistance showed nodular cast iron with upper and lower bainite and carbides.

  16. Mössbauer studies on an AISI 1137 type steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Güler; H Akta

    2006-06-01

    An AISI 1137 type medium carbon steel was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. This steel in as received state at room temperature was ferritic. Different heat treatments on related steel exhibited different microstructures such as pearlite and bainite. Also magnetism of these product phases was determined as 32.7 T and 32.6 T relatively where ferromagnetism of ferritic phase in as received state was 33.05 T. Mössbauer parameters such as isomer shifts and % volumes were also determined before and after transformations.

  17. Transformación bainítica en aleaciones Fe-C Transformación bainítica en aleaciones Fe-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vélez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunas aleaciones Fe-C presentan una excelente combinación de tenacidad y resistencia mecánica, asociada a los productos de la reacción bainítica, que las hace útiles en la fabricación de componentes de máquinas sometidos a altos esfuerzos. Sin embargo, en nuestro medio el conocimiento de esta transformación es reducido; esto hace difícil la competitividad del sector metalmecánica en la economía globalizada. En este trabajo se hace un compendio de los conceptos básicos de la reacción bainítica, que va más allá de los textos clásicos de transformaciones de fases metálicas y considerando los últimos avances que se han realizado en su estudio. Además, se analizan los factores más importantes de la bainita tanto en aceros como en fundiciones nodulares. Se discuten los mecanismos de transformación, la cinética de reacción, las características microestructurales y las propiedades mecánicas. Elobjetivo del trabajo es difundir las nociones y técnicas requeridas para la implementación de esta transformación de fase, buscando promover el desarrollo de productos bainíticos.Some alloys Fe-C have an excellent combination of toughness and strength, related to bainitic reaction products, being useful in manufacturing of machine components subjected to high stresses. However, in our medium the knowledge of this transformation is reduced; it makes difficult a competition of industrial sector in the global economy. In this work it has been made a summary of basic issues of bainitic reaction, further to the review of classic books of phase transformations and considering last advances that it has been realized in its study. In addition, it’s compiled the issues more important of bainite as in steels as much as in ductile irons. It is discussed the reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetic, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties. The goal is diffuse notions and techniques required to implantation of this phase

  18. Austenite formation during intercritical annealing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lis; J. Lis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is the effect of the soft annealing of initial microstructure of the 6Mn16 steel on the kinetics of the austenite formation during next intercritical annealing.Design/methodology/approach: Analytical TEM point analysis with EDAX system attached to Philips CM20 was used to evaluate the concentration of Mn, Ni and Cr in the microstructure constituents of the multiphase steel and mainly Bainite- Martensite islands.Findings: The increase in soft annealing time from 1-60 hou...

  19. Influence of Hot Deformation and Subsequent Austempering on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled Multiphase Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang LI; Di WU

    2006-01-01

    Influence of hot deformation and subsequent austempering on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel was investigated. Thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill, where three different kinds of finishing rolling reduction, and austemperings with various isothermal holding duration were applied. The results have shown that a multiphase microstructure consisting of polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes. Mechanical properties increase with increasing the amount of deformation because of the stabilization of retained austenite. Ultimate tensile strength (σb), total elongation (δ)36% and 28476 MPa%, respectively) at optimal processes.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MACRO AND MICRO-STRUCTURE OF METALLIC PARTS BUILT BY LOW-POWER LASER CLADDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jichang; Li Lijun

    2005-01-01

    A low-power CO2 laser is used to deposit Fe powder and mixture of Fe and carbon powder on substrates respectively, and the macro and micro-structure of the formed samples are investigated.It is demonstrated that most grains of these samples are equi-axed. This is derived from the high nucleation velocity in the shallow melt pool besides rapid solidification of the liquid-state alloy or metal. Bainitic structure,combination of pearlite and ferrite structure and ferrite structure are seen respectively in the samples involving various amounts of carbon owing to no martensitic transformation in these small samples.

  1. Low alloy steel versus ADI – differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparison between the microstructure of selected bainitic low alloy steel and austempered ductile iron ADI are presented. The aim of the comparison was to find out differences and similarities existing in these iron carbon commercial alloys. In this paper our own results on ADI structure and literature data were used. It follows from discussion presented here that both microstructure and properties of ADI are very close that which are observed in low alloy carbon steel. Moreover, we suggest that there is no so doubt to treat ADI mechanical properties as steel containing nodular inclusions of graphite.

  2. Multi scale study of the plasticity at low temperature in {alpha}-iron: application for the cleavage; Etude multiechelle de la plasticite du fer-{alpha} a basse temperature application au clivage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussidon, J

    2007-10-15

    An accident inside a nuclear power plant may lead to the cleavage of the nuclear vessel made of bainitic steel. In order to understand the origin of this fracture, we studied BCC-iron plasticity at low temperature using numerical simulations at different scales. Molecular Dynamics simulations show the high dependency of screw dislocation motion with temperature and stress. Results from these simulations were added to experiment data to develop a new Dislocation Dynamics code dedicated to BCC iron at low temperature. The code was used to model plasticity into a ferritic lath for various temperatures. This work confirms that cleavage is favoured by low temperatures. (author)

  3. Experimental Study of Microstructure Evolution during Tempering of Quenched Steel and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; YAO Ke-fu; CHEN Nan; WANG Hong-peng

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during tempering of quenched steel was studied via dilatometric experiments.Temperature ranges of transformation were determined by a relative dilation curve. The thermal expansion coefficient of quenched steel was defined as a function of temperature. The transformation expansion is determined by subtracting thermal expansion from a measured diameter dilation curve. A kinetic equation based on tempering parameter was proposed to predict the microstructure evolution fraction of martensite and bainite of Ni3.5CrMoV and C45 steel. The kinetic equation was used in an in-house FEM code. The internal stress evolution of a quenched generator rotor was investigated.

  4. 含钒超级贝氏体钢组织和性能研究%Research on Microstructure and Property of V-alloyed Superbainite Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐光; 杨静; 邹航; 补丛华; 操龙飞

    2011-01-01

    A new bainite steel with low carbon and low alloy additions is designed and refined in laboratory. The phase transformation test at air cooling condition is carried out on Gleebe -1500 thermal simulator. Bainite transformation range is decided according to the dilation curve and microstructure. Then isothermal processing tests are performed at different temperatures and resulting microstructures are observed. According to the isothermical processing test results the samples are treated by isothermal heat treatment at 320 ℃ for different time. The following tensile tests indicate that the steel has a good comprehensive property with the ultimate strength of 1 182 Mpa and total elongation of 19.0%. The research results demonstrate that bainite microstructure and good strength and toughness can be obtained through short-time bainite transformation.%设计并在实验室冶炼了一种低碳、低合金含量的新型含钒贝氏体钢,在Gleebe - 1500热模拟实验机上进行模拟空冷相变实验,根据冷却过程中的热膨胀曲线和冷却后的金相组织,确定出贝氏体转变温度区间.在此基础上,选择不同的热处理温度对实验钢进行等温处理,检验热处理后的组织,根据不同温度热处理后的组织和贝氏体转变温度区间,在320℃下对实验钢种进行贝氏体低温等温转变处理,观察等温处理后试样的金相组织,并进行拉伸实验,得到抗拉强度为1 182 MPa,延伸率为19%的良好综合性能.研究结果表明,所设计的新型超级贝氏体钢经过低温等温转变处理可得到贝氏体组织,具备优良的综合性能.

  5. Experimental Study of Microstructure Evolution during Tempering of Quenched Steel and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIWei; YAOKe-fu; CHENNan; WANGHong-peng

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during tempering of quenched steel was studied via dilatometric experiments.Temperature ranges of transformation were determined by a relative dilation curve. The thermal expansion coefficient of quenched steel was defined as a function of temperature. The transformation expansion is determined by subtracting thermal expansion from a measured diameter dilation curve. A kinetic equation based on tempering parameter was proposed to predict the microstructure evolution fraction of martensite and bainite of Ni3.SCrMoV and C45 steel. The kinetic equation was used in an in-house FEM code. The internal stress evolution of a quenched generator rotor was investigated.

  6. Effects of various austempering temperatures on fatigue properties in ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, S. [Marmara University, Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Findik, F. [Materials Technology Department, Technical Education Faculty, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)]. E-mail: findik@sakarya.edu.tr; Topuz, P. [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Metallurgy and Material, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Austempering is an isothermal heat treatment which when applied to ferrous materials, produces a structure that is stronger and tougher than comparable structures produced with conventional heat treatments. In this paper, ductile iron specimens were applied to various austempering temperatures and interpreted fatigue properties. In this test, Denison 7615 fatigue machine was used for doing double sided bending stresses. The iron was austenitized at 900 deg. C and then austempered at 235, 300 and 370 deg. C for 2 h within a salt bath to obtain various austempered microstructures. Also, the fatigue properties of the bainitic structures which occurred by austempering are examined by scanning electron microscope.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of CuNiMo austempered ductile iron

    OpenAIRE

    Erić Olivera; Jovanović Marina P.; Šiđanin Leposava P.; Rajnović Dragan M.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu, Ni and Mo alloyed cast ductile iron have been investigated after austempering. Samples were austenitised at 860oC for 1h and then austempered at 320oC and 400oC in the interval from 0,5 to 5h. The X-ray diffraction technique and the light microscopy were utilized to investigate the bainitic transformation, while tensile and impact tests were performed for characterization of mechanical properties. By austempering at 320oC in the range between 2 ...

  8. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.C. [Kuang Wu Inst. of Tech. and Commerce, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  9. Metallographic investigation of ADU materials; Metallographische Charakterisierung von ADI-Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, L. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. for Production Engineering; Novovic, M. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. for Production Engineering; Smallman, R.E. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials

    1996-01-01

    The microstructure of austempered ductile ion (ADI) was investigated using conventional light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural variations arising from variations of composition and austempering processing parameters are discussed. Specimens with a microstructure consisting of carbide-free bainitic ferrite and retained austenite show promising mechanical properties. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Gefuege von zwischenstufenverguetetem Gusseisen mit Kugelgraphit (ADI) wird licht-, rasterelektronen- und transmissionselektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Die Gefuegeaenderungen, die durch unterschiedliche Zusammensetzung und Veraenderungen der Waermebehandlungsparamter verursacht werden, werden diskutiert. Die guenstigsten mechanischen Eigenschaften liefert ein Gefuege aus carbidfreiem bainitischem Ferrit und Restaustenit. (orig.)

  10. Effects of matrix structures on fracture mechanisms of austempered ductile cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Shigeru; Matsufuji, Kenichi [Oita Univ. (Japan); Mitsunaga, Koichi [Kagoshima Junior Womens College (Japan); Takahara, Masao [Isuzu Motors, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    On the fatigue behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron (so called ADI), rotating fatigue tests in very high cycle region were performed. The S-N curve represented the double bending. This behavior is caused by the high cycle (>10{sup 7} cycles) fracture, and called the complex three region fractures. The main reason is the work hardening in the surface layer. Therefore, it was removed by electropolishing the surface layer with work hardening. The S-N curve did not show the double bending mentioned above. The fatigue strength with bainitic structure of electropolished ADI was higher than those of mother pearlitic structure.

  11. Fatigue behaviour of cast iron with globular graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, P.; Pusch, G.; Krodel, L. [Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Cast iron with bainitic matrix and globular graphite, so called austempered ductile iron (ADI), allows the substitution of heat-treatable steels. The use of ADI in safety-relevant components requires knowledge of the fracture and fatigue behaviour. Cyclic stress strain behaviour and fatigue life at total strain control and random loading have been investigated at ADI (EN-GJS-1000-5) and pearlitic cast iron (EN-GJS-600-3). In addition fracture mechanic tests at cyclic loading at various stress ratios were carried out. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Method for the calculation of volumetric fraction of retained austenite through the software for analysis of digital images; Metodo para o calculo da fracao volumetrica de austenita retida atraves do software de analise digital de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, S.; Costa, F.H.; Hashimoto, T.M.; Pereira, M.S., E-mail: sandro_Lombardo@hotmail.co [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Abdalla, A.J. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    2010-07-01

    In order to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in aeronautic multiphase steels, it was used a digital analysis software for image processing. The materials studied were steels AISI 43XX with carbon content between 30, 40 and 50%, heat treated by conventional quenching and isothermal cooling in bainitic and intercritical region, characterized by optical microscopy, etching by reagent Sodium Metabisulfite (10%) for 30 seconds, with forced drying. The results were compared with the methods of X-Ray Diffraction and Magnetic Saturation through photomicrographs, showing that with this technic it is possible to quantify the percentage of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix, in the different types of steels. (author)

  13. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  14. Effect of Aluminum and Silicon on Transformation Induced Plasticity of the TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LI; B.C. De Cooman; P. Wollants; Yanlin HE; Xiaodong ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    With the sublattice model, equilibrium compositions of ferrite (α) and austenite (γ) phases, as well as the volume percent of austenite (γ) at 780℃ in different TRIP steels were calculated. Concentration profiles of carbon, Mn, Al and Si in the steels were also estimated under the lattice fixed frame of reference so as to understand the complex mechanical behavior of TRIP steels after different isothermal bainitic transformation treatments. The effect of Si and Mn on transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) was discussed according to thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. It is recognized that Al also induces phase transformation in the steels but its TRIP effect is not as strong as that of Si.

  15. Effect of Austenite Deformation on Continuous Cooling Transformation Microstructures for 22CrSH Gear Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-xin; JIANG Ying-tian; XU Xu-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    The effect of compressive deformation of austenite on continuous cooling transformation microstructures for 22CrSH gear steel has been investigated using a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator. The experimental results show that the deformation of austenite promotes the formation of proeutectoid ferrite and pearlite, and leads to the increase of critical cooling rate of proeutectoid ferrite plus pearlite microstructure. The grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite occupies the austenite grain surfaces when the prior deformation takes place or the cooling rate is decreased, which causes a transition from bainite to acicular ferrite. The deformation enhances the stability of transformation from austenite to acicular ferrite, which results in an increase of M/A constituent.

  16. Micro Structural Comparison of Friction Stir Weldment and Shielded Metal Arc Welding in API-X65 Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shahinfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and microhardness properties of the friction stir welded zones and shielded metal arc welded. Microstructural analysis of the weld was carried out using optical microscopy. Under FSW process base metal microstructure fully changed. Different heat inputs were obtained using a fix travel (welding speed in combination with several spindle speeds. Heat input during welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties in the various weld regions.it can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone hardness increase.

  17. Transformation Behavior and Microstructure in a 40Cr2Ni2MoV Cast Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Liu; Zhenbo Zhao; Sanjiwan. D. Bhole1; Derek O. Northwood

    2004-01-01

    The transformation behavior of a 40Cr2Ni2MoV cast steel manufactured by electroslag remelting (ESR) has been investigated. Compared to a forged steel, the incubation periods for both the pearlite and bainite transformations are shorter, but the transformation times are longer. The austenite is easier to transform into martensite. Optical microscopy and TEM indicated that there were variations in microstructure during the super-cooled austenite transformation. This is attributed to an inhomogeneous austenite, resulting from the segregation of elements during the ESR solidification.

  18. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  19. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Austempering SUS440 Steel Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUS440 is a high-carbon stainless steel, and its martensite matrix has high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high pressure resistance. It has been widely used in mechanical parts and critical materials. However, the SUS440 martempered matrix has reliability problems in thin plate applications and thus research uses different austempering heat treatments (tempering temperature: 200 °C–400 °C to obtain a matrix containing bainite, retained austenite, martensite, and the M7C3 phase to investigate the relationships between the resulting microstructure and tensile mechanical properties. Experimental data showed that the austempering conditions of the specimen affected the volume fraction of phases and distribution of carbides. After austenitizing heat treatment (1080 °C for 30 min, the austempering of the SUS440 thin plates was carried out at a salt-bath temperature 300 °C for 120 min and water quenching was then used to obtain the bainite matrix with fine carbides, with the resulting material having a higher tensile fracture strength and average hardness (HRA 76 makes it suitable for use as a high-strength thin plate for industrial applications.

  20. Assessment of the Critical Parameters Influencing the Edge Stretchability of Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.

    2016-11-01

    The edge formability of ferritic-martensitic DP (dual-phase) and ferritic-bainitic CP (complex-phase) steels was evaluated using a hole expansion test for different edge conditions. Hole expansion tests involving the standard conical punch as well as a custom flat punch were performed to investigate formability when the hole is expanded out-of-plane (conical punch) and in-plane using the flat punch. A range of edge conditions were considered, in order to isolate the influence of a range of factors thought to influence edge formability. The results demonstrate that work hardening and void damage at the sheared edge govern formability, while the sheared surface quality plays a minor or secondary role. A comparison of the edge stretching limits of DP and CP steels demonstrates the advantages of a ferritic-bainitic microstructure for forming operations with severe local deformation as in a stretch-flanging operation. A comparison of a traditional DP780 steel with a CP steel of similar strength showed that the edge stretching limit of the CP steel was three times larger than that of the DP780.

  1. Network structure and its effects on the strength of Fe-C-Si-Mn alloy castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ding-fei; PENG Jian; XU Xing-zhi

    2004-01-01

    Fe-C-Si-Mn alloy castings used as blades in hydroelectric generators are studied and found to contain network structures after some heat treatments. Castings after annealing and normalizing were analyzed by microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The network formed during annealing was proved by TEM to be pearlite with very fine slices, while that formed during normalizing was proved by TEM and micro-hardness to be martensite or bainite. A theoretical analysis together with experimental studies has proved that the pearlite network is caused by carbon content increase in the interdendritic regions to which carbon atoms transfered from dendritic arms due to lower manganese content there during annealing, while the martensite or bainite network results from the higher hardenability of interdendritic regions where manganese content is higher.Experiments reveal that higher heating temperature or longer heating time enlarges the network size due to manganese homogenization. The network structure has a strengthening function like reinforcing rib, and the smaller the network size, the greater its strengthening capability.

  2. On-line spheroidization process of medium-carbon low-alloyed cold heading steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fu; Hao Yu; Pan Tao

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally manufactured 35CrMo cold heading steel must undergo spheroidization annealing before the cold heading process. In this paper, different types of deformation processes with various controlled cooling periods were operated to achieve on-line spheroidal cementite using the Gleeble-3500 simulation technique. According to the measured dynamic ferrite transformation temperature (Ad3), the deformation could be divided into two types:low temperature deformation at 810 and 780°C;“deformation-induced ferrite transformation”(DIFT) deformation at 750 and 720°C. Compared with the low temperature deformation, the DIFT deformation followed by accelerated cooling to 680°C is beneficial for the formation of spheroidal cementite. Samples subjected to both the low-temperature deformation and DIFT deformation can obtain granular bainite by accelerated cooling to 640°C;the latter may contribute to the formation of a fine dispersion of secondary constituents. Granular bainite can transform into globular pearlite rapidly during subcritical annealing, and the more the dis-perse phase, the more homogeneously distributed globular cementite can be obtained.

  3. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  4. Effects of Microstructure on CVN Impact Toughness in Thermomechanically Processed High Strength Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Zhou, Yanlei; Jia, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Zhaodong

    2017-02-01

    Investigation on the correlation between microstructure and CVN impact toughness is of practical importance for the microstructure design of high strength microalloyed steels. In this work, three steels with characteristic microstructures were produced by cooling path control, i.e., steel A with granular bainite (GB), steel B with polygonal ferrite (PF) and martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent, and steel C with the mixture of bainitic ferrite (BF), acicular ferrite (AF), and M-A constituent. Under the same alloy composition and controlled rolling, similar ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures were obtained for the three steels. Steel A achieved the highest upper shelf energy (USE), while large variation of impact absorbed energy has been observed in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. With apparently large-sized PF and M-A constituent, steel B shows the lowest USE and delamination phenomenon in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. Steel C exhibits an extended upper shelf region, intermediate USE, and the fastest decrease of impact absorbed energy in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. The detailed CVN impact behavior is studied and then linked to the microstructural features.

  5. Effect of vanadium on the precipitation strengthening upon tempering of a high-strength pipe steel with different initial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, O. V.; Kruglova, A. A.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of metallography, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies were used to study the structure of two pipe steels (without vanadium and with 0.03% vanadium) subjected to γ → α isothermal transformation at temperatures of 400-600°C (initial structure) and tempering at 600-650°C. It has been found that the addition of 0.03% vanadium intensifies the process of the precipitation of ferrite and contributes to the formation of a granular structure. It has been shown that, in high-strength pipe steels with 0.03% vanadium, which have bainitic granular-type structures, the effect of the precipitation strengthening is effected upon subsequent high-temperature tempering at 600-630°; the addition of vanadium leads to an increase in the hardness by 16 HV. In the presence of bainite of the lath type in the initial structure, the subsequent tempering leads to a softening associated with the processes of the recovery, polygonization, and initial stages of recrystallization in situ, which develops at temperatures above 640°C. It has been found that the hardness of the steel without vanadium upon additional tempering decreases regardless of the morphology of structural constituents in the initial structure.

  6. Structural causes of defects in a cast iron mill roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis of a defective microstructure of a mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll was collected. That roll was made of mottled cast iron. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed nearby the fracture in the roll. Observations were conducted on polished sections, first not etched, and then etched, which allowed us to trace carefully the propagation of the fracture. There was found a strict correlation between the microstructure of the roll and the progress occurring in the crack. It was ascertained that the basic reason for the damage to the roll was banded precipitations of ledeburitic cementite. In addition, cementite formed a continuous network. Another microstructure defects of that roll are also precipitations of secondary carbides on the boundaries of former grain of austenite as well as the occurrence of upper bainite in its matrix. The results obtained hereunder allow broadening the data base relative to the genesis of damages to mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design a proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls. Proper microstructure of cast iron mill roll should be shaped at the stage of designing the chemical composition, conditions of crystallization or heat treatment if any.

  7. Wear Behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron with Nanosized Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaleicheva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI strengthened with nanosized addtives of titanium nitride + titanium carbonitride (TiN + TiCN, titanium nitride TiN and cubic boron nitride cBN are investigated. The TiN, TiCN and cBN, nanosized particles are coated by electroless nickel coating EFTTOM-NICKEL prior to the edition to the melt. The spheroidal graphite iron samples are undergoing an austempering, including heating at 900 оС for an hour, after that isothermal retention at 280 оС, 2 h and 380 оС, 2h. The metallographic analysis by optical metallographic microscope GX41 OLIMPUS and hardness measurements by Vickers Method are performed. The structure of the austempered ductile iron consists of lower bainite and upper bainite.Experimental investigation of the wear by fixed abrasive are also carried out. The influence of the nanosized additives on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the austempered ductile irons (ADI is studied.

  8. Influence of Heat Input on Microstructure and Toughness Properties in Simulated CGHAZ of X80 Steel Manufactured Using High-Temperature Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Han, Jian; Li, Huijun

    2015-11-01

    To determine and demonstrate the weldability of high-Nb high-temperature processed (HTP) steels and provide extremely valuable information for future line pipe steel design and general steel manufacture, in the current study the toughness in simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of an X80 grade steel manufactured using HTP was evaluated. The simulated CGHAZs subjected to thermal cycles with various heat inputs (HIs) (0.8 to 5.0 kJ/mm) were produced using a Gleeble 3500 simulator. The microstructures and corresponding mechanical properties were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, hardness testing, and Charpy V-notch (CVN) testing. The microstructural examination shows that the simulated CGHAZs consisted of a bainite-dominant microstructure and relatively low amount (testing suggest that superior toughness can be achieved in the studied range of HIs (0.8 to 5 kJ/mm). This is thought to be associated with the combined effects of bainitic microstructure and low M-A fraction as well as comparatively fine austenite grain size in the studied CGHAZs.

  9. Effect of welding conditions on transformation and properties of heat-affected zones in LWR (light-water reactor) vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Mohammed, S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Welding Research and Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    The continuous cooling transformation behavior (CCT) and isothermal transformation (IT) behavior were determined for SA-508 and SA-533 materials for conditions pertaining to standard heat treatment and for the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The resulting diagrams help to select welding conditions that produce the most favorable microconstituent for the development of optimum postweld heat treatment (PWHT) toughness levels. In the case of SA-508 and SA-533, martensite responds more favorably to PWHT than does bainite. Bainite is to be avoided for the optimum toughness characteristics of the HAZ. The reheat cracking tendency for both steels was evaluated by metallographic studies of simulated HAZ structures subjected to PWHT cycles and simultaneous restraint. Both SA-533, Grade B, Class 1, and SA-508, Class 2, cracked intergranularly. The stress rupture parameter (the product of the stress for a rupture life of 10 min and the corresponding reduction of area) calculated for both steels showed that SA-508, Class 2, was more susceptible to reheat cracking than SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Cold cracking tests (Battelle Test and University of Tennessee modified hydrogen susceptibility test) indicated that a higher preheat temperature is required for SA-508, Class 2, to avoid cracking than is required for SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Further, the Hydrogen Susceptibility Test showed that SA-508, Class 2, is more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than is SA-533, Grade B, Class 1.

  10. Improvement in the production of cylinder shirt of inner diesel combustion engines; Mejoras en la construccion de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustion interna ciclo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Perez, F.; Barroso-Moreno, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system piston segment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project. (Author)

  11. High performance low cost steels with ultrafine grained and multi-phased microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafine grained ferrite was obtained through tempering cold rolled martensite with an average grain size of 200―400 nm in a low carbon and a microalloyed steel. Thermal and mechanical stability of the two steels was studied. Due to the pinning effect of microalloyed precipitates on the movement of dislocations and grain boundaries, the recrystallization and grain growth rate were retarded, and the thermal stability of ultrafine grained microstructure was improved. The ultrafine grained ferritic steel was strengthened, but its strain hardening rate was reduced. It seems that the tiny carbide precipitates have no significant effect on work hardening rate. The ultrafine grained ferrite+martensite dual phase microstructure was obtained in the microalloyed steel through intercritically annealing cold rolled martensite. The resulting multiphase microstructure has a tensile strength higher than 1.0 GPa with a yield ratio lower than 0.7. Another type of multiphase microstructure with nanoscaled lath bainite+ retained austenite was obtained through an isothermal heat treatment in low temperature bainite transformation region in high carbon steel. The tensile strength was as high as 1.64 GPa with a yield ratio of 0.84.

  12. Study of the mechanical properties of low carbon content HSLA steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illescas, S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two high strength low alloy steels (HSLA with the same bulk composition and slight microalloying content differences were studied. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effect of different heat treatments and the influence of vanadium (V on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the bainite present in each steel. For that purpose, standard tests were conducted to determine the hardness, toughness, tensile and yield stress of the different bainite-acicular ferrite structures found in both steels. The results show how the V content promoted the formation of acicular ferrite, resulting in a decrease in hardness and tensile strength while improving toughness.

    Se han estudiado dos aceros HSLA (high strength low alloy que presentan composiciones similares, a excepción del contenido en elementos microaleantes. El propósito del estudio es determinar el efecto del tratamiento térmico y la influencia del contenido en vanadio (V sobre la microestructura y las propiedades mecánicas de la bainita en cada uno de los aceros. Para ello, se han realizado ensayos de dureza, de impacto y de tracción para cada una de las estructuras bainíticas-ferrita acicular obtenidas por medio de los diferentes tratamientos térmicos realizados. Los resultados muestran como el contenido en V promueve la formación de ferrita acicular, presentando valores bajos de dureza y resistencia mecánica pero mejorando la tenacidad.

  13. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to {approx}14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with {approx}25% {delta}-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature.

  14. Determination of bearing steel heat treatment with the use of the acoustic emission method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Z. Woźniak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the control of an extremely important stage of the martensitic-bainitic austempering and obtaining the M-B structure in the 100CrMnSi6-4 steel with the use of the acoustic emission (AE has been undertaken. In order to enrich retained austenite with carbon,steels are austempered at appropriately low temperatures. A martensitic transformation, resulting from diffusionless and displacive transformation is associated with significant AE signs. The strain energy produced during growth due to the shape change is reduced by plastic deformation. Predominant source of (AE is the movement of dislocations in order to relieve internal stresses.The heat treatment was performed in a modern, purpose-constructed device which simultaneously records acoustic emission effects. The signals were recorded with the use of an AE analyzer 20–800 kHz, and they were received by means of a broadband piezoelectric transducer with the use of a specialist card with a sampling frequency of 1200 kHz. The results regarding a correlation of austempering temperature and the maximum number of AE events and dilatometric results have been presented. This parameter can be used for precise Ms temperatureestimation. Basing on microstructural investigations, it has been found that previously formed martensite with midrib morphology alsoaccelerates the bainitic transformation.

  15. Determination of bearing steel heat treatment with the use of the acoustic emission method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Wozniak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the control of an extremely important stage of the martensitic-bainitic austempering and obtaining the M-B structure in the 100CrMnSi6-4 steel with the use of the acoustic emission (AE has been undertaken. In order to enrich retained austenite with carbon, steels are austempered at appropriately low temperatures. A martensitic transformation, resulting from diffusionless and displacive transformation is associated with significant AE signs. The strain energy produced during growth due to the shape change is reduced by plastic deformation. Predominant source of (AE is the movement of dislocations in order to relieve internal stresses.The heat treatment was performed in a modern, purpose-constructed device which simultaneously records acoustic emission effects. The signals were recorded with the use of an AE analyzer 20–800 kHz, and they were received by means of a broadband piezoelectric transducer with the use of a specialist card with a sampling frequency of 1200 kHz. The results regarding a correlation of austempering temperature and the maximum number of AE events and dilatometric results have been presented. This parameter can be used for precise Ms temperature estimation. Basing on microstructural investigations, it has been found that previously formed martensite with midrib morphology also accelerates the bainitic transformation.

  16. Effect of Cooling Method on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Rolled C-Si-Mn TRIP Steel%Effect of Cooling Method on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Rolled C-Si-Mn TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-yuan; ZHANG Zi-cheng; ZHU Fu-xian; LI Yan-mei; Manabe Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The controlled cooling technology following hot rolling process is a vital factor that affects the final micro- structure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. In the present study, low alloy C-Si-Mn TRIP steel was successfully fabricated by hot rolling process with a 4450 hot roiling mill. To maximize the volume fraction and stability of retained austenite of the steel, two different cooling methods (aircooling and ultra-fast cooling "AC-UFC" and ultrmfast cooling, air cooling and ultra-fast cooling "UFC-AC-UFC") were conducted. The effects of the cooling method on the microstructure of hot-rolled TRIP steel were investigated via optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscope. The mechanical properties of the steel were also evaluated by conventional tensile test. The results indicated that ferrite and bainite in the microstructure were refined with the cooling method of UFC-AC-UFC. The morphology of retained austenite was also changed from small islands distributing in bainite district (obtained with AC-UFC) to granular shape locating at the triple junction of the ferrite grain boundaries (obtained with UFC-AC-UFC). As a result, the TRIP steel with a content of retained austenite of 11. 52%, total elongation of 32% and product of tensile strength and total elongation of 27 552 MPa·% was obtained.

  17. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of low alloyed Ni-Mo-Cu austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosnjak, B.

    2000-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of austempering temperature and austempering time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low alloyed Ni-Mo-Cu ductile iron. The effect of austempering parameters and alloying additions on the austemperability of treated ductile iron has been estimated, too. Specimens were austenitised at 900 degree C for 120 mm, then austempered for 10, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 mm at 300, 350 and 400 degree C respectively, and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The structure consisted of bainitic ferrite containing retained austenite. the amount of which increased, and the carbon content of which decreased, with increasing austempering temperature. The carbon content of austenite has been evaluated by measuring the lattice parameter by X-ray diffraction. After short periods of austempering time in iron, the carbon content of the retained austenite decreases and on subsequent cooling to room temperature it transforms to martensite. The volume fractions of retained austenite, bainitic ferrite, martensite and austenite carbon content was correlated with microstructural changes and mechanical properties. Optimum properties are obtained at intermediate austempering periods (120-240 mm) when both the amount of retained austenite and austenite carbon content are maximum. (author)

  18. Dependence of fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron on austempering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.P. [Karnatak Regional Engineering Coll. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Putatunda, S.K. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Ductile cast iron samples were austenitized at 927 C and subsequently austempered for 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours at 260 C, 288 C, 316 C, 343 C, 371 C, and 399 C. These were subjected to a plane strain fracture toughness test. Fracture toughness was found to initially increase with austempering temperature, reach a maximum, and then decrease with further rise in temperature. The results of the fracture toughness study and fractographic examination were correlated with microstructural features such as bainite morphology, the volume fraction of retained austenite, and its carbon content. It was found that fracture toughness was maximized when the microstructure consisted of lower bainite with about 30 vol pct retained austenite containing more than 1.8 wt pct carbon. A theoretical model was developed, which could explain the observed variation in fracture toughness with austempering temperature in terms of microstructural features such as the width of the ferrite blades and retained austenite content. A plot of K{sub IC}{sup 2} against {sigma}, (X{sub {gamma}}C{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} resulted in a straight line, as predicted by the model.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of CuNiMo austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erić Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu, Ni and Mo alloyed cast ductile iron have been investigated after austempering. Samples were austenitised at 860oC for 1h and then austempered at 320oC and 400oC in the interval from 0,5 to 5h. The X-ray diffraction technique and the light microscopy were utilized to investigate the bainitic transformation, while tensile and impact tests were performed for characterization of mechanical properties. By austempering at 320oC in the range between 2 and 5h, a microstructure typical for austempered ductile iron was produced, i.e. a mixture of free bainitic ferrite and highly carbon enriched retained austenite. The characteristic of the whole range of austempering at 400oC is the appearance of martensitic structure. The maximum impact energy (133 J coincides with the maximum value of volume fraction of retained austenite that was obtained after 2,5h of austempering at 320oC. The appearance of martensite during austempering at 400oC is the main cause for much lower tensile properties than at 320oC.

  20. Influence of slit depth on impact value of ferritic nodular graphite cast iron. Feraito kyujo kokuen chutetsu no shogekichi ni oyobosu suritto fukasa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, H. (Himegi Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-10-15

    Impact experiment and fracture surface observations were carried out in order to study the effect of slit depth on the impact value during austempering of ferrite spheroidal graphite east iron. The tensile strength has been increased by austempering, however the impact value was not improved. The bending strength of slit bottom for each structure has been less influenced by slit depth, and it has been almost similar, The value obtained by the multiplication by binding coefficient has been higher than yield strength in case of ferrite structure, and it has been lower in case of bainitic structure. Cleavage facets along with the large dimples originating from graphites and small dimples from inclursions, have been observed on the impact fracture surface of ferrite structure, however in general, the fracture has been ductile. The deformation around the graphite has been small for bainitic structure, pseudo brittleness type fracture surface is formed, and has been less rough compared to ferrite structure. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Dependence of fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron on austempering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Prasad; Putatunda, Susil K.

    1998-12-01

    Ductile cast iron samples were austenitized at 927 °C and subsequently austempered for 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours at 260 °C, 288 °C, 316 °C, 343 °C, 371 °C, and 399 °C. These were subjected to a plane strain fracture toughness test. Fracture toughness was found to initially increase with austempering temperature, reach a maximum, and then decrease with further rise in temperature. The results of the fracture toughness study and fractographic examination were correlated with microstructural features such as bainite morphology, the volume fraction of retained austenite, and its carbon content. It was found that fracture toughness was maximized when the microstructure consisted of lower bainite with about 30 vol pct retained austenite containing more than 1.8 wt pct carbon. A theoretical model was developed, which could explain the observed variation in fracture toughness with austempering temperature in terms of microstructural features such as the width of the ferrite blades and retained austenite content. A plot of K {/IC 2} against σ y ( X γ, C γ)1/2 resulted in a straight line, as predicted by the model.

  2. Effects of Alloy Element and Microstructure on Corrosion Resistant Property of Deposited Metals of Weathering Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ming XIAO; Yun PENG; Cheng-yong MA; Zhi-ling TIAN

    2016-01-01

    Alloy element and microstructure are key factors that dominate mechanical and corrosion resistant properties of weathering steel.The effect of Mo on microstructure,mechanical properties and corrosion resistant property of depos-ited metal was investigated.Experimental results show that with the increase of Mo content in deposited metals,the phase transformation temperature decreases,and the ferrite zone in CCT diagram moves rightward,resulting in en-larged bainite zone and reduced ferrite and pearlite zone.The addition of 0�24 mass% Mo in deposited metal results in the increase of tensile strength,more M-A constituent and less high angle grain which reduce the low temperature toughness.It is found that Mo can raise the weathering resistance of deposited metal in industrial atmosphere.Analy-sis indicates that Mo may enrich in the inner rust layer,produce MoO3 ,enhance the formation of compact rust film and impede the anode dissolution reaction.Granular bainite in deposited metals displays better corrosion resistance than acicular ferrite during the initial corrosion stage,but its long-term influence on the corrosion resistance is limited.

  3. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Weng Lan Lee [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  4. Superbainita. Una nueva microestructura bainítica de alta resistencia Superbainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Mateo, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work very recent results are shown that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150°C, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainitic ferrite (20-40 nm thickness and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV and strong (2.5 GPa.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de investigaciones muy recientes que revelan la posibilidad de obtener bainita por transformación isotérmica a temperaturas muy bajas, del orden de 150 °C, en aceros de alto carbono y silicio. La microestructura así obtenida no tiene cementita y está formada por placas de ferrita bainítica extremadamente finas (20-40 nm de espesor y láminas delgadas de austenita enriquecida en carbono. Estas microestructuras son extraordinariamente duras (600 HV y resistentes (2,5 GPa

  5. Development of Non-Quenched Prehardened Steel for Large Section Plastic Mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yi; WU Xiao-chun; MIN Yong-an; ZHU Zhu; WANG Hong-bin

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of prehardened steel for large section plastic mould and save energy, a non-quenched prehardened (NQP) steel is developed. The temperature field of a large block is researched by finite ele-ment method simulation and 9 test steels are designed in the laboratory. Their microstructures and hardness are in-vestigated when they are air cooled and control cooled at cooling rate similar to the simulation. The result shows that the hardness uniformity through section is closely correlated to bainitic hardenability for the NQP steel, and the hardness of one test steel (0.27C-1.95Mn-1.04Cr-0. 45Mo-0.1V) fluctuates between HRC 40 and 43 under both cooling conditions. The test steel has better machinability compared with C45 steel, and the NQP steel is produced successfully in the factory based on the laboratory results. Its microstructure is bainite, and it is distributed uniformly through the size of 460 mm×800 mm×3 200 mm.

  6. 焊接热输入对 Q890钢焊缝金属组织及韧性的影响%Effect of heat input on microstructure and toughness of weld metal for Q890 steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔冰; 彭云; 彭梦都; 宋威; 竺培显

    2016-01-01

    采用熔化极气体保护焊对Q890钢进行不同热输入的对接焊试验。利用金相显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、透射电镜和电子背散射衍射技术研究热输入对焊缝组织及冲击性能的影响。结果表明,3种热输入焊缝金属组织主要由板条马氏体和板条贝氏体及少量的粒状贝氏体和残留奥氏体组成。随着热输入的增加,焊缝组织中板条粗化,而粒状贝氏体逐渐增多,部分板条内析出细小针状碳化物;随着热输入的增加,焊缝分析区域内残留奥氏体量逐渐减少分别为1.2%、0.53%、0.41%。焊缝金属冲击断口形貌从韧脆混合型断裂特征向脆性断裂特征的变化,与焊缝金属冲击吸收能量变化趋势一致。%A series of measurements were carried out by means of optical microscopy , scanning electron microscopy , transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction on specimens of GMAW plates of Q 890 quenched and tempered steel to determine effect of heat input on microstructure and impact toughness of weld metal .The results reveal that microstructure of weld metal mainly consists of lathmartensite/bainite, as well as a small amount of granular bainite and retained austenite for three kinds of heat input .With the increasing of heat input, the lath structure is coarsened , while the number of granular bainite increases , and fine carbides precipitate inside lath ,and the volume fractions of retained austenite decrease in weld metal those are 1.2%, 0.53%and 0.41%,respectively.The fractograph of weld with different heat inputs shows that radiation tendency from ductile /brittle mixed fracture characteristics to brittle fracture one which is consistent with the variation tendency of Charpy impact values of welded metals .

  7. Effects of Austempered Temperature on Microstructure and Properties of CADI%等温淬火温度对CADI组织及性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉福; 张婷; 赵靖宇; 刘金庆; 吴娜; 徐栩

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of austempered temperature on the morphology of bainite,contents of retained austenite, mechanical properties and wear resistance of carbide austempered ductile iron (CADI) were researched and the impact fracture mechanism was analyzed. The samples whose as-cast microstructures composed of 75% pearlite+ferrite+10% carbide, were .austenited at 920 ℃ for 1.5 h and then austempered at 240 ℃, 280 ℃ and 320 ℃ for 2 h, respectively.The results show that with the increase of austempered temperature the morphology of bainite changes from needle to featheriness; the residual austenite content increases; the impact toughness increases and the hardness and relative wear resistance reduces. After austempering at the optimal temperature 280 ℃, the microstructure is composed of bainite, 22.33% retained austenite and 10% carbide. Its hardness is HRC 50.9, impact toughness is 32.72 J/cm2, and the relative wear resistance rises by 11% than that of the samples austempered at 320 ℃. The fracture morphology of the CADI exhibits a mixed fracture characteristic.%针对含一定碳化物等温淬火球墨铸铁(CADI),研究了等温淬火温度对贝氏体相形貌、残余奥氏体量、力学性能及耐磨性能的影响,分析了冲击断裂机理.结果表明,对于铸态组织为75%珠光体+铁素体+10%碳化物试样,经920℃×1.5 h奥氏体化后,在240℃,280℃及320℃进行等温淬火处理2h,随着等淬温度的提高,贝氏体的形貌由针状变粗至羽毛状,残余奥氏体量增加,硬度减低,冲击韧度提高,相对耐磨性降低.最佳等温淬火温度为280℃,此热处理工艺后组织为贝氏体+22.33%残余奥氏体+10%碳化物,硬度HRC 50.9,冲击韧度32.72 J/c㎡,断口呈混合断裂特征,相对耐磨性比320℃时增加11%.

  8. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapek, Ş. Hakan; Fidan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The microstructures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using aluminum oxide particles (90-125 μm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of carbide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  9. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  10. Fracture toughness of 12Cr2Mo1R steel at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huibin; ZHANG Hanqian

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure,tensile properties,and fracture toughness of 12Cr2Mo1R steel were studied.The results indicate that this steel is characterized by a bainite microstructure,in which several types of carbides precipitate along the ferrite laths.As the temperature increases from room temperature to 375 ℃,the strength of the steel increases slightly and the fracture toughness clearly decreases.However,when the temperature continues to increase up to 500 ℃,the strength decreases and the fracture toughness increases.At all the temperatures investigated,the strength and toughness of the developed 12Cr2Mo1R steel were capable of meeting the design requirements of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.The fracture of 12Cr2Mo1R steel at high temperature typically occurs in the ductile mode.

  11. Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xu, Zhixin; Shu, Yang; Ma, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.

  12. Influence of reheating and cooling conditions on structure and mechanical properties of C-Mn-Si steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kvačkaj

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with structure and properties development of AHSS (advance high-strength steel and UHSS (ultra high-strength steel steel grades for various groups of automotive parts. C-Mn-Si type steel properties are evaluated based on the results of laboratory controlled rolling and cooling. The important influence on mechanical and plastic properties, amount of residual austenite (RA and final structural type has, except for cooling rate, also starting temperature of intensive cooling (TIC which follows after hot plastic deformations. If TIC is from interval of 620-760°C the final structure predominantly consists of ferrite with RA. Mostly acicular ferrite with RA, as well as bainite with RA was obtained when TIC was kept in the range of 760-850°C.

  13. Numerical model of phase transformation of steel C80U during hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns numerical modelling of the phase transformations in solid state hardening of tool steel C80U. The transformations were assumed: initial structure – austenite, austenite – perlite, bainite and austenite – martensite. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics based on continuous heating diagram (CHT and continuous cooling diagram (CCT. The dilatometric tests on the simulator of thermal cycles were performed. The results of dilatometric tests were compared with the results of the test numerical simulations. In this way the derived models for evaluating phase content and kinetics of transformations in heating and cooling processes were verified. The results of numerical simulations confirm correctness of the algorithm that were worked out. In the numerical example the simulated estimation of the phase fraction in the hardened axisimmetrical element was performed.

  14. Numerical modelling of tools steel hardening. A thermal phenomena and phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in the solid state are presented. In the modelling of thermal phenomena the heat equations transfer has been solved by Finite Elements Method. The graph of continuous heating (CHT and continuous cooling (CCT considered steel are used in the model of phase transformations. Phase altered fractions during the continuous heating austenite and continuous cooling pearlite or bainite are marked in the model by formula Johnson-Mehl and Avrami. For rate of heating >100 K/s the modified equation Koistinen and Marburger is used. Modified equation Koistinen and Marburger identify the forming fraction of martensite.

  15. Further discussion of orientation relationships, surface reliefs and FCC-BCC transformations in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, U. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1981-04-01

    In response to a recent discussion in this journal concerning tent-shaped surface-relief effects and the mechanism of formation of Widmanstätten ferrite and lower bainite, it was shown that Bhadeshia's (1) explanation of surface reliefs is in error. A degeneracy of the fcc → hcp type does not exist for an fcc → bcc transformation. Based on a distinction between the symmetries of the matrix, the transformation product and the strain (5), a general rule was derived for the occurrence of the type of crystallographic degeneracies described by Bhadeshia. The present paper confirmed Aaronson's (4) contention that the transformation is not shear-like (martensitic) in nature but diffusion controlled. Finally, it was argued, however, that the formal treatment of diffusional transformations may involve a shear.

  16. Influence of retained austenite on the grain size of austenite after reaustenitization of steels for heavy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H.J.; Tacke, G.; Hougardy, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation the grain size of austenite reaustenitization of different microstructures containing different volume fractions of retained austenite was determined. The austenite grain size after austenitization of martensite and lower bainite was coarse for heating rates lower than a minimum value, which is dependent on the chemical composition. In this case, the austenite forms by rapid growth of retained austenite in the initial microstructure. At heating rates higher than the critical value, formation of austenite starts at the ferrite-carbide phase boundaries giving a fine austenite grain. The formation of austenite from microstructures free of retained austenite, such as pearlite, always occurred by nucleation on the ferrite-carbide interphase resulting in fine austenite grains. (orig.).

  17. Fatigue Hardening Behavior of 1.5 GPa Grade Transformation-Induced Plasticity-Aided Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koh-Ichi; Hojo, Tomohiko

    2016-11-01

    Low cycle fatigue hardening/softening behavior of a 0.2 pct C-1.5 pct Si-1.5 pct Mn-1.0 pct Cr-0.2 pct Mo-0.05 pct Nb transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel consisting of a wide lath martensite structure matrix and a narrow lath martensite-metastable retained austenite mixture was investigated. The steel exhibited notable fatigue hardening in the same way as TRIP-aided bainitic ferrite steel, although conventional martensitic steel such as SCM420 steel with the same tensile strength exhibited fatigue softening. The considerable fatigue hardening of this steel is believed to be associated mainly with the compressive internal stress that results from a difference in flow stress between the matrix and the martensite-austenite-like phase, with a small contribution from the strain-induced transformation and dislocation hardenings.

  18. As-Cast Acicular Ductile Aluminum Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S M Mostafavi Kashani; S M A Boutorabi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of nickel (2.2%)and molybdenum (0.6%)additions on the kinetics, microstructure, and me-chanical properties of ductile aluminum cast iron were studied under the as-cast and tempered conditions. Test bars machined from cast to size samples were used for mechanical and metallurgical studies. The results showed that adding nickel and molybdenum to the base iron produced an upper bainitic structure, resulting in an increase in strength and hardness. The same trend was shown when the test bars were tempered at 300 ℃ in the range of 300℃ to 400 ℃. The elongation increased with increasing the temperature from 300 ℃ to 400 ℃. The carbon content of the retained austenite also increased with increasing the temperature. The results also showed that the kinetics, mi-crostructure, and mechanical properties of this iron were similar to those of Ni-Mo alloyed silicon ductile iron.

  19. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan Atapek; Sinan Fidan

    2015-01-01

    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The micro-structures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using alumi-num oxide particles (90–125 µm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron mi-croscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of car-bide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  20. Fine structure in the inter-critical heat-affected zone of HQ130 super-high strength steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Liu Peng

    2003-02-01

    The microstructure in the inter-critical heat-affected zone (ICHAZ) of HQ130 steel, has been investigated by thermo-simulation test, SEM and TEM. The problem of toughness decrease in the ICHAZ (p = 800°C) as well as the effect of M–A constituent and carbide precipitation on brittleness was analysed. The test results indicated that the microstructure in the ICHAZ of HQ130 steel was mostly a mixture of lath martensite (ML) and granular bainite (Bg) with a fine but nonuniform grain structure. The cause of brittleness in the ICHAZ was related to production of the M–A constituent in the local region and carbide precipitation. By controlling the welding heat input carbide precipitation and the formation of the M–A constituent can be avoided or decreased.

  1. Influence of isothermal quenching of LAMC CrMnSi cast steel on impact toughness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Bao-shi; HUANG Zhi-qiu; SHEN Da-dong

    2005-01-01

    The influence of isothermal quenching process of low-alloy and medium carbon (LAMC) CrMnSi cast steel on the impact toughness was investigated. The microstructure and mechanical property of LAMC CrMnSi cast steel were analyzed by the laser optical modulator, the scanning electron microscopy, the energy dispersive spectrometer, the hardness and impact tests. The experimental results show that the dual phases of bainite and residual austenite can be obtained by the severity isothermal quenching, the fractographies of specimens change from quasi-cleavage to dimple at 310 ℃ for 60 min, the impact toughness for specimens at the room temperature isothermally achieves 130 J/cm2, meantime and its hardness is more than 45(HRC).

  2. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  3. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, Alexander G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  4. Effects of Austempering after Hot Deformation on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled Si-Mn TRIP Steel Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; ZHANG Ping-li; WU Di

    2004-01-01

    Excellent mechanical properties are obtained by austempering after hot deformation without subsequent heat treatment in the present Si-Mn TRIP steel sheets. Isothermal holding time after finishing rolling has affected the mechanical properties of this steel. The results show that the sample exhibits a good combination of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation when it is held at the bainite transformation temperature after hot deformation. The stability of retained austenite increases with an increase of isothermal holding time, and a further increase in the holding duration results in a decrease of it. The tensile strength, total elongation and strength ductility reach the maximum values(774MPa, 33% and 25542MPa% respectively) for this sort of hot rolled Si-Mn TRIP steel using the optimal technology.

  5. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, I.

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design. (Author)

  6. Influence of Hot Rolling Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2008-01-01

    Influence of hot rolling conditions on the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel was investigated.Thermomechanical control processing(TMCP)was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill,in which three different kinds of finish rolling temperatures were applied.The results show that polygonal ferrite,granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained anstenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes.The finer ferrite grain size is produced through the deformation induced transformation during deformation rather than after deformation,which affects the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel.Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finish rolling temperature due to the stabilization of retained austenite.Ultimate tensile strength(UTS),total elongation(TEL)and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation(UTS×TEL)reaches optimal values(791 MPa,36% and 28 476 MPa%,respectively)whenthe specimen was hot rolled for 50% reduction at finish rolling temperature of 700℃.

  7. Effect of Controlled Cooling After Hot Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; LI Zhuang; L(U) Hui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A three-step cooling pattern on the runout table (ROT) was conducted for the hot rolled TRIP steel. Microstructural evolution during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) was investigated. Proeessing condition of controlled cooling on a ROT in the laboratory rolling mill was discussed. The results indicated that the microstructure containing polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and a significant amount of the stable retained austenite can be obtained through three-step cooling on the ROT after hot rolling. TMCP led to ferrite grain refinement. Controlled cooling after hot rolling resulted in the stability of the remaining austenite and a satisfactory TRIP effect. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained through TMCP for the hot rolled TRIP steel.

  8. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled Multiphase Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di; L(U) Hui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermomechanical processing (TMP) on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel was investigated. TMP was conducted using a laboratory hot rolling mill, in which three different kinds of finish rolling deformation degrees and temperatures were applied. The results indicate that polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, and a considerable amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by TMP. The stability of the retained austenite increases with decreasing finish rolling temperature and increasing finish rolling deformation degrees. Ultimate tensile strength (σb), total elongation (δ), and the product of ultimate tensile strength by total elongation (σb·δ) for 50% reduction at finish rolling temperature of 700 ℃ reach maximum values [791 MPa, 36% and 28 476 (MPa·%), respectively].

  9. Austempering of hot rolled transformation-induced plasticity steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Li; Di Wu

    2008-01-01

    Thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill. Austempering inAustempering in the salt bath after hot rolling Was investigated. The effect of isothermal holding time on mechanical properties was studied throughing of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the specimens. The mechanism of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) was discussed. The results show that the microstructure of these steels consists of polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, and ad TRIP occur in the hot rolled Si-Mn TRIP steels. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained for various durations at 400℃. Prolonged holdingprecipitation, which destabilized the austenite. The mechanical properties were optimal when the specimen was held for 25 min, and the tensile strength, total elongation, and strength ductility balance reached the maximum values of 776 MPa, 33%,respevtively.

  10. Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2007-01-01

    Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel were investigated. Thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill, in which three different kinds of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction and various austempering times were applied. The results showed that polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes, and that the strain-induced transformation to martensite from the retained austenite can occur gradually when the steel is deformed during tensile test. Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finishing rolling temperature and increasing amount of deformation. The most TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) effect, and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), total elongation (TEL) and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation (UTS× TEL) are obtained at 20 min.

  11. Study and Application of Nb-V-Ti Microalloyed Cast Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian-min; LIU Yuan-fu; LI Wei-jing; LI Rong-hua; XU Xiang-yang; WANG Jin-hua

    2005-01-01

    A new type of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed cast steel was produced. Computer simulation was adopted to optimize the content of alloying elements. The microstructure of the microalloyed steel was analyzed. The fatigue property, wear and friction properties and rupture toughness of the steel were investigated. The service and operating properties of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed cast steel coupler were also examined. The results show that the steel has excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. The granular bainite structure and precipitation strengthening are the primary strengthening mechanism. The fine grain brings the steel good plasticity and excellent toughness.Various service and operating properties of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed cast steel automatic coupler are excellent.

  12. Microstructures relevant to brittle fracture initiation at the heat-affected zone of weldment of a low carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Kenji; Kim, Jongseop; Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Nagumo, Michihiko

    1996-09-01

    Charpy toughness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of weldment of a low carbon steel has been investigated by means of an instrumented Charpy test and fractographic analysis. Microstructures were varied with thermal cycles simulating double-pass welding. The ductile-brittle transition temperature is the most deteriorated at an intermediate second-cycle heating temperature. The origin of the difference in the transition temperatures has been analyzed to exist in the brittle fracture initiation stage. Fractographic examination correlating with microstructural features has revealed that the brittle fracture initiation site is associated with the intersection of bainitic ferrite areas with different orientations rather than the martensite-austenite constituents. The role of the constraint of plastic deformation on the brittle fracture initiation is discussed.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled Low Silicon TRIP Steel Containing Phosphorus and Vanadium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xiao-ying; XU Yun-bo; ZHAO Yan-feng; WU Di

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of a low-silicon TRIP steel containing phosphorus and vanadium at different finish rolling temperatures were studied by laboratory hot rolling experiments. Dif- ferent ratios of multiphase microstructure (ferrite, granular bainite and retained austenite) are obtained. With a decrease in finish rolling temperature, the volume fractions of ferrite and retained austenite increase. EBSD analysis re veals that most of the ferrite grains are fine, and decreasing of finish rolling temperature leads to an increase in low angle boundaries. Under the joint effects of fine grain strengthening, dislocation strengthening and precipitation strengthening, higher strength is obtained. When the finish rolling temperature is decreased to 800 ℃, the steel has excellent mechanical properties: Rp0.2 =470 MPa; Rm=960 MPa; Rp0. 2/Rm=0. 49; A50 =19.7%; n=0. 25.

  14. Effect of dislocation configuration on non-equilibrium boron segregation during cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Different densities and configurations of crystal defects were obtained in an austenitic Fe-30%Ni alloy and an ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) alloy by undergoing different deformations and annealing treatments at high temperatures. Boron segregation on grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries during air-cooling were revealed by means of the particle tracking autoradiography technique. It is found that non-equilibrium segregation is resisted in deformed grains after recovery and polygonization, boron-depleted zones seem to be quite clear in recrystallized grains than those in deformed original grains during cooling. Subgrain boundaries and polygonized dislocation cells have a significant effect on non-equilibrium boron segregation during the air-cooling. The results implicates that dislocation configuration is a more important factor affecting boron segregation at grain boundaries rather than the density of defects itself in the grain.

  15. Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Transformations in a High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Studied from the Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Thomas; Stanford, Nicole; Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phase transformation and precipitation in a high-strength low-alloy steel have been studied over a large range of cooling rates, and a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been produced. These experiments are unique because the measurements were made from samples cooled directly from the melt, rather than in homogenized and re-heated billets. The purpose of this experimental design was to examine conditions pertinent to direct strip casting. At the highest cooling rates which simulate strip casting, the microstructure was fully bainitic with small regions of pearlite. At lower cooling rates, the fraction of polygonal ferrite increased and the pearlite regions became larger. The CCT diagram and the microstructural analysis showed that the precipitation of NbC is suppressed at high cooling rates, and is likely to be incomplete at intermediate cooling rates.

  16. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A MULTISCALE MICROSTRUCTURE BY ANISOTROPIC TESSELLATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Altendorf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the area of tessellation models, there is an intense activity to fully understand the classical models of Voronoi, Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl. Still, these models are all simulations of isotropic growth and are therefore limited to very simple and partly convex cell shapes. The here considered microstructure of martensitic steel has a much more complex and highly non convex cell shape, requiring new tessellation models. This paper presents a new approach for anisotropic tessellation models that resolve to the well-studied cases of Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl for spherical germs. Much better reconstructions can be achieved with these models and thus more realistic microstructure simulations can be produced for materials widely used in industry like martensitic and bainitic steels.

  17. The influence of electric ARC activation on the speed of heating and the structure of metal in welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savytsky Oleksandr M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research related to the impact of electric arc activation onto drive welding energy and metal weld heating speed. It is confirmed that ATIG and AMIG methods, depending on metal thickness, single pass weldability and chemical composition of activating flux, enable the reduction of welding energy by 2-6 times when compared to conventional welding methods. Additionally, these procedures create conditions to increase metal weld heating speed up to 1,500-5,500°C/s-1. Steel which can be rapidly heated, allows for a hardened structure to form (with carbon content up to 0.4%, together with a released martensitic structure or a mixture of bainitic-martensitic structures. Results of the research of effectiveness of ATIG and AMIG welding showed that increase in the penetration capability of electric arc, which increases welding productivity, is the visible side of ATIG and AMIG welding capabilities.

  18. Influence of cooling conditions on X70 pipeline steel in-service welding HAZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Haicheng; Wang Yong; Han Bin; Chen Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    The chamber device was designed and set up to simulate the in-service welding. The results show: the ts/5, t8/3 and inner wall peak temperature Tp decrease with the cooling rate increases. The welding energy is carried off by flowing medium,the cooling rate increases, and many unbalanced microstructures such as granular bainite, martensite and M-A generate; it worsens the properties of HAZ. Under air-cooling, the cooling rate is slow, the austenite grain grows obviously , the lath ferrite crosses the whole austenite, and it causes the hardness value is also big. The change of HAZ width is not obvious with the increase of cooling rate; and burn-through is not susceptible to the cooling rate. The quench microstructures increase and the hydrogen does not outflow from the HAZ easily when increase the cooling rate, so the susceptibility of hydrogen cracking increases.

  19. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu- ous heat treatment process, respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability, and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad- dition, the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube, and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  20. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have been developed for automotive applications due to the excellent high strength and formability. The microstructure of TRIP steels is a complex mixture of various microstructural constituents; ferrite, bainite, martensite and retained austenite....... The TRIP effect is activated under the influence of an external load, thereby leading to a martensitic transformation of the retained austenite. This transformation induced plasticity contributes to the excellent mechanical properties of this class of steels and provides high tensile strength without...... and thereby reduced weight of the vehicles. One of the limitations for the wide application of TRIP steel is associated with joining, since so far no method has succeeded in joining TRIP steel, without comprising the steel properties. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...

  1. Mechanisms and modeling of cleavage fracture in simulated heat-affected zone microstructures of a high-strength low alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Perlade, A.; Sturel, T.; Gourgues, A. F.; Besson, J.; Pineau, A.

    2004-03-01

    The effect of the welding cycle on the fracture toughness properties of high-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels is examined by means of thermal simulation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructures. Tensile tests on notched bars and fracture toughness tests at various temperatures are performed together with fracture surface observations and cross-sectional analyses. The influence of martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents and of “crystallographic” bainite packets on cleavage fracture micromechanisms is, thus, evidenced as a function of temperature. Three weakest-link probabilistic models (the “Master-curve” (MC) approach, the Beremin model, and a “double-barrier” (DB) model) are applied to account for the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) fracture toughness curve. Some analogy, but also differences, are found between the MC approach and the Beremin model. The DB model, having nonfitted, physically based scatter parameters, is applied to the martensite-containing HAZ microstructures and gives promising results.

  2. The Numerical Analysis of the Phenomena of Superficial Hardening of the Hot-Work Tool Steel Elements / Analiza Numeryczna Zjawisk Przypowierzchniowego Hartowania Elementów Ze Stali Narzędziowej Do Pracy Na Gorąco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokota A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the complex model of hardening of the hot-work tool steel is presented. Model of estimation of phase fractions and their kinetics is based on the continuous heating diagram (CHT and cooling diagram (CCT. Phase fractions which occur during the continuous heating and cooling (austenite, pearlite or bainite are described by Johnson-Mehl (JM formula. To determine of the formed martensite the modified Koistinen-Marburger (KM equation is used. Model takes into account the thermal, structural, plastic strains and transformation plasticity. To calculate the plastic strains the Huber-Mises plasticity condition with isotopic hardening is used. Whereas to determine transformations induced plasticity the Leblond model is applied. The numerical analysis of phase compositions and residual stresses in the hot-work steel (W360 element is considered.

  3. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joint of High Strength Steel Grade S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błacha S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of metallographic examination and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joint of quenched and tempered steel grade S690QL are presented. Metallographic examination revealed that the concentrated electron beam significantly affect the changes of microstructure in the steel. Parent material as a delivered condition (quenched and tempered had a bainitic-martensitic microstructure at hardness about 290 HV0.5. After welding, the microstructure of heat affected zone is composed mainly of martensite (in the vicinity of the fusion line of hardness 420 HV0.5. It should be noted, however, that the microstructure of steel in the heat affected zone varies with the distance from the fusion line. The observed microstructural changes were in accordance with the CCT-S transformation diagram for the examined steel.

  4. The origin of transformation textures in steel weld metals containing acicular ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluken, A. O.; Grong, Ø.; Hjelen, J.

    1991-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with basic studies of the development of transformation textures in steel weld metals, using the electron backscattering pattern (EBSP) technique. It is shown that the acicular ferrite (AF) plates exhibit an orientation relationship with both the austenite and the prior delta ferrite columnar grains in which they grow. The observed orientation relationship lies within the Bain orientation region and can be described by three texture components, i.e., a component and two complementary components. Each of these texture components is orientated approximately parallel with the original cell/dendrite growth direction. Measurements of the spatial misorientation between neighboring plates confirm that the morphology of AF in low-alloy steel weld metals bears a close resemblance to upper bainite.

  5. Effect of Hyperbaric Chamber Gas on Transformation Texture of the API-X70 Pipeline Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Amin S.; Østby, Erling; Akselsen, Odd M.

    2012-09-01

    The development of the texture components in the X70 weld metal under several shielding environments was investigated using the electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) techniques. A new method for assigning the reference direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and normal direction (ND) was introduced based on the morphological orientation of the grains. The analyses showed that different shielding gases affect the weld metal texture and microstructure. The shielding environment with pure argon shows the highest orientational pole density values and dominant acicular ferrite microstructure. It was observed that the distribution of misorientation angle and special coincidence site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries play significant roles in determining the tensile characteristics of the weld samples. Moreover, the bainite lattice orientation was found dependent on the directional heat flow unlike the other detected constituents.

  6. Homogeneous formation of epsilon carbides within the austenite during the isothermal transformation of a ductile iron at 410 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, I.; Aranzabal, J.; Castro, F.; Urcola, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    The transformation of a ductile iron at 410 °C for different times, after austenitization for 30 minutes at 900 °C, is analyzed in detail. Upper bainite and a high volume fraction of austenite are formed for intermediate annealing times. A certain amount of martensite is observed after quenching not only for short transformation times but also for intermediate times. The formation of the martensite on cooling after intermediate transformation times is due to the decrease in carbon concentration of the retained austenite because of the homogeneous precipitation of epsilon carbides within. This homogeneous precipitation of epsilon carbide inside austenite is unambiguously observed. The epsilon carbide, pre-precipitated in austenite, which transforms to martensite on cooling, continues growing in the martensite after transformation. For long times of austempering at 410 °C, some complex large carbides or silicocarbides are formed, probably from the epsilon carbide, which result in the total decomposition of austenite.

  7. Impact Properties of Copper-Alloyed and Nickel-Copper Alloyed ADI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Uma; Ray, Subrata; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2007-08-01

    The influence of austenitization and austempering parameters on the impact properties of copper-alloyed and nickel-copper-alloyed austempered ductile irons (ADIs) has been studied. The austenitization temperature of 850 and 900 °C have been used in the present study for which austempering time periods of 120 and 60 min were optimized in an earlier work. The austempering process was carried out for 60 min for three austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C to study the effect of austempering temperature. The influence of the austempering time on impact properties has been studied for austempering temperature of 330 °C for time periods of 30-150 min. The variation in impact strength with the austenitization and austempering parameters has been correlated to the morphology, size and amount of austenite and bainitic ferrite in the austempered structure. The fracture surface of ADI failed under impact has been studied using SEM.

  8. Effect of fully and semi austempering treatment on the fatigue properties of ductile cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gun; Lim, Bok Kyu; Hwang, Jung Gak [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Youl [Samcheok National Univ., Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-01

    Single phase bainite structure which is obtained by the conventional austempering treatment reduces the ductility of ductile cast iron. Because of the reduction of ductility it is possible to worsen the fatigue properties. Therefore, semi austempered ductile iron which is treated from {alpha}+{gamma} is prepared to investigate the static strength and fatigue properties in comparison with fully austempered ductile iron (is treated from {gamma}). In spite of semi austempered ductile iron shows the 86% increase of ductility. Also, semi austempered ductile iron shows the higher fatigue limit and lower fatigue crack growth rate as compared with fully austempered ductile iron. By the fractographical analysis, it is revealed that the ferrite obtained by semi austempering process brings about the plastic deformation (ductile striation) of crack tip and gives the prior path of crack propagation. The relatively low crack growth rate in semi austempered specimen is caused by above fractographical reasons.

  9. The austempering study of alloyed ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric, Olivera [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)]. E-mail: oliverae@vin.bg.ac.yu; Jovanovic, Milan [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Sid-baranin, Leposava [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Rajnovic, Dragan [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Zec, Slavica [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) proved to be an excellent material as it possesses attractive properties: high strength, ductility and toughness are combined with good wear resistance and machinability. These properties can be achieved upon adequate heat treatment which yields optimum microstructure for a given chemical composition. In this paper an investigation has been conducted on ADI alloyed with 0.45%Cu and austempered in a range of times and temperatures. The microstructure and fracture mode developed throughout these treatments have been identified by means of light and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that strength, elongation and impact energy strongly depend on amounts of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Based on these results an optimal processing window has been established.

  10. Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, U.; Ray, S.; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2004-10-01

    A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 °C for 120 min and was subsequently austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C. The samples were also austempered at 330 °C for austempering times of 30 150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X γ ), average carbon content (C γ ), the product X γ C γ , and the size of the bainitic ferrite needle (d α ) were determined using x-ray diffraction. The effect of austempering temperature and time has been studied with respect to tensile properties such as 0.2% proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percentage of elongation, and quality index. These properties have been correlated with the structural parameters of the austempered ductile iron microstructure. Fracture studies have been carried out on the tensile fracture surfaces of the austempered ductile iron (ADI).

  11. An austempering study of ductile iron alloyed with copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVERA ERIC

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has proved to be an excellent material as it possesses attractive properties: high strength, ductility and toughness are combined with good wear resistance and machinability. These properties can be achieved upon adequate heat treatment which yields the optimum microstructure for a given chemical composition. In this paper the results of an investigation the austempering of ADI alloyed with 0.45 % Cu for a range of times and temperatures are reported. The microstructure and fracture mode developed throughout these treatments have been identified by means of light and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that the strength, elongation and impact energy strongly depend on the amounts of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Based on these results, and optimal processing window was established.

  12. Application of successive austempering process to spheroidal graphite cast iron produced by inmold process. Inmold ho de seizoshita kyujo kokuen chutetsu eno chikuji austemper ho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oide, T.; Ahmadabadi, M.; Kawashima, S. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-06-25

    Application of successive austempering process to the iron produced by inmold process leads to much higher graphite nodule count in the structure than the other spheroidizing methods. In this study, to improve the toughness of spheroidal graphite cast iron produced by inmold process, successive austempering process was applied to austemper ductile iron (ADI) production. Both hardenability and austemperability of the iron could be controlled with Mn alloying through the two-stage austempering at high and low temperatures. Higher retained austenite volume fraction and lower untransformed austenite volume fraction were obtained in the most suitable duplex upper and lower bainitic structure. It was confirmed that the impact energy of ADI treated by successive austempering process was remarkably much higher than the conventional austempering processes. In this process, an excellent value of toughness was obtained by selecting a combination of holding temperature and holding time, strictly. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Influence of plasma nitro carburization on fatigue properties in a 4340 steel with different microstructure; Infuencia da nitrocarbonetacao a plasma nas propriedades de fadiga de um aco 4340 com diferentes microestruturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranieri, A.; Hashimoto, T.M. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia (FEG); Baggio-Scheid, V.H.; Abdalla, A.J., E-mail: abdalla@ieav.cta.b [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    2010-07-01

    Three different routes of heat treatments were applied in samples of 4340 steel in order to modify the microstructures and mechanical properties. After this initial treatment was applied a plasma nitrocarburizing thermochemical treatment in a part of the samples, forming a layer of nitride (Fe{sub 4}N and Fe{sub 3}N{sub 2}) of about 10{mu}m, with high hardness, in order to improve the surface characteristics. The layer and microstructure were characterized with X-ray analysis, optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning and hardness test by microindentation. Tensile and fatigue tests show the influence of microstructure formed on the mechanical properties, the microstructure predominantly bainitic phase showed a better combination of ductility, toughness and fatigue life. After treatment nitrocarburizing was observed the effect of tempering, with a reduction in hardness of substrate and tensile strength. In steel with martensitic microstructure the fatigue life decreases. (author)

  14. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  15. Corrosion Mechanism of Corrosion-Resistant Steel Developed for Bottom Plate of Cargo Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feilong SUN; Xiaogang LI; Fan ZHANG; Xuequn CHENG; Cheng ZHOU; Nianchun WU; Yuqun YIN

    2013-01-01

    A new type of corrosion-resistant steel consisting of ferrite and bainite phases was developed for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers.The corrosion rate of this new steel was 0.22 mm/a,which was equivalent to ca.1/5 of the criterion (≤ 1 mm/a) for corrosion-resistant steels.The composition and element distribution of the corrosion products were investigated by micro-Raman spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometer.The results demonstrated that the corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH,Fe3O4 and a continuous Cu enrichment layer.This kind of corrosion product was protective to the steel matrix and accounted for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the new developed steel.

  16. Study on the microstructure and hardness of in-service welded joint of X70 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuhua; Wang Yong; Liu Geping

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is one of the main problems of in-service welding onto active pipeline. Microstructure and hardness of welded joint have a vital effect on hydrogen induced cracking. The microstructure and hardness of welded joint of X70 pipeline steel were studied using simulation in-service welding device. The results show that the main microstructures of in-service welded seam are grain boundary ferrite, intracrystalline acicular ferrite, as well as small amount of widmanstatten structure. The main microstructures of coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) are coarse granular bainite, lath ferrite and martensite. Metastable phases such as martensite and lath ferrite are found in CGHAZ because of the too quick cooling velocity and the hardness of the CGHAZ is high.

  17. Reasons Analysis on Laminated Fracture of DH36 Hull Plate During Tensile Test%DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 郭汉杰; 李宏亮; 吴建中; 刘锦强

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for the laminated fracture tinder tensile test of DH36 hull plate were researched by metallurgical observation and SEM observation. The results show that the main reasons are the aggregation of MnS as well as the martensite and bainite banded structure in the center of plate.%采用金相检验、扫描电镜检验等手段对DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷进行了分析.结果表明:DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷主要是由钢板厚度中心条状MnS夹杂和宽大的贝氏体、马氏体带状组织引起的.

  18. Partial transformation of austenite in Al-Mn-Si TRIP steel upon tensile straining: an in situ EBSD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Nybo; Adachi, Y.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos;

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite in an Al–Mn–Si transformation-induced plasticity steel was investigated with in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements under tensile straining. The visualisation of the microstructure upon straining allows for an investigation...... of the stability of austenite grains against strain-induced transformation, with particular focus on the grain size and the location of the austenite grains. The findings confirm that size and location of austenite grains are significant parameters for their stability. Small austenite grains were observed...... to be more stable than large grains, while austenite grains located beside bainitic ferrite are the most stable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that austenite grains transform gradually...

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel relative to different heat input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hakan, E-mail: hakanay@uludag.edu.tr [Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle-Bursa (Turkey); Nelson, Tracy W. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 435 CTB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel at different heat inputs. Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness. Heat input during friction stir welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties in the hard zone along the advancing side of the weld nugget. Based on the results, the linear relationships between heat input and post-weld microstructures and mechanical properties in the hard zone of friction stir welded X80 steels were established. It can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone strength increases.

  20. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  1. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  2. Influence of a matrix on properties of mottled cast iron applied for mill rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mill rolls are ones of the most expensive tools applied in plastic working processes and have to satisfy several criteria, which allow them to be used. Cast iron mill rolls, due to their fracture toughness and tribological properties, are the most often applied at hot-rolling in the last rolling stands. This results from the smallest dynamic loads of such rolling stands and the decisive influence of the surface quality of these tools on the surface quality of the rolled product. An improper microstructure of rolls can lead to their premature wearing, e.g. broken flanges, pivots twisting off etc. By means of the heat treatment the matrix microstructure and morphology of carbide precipitationscan be modified and this in-turn can influence cast iron properties.Determination of the influence of microstructure changes, caused by the heat treatment, on the properties of EN-GJN-HV300 low-alloycast iron, after its modification and spheroidization – is the aim of the present paper. Those changes are based on the formation pearlitic or bainitic matrices at the similar morphology of graphite and ledeburitic cementite precipitations. The performed investigations should enable designing the heat treatment of cast iron metallurgical rolls in such a way as to obtain the optimal microstructures for functional parameters of these type of tools. The influence of changing the pearlitic matrix into the bainitic one on such properties as: hardness, impact strength, tensile strength, creep limit, bending strength and a stress intensity factor KIc was investigated in this study. Samples for testing, the listed above mechanical properties, were taken from an industrial casting with care to have pieces of very similar crystallization conditions.

  3. Microstructural parameters governing cleavage fracture behaviors in the ductile-brittle transition region in reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won-Jon; Lee, Bong-Sang; Oh, Yong-Jun; Huh, Moo-Young; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2004-08-15

    The fracture behaviors in the ductile-brittle transition region of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels with similar chemical compositions but different manufacturing processes were examined in view of cleavage fracture stress at crack-tip. The steels typically had a variation in grain size and carbide size distribution through the different manufacturing processes. Fracture toughness was evaluated by using a statistical method in accordance to the ASTM standard E1921. From the fractography of the tested specimens, it was found that fracture toughness of the steels increased with increasing distance from the crack-tip to the cleavage initiating location, namely cleavage initiation distance (CID, X{sub f}) and its statistical mean value (K{sub JC(med)}) was proportional to the cleavage fracture stress ({sigma}{sub f}) determined from finite-element (FE) calculation at cleavage initiating location. On the other hand, {sigma}{sub f} could also be calculated by applying the size of microstructural parameters, such as carbide, grain and bainite packet, into the Griffith's theory for brittle fracture. Among the parameters, the {sigma}{sub f} obtained from the mean diameter of the carbides above 1% of the total population was in good agreement with the {sigma}{sub f} value from the FE calculation for the five different steels. The results suggest that the fracture toughness of bainitic RPV steels in the transition region is mostly influenced by only some 1% of total carbides and the critical step for cleavage fracture of the RPV steels should be the propagation of this carbide size crack to the adjacent ferrite matrix.

  4. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy of a JRQ steel subjected to different heat treatments; Caracterizacion por microscopia electronica de transmision de un acero JRQ sometido a diferentes tratamientos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno G, N.

    2014-07-01

    In this work a study was conducted on the steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 of reference JRQ, for the purpose of carrying out a study by transmission electron microscopy on the size and distribution of precipitates in steel samples JRQ previously subjected to heat treatments. This because the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, are made of a steel Astm A-533 Grade B, Class 1. It is known that the neutron radiation causes damage primarily embrittlement in materials that are exposed to it. However, observable damage through mechanical tests result from microstructural defects and atomic, induced by the neutron radiation. In previous studies hardening by precipitation of a JRQ steel (provided by the IAEA) was induced by heat treatments, finding that the conditions of heat treatment that reproduce the hardness and stress mechanical properties of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B, Class 1 irradiated for 8 years to a fluence of 3.5 x 10 {sup 17} neutrons/cm{sup 2} and to a temperature of 290 grades C are achieved with annealing treatments at 550 grades C. In the studied samples it was found that the more hardening phase both the heat treatments as the neutron radiation, is the bainite, being the ferrite practically unchanged. Which it gave the tone to believe that the ferrite is the phase that provides at level macro the mechanical properties in stress, since in the irradiated samples such properties remained unchanged with respect to the non-irradiated material, however changes were observed in material ductility, which may be attributable to the change of hardness in the bainite, which opens a possibility for modeling the micromechanical behavior of this material. (Author)

  5. Corrosion Resistance of The Bearing Steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 with Nanobainitic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a comparative study of the corrosion resistance of bearing steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 after two kinds of nanostructuring treatments and two kinds of conventional quenching and tempering treatments. The nanostructuring treatment consisted of austempering with an isothermal quenching at 240°C and 300°C. The conventional heat treatment consisted on quenching and tempering at 350°C for 1 h and quenching and tempering at 550°C for 1 h. Time and temperature of tempering was chosen so that the hardness of both samples (nanostructured as well as quenched and tempered was similar. The microstructure of steel after each heat treatment was described with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was shown, that the austempering conducted at 240°C produced homogenous nanobainitic structure consisting of carbide-free bainite plates with nanometric thickness separated by the layers of retained austenite. The austempering at 300°C produced a sub-micrometric carbide-free bainite with retained austenite in form of layers and small blocks. The conventional heat treatments led to a tempered martensite microstructure. The corrosion resistance study was carried out in Na2SO4 acidic and neutral environment using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The corrosion resistance of nanostructured steel samples were compared to the steel samples with tempered martensite. The obtained results indicate, that the corrosion resistance of bearing steel with nanobainitic structure is similar to steel with tempered martensite in both acidic and neutral environment. This means that the high density of intercrystalline boundaries in nanobinite does not deteriorate the corrosion properties of the bearing steel.

  6. Study on Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Austenite in SCM435 Cold Heading Steel%SCM435冷镦钢奥氏体连续冷却转变曲线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 罗建华; 李桂艳; 赵宝纯; 黄磊; 王晓峰

    2016-01-01

    The continuous cooling transformation curves of the austenite in SCM435 cold heading steel was studied by the thermal dilation method and hardness test on the Gleeble-3800 thermal simulated test machine. The transformation behaviors of the microstructures in SCM435 cold heading steel at various cooling speed was analyzed by optical microscopy analysis and electron probe. The study results show that the microstructures in the SCM435 cold heading steel are composed of ferrite, pearlite and bainite when the cooling speed is below 1 ℃/s, while the microstructures are composed of main bainite, small pearlite and ferrite or martensite when the cooling speed is in the range from 1 ℃/s to 10 ℃/s and the microstructures is the simplex martensite when the cooling speed is over 10℃/s.%利用Gleeble-3800热模拟试验机,采用热膨胀法结合硬度测量,研究了SCM435冷镦钢的连续冷却转变过程,通过光学显微镜、电子探针分析了不同冷速下SCM435冷镦钢的组织转变行为。结果表明,SCM435冷镦钢冷速低于1益/s时,组织主要为铁素体+珠光体+贝氏体,在1~10益/s冷速范围内,组织主要为贝氏体和少量珠光体+铁素体或马氏体,冷速大于10益/s时,组织为马氏体。

  7. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-04-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  8. The influence of aluminum and carbon on the abrasion resistance of high manganese steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholz, Samuel August

    Abrasive wear testing of lightweight, austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C cast steel has been performed in accordance with ASTM G65 using a dry sand, rubber wheel, abrasion testing apparatus. Testing was conducted on a series of Fe-30Mn-XAl-YC-1Si-0.5Mo chemistries containing aluminum levels from 2.9 to 9.5 wt.% and carbon levels from 0.9 to 1.83 wt.%. Solution treated materials having an austenitic microstructure produced the highest wear resistance. Wear resistance decreased with higher aluminum, lower carbon, and higher hardness after age hardening. In the solution treated condition the wear rate was a strong function of the aluminum to carbon ratio and the wear rate increased with a parabolic dependence on the Al/C ratio, which ranged from 1.8 to 10.2. Examination of the surface wear scar revealed a mechanism of plowing during abrasion testing and this method of material removal is sensitive to work hardening rate. Work hardening behavior was determined from tensile tests and also decreased with increasing Al/C ratio and after aging hardening. The loss of wear resistance is related to short range ordering of Al and C in the solution treated materials and kappa-carbide precipitation in age hardened materials and both contribute to planar slip and lower work hardening rates. A high carbon tool steel (W1) and a bainitic low alloy steel (SAE 8620) were also tested for comparison. A lightweight steel containing 6.5 wt.% Al and 1.2 wt.% C has wear resistance comparable to within 5% of the bainitic SAE 8620 steel forging currently used for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle track shoe and this cast Fe-Mn-Al-C steel, at equivalent tensile properties, would be 10% lighter.

  9. Application of HTP Process in Production of Ultra-Heavy Steel With High Strength%HTP技术在高强度特厚板生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯华兴; 杨颖; 张哲; 李新玲; 刘明

    2012-01-01

    借助于热模拟、数值模拟的方法,采用添加铌、锰、铬、硼,不含钼的低成本合金设计,通过2种铌质量分数(0.09%和0.05%)钢种的对比,探讨了HTP工艺技术在厚度小于等于100mm、屈服强度大于等于600MPa级别高强度钢中的应用。试验结果表明:采用HTP+回火工艺,可提高钢板的未再结晶温度;改善钢板厚度方向均匀性和钢板的心部冲击韧性,钢板表面和厚度1/4处的组织多为板条贝氏体组织,芯部组织为粒状贝氏体+黑色的珠状组织。%With the help of thermo-mechanical simulation and numerical simulation,the application of HTP process in high strength steel(yield strength is no less than 600 MPa) with the thickness less than 100 mm was discussed,in which Nb,Mn,Cr and B were added and two Nb content(0.09% and 0.05%) steel were contrasted.The results show that by using HTP and temper process,non-recrystallization temperature of steel plate is increased,homogeneity and toughness at center of ultra-heavy plate is obviously increased.The microstructure is mainly lath-like bainite on surface and at quarter,and grain bainite and black pearl-like at center of the thickness by different cooling rate.

  10. Microstructure design of low alloy transformation-induced plasticity assisted steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruixian

    The microstructure of low alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels has been systematically varied through the combination of computational and experimental methodologies in order to enhance the mechanical performance and to fulfill the requirement of the next generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). The roles of microstructural parameters, such as phase constitutions, phase stability, and volume fractions on the strength-ductility combination have been revealed. Two model alloy compositions (i.e. Fe-1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C, and Fe-3Mn-1Si-0.3C in wt%, nominal composition) were studied. Multiphase microstructures including ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite were obtained through conventional two step heat treatment (i.e. intercritical annealing-IA, and bainitic isothermal transformation-BIT). The effect of phase constitution on the mechanical properties was first characterized experimentally via systematically varying the volume fractions of these phases through computational thermodynamics. It was found that martensite was the main phase to deteriorate ductility, meanwhile the C/VA ratio (i.e. carbon content over the volume fraction of austenite) could be another indicator for the ductility of the multiphase microstructure. Following the microstructural characterization of the multiphase alloys, two microstructural design criteria (i.e. maximizing ferrite and austenite, suppressing athermal martensite) were proposed in order to optimize the corresponding mechanical performance. The volume fraction of ferrite was maximized during the IA with the help of computational thermodyanmics. On the other hand, it turned out theoretically that the martensite suppression could not be avoided on the low Mn contained alloy (i.e. Fe- 1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C). Nevertheless, the achieved combination of strength (~1300MPa true strength) and ductility (˜23% uniform elongation) on the low Mn alloy following the proposed design criteria fulfilled the

  11. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Welded Eglin Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leister, Brett M.

    Eglin steel is a new ultra-high strength steel that has been developed at Eglin Air Force Base in the early 2000s. This steel could be subjected to a variety of processing steps during fabrication, each with its own thermal history. This article presents a continuous cooling transformation diagram developed for Eglin steel to be used as a guideline during processing. Dilatometry techniques performed on a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator were combined with microhardness results and microstructural characterization to develop the diagram. The results show that four distinct microstructures form within Eglin steel depending on the cooling rate. At cooling rates above about 1 °C/s, a predominately martensitic microstructure is formed with hardness of ˜520 HV. Intermediate cooling rates of 1 °C/s to 0.2 °C/s produce a mixed martensitic/bainitic microstructure with a hardness that ranges from 520 - 420 HV. Slower cooling rates of 0.1 °C/s to 0.03 °C/s lead to the formation of a bainitic microstructure with a hardness of ˜420 HV. The slowest cooling rate of 0.01 °C/s formed a bainitic microstructure with pearlite at the prior austenite grain boundaries. A comprehensive study was performed to correlate the mechanical properties and the microstructural evolution in the heat affected zone of thermally simulated Eglin steel. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was used to resistively heat samples of wrought Eglin steel according to calculated thermal cycles with different peak temperatures at a heat input of 1500 J/mm. These samples underwent mechanical testing to determine strength and toughness, in both the `as-simulated' condition and also following post-weld heat treatments. Mechanical testing has shown that the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) has the lowest strength following thermal simulation, and the fine-grain and coarse-grain heat affected zone having an increased strength when compared to the inter-critical HAZ. The toughness of the heat

  12. The effect of segregation on the austemper transformation and toughness of ductile irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. Y.; Chen, E. T.; Lei, T. S.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of segregation of alloying elements on the phase transformation of ductile iron during austempering was investigated. Four heats, each containing 0.4%Mn, 1% Cu, 1.5% Ni, or 0.4% Mo (wt%) separately, were melted; then three different sizes of casting bars (3,15, and 75 mm diameter) were poured from each heat. The distribution and the degree of segregation of certain elements were quantitatively analyzed using an electron microprobe. A personal computer (PC)-controlled heat treating system was used to measure electrical resistivity, and the information on resistivity variations was used to analyze the effect of segregation on phase transformations during austempering. Also, Charpy impact and Rockwell hardness tests were performed to determine the effect of segregation on properties. Results of the electron microprobe analysis showed that the degree of segregation of alloy elements increases with an increase in diameter of the casting bars (i.e., an increase of solidification time of castings). The degree of segregation of alloy elements, represented by segregation ratio (SR) (the maximum concentration of element in cell divided by the minimum concentration of element in cell), varied linearly with the casting modulus (M) (volume of casting divided by surface area of casting). Regarding the segregating tendency among alloy elements, positive segregating elements Mn and Mo showed more segregation than the negative segregating elements Si, Cu, and Ni. In addition, segregation of Mo was more significant than Mn, and that for Cu was greater than Ni and Si. Between the time of finishing the first stage and beginning the second stage of bainite reaction in ductile irons, there is a significant “processing window,” At;, for austempering to obtain optimum mechanical properties. From the electrical resistivity data, it was observed that the austempering temperature plays a major role in the processing window. There was a narrow window at 400 ‡C but a larger

  13. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a &apos

  14. Evolution of non-uniform grain structure during hot defornnation of a Nb-Ti microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katajarinne, T.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Recrystallisation and the evolution of the abnormally grown austenite grains were investigated for a continuously cast slab of a 0.13 C-1.41 Mn-0.027 Nb-0.012 Ti steel during reheating and after the subsequent deformation. The stability of the recrystallised structure and the uniformity of the final microstructure were also studied. The abnormally grown grains appear in a few minutes at reheating temperatures around 1200 °C. All grains in the bimodal grain structure recrystallised at 1100 °C for strains > 0.2 within about 40 s. The coarse grains are refined, while the fine grains become slightly larger. Some abnormal grain growth can occur again in the recrystallised structure within 10 min. After cooling at 1° C/s the coarse austenite grains transform into large areas of upper bainite, while the finer grains transform to fine ferrite and pearlite. The transformed microstructure in specimens cooled at l°C/s consists of large upper bainitic areas corresponding to the prior coarse austenite grains, surrounded by fine ferrite-pearlite grains.

    Se ha estudiado la recristalización y la evolución del crecimiento anormal de grano, durante el recalentamiento y tras deformaciones sucesivas, en un acero 0,13 C-1,41 Mn-0,027 Nb- 0,012 Ti procedente de colada continua. Se ha estudiado, así mismo, la estabilidad de la estructura recristalizada y la uniformidad de la microestructura final. Para temperaturas de recalentamiento próximas a 1.200 °C, aparece crecimiento anormal de grano en unos pocos minutos. Todos los granos pertenecientes a la estructura bimodal resultante recristalizan durante, aproximadamente, 40 s, a 1.100 °C, para una deformación de 0,2. El tamaño de grano se afina en aquellas regiones con granos más gruesos de partida y crece, ligeramente, en las que tenían un grano m��s fino. En 10 min, se puede desencadenar, de nuevo, un cierto crecimiento anormal de grano en la estructura recristalizada. La microestructura final

  15. MODIFICATION OF CARBON STEEL BY LASER SURFACE MELTING: PART I: EFFECT OF LASER BEAM TRAVELLING SPEED ON MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES AND SURFACE HARDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem F. El-Labban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to improve the surface hardness of carbon steel by application of laser surface melting of effective conditions. The travelling speed of laser beam during this treatment is one of the important treatment conditions. This study aims to investigate the effect of laser surface melting with different beam speeds on macro and microstructure as well as the hardness distribution through the thickness of carbon steel. To achieve this target, three different travelling speeds (1500, 1000 and 500 mm min-1 at a constant beam power of 800 W were chosen in this study. The resulted laser treated specimens were investigated in macro and microscopically scale using optical and scanning electron microscope. Hardness measurements were also carried out through the thickness of the laser treated specimens. The laser treated areas with all used travelling speeds results in melted and solidified zone on the surface of the steel. In the same time, Plates of acicular martensite structure were observed within the upper part of the melted and solidified zone in almost all experimental conditions, while some bainite structure in ferrite grains are detected in its lower part. By increasing the travelling speed, the depth of the laser treated zone was decreases, while travelling speed has much less significant effect on the laser treated zone width. The size of the formed martensite plates was increased by decreasing the travelling speed from 1500 to 500 mm min-1. On the other hand, the travelling speed has a straight effect on the length of the acicular martensite; as the travelling speed increases, the acicular martensite became longer, while it shows fine acicular martensite at lower travelling speeds. The depth that full martensite structure can be reached is increased by increasing travelling speed. At lower travelling speed (500 mm min-1, large amount of bainite structure is observed at the center of the treated zone up to its lower end. The

  16. 建筑用耐火钢的研究现状及发展趋势%R esearch Situation and D evelopm entT rend ofF ire-R esistantSteel for B uilding S tructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道美; 邓伟; 崔强

    2014-01-01

    Fire-resistant steel is the first choice of green steel materials of construction steel structure. Composition design of different ideas through the production of iron and steel enterprises abroad have developed fire-resistant steel at different grades, especially has been great developed and widely used in high-rise building construction. China also conducted research and development, and the performance reached a considerable level with foreign fire-resistant steel, but less application. The reason is that the traditional fire-resistant steel contains high Mo content, alloy cost is much higher than ordinary construction steel. Fire-resistant steel should possess a lot of bainite to ensure high strength at elevated temperature, but bainite is the microstructure transformed at middle temperature, which is difficult to control by TMCP process, and that is difficulty to develop. The development of economic fire-resistant steel with low Mo content, high strength, well tougthness, and replace ordinary construction steel + fire-resistant coating, is one of the development trend of the steel structure of modern architecture.%耐火钢是建筑钢结构的首选绿色钢铁材料。国外钢铁生产企业通过不同的成分设计思路相继开发了不同级别的耐火钢,并已大量应用于高层建筑。国内也进行了研究开发,且性能达到与国外耐火钢相当的水平,但是应用业绩较少,其原因是传统耐火钢Mo含量高,合金成本远高于普通建筑用钢。耐火钢必须通过一定量的贝氏体以保证良好的高温性能,而贝氏体属中温转变组织,对轧制及冷却工艺要求高,是耐火钢开发的难点。开发低Mo含量的低成本、高强度、高韧性耐火钢,并逐渐取代普通建筑钢+耐火涂层,是现代建筑钢结构的发展趋势之一。

  17. Effect of heat treatment process on microstructures and mechanical properties of 9Cr steel%热处理工艺对9Cr钢组织与力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑晨; 李昭东; 孙新军; 雍岐龙; 王小江; 周世同

    2016-01-01

    利用热膨胀试验研究了9Cr钢随冷却速度变化的相变行为,设定奥氏体化温度分别为860和1000℃,利用 OM、SEM、TEM、XRD和室温拉伸对比研究不同热处理温度下9Cr钢的显微组织及力学性能.研究表明:随着冷却速度增加,9 Cr 钢发生铁素体/珠光体相变、贝氏体相变和马氏体相变,其中马氏体相变临界冷速为1.6℃/s;860℃热处理后9Cr钢的显微组织为板条贝氏体/马氏体和少量等轴铁素体,并有4%的残余奥氏体;奥氏体化温度升至1000℃后,奥氏体晶粒尺寸增加,9Cr 钢中铁素体几乎消失,板条特征更加明显,力学性能与860℃热处理后基本相同,均达到 HL级抽油杆钢的要求,说明9Cr钢具有较宽的工艺窗口.%The phase transformation behaviors of 9Cr steel with the change of cooling rates were studied by thermal expansion test.The microstructures and mechanical properties of 9Cr steel with heat treatment at 860 and 1 000℃were observed by OM,SEM,TEM,XRD and measured by tensile test at room temperature.The results show that the ferrite/pearlite,bainite and martensite phase transitions take place in order with increasing the cooling rate.The critical cooling rate of martensite phase transformation is 1.6℃/s.After the heat treatment at 860℃, the microstructures of 9Cr steel are polygonal ferrite and lath martensite/bainite and 4% of retained austenite.Af-ter austenitizing at 1 000℃,the grain size increases and the ferrite almost disappears.The character of lath be-comes obvious.Compared with 9Cr steel austenitized at 860℃,the mechanical properties meet the mechanical prop-erty requirement of HL level of sucker rod steel which shows that 9Cr steel has a wide processing window.

  18. Fracture mechanisms in dual phase steels based on the acicular ferrite + martensite/austenite microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poruks, Peter

    The fracture mechanisms of low carbon microalloyed plate steels based on the acicular ferrite + marten site/austenite microstructure (AF + M/A) are investigated. The final microstructure consists of a dispersed phase of submicron equi-axed martensite particles with a bainitic ferrite matrix. A series of plates with M/A volume fractions of 0.076--0.179 are studied. Brittle fracture is investigated by Instrumented Charpy impact testing of samples at -196°C and subsequent metallography. The M/A particles are identified as the crack nucleation sites and the cleavage fracture stress calculated to be 2400 MPa in a complete AF microstrucuture. This value is significantly larger than in steels that contain significant proportions of conventional bainite. Standard Charpy and Instrumented Charpy impact testing is conducted through a temperature range from -80 to + 22°C to study ductile fracture behaviour. The total absorbed energy is separated into energies of crack nucleation and of crack propagation. It is found that the energy of crack nucleation is weakly dependent on the volume fraction of M/A and completely independent of temperature over the range studied. The crack propagation energy varies significantly with both variables, decreasing with increased volume fraction of M/A and with decreasing temperature. The peak load in the instrumented Charpy data is used to calculate the dynamic fracture toughness, KId, which is found to be 105--120 MPa-m1/2. The void nucleation and void growth stages of ductile fracture are studied by metallographic examination of tensile bars. The sites of void nucleation are identified as inclusions and M/A particles. Voids nucleate at the M/A particles by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. A constant void nucleation strain of epsilon = 0.90 +/- 0.05 is measured for all of the samples independent of the volume fraction of M/A. A stress-based criterion is used to predict void nucleation and the interface strength is determined to be

  19. Diseño de nuevos aceros bainíticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, F. G.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed microstructures consisting of fine plates of upper bainitic ferrite separated by thin films of stable retained austenite have seen many applications in recent years because of their impressive combination of strength and toughness. There may also be some martensite present in the microstructure, but its formation can be controlled increasing the stability of the retained austenite. On the other hand, carbides are avoided by the judicious use of silicon as an alloying element. The aim of the present work was to see how far these concepts can be extended in order to achieve the highest ever combination of strength and toughness in bulk-samples subjected to continuous cooling transformation. Three alloys were proposed and manufactured, and the results of metallographic characterisation and mechanical tests have shown that the designed steels have the highest ever combination of strength and toughness for bainitic microstructures, matching even the maraging steels which are at least thirty times more expensive. The experimental results confirm the alloy design procedures.

    En los últimos años se han diseñado aceros con microestmcturas formadas por placas de ferrita bainítica superior y finas regiones de austenita retenida que, por su excelente combinación de propiedades de resistencia y tenacidad, han sido empleados para numerosas aplicaciones. Aunque en estas microestructuras puede haber algo de martensita, su formación puede controlarse aumentando la estabilidad de la austenita retenida. Por otra parte, la presencia de carburos en la bainita, causa de importantes disminuciones de tenacidad en los aceros bainíticos convencionales, se evita gracias al uso del silicio como elemento de aleación. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la posibilidad de optimizar la citada combinación de propiedades, generalmente antagónicas, en muestras masivas para aplicación industrial sujetas a transformaciones por enfriamiento continuo. Para

  20. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  1. Effect of boron on continuous cooling transformation of low carbon steel%硼对低碳钢变形后连续冷却转变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 郭晓波; 李桂艳; 赵宝纯

    2012-01-01

    The continuous cooling transformation curves of the B-bearing and B-free low carbon steel were measured by means of Vickers-hardness measurement and thermal dilation method by use of Gleeble-3800 thermo-simulation machine.The microstructure was observed and analyzed by OM and SEM.The results show that when the cooling rates are changed in a large range,full bainite can be obtained in the tested steel with boron addition,compared with which the full bainite can not be obtained in the tested steel without boron.The lath bainte can be obtained in the steel with boron addition when the cooling rate is greater than 5 ℃/s.While there is no such structure that can be observed in the steel without boron.Compared with that of the steel without boron,the hardness of the steel with boron addition is much higher under the same process and the difference between the hardness of the two steels become obvious with the increment of the cooling rate.%利用Gleeble-3800热模拟试验机,采用热膨胀法结合硬度测试研究了含硼和不含硼两种低碳钢的连续冷却转变过程,通过光学显微镜、扫描电镜分析了不同冷速下两种钢的组织转变。结果表明,不含硼钢未得到全部贝氏体组织,含硼钢可在相当大的冷速范围内得到全部贝氏体组织,且可细化显微组织;含硼钢中冷速大于5℃/s时出现板条贝氏体,而不含硼钢在整个试验冷速范围内均无板条贝氏体出现;含硼钢的硬度明显高于不含硼钢相同冷速下的硬度值,且随着冷却速度的增加相同冷速下含硼钢与无硼钢硬度值的差明显变大。

  2. Analysis of Microstructures and Property of Welded Joint of EH36 Thick Steel Plate for Offshore Platform%海洋平台用EH36厚钢板焊接接头的组织性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of EN 10225-2009 appendix E Standard, the EH36 thick steel plate with 100 mm thickness for offshore platforms was welded by submerge-arc welding technology with 50 kJ/cm high heat input. The microstructure and properties of the weld joint were analyzed. The results showed that either welded or heat treated after welding, the hardness HV10 of the weld joint of EH36 thick steel plate ≤ 280, tensile strength ≥ 510 MPa, the mean value of absorbed-in-fracture energy at-40℃≥50 J, the surface microstructure mainly are coarse lath bainite+a small amount of granular bainite and the core structure is fine ferrite+pearlite. This showed that the EH36 thick steel plates developed by Jinan Steel meet the welding needs of offshore platforms. The differences of the fusion line shape and heat transfer status between the surface and center of weld joint are main reasons to lead to surface HAZ grain coarser than those of center HAZ, so surface toughness is lower than that of center.%按照EN 10225-2009附录E标准要求,采用50 kJ/cm大热输入埋弧焊工艺焊接厚为100 mm海洋平台用EH36钢板,测试分析了焊态及焊后热处理态焊接接头的组织与性能。结果表明,无论焊态还是焊后热处理态,EH36厚钢板焊接接头的硬度HV10≤280,抗拉强度≥510 MPa,-40℃冲击功均值≥50 J,表面组织以粗大的板条状贝氏体+少量粒状贝氏体为主,心部组织以细小的铁素体+珠光体为主,表明济钢开发的EH36厚钢板满足海洋平台的焊接生产要求。焊接接头表面与心部熔合线形状及传热状态的差异,是导致表面HAZ晶粒比心部粗大、因而表面韧性低于心部的主要原因。

  3. Effect of tempering on fine microstructure of NV-F690 thick steel plate with balanced strength and toughness%回火工艺对高强韧NV-F690厚船板精细组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳重祥; 刘东升

    2012-01-01

    Effect of tempering on fine microstructure of an NV-F690 thick (100 mm) steel plate with balanced strength and toughness for offshore structure and shipbuilding was characterized with SEM, EBSD and TEM, and the relationship between low temperature impact fracture behavior and microstructure of the plate was investigated. The results show that direcf quenched microstructure consist of mainly lath- like bainite (LB) and granular bainite (GB) with coarse martensite/austenite (MA) at ND/2, and LB with narrow laths at ND/4. The impact toughness at ND/2 is lower than that at ND/4. After tempering at 650-690 ℃ for 6 h, profuse Cu precipitation occurs at the tempered plate. Coarse MA constituents decompose, the fraction of high angle grain boundary (HAGB) increases and effective grain size decreases at ND/2, which results in impact toughness improved.%采用SEM、EBSD和TEM研究回火工艺对低C含Cu特厚(100mm)高强韧NV—F690船体和海洋平台用钢板精细组织的影响,深入探讨钢板低温冲击断裂行为与精细组织之间的关系。结果表明,轧后直接淬火态DQ钢板心部(ND/2)组织为板条贝氏体+粒状贝氏体,板条间距较宽,粒状贝氏体中存在较粗大MA组元,低温韧性差;1/4厚度(ND/4)处组织为板条贝氏体,板条间距窄,低温韧性好。650—690℃回火6h后,大量ε-Cu弥散沉淀相在钢板基体组织中析出,钢板ND/2处粗大粒状MA组元分解,大角度晶界分数增加,有效晶粒尺寸减小,低温韧性显著提高。

  4. 热成形温度对高强钢方管组织及性能的影响%Effect of hot forming temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength square tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雪锋; 韩静涛; 晏培杰; 王宇

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of traditional roll forming process and equipment on high strength square tubes at room temperature, hot roll forming process using local induction heating was proposed to produce high strength square tubes. A series of tests including tensile testing, fracture morphology, scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and X-ray diffraction were performed to investigate the effect of hot forming temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength square tubes. Experi-mental results show that as the temperature rises, the mechanical properties of the corners improve significantly. The fracture morphol-ogy gradually changes from cleavage fracture at room temperature to ductile fracture. The microstructures at the corners are developed from lath bainite to granular bainite and the polygonal ferrite begins to grow. Moreover, the circumferential and longitudinal residual stresses on the outside surface of the square tubes are reduced and reasonably redistributed. Based on the analyses of experimental results, the optimum forming temperature for high strength square tubes is 650℃.%为了克服传统辊弯工艺和设备对室温下高强钢的影响,提出弯角局部感应加热辊压成形工艺制备高强钢方管,并通过单向拉伸试验、断口形貌观察、微观组织扫描电镜观察和X射线衍射分析研究热辊压成形温度对高强钢方管弯角处组织及力学性能的影响。结果表明,随着温度的升高,弯角力学性能得到明显的改善,断口形貌由室温下解理断裂逐渐过渡为韧性断裂,弯角处微观组织由板条状贝氏体向粒状贝氏体发展且多边形铁素体晶粒开始长大,方管外表面周向和纵向残余应力都明显降低且分布更加合理。综合实验分析,高强钢方管热辊压成形工艺的最佳温度为650益。

  5. Ductility of Advanced High-Strength Steel in the Presence of a Sheared Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Tim; Cluff, Stephen; Miles, Michael; Fullwood, David; Daniels, Craig; Avila, Alex; Chen, Ming

    2016-07-01

    The ductility of dual-phase (DP) 980 and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted bainitic ferritic (TBF) 980 steels was studied in the presence of a sheared edge. Specimens were tested in uniaxial tension in a standard test frame as well as in situ in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Incremental tensile straining was done in the SEM with images taken at each strain increment. Then digital image correlation (DIC) was used to compute the effective strain at the level of the individual phases in the microstructure. Shear banding across multiple phases was seen in strained TBF specimens, while the DP specimens exhibited more of a patchwork strain pattern, with high strains concentrated in ferrite and low strains observed in the martensite. Two-point statistics were applied to the strain data from the DIC work and the corresponding microstructure images to evaluate the effect of phase hardness on localization and fracture. It was observed that the DP 980 material had a greater tendency for localization around hard phases compared to the TBF 980. This at least partially explains the greater ductility of the TBF material, especially in specimens where a sheared edge was present.

  6. Effect of Microstructure in TRIP Steel on Its Tensile Behavior at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The relationships between microstructure of 0.195C-1.6Si-1.58Mn TRIP steel and its dynamic mechanical properties at high strain rate were investigated. The effect of microstructures on dynamic properties was discussed and the comparison with its static mechanical properties was also presented. The specimens of TRIP steel via three heat treatment techniques exhibit different morphological structures, responsible for their dynamic mechanical performances. The dynamic tensile testing was performed on self-made pneumatic tensile impact tester. The results showed that the size, volume fraction, morphology and distribution of retained austenite all affect the final mechanical properties at high strain rate. Among them, the second phase (retained austenite+bainite) with net structure severely decreases the elongation of TRIP steel in spite of the fact that it enhances strength because it restrains ferrite deformation. In order to obtain the excellent combination of strength and elongation, rational matching of morphology, size and volume fraction of several phases in TRIP steel can be obtained via proper heat treatment techniques.

  7. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  8. Effects of Warm Deformation on Mechanical Properties of TRIP Aided Fe-C-Mn-Si Multiphase Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LI Zhuan~

    2012-01-01

    Warm deformation tests were performed using a kind of tubby heater. The microstructures and mechanical properties of an Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steel resulting from different warm deformation temperatures were investiga- ted by using LOM (light optical microscopy), SEM and XRD. The results indicated that the microstructure contai- ning polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and a significant amount of the stable retained austenite can be obtained through hot deformation and subsequent austempering. Warm deformation temperature affects the mechanical prop- erties of the hot rolled TRIP steels. Ultimate tensile strength balance reached maximum (881 MPa) when the speci- men was deformed at 250 ~C, and the total elongation and strength-ductility reached maximum (38% and 28 614 MPa ~ ~, respectively) at deforming temperature of 100 ~C. Martensite could nucleate when austenite was deformed above M~, because mechanical driving force compensates the decrease of chemical driving force. The TRIP effect occurs in the Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steel at deforming temperature ranging from 15 to 350 ~C. The results of the effects of warm deformation on the mechanical properties of the Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steel can provide theoretical basis for the ap- plications and the warm working of the hot rolled TRIP sheet steels in industrial manufacturing.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Laser Heat Treated 6 mm Thick UHSS-Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvenpää, Antti; Mäntyjärvi, Kari; Merklein, Marion; määttä, Antti; Hietala, Mikko; Karjalainen, Jussi

    2011-05-01

    In this work abrasion resistant (AR) steel with a sheet thickness of 6 mm was heat treated by a 4 kW Nd:YAG and a 4 kW Yb:Yag-laser, followed by self-quenching. In the delivered condition, test material blank (B27S) is water quenched from 920° C. In this condition, fully martensitic microstructure provides excellent hardness of over 500 HB. The test material is referred to AR500 from now onwards. Laser heat treatment was carried out only on top surface of the AR500 sheet: the achieved maximum temperature in the cross-section varies as a function of the depth. Consequently, the microstructure and mechanical properties differ between the surfaces and the centre of the cross-section (layered microstructure). For better understanding, all layers were tested in tensile tests. For a wide heat treatment track, the laser beam was moved by scanning. Temperatures were measured using thermographic camera and thermocouples. Laser heat treated AR500 samples were tested in hardness tests and by air bending using a press brake machine. Microstructures were studied using a light microscope and FE-SEM/SEM-EBSD. At least three kind of microstructure layers were observed: 1) Dual-Phase ferritic/martensitic (T = AC1-AC3), 2) ferritic (T˜AC3) and 3) bainitic/martensitic (T>AC3).

  10. 覆砂铁型铸造工艺生产ADI摩擦斜楔%ADI Oblique Wedge Produced with Resin Sand Coated-Iron Mold Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 鲍玉龙; 王德军

    2013-01-01

    The casting method and heat treatment process adopted for using resin sand coated-iron mold to produce ADI oblique wedge of railway vehicles was introduced. By adopting semi -pressurized gating system and filter to skim slag, choosing rational melting charge mixture ratio and the cored-wire injection nodularizing process, using salt bath isothermal quenching process, the hi-strength , hi-hardness and hi-toughness ADI castings with bainite + residual austenite as matrix were finally obtained.%介绍了采用覆砂铁型铸造生产火车用摩擦斜楔ADI铸件的铸造工艺和热处理工艺.通过采用半封闭式浇注系统和过滤网挡渣;选用合理的炉料配比及喂丝球化处理工艺;采用盐浴等温淬火工艺,最终获得以贝氏体+残余奥氏体为基体的高强度、高硬度及高韧性的ADI铸件.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel has been developed, and its microstructures and mechanical properties at different temperatures were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the boron alloyed high silicon cast steel comprises a dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic borides in as-cast condition. The dendritic matrix is made up of pearlite, ferrite, and the interdendritic eutectic boride is with a chemical formula of M2B (M represents Fe, Cr, Mn or Mo which is much like that of carbide in high chromium white cast iron. Pure ausferrite structure that consists of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite can be obtained in the matrix by austempering treatment to the cast steel. No carbides precipitate in the ausferrite structure and the morphology of borides remains almost unchanged after austempering treatments. Secondary boride particles precipitate during the course of austenitizing. The hardness and tensile strength of the austempered cast steel decrease with the increase of the austempering temperature, from 250 篊 to 400 篊. The impact toughness is 4-11 J昪m-2 at room temperature and the impact fracture fractogragh indicates that the fracture is caused by the brittle fracture of the borides.

  12. Effect of Heat Treatment on Delayed Fracture Resistance of High Strength Steel 30CrMnSi2NiNb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The steel specimens of nominal composition 0.3C-1.0Cr-1.0Mn-2.0Si-1.0Ni-0.04Nb were quenched and tempered or isothermally quenched from various temperatures. It is found that the steel quenched and tempered with a tensile strength of 1 500-1 600 MPa has a KISCC (critical stress intensity factor) value below 15.0 MPa*m1/2. The steel isothermally quenched with a tensile strength of 1 350-1 750 MPa has a KISCC value about 20.0 MPa*m1/2. In addition, with increase of isothermal quenching temperature, the tensile strength decreases greatly and KISCC value does not pronouncedly change. The microstructure of isothermally quenched specimens is composed of bainite and retained austenite. The delayed fracture resistance is dependent on the stability of austenite, which is in turn related to the retained austenite volume fraction and carbon content in austenite.

  13. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  14. Application of advanced high strength hot-rolled steels to automotive chassis parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.R.; Kim, H.G.; Chin, K.G. [Technical Research Lab., POSCO (Korea); Lee, W.S. [Advanced Technology Dept., Hyundai MOBIS, Yongin (Korea); Kwon, T.W. [Hwashin Co. Ltd., Yeongcheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    With social demand of automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety in collisions, the steel makers are tackling the needs of the auto industry by developing higher performance materials such as AHSS (advanced high strength steels). From this point of view, DP and FB (ferrite-bainite) steels have received considerable attention because of their good strength and formability relationship. The results of application with the AHSS on chassis parts were compared with the conventional steels of 370 or 440MPa grade steels. 590DP steel has good press formability due to higher n value and lower yield strength. Fatigue durability of chassis assembly was increased due to the strength and bake hardening effects in spite of thickness reduction. The damping capacity of chassis components increased more than 2 times comparing with conventional steels. With 540 and 590FB steels which have excellent stretch flangeability, the validity were proved by successful press forming and weight reduction of arms as well as increased fatigue durability. (orig.)

  15. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF Cu-Zn-Al (RE) SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.C.Si; S.C.Sun

    2001-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys with mixed REwere researched with the help of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micro-scope (TEM).The results show that the shape memory alloys with martensite can beproduced by adding mixed RE and heat treatment processes holding at 820C -880Cfor 15min,quenching into oil,aging at 150C for 15min,and then holding in waterat 50C for 10min.The alloys have the lowest transformation thermal hysteresis.Among the four experimental heat treatment processes the gradationally quenchingmakes the alloy have the highest transformation temperature and quenching into oilor water at room temperature makes the alloy have the largest thermal hysteresis.Mi-crostructure examination shows that aging at 2000C could destroy the substructuresin lathy martensites in the alloy and form a lot of dislocations,and aging at 250℃could cause the bainite transformation in the alloy.

  16. Effect of tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. W.; Han, L. Z.; Luo, X. M.; Liu, Q. D.; Gu, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel were investigated after tempering at different temperatures ranging from 580 to 700 °C for 5 h. With increasing tempering temperature, the impact toughness, which is qualified by Charpy V-notch total absorbed energy, initially increases from 142 to 252 J, and then decreases to 47 J, with a maximum value at 650 °C, while the ultimate tensile strength varies in exactly the opposite direction. Comparing the microstructure and fracture surfaces of different specimens, the variations in toughness and strength with the tempering temperature were generally attributed to the softening of the bainitic ferrite, the agminated Fe3C carbides that resulted from decomposition of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents, the precipitation of Mo2C carbides, and the newly formed M/A constituents at the grain boundaries. Finally, the correlation between the impact toughness and the volume fraction of the M/A constituents was established, and the fracture mechanisms for the different tempering conditions are explained.

  17. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  18. Influence of local mechanical properties of high strength steel from large size forged ingot on ultrasonic wave velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohamad; Lafreniere, Serge; Belanger, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In the metallurgical industry, ultrasonic inspection is routinely used for the detection of defects. For the non-destructive inspection of small high strength steel parts, the material can be considered isotropic. However, when the size of the parts under inspection is large, the isotropic material hypothesis does not necessarily hold. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the variation in mechanical properties such as grain size, Young's modulus, Poissons ratio, chemical composition on longitudinal and transversal ultrasonic wave velocities. A 2 cm thick slice cut from a 40-ton bainitic steel ingot that was forged and heat treated was divided into 875 parallelepiped samples of 2x4x7 cm3. A metallurgical study has been performed to identify the phase and measure the grain size. Ultrasonic velocity measurements at 2.25 MHz for longitudinal and transversal waves were performed. The original location of the parallelepiped samples in the large forged ingot, and the measured velocities were used to produce an ultrasonic velocity map. Using a local isotropy assumption as well as the local density of the parallelepiped samples calculated from the chemical composition of the ingot provided by a previously published study, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio were calculated from the longitudinal and transversal wave velocities. Micro-tensile test was used to validate Youngs modulus obtained by the ultrasonic wave velocity and an excellent agreement was observed.

  19. Prediction of mechanical properties of hot rolled steel products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Šimeček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Model for prediction of mechanical properties of rolled steel products after final cooling from exitrolling temperature is one of the basic component of any software for complex computer simulation of rollingtechnologies. Theoretical background and implementation of such software tool is described.Design/methodology/approach: After calculation of cooling curves by any technology dependent Shell thesoftware tool MECHP can be called to predict CCT Diagram from current chemical composition of steel andinitial properties of deformed austenite first than structure shares (percentage of ferrite, pearlite, bainite andmartensite resulting from austenite decomposition process for given cooling curve and finally mechanicalproperties of final product after cooling (hardness, yield stress, tensile strength are calculated. Implementationof MECHP tool into the software RollFEM3D for 3D Finite Elements Method simulation of rolling processesis presented.Findings: Comparison of MECHP calculations with measured process data (water cooling and subsequent aircooling of hot rolled narrow plate and wire shows correspondence that is satisfactory for using in control ofprocess cooling technology.Practical implications: Results of verification showed that the software tool MECHP is implementable asa postprocessor into off-line rolling process simulation software or can be used as a mechanical propertiespredictor in software for on-line control of cooling.Originality/value: Developing of technology independent Library solving the problem of final mechanicalproperties prediction for various kinds of rolling technologies.

  20. Microstructures and Plane Energy Spectra of X80 Pipeline Steel Welded Joints by Submerged Arc Automatic Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Dejun; YE Cundong; GUO Wei; WU Yongzhong; LONG Dan

    2014-01-01

    X80 pipeline steel was welded with submerged arc automatic welding, the microstructures, cavity sizes, fusion depths and plane scanning of chemical elements in the welded zone, fusion zone, heat affected zone and base steel were observed with OM (optical microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope), respectively. The experimental results show that there is main acicular ferrite in the base steel and welded zone, the microscopic structure of fusion zone is a blocked bainite, and the heat affected zone is composed of multilateral ferrite and pearlite. M-A unit of the welded zone is the main factor to strengthen the welded zone, composed of acicular ferrites. The percentage of cavities in the welded joint is less than that in the base steel, which is beneficial to increasing its mechanical performance and corrosion resistance. The fusion depth in the fusion zone and welded zone is 101.13μm and 115.85μm, respectively, and the distribution of chemical elements in the welded zone is uniform, no enrichment phenomena.

  1. Electrical resistivity and phase transformation in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, O.N.; Bhagat, A.N. [Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited, Jamshedpur (India)

    2003-01-01

    Changes in electrical resistance accompanying transformations in steels with magnetic change (e.g. {gamma} {yields} martensite/bainite) and without magnetic change (e.g. {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, above Curie temperature) have been examined; the former class affects the resistivity the latter does not. Next, while the efficacy of electrical resistivity measurement in capturing the well-known features of austenite stabilization (e.g. over - ageing, reversibility, and influence of prior martensite amount and so on) in high carbon steels has been reported in an earlier publication, new features (e.g. increase in resistance -increase at very low temperatures, change in temperature co-efficient of resistivity in the stabilized material etc.) are highlighted here. Finally, the work shows that a quantitative estimate of precipitation in the copper bearing, age-hardenable HSLA-100 steel during tempering can be done by continuous electrical resistivity measurement. These data also allow an in-depth kinetic analysis using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Modeling of structure of double-phase low-carbon chromium steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarevskii, N. Yu.; Titovets, Yu. F.; Samoilov, A. N.; Hribernig, G.; Pichler, A.

    2007-01-01

    A physical model for determining the relative amount of phase components and the size of ferrite grains after decomposition of austenite in the process of cooling of double-phase steels is suggested. The main products of austenite transformation, i.e., polygonal ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite, are considered. The driving forces of the transformation and the concentration of carbon on the phase surface are determined with the use of methods of computational thermodynamics. The model is based on equations of the classical theory of nucleation and growth. It allows for the structural features of the occurrence of γ → α transformation and contain some empirical parameters. The latter are determined using data of dilatometric measurements of the kinetics of austenite transformation and metallographic measurements of the size of ferrite grains. The model is used for predicting the kinetics of the transformation under the complex cooling conditions implemented by the VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH rolling mill within the computer system for control of mechanical properties of hot-rolled strip.

  3. Effect of molybdenum addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Menghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has two main objectives; first is optimization of welding process parameters of submerged arc welding (SAW using Taguchi philosophy and second is to improve the mechanical properties such as strength and microhardness of weld joint by alloying with varying amounts of molybdenum. For optimization of welding process, parameters Taguchi philosophy have been applied on a mild steel plate (AISI C- 1020 of 10 mm thickness with 60o groove angle with arc voltage and welding speed as variables and bead width as output variables. A mathematical relationship between bead width, arc voltage and welding speed has also been found using multiple regression analysis for the present base metal plate geometry. After optimizing welding parameters, molybdenum has been added individually to the welding area in varying percentages. The properties of alloyed and unalloyed weld metal bead are compared. The mechanical characterization of weld has been done in terms of microhardness, tensile strength, whereas microstructural characterization has been performed using optical microscopy, XRD and EDS. The presence of molybdenum resulted in bainite structure in weld bead having a refined grain structure, enhancement in tensile strength and microhardness. The XRD results showed the formation of molybdenum carbides justifying the increase in microhardness value.

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a low-carbon quenching and partitioning steel after partial and full austenitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-song Li; Hong-ye Gao; Hideharu Nakashima; Satoshi Hata; Wen-huai Tian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, low-carbon steel specimens were subjected to the quenching and partitioning process after being partially or fully austenitized to investigate their microstructural evolution and mechanical properties. According to the results of scanning electron micros-copy and transmission electron microscopy observations, X-ray diffraction analysis, and tensile tests, upper bainite or tempered martensite appears successively in the microstructure with increasing austenitization temperature or increasing partitioning time. In the partially austeni-tized specimens, the retained austenite grains are carbon-enriched twice during the heat treatment, which can significantly stabilize the phases at room temperature. Furthermore, after partial austenitization, the specimen exhibits excellent elongation, with a maximum elongation of 37.1%. By contrast, after full austenitization, the specimens exhibit good ultimate tensile strength and high yield strength. In the case of a specimen with a yield strength of 969 MPa, the maximum value of the ultimate tensile strength reaches 1222 MPa. During the partitioning process, carbon partitioning and carbon homogenization within austenite affect interface migration. In addition, the volume fraction and grain size of retained austenite observed in the final microstructure will also be affected.

  5. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of TiC Coating Deposited on Spheroidized Graphite Cast Iron Using Laser Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. I. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal graphite cast iron was laser cladded with TiC powder using a YAG fiber laser at powers of 700, 1000, 1500 and 2000 W. The powder was preplaced on the surface of the specimens with 0.5 mm thickness. Sound cladding and fusion zones were observed at 700, 1000 and 1500 W powers. However, at 2000 W, cracking was observed in the fusion zone. At 700 W, a build-up zone consisted of fine TiC dendrites inside a matrix composed of martensite, cementite (Fe3C, and some blocks of retained austenite was observed. In this zone, all graphite nodules were totally melted. In the fusion zone, some undissolved and partially dissolved graphite nodules appeared in a matrix containing bainite, ferrite, martensite and retained austenite. At 1500 W, the fusion zone had more iron carbides and ferrite, and the HAZ consisted of martensitic structure. At 2000 W, the build-up zone was consisted of TiC particles precipitated in a matrix of eutectic carbides, martensite plus an inter-lamellar retained austenite. The hardness of the cladded area was remarkably improved (1330 HV in case of 700 W: 5.5 times of the hardness of substrate

  6. Micro-mechanical analysis and modelling of the behavior and brittle fracture of a french 16MND5 steel: role of microstructural heterogeneities; Analyse et modelisation micromecanique du comportement et de la rupture fragile de l'acier 16MND5: prise en compte des heterogeneites microstructurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, J.Ph

    2006-10-15

    Reactor Pressure Vessel is the second containment barrier between nuclear fuel and the environment. Electricite de France's reactors are made with french 16MND5 low-alloyed steel (equ. ASTM A508 Cl.3). Various experimental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction...) are set up in order to characterize mechanical heterogeneities inside material microstructure during tensile testing at different low temperatures [-150 C;-60 C]. Heterogeneities can be seen as the effect of both 'polycrystalline' and 'composite' microstructural features. Interphase (until 150 MPa in average between ferritic and bainitic macroscopic stress state) and intra-phase (until 100 MPa in average between ferritic orientations) stress variations are highlighted. Modelling involves micro-mechanical description of plastic glide, mean fields models and realistic three-dimensional aggregates, all put together inside a multi-scale approach. Calibration is done on macroscopic stress-strain curves at different low temperatures, and modelling reproduces experimental stress heterogeneities. This modelling allows to apply a local micro-mechanical fracture criterion for crystallographic cleavage. Deterministic computations of time to fracture for different carbides random selection provide a way to express probability of fracture for the elementary volume. Results are in good agreement with hypothesis made by local approach to fracture. Hence, the main difference is that no dependence to loading nor microstructure features is supposed for probability of fracture on the representative volume: this dependence is naturally introduced by modelling. (author)

  7. Use of fast heat-treatment for improving the structural strength of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Oshkaderov, S.P.

    1988-05-01

    Comparisons are drawn between the traditional and high-speed methods for heat treatment from the viewpoint of the processes of phase transformation and structure formation as well as the resultant strength properties of steels. Differences in the kinetic parameters and the observability and controllability of these processes under the two methods of heat treatment are assessed. The formation of austenite under high-speed heating is discussed along with the possibilities of action on its granular structure and the use of incomplete homogenization for hardening steel afforded by rapid treatment. The effects of high-speed annealing on phase behavior, including carbide, martensite, and austenite, on impurity binding energy, and on other strengthening parameters were evaluated. Decomposition of supercooled austenite in accelerated heating is discussed. Reasons for the thermal stabilization of supercooled austenite during hardening of steel with the formation of martensite or bainite structures were investigated. Using fast heating it is possible to obtain carbon and economically alloyed steels with strength properties similar to those of complex-alloy steels hardened by traditional methods.

  8. Effects of welding wire composition and welding process on the weld metal toughness of submerged arc welded pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-liang Ren; Fu-ren Xiao; Peng Tian; Xu Wang; Bo Liao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of alloying elements in welding wires and submerged arc welding process on the microstructures and low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals have been investigated.The results indicate that the optimal contents of alloying elements in welding wires can improve the low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals because the proentectoid ferrite and bainite formations can be suppressed,and the fraction of acicular ferrite increases.However,the contents of alloying elements need to vary along with the welding heat input.With the increase in welding heat input,the contents of alloying elements in welding wires need to be increased accordingly.The microstructures mainly consisting of acicular ferrite can be obtained in weld metals after four-wire submerged arc welding using the wires with a low carbon content and appropriate contents of Mn,Mo,Ti-B,Cu,Ni,and RE,resulting in the high low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals.

  9. Twin-wire Submerged Arc Welding Process of a High-strength Low-alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiuzhi; XU Qinghua; YIN Niandong; XIAO Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of thermal cycle curves of a high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA)subjected twin-wire submerged arc welding (SAW) was introduced. The thermal simulation test was performed by using the obtained curves. The impact toughness at -50 ℃ temperature of the simulated samples was also tested. OM, SEM and TEM of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of some simulation specimens were investigated. The results showed that the HSLA endured the twin-wire welding thermal cycle, generally, the low-temperature toughness values of each part of HAZ was lower than that of the parent materials, and the microstructure of coarse-grained zone(CGHAZ) mainly made up of granular bainite is the reason of the toughness serious deterioration. Coarse grain, grain boundary carbide extract and M-A island with large size and irregular polygon, along the grain boundary distribution, are the reasons for the toughness deterioration of CGHAZ. The research also showed that selected parameters of twin-wire SAW can meet the requirements to weld the test steel.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of CrMoV Steel after Long-Term Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golański G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 12HMF steel after longterm service. The investigated material was taken from a pipeline with circumferential welded joint after 419 988 hours of service at the temperature of 490°C, steam pressure 8 MPa. Performed research has shown that the 12HMF steel after service was characterized by a typical microstructure for this grade of steel, that is a ferritic-bainitic microstructure without any visible advanced processes of its degradation. The investigation of mechanical properties has shown that the examined steel after service was characterized by a very low impact energy KV, and yield strength lower than the required minimum. Whilst tensile strength and yield strength determined at elevated temperature was higher and similar to the standard requirements, respectively. It has been proved that the main cause of an increase in brittleness and a decrease in yield strength of the examined steel should be seen in the segregation of phosphorus to grain boundaries and the formation of precipitate free zones near the boundaries.

  11. Development of Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture in a Double-Sided Friction Stir Welded Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, S.; Wynne, B. P.; Baker, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture has been investigated in double-sided friction stir welded microalloyed steel, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure analyses show that the center of stirred zone reached a temperature between Ac1 and Ac3 during FSW, resulting in a dual-phase austenitic/ ferritic microstructure. The temperatures in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the overlapped area between the first and second weld pass did not exceed the Ac1. The shear generated by the rotation probe occurs in austenitic/ferritic phase field where the austenite portion of the microstructure is transformed to a bainitic ferrite, on cooling. Analysis of crystallographic textures with regard to shear flow lines generated by the probe tool shows the dominance of simple shear components across the whole weld. The austenite texture at Ac1 - Ac3 is dominated by the B { {1bar{1}2} }stirred zone and the ferrites in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and the overlapped area underwent shear deformation with textures dominated by the D1 { {bar{1}bar{1}2} }weld pass. This is due to continuous dynamic strain-induced recrystallization as a result of simultaneous severe shear deformation and drastic undercooling.

  12. Comparison on Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl. 1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N low alloy steels are characterized to compare their properties. To evaluate the fracture toughness in the transition region, the master curve method according to ASTM E1921 was adopted in the cleavage transition region. Tensile tests and Charpy impact tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical properties, and a microstructural investigation was carried out. The microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl2 and Gr.4N low alloy steels were characterized.. The predominant microstructure of SA508 Gr.4N model alloy is tempered martensite, while SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 and Cl.2 steels show a typical tempered upper bainitic structure. SA508 Gr. 4N model alloy shows the best strength and transition behavior among the three SA508 steels. SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel also has quite good strength, but there is a loss of toughness.

  13. Analysis of fracture toughness in the transition-temperature region of an Mn-Mo-Ni low-alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Sunghak

    2003-06-01

    This study is concerned with the analysis of fracture toughness in the transition region of an Mn-Mo-Ni low-alloy steel, in accordance with the ASTM E1921 standard test method. Elastic-plastic cleavage fracture toughness ( K Jc ) was determined by three-point bend tests, using precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens, and relationships between K Jc , the critical component of J ( J c ), critical distance ( X c ), stretch-zone width (SZW), local fracture stress, and plane-strain fracture toughness ( K Ic were discussed on the basis of the cleavage fracture behavior in the transition region. The master curve and the 95 pct confidence curves well explained the variation in the measured K Jc , and the Weibull slope measured on the Weibull plots was consistent with the theoretical slope of 4. Fractographic observation indicated that X c linearly increased with increasing J c , and that the SZW had a good correlation with K Jc , irrespective of the test temperature. In addition, the local fracture stress was independent of the test temperature, because the tempered bainitic steel used in this study showed a propagation-controlled cleavage fracture behavior.

  14. Structure–mechanical property relationship in a high strength low carbon alloy steel processed by two-step intercritical annealing and intercritical tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Wang, X.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Venkatsurya, P.K.C. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Guo, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The influence of annealing and tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated in a low carbon alloy steel that was processed by a two-step intercritical annealing and intercritical tempering heat treatment. In general, the microstructure of the processed steel comprises intercritical lath-like ferrite, bainitic/martensitic lath and acicular-type retained austenite. The lower intercritical annealing temperature resulted in lower fraction of intercritical ferrite with finer grain size and consequently higher strength. On the other hand, the intercritical tempering temperature significantly influenced retained austenite content and precipitation. High fraction of retained austenite was obtained at a temperature slightly above Ac{sub 1} temperature and retained austenite content decreased with increase in tempering temperature. This behavior is attributed to the competition between the enrichment of Mn and Ni and the fraction of reversed austenite. Fine niobium carbide precipitates of size ∼2–6 nm and copper precipitates of size range ∼10–30 nm were obtained. The optimal intercritical annealing and tempering temperatures to obtain the product of tensile strength and elongation % of ∼30 GPa% were 780 °C and 660 °C, respectively and the volume fraction of retained austenite was ∼29%.

  15. Mathematical model for predicting transformation of high carbon steel during cooling and its application to on-line temperature control in hot strip mill; Kotansoko no hentai yosoku model no kaihatsu to sono jikki eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, M.; Oda, T.; Senuma, T.; Konishi, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-06

    A mathematical model for predicting transformation of high carbon steel during cooling (transformation from austenite to pearlite, ferrite, and bainite) has been developed. The basic equation for this model is the Cahn`s transformation progress behavior indicating equation, from which an equation was introduced that represents transformation velocity for the case of generation and growth of nuclei and for the case of site saturation. Using these equations makes it possible to calculate transformation in arbitrary cooling processes. In addition, a prediction model for hot processing transformation that expresses the influence of the hot processing on transformation was coupled with the transformation equation to improve the accuracy of transformation prediction. Rise in steel plate temperature that takes place because of generation of transformation latent heat during cooling was calculated by using a two-dimensional heat conduction equation. Off-line applications of this model include prediction of steel plate temperatures on a hot-run table, improvement in productivity by increasing plate passing speed in a continuous hot rolling process, and correction of variation in finishing rolling temperature. On-line applications include controls in hot-run water injection facilities, and automation of an on-line control system. 13 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Continuous cooling transformation behavior for heat treatment of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no netsushoriji ni okeru renzoku reikyaku hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T.; Matsumoto, H. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Kasugai, T. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Automobile Foundry Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-08-25

    In order to study basic heat treatment properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron, the continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagrams for the material equivallent to FCD700 under various austenitized conditions were obtained. There were 4 kinds of austenitized conditions varying from 1123K and 420s to 1323K and 1,800s. Eight kinds of cooling time from the austenitized temperature to 773K ranged from 6s to 4,000s. The transformation temperature was measured by a thermal expansion method. When the austenitized temperature was increased from 1123K to 1323K, ferrite and pearlite transformation regions moved a little in the CCT diagrams and the martensite transformation temperature decreased from 493K to 458K. The bainite region in the CCT diagrams disappeared at the austenite temperatures above 1223K. The nucleation sites of ferrite and pearlite in the spheroidal graphite cast iron were generated at grain boundary between austenite and graphite but not at grain boundary between austenites. The reason of such phenomena was also studied. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effect of applied tensile stress on the transformation behavior of medium carbon low alloy steels. Chutanso tei gokinko no hentai kyodo ni oyobosu hippari oryoku fuka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetsuki, Y.; Katsumata, M.; Kaida, O.; Kaiso, M. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Techniques of controlled rolling and cooling are actively being used as the manufacturing process of high strength and high tenacity steel plates. The reason behind this is that the ferrite-pearlite texture can be made very finely. However, with regard to low alloy carbon steel bars with enhanced hardenability, its texture becomes hard bainite texture in the cooling process after rolling, hence its workability is not good. In this research, in lieu of controlled rolling, the possibility of the process that the tensile stress, whose effect of facilitating transformation is known, is applied before the transformation and its texture is controlled to the ferrite-pearlite texture at the cooling rate of air cooling. In other words, with regard to medium carbon low alloy steels, its transformation behavior was studied by a tensile test in which additional stress was controlled during its continuous cooling. The results are as follows: It was found that by adding stress, the ferrite transformation was expedited. This was because the nuclei formation of ferrite, which was enhanced by inner stress, was facilitated. Furthermore, when the above transformation took place at the same time of deformation, an uniform elongation about 60% was obtained. 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. EBSD imaging of orientation relationships and variant groupings in different martensitic alloys and Widmanstätten iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayron, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.cayron@cea.fr

    2014-08-15

    An automatic method to colorize and quantify the classical Pitsch, Kurdjumov–Sachs, Greninger–Troiano and Nishiyama–Wasserman orientation relationships in the electron backscatter diffraction maps of martensitic/bainitic steels is detailed. Automatic analysis of variant grouping is also presented. The method was applied to low and high carbon steels, and to iron–nickel Widmanstätten meteorites. Many results of recent literature are confirmed. In low carbon steels the individual laths exhibit continuous orientation gradients between the classical orientation relationships, and the laths tend to be grouped by close-packed plane (morphological) packets. A crystallographic scenario describing the formation of the packets is proposed on the base of the one-step model. When the carbon content increases, the orientation spreading is reduced; and martensite tends to form plate groups and burst configurations. In iron–nickel meteorites, the centimeter long Widmanstätten laths do not exhibit continuous orientation gradients but are constituted of subgrains with uniform orientation relationship; the kamacite grains in the plessite regions are grouped into Bain zones, probably due to a recrystallization during the slow cooling of the meteorites. - Highlights: • Analysis of different low and high carbon steels and Widmanstätten meteorites • Automatic color mapping of the classical orientation relationships in EBSD maps • Quantification of variant pairing and grouping tendencies • Crystallographic scenario for the formation of morphological packets.

  19. Characteristic of retained austenite decomposition during tempering and its effect on impact toughness in SA508 Gr.3 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guanghua; Han, Lizhan; Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Retained austenite(RA) usually presents in the quenched Nuclear Pressure-Vessel SA508 Gr.3 steel. In the present work, the characteristic of RA decomposition and its effect on the impact toughness were investigated by microstructure observation, dilatometric experiments and Charpy impact tests. The results show that the RA transformed into martensite and bainite during tempering at 230 °C and 400 °C respectively, while mixture of long rod carbides and ferrite formed at 650 °C. The long rod carbides formed from RA decomposition decrease the critical cleavage stress for initiation of micro-cracks, and deteriorate the impact toughness of the steel. Pre-tempering at a low temperature such as 230 °C or 400 °C leading to the decomposition of RA into martensite or baintie can eliminate the deterioration of the toughness caused by direct decomposition into long rod carbides. The absorbed energy indicate that pre-tempering at 400 °C can drive dramatically improvement in the toughness of the steel.

  20. Effect of the microstructure on tribological phenomena occurring on the surface of a mill roll made of SA5T cast iron (GJSL-HV600 - GJSL-330NiMoCr12-8-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of the microstructure in the tribological wear processes occurring in a cast iron mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll, made in Italy, was collected. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed on the roll working surface in conjunction with metallographic tests effected within its surface layer. There was established the relation between the microstructure of the roll and the process of its tribological wear. The following was ascertained: micro-shrinkages or graphite precipitations nearby the working area cause cracks between those places and the working area; in the surface layer, cracks occur usually in the zone of ledeburitic cementite. At places of considerable precipitations of ledeburitic cementite, the tribological wear intensity of the roll is lower. A banded layout of precipitations of ledeburitic cementite facilitates a selective spalling of some parts of the roll material. The results of this study allow broadening the data base related to the effect of the microstructure on tribological wear of mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design their proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls.

  1. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC RELATIONS OF CEMENTITE–AUSTENITE–FERRITE IN THE DIFFUSIVE DECOMPOSITION OF AUSTENITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. It was made a search for new and more accurate orientation relations between the crystal lattice in the pearlite and bainite austenite decomposition products. Methods. It were used the methods: transmission electron microscopy, the micro-, mathematical matrix and stereographic analysis. The purpose of the research is with theoretical, numerical and experimental methods to set up to a 0.2 degree angular orientation relations between the lattices of ferrite and cementite in the austenite decomposition products in the temperature range 400 ... 700С. Results. It was established a new, refined value for grids in the diffusion decay of γ → α + (α + θ. Practical significance. It was proposed a new oriented dependence and the corresponding double gnomonic projection with poles to planes α and θ phases, which can be used in patterns of crystallographic lattices relations studies at phase transitions, as well as the subsequent modeling of complex physical processes of structure formation in metals and binary systems.

  2. Microstructure and Mechanism of Strengthening of Microalloyed Pipeline Steel: Ultra-Fast Cooling (UFC) Versus Laminar Cooling (LC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Hu, W.; Kang, J.; Yuan, G.; Di, H.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-06-01

    A novel thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule involving ultra-fast cooling (UFC) technique was used to process X70 (420 MPa) microalloyed pipeline steel with high strength-high toughness combination. A relative comparison is made between microstructure and mechanical properties between conventionally processed (CP) and ultra-fast cooled (UFC) pipeline steels, together with differences in strengthening mechanisms with respect to both types of processes. UFC-processed steel exhibited best combination of strength and good toughness compared to the CP process. The microstructure of CP pipeline steel mainly consisted of acicular ferrite (AF), bainitic ferrite (BF), and dispersed secondary martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent and a small fraction of fine quasi-polygonal ferrite. In contrast, the microstructure of UFC-processed pipeline steel was predominantly composed of finer AF, BF, and dispersed M/A constituent. The primary strengthening mechanisms in UFC pipeline steel were grain size strengthening and dislocation strengthening with strength increment of ~277 and ~151 MPa, respectively. However, the strengthening contribution in CP steel was related to grain size strengthening, dislocation strengthening, and precipitation strengthening, and the corresponding strength increments were ~212, ~149 and ~86 MPa, respectively. The decrease in strength induced by reducing Nb and Cr in UFC pipeline steel was compensated by enhancing the contribution of grain size strengthening in the UFC process. In conclusion, cooling schedule of UFC combined with LC is a promising method for processing low-cost pipeline steels.

  3. Creep behaviour and microstructural evolution in P23/P91 dissimilar welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodarek, V. [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kubon, Z.; Strilkova, L. [MATERIALS AND METALLURGICAL RESEARCH Ltd., Ostrava (Czech Republic); Hainsworth, S.V. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The structural integrity of welded components operated at elevated temperatures is of key importance in power plant applications. Long-term creep exposure of dissimilar welds is accompanied by redistribution of interstitial elements which strongly affects microstructural evolution in the vicinity of the fusion zone between low and high alloy materials. This paper summarises results of studies on creep rupture properties and minor phase evolution in the P23/P71 heterogeneous welds duing creep exposure at 500, 550 and 600 C for durations exceeding 60 000 hours. The composition of filler material in Weld A corresponded to that of P91 steel, whilst for Weld B the low alloy filler material of P23 type composition was used. Results of creep rupture tests on the cross weld specimens are close to, or slightly below, the lower limit of the {+-}20% scatter band around the standardized curve for creep strength of the P23 steel. Experimental data on microstructural evolution have been compared with results of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. The predicted minor phase evolution close to the P23/P91 interface was confirmed by microstructural investigations. Some differences between calculations and experimental studies were found for the P23 steel. It was demonstrated that undissolved fine MX particles in the partly decarburized zone of the P23 (WM23) steel significantly delayed recrystallization of the bainitic matrix. (orig.)

  4. Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arola, R.; Martikainen, H.; Virta, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the basis of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results

  5. Post-machining thermal treatment after surface finishing of hardened steels: Kinetics of XRD line width reduction and improvement in rolling contact lifetime under mixed friction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegner, Juergen [SKF GmbH, Department of Material Physics, Ernst-Sachs-Str. 5, D-97424 Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Hard surface finishing represents the final manufacturing step for functional areas of machine elements in state-of-the-art production. Raceways of rolling bearing rings are ground and honed to the required low roughness. Plastic deformation is restricted to a narrow edge zone of the hardened steel. Reheating of the machined components below the martensite tempering or bainite transformation temperature results in a marked decrease of the XRD line width on the surface. The investigated samples are made of through-hardened standard bearing steel 100Cr6 (international denotation: SAE 52100). On the basis of a material model that explains the effect as a complex diffusion process of dislocational carbon segregation, i.e. static strain aging, the measured kinetics of the XRD line width reduction is simulated by an Arrhenius-type equation, which describes the rate-controlling reaction step of temper carbide dissolution. The formation of a small white-etching surface layer of around 1 um thickness by post-machining thermal treatment (PMTT) strongly supports this assumption. First rig tests suggest a considerable increase of the lifetime of Hertzian loaded elements that operate under heavy surface loading. PMTT performed in air leads to a beneficial nanoscaled oxide layer.

  6. Comparison of Impact Properties for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.H. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The impact properties of hot rolled carbon steel (used for the manufacture of reinforcement steel bars) and the quenched & tempered (Q&T) low alloy steel (used in the pressure vessel industry) were determined. The microstructure of the hot rolled carbon steel contained ferrite/pearlite phases, while that of the quenched and tempered low alloy steel contained bainite structure. Impact properties were determined for both steels by instrumented impact testing at temperatures between -150 and 200℃. The impact properties comprised total impact energy, ductile to brittle transition temperature, crack initiation and propagation energy, brittleness transition temperature and cleavage fracture stress. The Q&T low alloy steel displayed much higher resistance to ductile fracture at high test temperatures, while its resistance to brittle fracture at low test temperatures was a little higher than that of the hot rolled carbon steel. The results were discussed in relation to the difference in the chemical composition and microstructure for the two steels.

  7. A STEEL MATRIX WEAR RESISTANT COMPOSITE REINFORCED BY IN-SITU GRANULAR EUTECTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Xu; T.X. Li; J.G. Li

    2001-01-01

    A new steel matrix wear resistant composite reinforced by in situ granular eutectics can be obtained by modifying with a Si-Ce-Ti compound in the steel melt. The result indicates that the in situ granular eutectic is a pseudo-eutectic of austenite and (Fe, Mn)3C, which is formed between austenite dendrites during solidification due to the segregation of C and Mn impelled by modifying elements. The quantity of in situ granular eutectic reaches up to 8% 12%, and its grain size is in the range from 10μm to 20μm. The austenite steel matrix wear resistant composite reinforced by in situ granular eutectic (abbreviated AGE composite) and austenite-bainite steel matrix wear resistant composite reinforced by in situ granular eutectic (abbreviated ABGE composite) are obtained in the as-cast state and by air hardening, respectively. The wear resistance of the AGE and ABGE composites can be more greatly increased than that of their matrix steels under low and medium impact working condition.

  8. Micro–macro-characterisation and modelling of mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded (GMAW) DP600 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazani, A., E-mail: ali.ramazani@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Abdurakhmanov, A. [Welding and Joining Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Prahl, U. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Schleser, M.; Reisgen, U. [Welding and Joining Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels show combined high strength and adequate formability. However, during welding, their microstructural feature of dispersion of hard martensite islands in the soft ferrite matrix is lost and the properties deteriorate. The current research aims to study the mechanical properties of the welded joint, taking into account the effect of features of all regions, such as microstructure, chemical composition and the area fraction, on the macroscopic mechanical properties of the welded joint. Hot rolled DP 600 steel was gas metal arc welded (GMAW) and tensile specimens were made with a welded joint. In the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the microstructure varied from bainite to coarse grained ferrite and tempered martensite. Chemical composition of every quantified region in the welded specimen was also identified using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Macromechanical FE modelling was employed to simulate the mechanical properties of the welded tensile specimen. 2D representative volume elements (RVE) for different parts of the welded region were constructed from real microstructure. 2D simulated flow curves were corrected to 3Ds using a developed correlation factor. Finally, the tensile test of welded material with inhomogeneous morphology was simulated and good agreement between experimental and predicted flow curve was achieved.

  9. EBSD ANALYSIS OF PHASE COMPOSITIONS OF TRIP STEEL ON VARIOUS STRAIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Man

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flat test bar made of TRIP steel was sequentially strained in tension. Eeach deformation step was made on a predefined strain level in which the phase composition was measured using EBSD; the analyses were made ex-situ exactly in the same area of 30x30µm. Retained austenite (RA was present in the form of elongated grains (plates and roughly equiaxial ones. The RA content was initially 14.5% and decreased with imposed strain down to approximately 5% in selected strain range from 0% to 10%. This is in agreement to some extent with outcomes of both in-situ and ex-situ experiments presented by other authors, the difference beeing supposed either in data clean up or in variation in micriostruct ure of particular steel. Kernel average misorientation method was confirmed as useful tool to discern bainite and grainy ferrite in lightly deformed specimen. Problem arose in distinguishing between martensite and deformed ferrite at higher deformation levels because of high dislocation density and/or lattice distortion in both components. The ferrite and retained austenite fraction were analysed with sufficient accuracy; martensite fraction was established with high degree of uncertainty.

  10. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MICROESTRUTURAL DE JUNTA SOLDADA DE AÇO ASTM A – 131M EH-36 UTILIZADO EM TUBULAÇÕES DE PETRÓLEO E GÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Helio Batista

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa à caracterização de uma junta soldada de tubo de aço ASTM A – 131MEH-36. A caracterização micro e macro estrutural das amostras foram realizados por microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As propriedades mecânicas da junta soldada foram analisadas por ensaio de micro dureza. Os resultados mostram uma matriz de grãos ferríticos, alternados com bandas perlíticas alinhadas paralelamente à direção de laminação da chapa, na ZAC foi observada a formação de ferrita acicular, ferrita poligonal e bainita. O ensaio de dureza mostrou que há um aumento na dureza do metal base para a zona fundida como já era esperado. This work aims the characterization of welded joint of steel pipe ASTM A - 131m EH -36. The micro and macro structural characterization of samples were performed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of welded joint were analyzed by micro hardness testing. The results show a matrix of ferritic grains alternating with pearlitic bands aligned parallel to the sheet rolling direction on the HAZ was observed formation of acicular ferrite, polygonal ferrite and bainite. The hardness test showed that there is an increase in base metal hardness to the molten zone as expected.

  11. Development of intercritical heat treatment process for toughness improvement of SA508 Gr.3 reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J.H.; Ahn, Y.S.; Byun, T.S.; Kim, H.D.; Lee, B.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-07-01

    The new heat treatment processes for manufacturing high toughness SA508 Gr.3 steels have been developed by application of intercritical heat treatment (IHT). In the new heat treatment processes, the IHT is added between the quenching and the tempering of the conventional heat treatment process. The application of IHT resulted in the increase of ductility and upper shelf energy and in the decrease of strength and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The modification of tempering conditions reduced the loss of strength resulting from the IHT. The beneficial effects from the IHT were consistently maintained in spite of the changes of heating and cooling rates. Additionally, the cause of the increase in toughness was investigated in relation to the microstructural change. The IHT produces a composite structure of hard tempered martensite and soft double-tempered bainite. More sub-grain boundaries are contained in the composite structure, and these act as obstacles to cleavage propagation. Furthermore, the coarse and long carbides are much spheroidized and inter-carbide distance becomes longer by IHT. High toughness is measured when the microstructure contains 20 to 60% tempered martensite. It was concluded that the spheroidized carbides with longer inter-particle distance are one of important causes for high toughness. (author). 33 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Effect of niobium addition on mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP-aided steel sheets for automotive application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Shunichi [CBMM Asia Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, Shushi [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan); Sugimoto, Koh-ichi [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan); Miyake, Syugo [Kobelco Research Inst., Inc., Kakogawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The application of advanced high strength steel sheets such as TRIP-aided steel and DP steel have been progressed to meet the automobile industry's need for weight reduction. Automobile makers have asked for formable high strength steel sheets of 780 MPa TS grade for suspensions and structural parts. TRIP-aided steel is one of the most promising candidates which contribute to both car weight reduction and the improvement of crash worthiness. Based on the above mentioned back ground, the development of high TS grade steel sheets was carried out by taking into account the addition of Nb and Mo to 0.2%C-1.5%Si-1.5%Mn steel and coiling conditions after hot rolling. In addition to hot rolling experiment, in order to understand the effect of alloying elements and bainite transformation condition exactly, cold rolled sheets were heat treated and tensile tested. The results reveal that the addition of 0.05%Nb can attain higher elongation with higher strength compared with Hb-free steel. The obtained tensile strength in this steel was higher than 780MPa. The same behavior was confirmed by the simulated heat treatment from austenite region annealing. The good ductility in 0.05%Nb containing steel was mainly obtained by large volume fraction and high carbon concentration of retained austenite. In addition, finely dispersed retained austenite made some contribution to the improvement of ductility. (orig.)

  13. Microstructure and fatigue crack growth behaviour of electron beam welding in 30CrMnSiNi2A steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芙蓉; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 张莉; 刘方军; 陈刚

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two post-weld heat treatment processes on the microstructure and fatigue properties of the electron beam welded joints of 30CrMnSiNi2A steel were studied. Electron beam local post-weld heat treatment (EBLPWHT), in a vacuum chamber, immediately after welding and a traditional furnace whole post-weld heat treatment (FWPWHT) were accepted. The experimental results show that, after EBLPWHT, the main microstructure of weld is changed from coarse acicular martensite into lath martensite, and base metal is changed from ferrite and perlite into upper bainite and residual austenite, however the microstructures of different zones of joints in FWPWHT conditions are tempered sorbite. The fatigue crack growth rate da/dN of welds and base metal are not obviously changed among EBLPWHT, FWPWHT test and as-welded (AW) test, as the mechanical properties of materials have a certain but not large effect on the da/dN of welded joints. The resistance to near threshold fatigue crack growth data of welded joints can be largely improved by EBLPWHT and it is related to microstructure and crack closure effect.

  14. Study on the serialization and applications of low carbon ductile iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Xin-fu; SHU Rui; CHANG Dian-cun; ZHANG Xiao-long; ZHU Yan-dong; LI Ling-fang; LI Yu-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Both the production process and the chemical composition of Sx were studied, and the serialization of iow carbon ductile iron was also discussed. It was indicated that Sx modifier was sensitive to the carbon equivalent (CE) of molten iron and to some alloying elements too. When the CE of molten iron and the contents of alloying elements were changed, the content of Sx must be revised with the change correspondingly. Low carbon ductile iron can be stably changed into the one that non-carbon acicular ferrite and retained austenite (about 25%-28%) by quasi-casting bainitic process of using Sx-2 modifier treated Si-Mn-Cr-Cu-alloyed low carbon molten iron. The austenitic low carbon as-cast ductile iron could be obtained by the Ni-Si-Cr 35 5 2 percent alloys molten iron with less than 2% carbon treated by type Sx-3 modifier. The high-toughness ferritic low carbon as-cast ductile iron which contained more than 85 % ferrite in matrix could be got after the molten iron treated by type Sx-4 modifier, and it's elongation was more than 10 %.

  15. A micro-mechanical analysis and an experimental characterisation of the behavior and the damaging processes of a 16MND5 pressure vessel steel at low temperature; Etude micromecanique et caracterisation experimentale du comportement et de l'endommagement de l'acier de cuve 16MND5 a basses temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesci, R

    2004-06-15

    As part of an important experimental and numerical research program launched by Electricite De France on the 16MND5 pressure vessel steel, sequenced and in-situ tensile tests are realized at low temperatures [-196 C;-60 C]. They enable to associate the observation of specimens, the complete cartography of which has been made with a scanning electron microscope (damaging processes, initiation and propagation of microcracks), with the stress states determined by X-ray diffraction, in order to establish relevant criteria. All these measurements enable to supply a two-scale polycrystalline modeling of behavior and damage (Mori-Tanaka/self-consistent) which is developed concurrently with the experimental characterization. This model proves to be a very efficient one, since it correctly reproduces the influence of temperature experimentally defined: the stress state in ferrite remains less important than in bainite (the difference never exceeds 150 MPa), whereas it is much higher in cementite. The heterogeneity of strains and stresses for each crystallographic orientation is well rendered; so is cleavage fracture normal to the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes in ferrite (planes identified by electron back scattered diffraction during an in-situ tensile test at -150 C), which occurs sooner when temperature decreases, for a constant stress of about 700 MPa in this phase. (author)

  16. Morphology of Proeutectoid Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of grain boundary nucleated ferrite particles in iron alloys with 0.3 mass pct carbon has been classified according to the presence of facets. Several kinds of particles extend into both grains of austenite and have facets to both. It is proposed that they all belong to a continuous series of shapes. Ferrite plates can nucleate directly on the grain boundary but can also develop from edges on many kinds of particles. Feathery structures of parallel plates on both sides of a grain boundary can thus form. In sections, parallel to their main growth direction, plates have been seen to extend the whole way from the nucleation site at the grain boundary and to the growth front. This happens in the whole temperature range studied from 973 K to 673 K (700 °C to 400 °C). The plates thus grow continuously and not by subunits stopping at limited length and continuing the growth by new ones nucleating. Sometimes, the plates have ridges and in oblique sections they could be mistaken for the start of new plates. No morphological signs were observed indicating a transition between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainitic ferrite. It is proposed that there is only one kind of acicular ferrite.

  17. Effect of Welding Thermal Cycles on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone for a Weldox 1300 Ultra-High Strength Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węglowski M. St.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the investigation of weldability of ultra-high strength steel has been presented. The thermal simulated samples were used to investigate the effect of welding cooling time t8/5 on microstructure and mechanical properties of heat affected zone (HAZ for a Weldox 1300 ultra-high strength steel. In the frame of these investigation the microstructure was studied by light and transmission electron microscopies. Mechanical properties of parent material were analysed by tensile, impact and hardness tests. In details the influence of cooling time in the range of 2,5 ÷ 300 sec. on hardness, impact toughness and microstructure of simulated HAZ was studied by using welding thermal simulation test. The microstructure of ultra-high strength steel is mainly composed of tempered martensite. The results show that the impact toughness and hardness decrease with increase of t8/5 under condition of a single thermal cycle in simulated HAZ. The increase of cooling time to 300 s causes that the microstructure consists of ferrite and bainite mixture. Lower hardness, for t8/5 ≥ 60 s indicated that low risk of cold cracking in HAZ for longer cooling time, exists.

  18. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite,bainite,retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu-ous heat treatment process,respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability,and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad-dition,the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube,and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  19. Effect of Rolling Temperature and Ultrafast Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qibin; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-07-01

    Microstructure can vary significantly through thickness after ultrafast cooling of rolled steel plates, impacting their mechanical properties. This study examined the microstructure, microstructural banding at centerline, and mechanical properties through thickness for different ultrafast cooling conditions and rolling temperatures. One set of steels (UC1 and UC2) were ultrafast-cooled (UFC) at 40 K/s after finish rolling at 1223 K and 1193 K (950 °C and 910 °C), respectively, while the second set (LC) was cooled by laminar cooling at 17 K/s after finish rolling at 1238 K (965 °C). UFC produced microstructural variation through thickness; highly dislocated lath-type bainitic ferrite was formed near the surface, whereas the primary microstructure was acicular ferrite and irregular polygonal ferrite in the interior of UC1 and UC2 steels, respectively. However, UFC has the advantage of suppression of microstructural banding in centerline segregation regions. The ferrite grain size in both UFC-cooled steels was refined to ~5 μm, increasing strength and toughness. The optimum combination of properties was obtained in UC2 steel with appropriate low finish rolling temperature, being attributed to the distinct microstructure resulting from work-hardened austenite before UFC.

  20. Elevated-Temperature Ferritic and Martensitic Steels and Their Application to Future Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, RL

    2005-01-31

    In the 1970s, high-chromium (9-12% Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels became candidates for elevated-temperature applications in the core of fast reactors. Steels developed for conventional power plants, such as Sandvik HT9, a nominally Fe-12Cr-1Mo-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.25V-0.2C steel (composition in wt %), were considered in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Now, a new generation of fission reactors is in the planning stage, and ferritic, bainitic, and martensitic steels are again candidates for in-core and out-of-core applications. Since the 1970s, advances have been made in developing steels with 2-12% Cr for conventional power plants that are significant improvements over steels originally considered. This paper will review the development of the new steels to illustrate the advantages they offer for the new reactor concepts. Elevated-temperature mechanical properties will be emphasized. Effects of alloying additions on long-time thermal exposure with and without stress (creep) will be examined. Information on neutron radiation effects will be discussed as it applies to ferritic and martensitic steels.

  1. APFIM characterization of 15Kh2MFA Cr-Mo-V and 15Kh2NMFA Ni-Cr-Mo-V type steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Jayaram, R.; Othen, P. J.; Brauer, G.

    1994-03-01

    A microstructural characterization of 15Kh2MFA Cr-Mo-V and 15Kh2NMFA Ni-Cr-Mo-V type steels that are used in the pressure vessels of Russian VVER 440 and VVER 1000 nuclear reactors, respectively, has been performed with the use of the techniques of atom-probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure of these materials was found to be tempered martensite and bainite. A high number density of coarse (≈ 50 to ≈ 500 nm) blocky M 7C 3 carbides and some inclusions were observed. In addition to these coarse carbides, some finer (≈ 10 nm diameter) approximately spherical MC carbides were also observed in the VVER 440 steel. Field-ion microscopy has revealed that the lath boundaries in both unirradiated VVER 440 and VVER 1000 reactor steels are decorated with an ultrathin semicontinuous film of molybdenum-carbonitride precipitates. Atom-probe analysis has revealed a high enrichment of phosphorus at the lath boundaries.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour in welded X-70 linepipe steel under near-neutral pH conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeleke, A.H.; Luo, J.L.; Ivey, D.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between the near neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance and the yield strength of pipelines steels. In particular, double-edge-notched flat tensile samples of X70 steel were used for both slow strain-rate testing (SSRT) and cyclic loading testing with the notch located in the zone of interest. This included the weld metal (WM), base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ). In all samples, the mode of failure was mostly transgranular with cleavage facets around the edges of the fracture surface. One of the objectives of this study was to better understand the microstructural effect of the relationship. The 3 main parameters that were used to assess the SCC susceptibility in a near-neutral pH environment were the elongation ratio, the estimated percentage of the fracture surface that showed brittle fractures, and the relative crack growth at a given exposure time. It was shown that resistance to near-neutral pH SCC depends greatly on the microstructure of the pipeline steels. Fine-grained bainite and ferrite structured steels were found to have a much better combination of strength and SCC resistance compared to ferrite and pearlite structures. The high-to-low sensitivity ranking of the X70 linepipe steel to SCC was established to be: WM is greater than HAZ which is greater than BM. 20 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  3. CCT curve of X100 pipeline steel%X100管线钢的 CCT曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守显; 靳芳芳; 李钧正

    2014-01-01

    The law of phase transformation of X 100 pipeline steel during continuous cooling after rolling deformation was researched by using Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator , and then dynamic CCT curve was set up by adopting dilatation and metallographic method .The results show that the microstructure of X 100 pipeline steel transforms from ferritic to bainitic gradually and the hardness turns out upward trend with the increase of cooling rate .%用Gleeble-3500热/力模拟试验机对X100管线钢进行热模拟试验,研究X100管线钢经轧制变形后连续冷却过程中的相变规律,采用膨胀法和金相法建立动态CCT曲线。结果表明,随着冷却速率的增大,X100管线钢的组织由铁素体逐步转变为贝氏体组织,硬度呈上升趋势。

  4. Influence of the amount and morphology of retained austenite on the mechanical properties of an austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranzabal, J. [INASMET, San Sebastian (Spain); Gutierrez, I.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.; Urcola, J.J. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Materials

    1997-05-01

    High Si contents in nodular cast irons lead to a significant volume fraction of retained austenite in the material after the austempering treatment. In the present work, the influence of the amount and morphology of this phase on the mechanical properties (proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation, and toughness) has been analyzed for different austempering conditions. After 300 C isothermal treatments at intermediate times, the austenite is plastically stable at room temperature and contributes, together with the bainitic ferrite, to the proof stress and the toughness of the material. For austenite volume fractions higher than 25 pct, the proof stress is controlled by this phase and the toughness depends mainly on the stability of {gamma}. In these conditions (370 C and 410 C treatments), the present material exhibits a transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect, which leads to an improvement in ductility. It is shown that the strain level necessary to initiate the martensitic transformation induced by deformation depends on the carbon content of the austenite. The martensite formed under TRIP conditions can be of two different types: autotempered plate martensite, which forms at room temperature from an austenite with a quasi-coherent epsilon carbide precipitation, and lath martensite nucleated at twin boundaries and twin intersections.

  5. Effect of Holding Time in the (α + γ) Temperature Range on Toughness of Specially Austempered Ductile Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Yamada, Shinya

    1996-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) finds wide application in the industry because of its high strength and toughness. The QB' process has been developed to produce a fine microstructure with high fracture toughness in ADI. This process involves reaustenitizing a prequenched ductile iron in the (α + γ) temperature range followed by an isothermal treatment in the bainitic transformation tem-perature range. In the present work, the effect of holding time in the (α + γ) temperature range on the structure and un-notched toughness of ADI has been studied. Prior to the austempering treatment, the as-cast ductile iron was heat treated to obtain martensitic, ferritic, and pearlitic matrix structures. In the case of prequenched material (martensitic matrix), the un-notched impact toughness increased as a function of holding time in the (α + γ) temperature range. The reaustenitization heat treatment also resulted in the precipitation of fine carbide particles, identified as (Fe,Cr,Mn)3C. It was shown that the increase in holding time in the (α + γ) temperature range leads to a reduction in the number of carbide particles. In the case of a ferritic prior structure, a long duration hold in the (α + γ) temperature range resulted in the coarsening of the structure with a marginal increase in the tough-ness. In the case of a pearlitic prior structure, the toughness increased with holding time. This was attributed to the decomposition of the relatively stable carbide around the eutectic cell boundary with longer holding times.

  6. The effect of manganese on the onset of the stage 2 reaction in an austempered ductile iron matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, K. N.

    1990-02-01

    Austempered ductile irons (ADIs) possess a unique combination of toughness and ductility plus high strength which make them attractive alternatives to other metal castings. ADIs can have tensile strengths up to 230 ksi with a 1% elongation and high hardness for wear resistant applications, or tensile strengths of approximately 150 ksi and elongations of 14% where a large amount of ductility is required. Austempering is a two step process: complete transformation to the austenite ({gamma}) phase; and a quench and hold in the temperature range of 270--420{degree}C for some time followed by cooling to room temperature. This quench must be sufficiently rapid to avoid formation of pearlite or ferrite if the best mechanical properties are to be obtained. This thesis presents the results of a number of experiments aimed at determining the effect of Mn on the length of the Stage 1 reaction. (austenite decomposes into bainitie ferrite and high carbon austenite). A basic knowledge of the effects of Mn will yield a more complete understanding of the austempering process for the normal case and also when microsegregation is present. The onset time for Stage 2 (high carbon austenite decomposes into bainitic ferrite plus carbides) in ductile irons is a critical parameter because of the associated degradation of the mechanical properties which result from carbide formation.

  7. Development of austempered ductile iron timing gears; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu timing gear no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Numajiri, S.; Nakajima, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To reduce vibration and noise of gears compared with ordinary steel gears for four cycle diesel engine of small commercial vehicles, austempered ductile iron (ADI) gears have been developed, which have excellent mechanical properties and vibration damping properties equivalent to steel gears. ADI is a material with tensile strength of 1,000 MPa, which is made by austempering the ductile iron to change matrix texture into tough bainite. For a new process method of ADI gears, austempering is conducted after gear cutting, and shaving is conducted, finally. Gear materials before austempering can be smoothly machined without deteriorating their machinability, to produce highly accurate gears. Fifteen percent of noise can be reduced for ADI gears during idling of engine, where 0.7 dB can be reduced in the noise level. The ADI gears provide superior pitting resistance to ordinary steel gears. They have nearly equivalent dedendum bending fatigue strength to ordinary soft nitrided steel gears. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Calorimetric examinations of austempered ductile iron ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of calorimetric examinations during heating and cooling of austempered ductile iron ADI after austempering at temperatures of 280, 330 and 380oC. The samples for examinations were taken from cast rods of 20 and 60 mm diameter. Examinations were carried out on a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60. During heating, on a DSC curve one strong exothermic effect has been noted to occur (it does not occur in the case of common-grade cast iron, accompanied by two endothermic effects. The exothermic effect occurs within the range of about 20oC. Depending on the temperature of austempering treatment, its beginning falls to the temperatures from 469 to 490oC. The heat of this effect is proportional to the austenite content in ADI matrix after austempering. The endothermic effects are related with decomposition of pearlite (or bainite and with phase transformation α → γ (ferrite as a constituent of ausferritic matrix.

  9. Effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on toughness of specially austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, S. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Production Systems Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) finds wide application in the industry because of its high strength and toughness. The QB{prime} process has been developed to produce a fine microstructure with high fracture toughness in ADI. This process involves reaustenitizing a prequenched ductile iron in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range followed by an isothermal treatment in the bainitic transformation temperature range. In the present work, the effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on the structure and un-notched toughness of ADI has been studied. Prior to the austempering treatment, the as-cast ductile iron was heat treated to obtain martensitic, ferritic, and pearlitic matrix structures. In the case of prequenched material (martensitic matrix), the un-notched impact toughness increased as a function of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range. The reaustenitization heat treatment also resulted in the precipitation of fine carbide particles, identified as (Fe,Cr,Mn){sub 3}C. It was shown that the increase in holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range leads to a reduction in the number of carbide particles. In the case of a ferritic prior structure, a long duration hold in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range resulted in the coarsening of the structure with a marginal increase in the toughness. In the case of a pearlitic prior structure, the toughness increased with holding time. This was attributed to the decomposition of the relatively stable carbide around the eutectic cell boundary with longer holding times.

  10. Effects of austempering heat treatment conditions on fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron; Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no hakai jinsei ni oyobosu austemper shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Arai, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    Discussions were given in various manners to learn effects of treatment conditions with respect to fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron. Austenitizing temperature and isothermal transforming conditions that result in comprehensively most excellent fracture toughness including tensile strength were 1173 K and 648 K - 3.6 ks, respectively. The austenitizing temperature as low as 1123 K reduces quantity of residual austenite, resulting in residual inclusion of free ferrite in the structure. If as high as 1223 K, reduction in the fracture toughness is caused under any condition as a result of increase in unstable austenite and growth of austenite into coarse particles. With respect to the isothermal transforming conditions, high fracture toughness may be achieved at a relatively high temperature. However, a structure that has been transformed from austenite to bainite causes a secondary reaction in a short time, and deposits particulates of cementite and graphite, leading to a prediction of decrease in the fracture toughness. Therefore, it is preferable that the treatment time is decreased in order to suppress the secondary reaction. 9 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Development of high toughness in austempered type ductile cast iron and evaluation of its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Hironobu

    1988-02-01

    In order to increase the toughness of austempered ductile cast irons, we attempted to strengthen the fracture initiation sites such as graphite-matrix interfaces and eutectic cell boundaries in a way of the microsegregation of alloying elements. For instance, the retained austenite which is stable under external stresses may be introduced preferentially into these sites by the addition of Ni, which segregates to a graphite periphery and of Mn, which partitions mainly to eutectic cell boundaries. Following this concept, the effects of various austempering processes on toughness are also in-vestigated. The cast iron alloying with Ni and Mn shows the best fracture toughness when it is heat-treated by either QB' or B' process; here, the QB' means the oil-quenching from an austenite γ phase range followed by austempering from a ferrite α plus γ range and the B' means austempering from a (α + γ) range. In the newly developed iron, there is a mixed microstructure composed of the ferrite, bainitic ferrite, and austenite. Abnormal elongation due to the TRIP effect in the austenite phase is found to have occurred at about 198 K. Moreover, it is shown that this TRIP effect may be caused by the formation of deformation twins.

  12. Ameliorated Austenite Carbon Content Control in Austempered Ductile Irons by Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron has emerged as a notable material in several engineering fields, including marine applications. The initial austenite carbon content after austenization transform but before austempering process for generating bainite matrix proved critical in controlling the resulted microstructure and thus mechanical properties. In this paper, support vector regression is employed in order to establish a relationship between the initial carbon concentration in the austenite with austenization temperature and alloy contents, thereby exercising improved control in the mechanical properties of the austempered ductile irons. Particularly, the paper emphasizes a methodology tailored to deal with a limited amount of available data with intrinsically contracted and skewed distribution. The collected information from a variety of data sources presents another challenge of highly uncertain variance. The authors present a hybrid model consisting of a procedure of a histogram equalizer and a procedure of a support-vector-machine (SVM- based regression to gain a more robust relationship to respond to the challenges. The results show greatly improved accuracy of the proposed model in comparison to two former established methodologies. The sum squared error of the present model is less than one fifth of that of the two previous models.

  13. Tratamiento isotérmico de los aceros aleados al silicio Tipo SAE 92XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez, J. L.

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available SAE 9260 type steels have silicon and carbon contents similar to those of the ductile iron matrix, and present a bainitic transformation with the same characteristics as ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron. The hypothesis is that excellent mechanical properties can be obtained by means of austempering (in times so short as to be accessible from the industrial point of view, the same as in ADI and even better because it is a rolling material instead of a cast material. It will be compared with the mechanical properties obtained by quenching and tempering at different temperatures.

    La composición química de los aceros SAE 92XX es similar a la de la matriz metálica de una fundición esferoidal, por lo que se pensó en someter a un acero de ese tipo a tratamientos de austempering similares a los que se aplican para lograr una ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron, y verificar si se alcanzaban valores aceptables de plasticidad con elevados valores de resistencia a la tracción para el mismo acero, tal y como sucede con aquellas fundiciones, y comparar dichos resultados con los obtenidos en el mismo acero con tratamientos convencionales de temple y revenido. Se alcanzaron valores que demostraron que, por austempering, se logran excelentes valores de plasticidad, muy superiores a los alcanzados por temple y revenido para durezas del mismo orden.

  14. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the structure depends mainly on annealing temperature, less on the time of the heat treatment. It was concluded that high temperature annealing caused precipitation of Fe3C type carbides, which morphology and distribution depend on temperature. In case of 400oC annealing the carbides precipitates inside bainitic ferrite lath in specific crystallographic planes and partly at the grain boundaries. The annealing at the temperature 550oC caused disappearing of characteristic for ADI needle or lath – like morphology, which is replaced with equiaxed grains. In this case Fe3C carbides take the form very fine precipitates with spheroidal geometry.

  15. Wear resistance studies of an austempered ductile iron with the aid of a single pass grooving pendulum; Estudo do comportamento em desgate de um ferro fundido nodular austemperado atraves da tecnica da tecnica de esclerometria pendular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, J.M.; Tschiptschin, A.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1995-12-31

    The abrasive wear resistance of an austempered ductile iron was studied with the aid of a single pass grooving pendulum. Specimens were austenitized at 860 deg C and austempered at 370 deg C for 30, 60, 90, 180 and 240 min. Austenite transformation kinetics was measured by quantitative metallography. Specimens for pendulum tests were gridded as squared based prisms (50 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm) and one of the faces submitted to metallographic polishing before the test. A hard metal cutting tool was used as abrasive. The absorbed energy as well as the loss of matter were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to analyze the surface topography of the scratched specimen. It was observed a maximum in the absorbed specific energy for the specimen treated for 60 min. with a microstructure of bainite ferrite plus plus 42% volume fraction of retained austenite. All other structures (ferrite plus carbides, ferrite plus lower contents of austenite and martensite plus austenite) gave lower values of absorbed specific energy. Observation of scratches and chips formed on the surface of the specimen can explain the above mentioned behaviour 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mechanisms of poor machinability of austempered ductile iron; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no nansaku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakajima, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    For the purpose of high strength distempered ductile iron (ADD) has the potential to reduce the size and weight of automotive parts, however poor machinability has made it difficult to achieve broad commercial application. To clarify the mechanism of poor machinability of ADI, (1) the chips was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, (2) the cutting front was observed after instantaneously stopping using a quick stop device, (3) for the turning tool wear was measured and (4) sawability of material was compared using a saw test. The results were as follows: In the low cutting-speed range, it was fount teat strain induced transformation from retained austerity ({gamma}R) to martensite ({alpha}{prime}) occurred, and this corresponded to the poorest machinability in the saw test. In the high cutting-speed range. {gamma}R{yields}{alpha}{prime} transformation was limited to the damaged layer, because the temperature of chips exceeded Md point. The tool wear during turning of ADI was generated closer to the cutting edge, as compared with turning of steels. Observation of chip forming state showed that this phenomenon resulted from the following two factors: (a) the formation of saw-tooth like chips ant the decrease of the tool-chip contact length due to the spheroidal graphite, and (b) the increase of cutting force due to the high hardness of the bainitic phase and the damaged layer hardened by the {gamma}R{yields}{alpha}{prime} transformation. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Development of a design methodology for high temperature cyclic applications of materials which experience cyclic softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1988-12-01

    The project has as its original focus the high temperature behavior of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, heat treated to produce a predominantly bainitic microstructure and the load carrying response of components made of this material. Experiments were carried out on uniform and notched specimens under both steady and cyclic loading using specially acquired electromechanical test machines. It emerged that a very important feature of mechanical behavior under the conditions of interest was the strong tendency of this material to cyclically soften, particularly at high temperature in the creep range, giving the illusion of a severe creep-fatigue interaction under certain conditions. This finding led to a significant component of the project being devoted to investigation of the effects of local, as opposed to generalized, cyclic softening, and the implications this phenomenon might have on the setting of allowable design stress limits. The format of this report is as follows: The second chapter is a review of the work carried out in approximately chronological order under the headings of work was carried out under the following: (1) 2.25 Cr 1 Mo Steel -- Elevated Temperature Fatigue and Environmental Effects; (2) Preliminary Studies of Advanced Austenitics; (3) A Uniaxial Constitutive Model for Cyclic Softening; (4) The Iso-Cyclic Stress-Strain Approach to Evaluation of Components in Cyclic Softening Materials; (5) Testing of High Temperature Austenitic Alloys; and (6) Design Methodology for Aging Materials -- Application to Cyclic Softening. 65 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Influence of original microstructure on the transformation behavior and mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength TRIP-aided steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xiang Yin; Ai-min Zhao; Zheng-zhi Zhao; Xiao Li; Shuang-jiao Li; Han-jiang Hu; Wei-guang Xia

    2015-01-01

    The transformation behavior and tensile properties of an ultra-high-strength transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel (0.2C–2.0Si–1.8Mn) were investigated by different heat treatments for automobile applications. The results show that F-TRIP steel, a tradi-tional TRIP steel containing as-cold-rolled ferrite and pearlite as the original microstructure, consists of equiaxed grains of intercritical ferrite surrounded by discrete particles of M/RA and B. In contrast, M-TRIP steel, a modified TRIP-aided steel with martensite as the original mi-crostructure, containing full martensite as the original microstructure is comprised of lath-shaped grains of ferrite separated by lath-shaped martensite/retained austenite and bainite. Most of the austenite in F-TRIP steel is granular, while the austenite in M-TRIP steel is lath-shaped. The volume fraction of the retained austenite as well as its carbon content is lower in F-TRIP steel than in M-TRIP steel, and austenite grains in M-TRIP steel are much finer than those in F-TRIP steel. Therefore, M-TRIP steel was concluded to have a higher austenite stability, re-sulting in a lower transformation rate and consequently contributing to a higher elongation compared to F-TRIP steel. Work hardening be-havior is also discussed for both types of steel.

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan WEI; Yan-chang QI; Zhi-ling TIAN; Yun PENG

    2016-01-01

    E32 grade corrosion resistant steel was welded with welding wires with three different S contents.The mi-crostructure,mechanical properties,inclusions,and corrosion behavior of welded joint were investigated.The joint coupon corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization test were carried out under the simulated corrosion environ-ment of the inner bottom plates of cargo oil tanks.The pitting initiation and propagation mechanism of the weld metal were studied by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus.The results indicated that the microstructures of three kinds of weld metals are all composed of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.The micro-structure of heat-affected zone is composed predominantly of bainite.Joint welded with low S filler wire has good me-chanical properties.S can decrease free corrosion potential and increase the corrosion tendency.The pitting initiation is oxide inclusion or sulfide-oxide inclusion complex.S can induce the formation of occluded area and promote the corrosion propagation.The chemical compositions of weld metal is similar to base metal,which can limit the galvanic corrosion between weld metal and base metal,and avoid formation of corrosion step.

  20. Microstructure, Tensile Properties and Work Hardening Behavior of GTA-Welded Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, H.; Shamanian, M.; Emadi, R.; Saeidi, N.

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, microstructure, tensile properties and work hardening behavior of a DP700 steel after gas tungsten arc welding were investigated. Formation of bainite in the fusion zone resulted in a hardness increase compared to that for the base metal (BM), whereas tempering of the pre-existing martensite in the subcritical heat-affected zone (HAZ) led to softening. The GTA-welded joint exhibited a continuous yielding behavior and a yield strength close to that for the BM, while its ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were lower than those for the BM owing to the formation of soft zone in the HAZ. A joint efficiency of about 81% was obtained for the GTA-welded joint, and it failed in the softened HAZ. Analysis of work hardening based on the Kocks-Mecking approach showed one stage of hardening behavior corresponding to the stage III for both the DP700 BM and welded sample. It was also revealed that the DP700 BM has larger values of work hardening exponent and magnitude of work hardening compared with the welded sample. Analysis of fractured surfaces showed that the dominant fracture mode for both the DP700 BM and welded joint was ductile.

  1. Stability of Retained Austenite in High-Al, Low-Si TRIP-Assisted Steels Processed via Continuous Galvanizing Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Zurob, H. S.; Bian, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Two galvanizable high-Al, low-Si transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted steels were subjected to isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperatures compatible with the continuous galvanizing (CGL) process and the kinetics of the retained austenite (RA) to martensite transformation during room temperature deformation studied as a function of heat treatment parameters. It was determined that there was a direct relationship between the rate of strain-induced transformation and optimal mechanical properties, with more gradual transformation rates being favored. The RA to martensite transformation kinetics were successfully modeled using two methodologies: (1) the strain-based model of Olsen and Cohen and (2) a simple relationship with the normalized flow stress, ( {{{σ_{{flow}} - σ_{YS} }/{σ_{YS }}}} ) . For the strain-based model, it was determined that the model parameters were a strong function of strain and alloy thermal processing history and a weak function of alloy chemistry. It was verified that the strain-based model in the present work agrees well with those derived by previous workers using TRIP-assisted steels of similar composition. It was further determined that the RA to martensite transformation kinetics for all alloys and heat treatments could be described using a simple model vs the normalized flow stress, indicating that the RA to martensite transformation is stress-induced rather than strain-induced for temperatures above the Ms^{σ }.

  2. Effects of Mo, Ti and B on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Wet Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Guo, Ning; Xu, Changsheng; Li, Hongliang; Yang, Ke; Feng, Jicai

    2017-03-01

    Alloy components are designed and transferred into weld metal via electrode covering to address the deterioration of the microstructure and mechanical properties of underwater wet welds. Emphasis is placed on studying the effects that the Mo, Ti and B contents have on the microstructure, tensile strength and low-temperature toughness of the underwater wet welding joint. The as-welded metal obtained at a water depth of 3 m is analyzed. The results indicate that the addition of Mo depresses the formation of coarse pro-eutectoid ferrite. However, a higher Mo content (0.609 wt.%) results in the formation of lath-like bainite and martensite, which are harmful to the plasticity and toughness of the weld. Acicular ferrite nucleation increases with the combined addition of Ti and B. The deposited metal with the optimum alloy components ratio achieves good plasticity and toughness while maintaining its tensile strength of 592 MPa, with the impact toughness at 0 °C and elongation reaching 53.34 J and 16.2%, respectively.

  3. MICROSTRUCTURE AND INCLUSION CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SIMULATED COARSE-GRAIN HEAT AFFECTED ZONE WITH LARGE HEAT INPUT OF A Ti-Zr-MICROALLOYED HSLA STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.T. Chen; X. Chen; Q.F. Ding; J. Zeng

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure and the characteristics of the inclusions embedded in ferrite matrix in simu lated coarse-grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of a Ti-Zr-treated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel have been investigated. The microstructure of the simulated CGHAZ dominantly consisted of intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) combining with a small amount of polygonal ferrite (PF), widmanstatten ferrite (WF), bainite ferrite (BF), pearlite and martensite-austenite (M-A) islands. The PF, WF and BF were generally observed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and the interlocking acicular ferrite was usually found intragranularly. It was found that the inclusions were composed of Ti2O3, ZrO2 Al2O3 locating at the center of the particles and MnS lying on the surface layer of the inclusions. The intragranular complex inclusions prornoted the acicular ferrite formation and the refinement of microstructure whilst those at prior austenite grain boundaries caused PF formation on the inclusions. The simulated CGHAZ con sisting of such complicated microstructure exhibited desired mechanical properties.

  4. Kinetics and formation mechanisms of intragranular ferrite in VN microalloyed 600 MPa high strength rebar steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Fu-ming Wang; Chang-rong Li

    2016-01-01

    To systematically investigate the kinetics and formation mechanisms of intragranular ferrite (IGF), isothermal heat treatment in the temperature range of 450°C to 600°C with holding for 30 s to 300 s, analysis of the corresponding microstructures, and observation of the precipitated particles were conducted in V-N microalloyed 600 MPa high strength rebar steel. The potency of V(C,N) for IGF nucleation was also analyzed statistically. The results show that the dominant microstructure transforms from bainite (B) and acicular ferrite (AF) to grain boundary ferrite (GBF), intragranular polygonal ferrite (IPF), and pearlite (P) as the isothermal temperature increases from 450°C to 600°C. When the holding time at 600°C is extended from 30 s to 60 s, 120 s, and 300 s, the GBF content ranges from 6.0vol%to 6.5vol%and the IPF content increases from 0.5vol%to 2.8vol%, 13.1vol%, and 13.5vol%, respectively, because the ferrite transformation preferen-tially occurs at the grain boundaries and then occurs at the austenite grains. Notably, V(C,N) particles are the most effective nucleation site for the formation of IPF, accounting for 51%of the said formation.

  5. Archaeometric study on minting dies produced under papal rule in Ferrara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea; Vaccaro, Carmela; Gulinelli, Maria Teresa; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2013-12-01

    In the Civic Museum of Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara, a collection of 1104 coin striking tools is stored. Among these, eight steel dies produced from the 2nd decade of the seventeenth to the half of the eighteenth century, representative of the whole period of activity of the papal mint in Ferrara, have been chosen and studied. In that period, while important innovations in the coin minting technique were introduced in Europe, Ferrara declined from the rank of ducal mint to that of peripheral minting center of the highly centralized Papal States. The dies have been characterized by metallographic, chemical, and microhardness investigations. The results suggest that the dies were obtained by a manual smithing technique consisting in hammer hot forging. The die quality improved with time. In fact, in the period 1619-1622, a hardening treatment for the engraved die end consisting in a simple local carburization coexisted with a more efficient production method, based on the application of a proper final heat treatment. This treatment induced a graded microstructure from the engraved end, with a hard martensitic or bainitic structure, to the opposite end, with a tough ferritic/pearlitic structure. From 1675 onward, the latter production method was applied on all the studied dies. The chemical analysis of the alloys suggest that they were likely obtained from iron ores with a common provenance, while the analysis of the slag inclusions suggests the adoption of a direct method of ironmaking throughout the activity period of the mint.

  6. Life Assessment for Cr-Mo Steel Dissimilar Joints by Various Filler Metals Using Accelerated Creep Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchsang, S.; Phung-on, I.; Poopat, B.

    2016-12-01

    Accelerated creep rupture tests were performed on T22/T91 dissimilar metal joints to determine the fracture location and rupture time of different weldments. Four configurations of deposited filler metal were tested using gas tungsten arc welding to estimate the service life for Cr-Mo steel dissimilar joints at elevated temperatures in power plants. Results indicated that failure in all configurations occurred in the tempered original microstructure and tempered austenite transformation products (martensite or bainite structure) as type IV cracking at the intercritical area of the heat-affected zone (ICHAZ) for both T22 and T91 sides rather than as a consequence of the different filler metals. Creep damage occurred with the formation of precipitations and microvoids. The correlation between applied stress and the Larson-Miller parameter (PLM) was determined to predict the service life of each material configuration. Calculated time-to-failure based on the PLM and test results for both temperature and applied stress parameters gave a reasonable fit. The dissimilar joints exhibited lower creep rupture compared to the base material indicating creep degradation of the weldment.

  7. Structural modification of heat treated steel 10Mn2VNbAl and its properties under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, Lyudmila S.; Pochivalov, Yurii I.; Gordienko, Antonina I.

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the structure of low-carbon steel 10Mn2VNbAl after heat treatment by steel heating up to temperatures 900-1100°C and subsequent accelerated oil cooling. It studies the steel tensile properties in the mechanical test temperature range from +20 to -196°C, and fracture micromechanisms in the initial and heat treated states of steel. After heat treatment the steel structure consists of bainitic (martensitic) transformation elements: martensite lamellae arranged in packets, single ferrite grains, regions of residual austenite, and carbide particles. The structural transformation causes an almost two-fold increase in the strength properties (the ultimate strength increased from 650 to 1100-1200 MPa depending on the austenization temperature). The best combination of strength properties and plasticity was achieved after steel ageing at 900°C. Low-temperature tensile tests revealed that plasticity of the heat treated steel increases at the test temperature reduction from -50 to -196°C. This is evidently related to the occurrence of an additional micromechanism of martensite deformation through twinning.

  8. Effect of copper precipitates on the toughness of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehl, J.; Willer, D.; Katerbau, K.H. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The ferritic bainitic steel 15NiCuMoNb5 (WB 36)is widely used for pressure boundary components. Due to the high copper content which leads to precipitation hardening high strength and toughness are characteristic for this type of steel. However, in the initial state, there is still a high amount of dissolved copper in an oversaturated state which makes the steel susceptible to thermal ageing. Ageing and annealing experiments were performed, and the change in microstructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), measurements of the residual electric resistance and hardness measurements. A correlation between micro structural changes and changes in mechanical properties could be established. It could clearly be shown that significant effects on strength and toughness have to be considered when the size of the copper rich precipitates vary in the range from 1.2 to 2.2 nm in radius. The changes in microstructure affect both, the Carpy impact transition temperature and the fracture toughness qualitatively and quantitatively in a similar way. The investigations have contributed to a better understanding of precipitation hardening by copper not only for this type of steel but also for copper containing steels and weld subjected to neutron irradiation. (orig.)

  9. Further application of the cleavage fracture stress model for estimating the T{sub 0} of highly embrittled ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, P.R.

    2016-02-15

    The semi-empirical cleavage fracture stress model (CFS), based on the microscopic cleavage fracture stress, s{sub f}, for estimating the ASTM E1921 reference temperature (T{sub 0}) of ferritic steels from instrumented impact testing of unprecracked Charpy V-notch specimens is further confirmed by test results for additional steels, including steels highly embrittled by thermal aging or irradiation. In addition to the ferrite-pearlite, bainitic or tempered martensitic steels (which was examined earlier), acicular or polygonal ferrite, precipitation-strengthened or additional simulated heat affected zone steels are also evaluated. The upper limit for the applicability of the present CFS model seems to be T{sub 41J} ∝160 to 170 C or T{sub 0} or T{sub Qcfs} (T{sub 0} estimate from the present CFS model) ∝100 to 120 C. This is not a clear-cut boundary, but indicative of an area of caution where generation and evaluation of further data are required. However, the present work demonstrates the applicability of the present CFS model even to substantially embrittled steels. The earlier doubts expressed about T{sub Qcfs} becoming unduly non-conservative for highly embrittled steels has not been fully substantiated and partly arises from the necessity of modifications in the T{sub 0} evaluation itself at high degrees of embrittlement suggested in the literature.

  10. Effect of CO2 partial pressure on SCC behavior of welded X80 pipeline in simulated soil solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming WU; Xu CHEN; Chuan HE; Jun XIAO

    2011-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of welded X80 pipeline steel in simulated Ku'erle soil solution was studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and slow strain rate tests (SSRT). The microstructure of the welded steel was observed by optical microscopy (OM). It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the weld metal consists of acicular ferrite and grain boundary ferrite,while that of heat affected zone (HAZ) is a mixture of acicular ferrite and bainitic ferrite microconstituents. The microstructure of the base steel is composed of ferrite and pearlite.The anodic dissolution of X80 pipeline steel in simulated Ku'erle soil solution could be enhanced and the SCC sensitivity increased with the increase of CO2 partial pressure. The SCC mechanism of X80 pipeline is a mixing mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement combined with anodic dissolution,and the hydrogen embrittlement plays a leading role. The higher SCC sensitivity of the weld metal was attributed to the metallurgical transformation,local hardening and residual stress.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of hot rolled stainless steel clad plate%热处理对热轧不锈钢复合板组织性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会云; 张心金; 李龙

    2013-01-01

    对热轧奥氏体不锈钢复合板的热处理工艺进行了研究,利用金相显微镜对基层碳钢组织进行了观察,通过剪切、拉伸及冲击等试验对热处理前后的界面结合性能及力学性能进行了研究,并对复层不锈钢耐蚀性进行了测量.结果表明,热轧不锈钢复合板基层碳钢组织主要为铁素体和珠光体,强度较低,复层不锈钢的耐腐蚀性也较差;快冷处理后,复合板的强度增加,但由于快冷基层碳钢产生了大量的马氏体和贝氏体组织,塑性明显下降.回火后试样的塑性有明显改善,但仍不能满足使用要求.快冷+缓冷处理后,碳钢层组织为较细小铁素体、贝氏体和少量珠光体,不锈钢复合板力学性能符合标准要求.热处理后的不锈钢复合板抗剪切强度均> 380 MPa,界面结合性好;复层不锈钢的腐蚀速率从热轧后的36.2 g/(m2-h)降低到了2 g/(m2·h)左右.最佳热处理工艺为高温(1000℃)快冷+低温(500℃)缓冷.%Heat treatment of stainless steel clad plate made by hot rolled bonding was studied.The microstructure was analyzed by OM,interfacial adhesion and mechanical properties before and after heat treatment were investigated.Corrosion resistance of the stainless steel clad plate was also evaluated.The results show that,after hot rolled bonding,the microstructure of the base carbon steel consists of ferrite and pearlite with low strength,and the corrosion resistance of the clad stainless steel is poor.By rapid cooling after hot rolling,its strength increases,but the ductility obviously decreases because much of martensite and bainite formed in the carbon steel.The ductility of the base carbon steel after tempering can remarkably be improved,but still not satisfy the demand for use.After the treatment of rapid cooling plus slow cooling,the microstructure of the carbon steel consists of fine ferrite,bainite and a small amount of pearlite,and the mechanical properties of the clad plate

  12. 核电站用SA738Gr.B钢板热处理工艺研究%Study on Heat Treatment Process of SA738Gr.B Steel Plats for Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩启彪; 蒋善玉; 孙卫华

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the high performance requirements of SA738Gr.B steel plate for nuclear power plant, on the basis of lab tests, heat treatment process parameters in industrial production are studied. The results showed that Pro-eutectoid ferrite precipitation can be avoided when quenching cooling rate greater than 5℃/s;The steel plates have smaller and more uniform lath bainite when quenching temperature is higher;With the extension of heating holding time in quenching, the grains are coarser and ferrite content reduces;With the increase of the tempering temperature, grains coarsen, and the content of bainite reduces, ferrite content increases; In industrial production, tensile properties is superior when water quantity of quenching is higher; With the increase of the tempering time, the steel strength decreases and the impact toughness increases. When the steel plate was heated in 920℃×2.0 min/mm, and subsequently quenched in Q2 program with higher water flow, then tempered in 650℃×1.5 min/mm, the best match of the strength and toughness can be achieved.%为满足SA738Gr.B核电站用钢较高的性能要求,在实验室试验的基础上,研究了工业化生产热处理工艺参数对钢显微组织和力学性能的影响。结果表明,钢板淬火时冷却速度>5℃/s时,能够避免先共析铁素体的析出;淬火温度较高时,钢板具有更细小和均匀的板条贝氏体;随着淬火加热的保温时间延长,晶粒组织粗化且铁素体含量减少;随着回火温度的升高,晶粒粗化,同时贝氏体含量减少,铁素体含量增多;在工业化生产中,较大淬火水量下钢板的拉伸性能更优;随着回火时间的延长,钢板强度下降而冲击韧性提高。以920℃×2.0 min/mm加热、较高水量的Q2工艺淬火,并采用650℃×1.5 min/mm的工艺回火,可使钢板的强韧性达到最佳匹配。

  13. Influence of aluminum and phosphorus on solid transformation of TRIP steels%Al与P对TRIP钢固态相变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱民; 张宇光; 赵征志; 张明明; 唐荻; 李本海

    2011-01-01

    为了研究Al和P合金元素在TRIP钢固态相变过程中的作用,研究了4种不同合金成分C-Mn-Al-P TRIP钢的CCT图.结果表明,Al元素强烈的缩小奥氏体相区,提高A与M.Al元素促使CCT图左移和上移.P元素能够阻碍碳化物的生成,当钢中P含量达到0.14%,能显著的将CCT图中的珠光体区与贝氏体区右移.P元素对铁素体相变和马氏体相变没有显著影响.利用类平衡下切变长大模型估算了4种TRIP钢的B点(A6钢为567℃,P1钢为556℃,P2钢为514℃,P3钢为548 ℃),与实际测量值吻合较好.研究表明在相同条件下,Al元素降低△μ,即增加相变驱动力,同时还降低△G,即降低切变阻力,提高B.点.P元素增加△G,即增加切变阻力,降低B点.%In order to study the effect of alloy element (Al and P) on solid phase transformation of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams and properties of four kinds of C-Mn-Al -P TRIP steels with different aluminum and phosphorus contents were examined by dilatometric test and microstructure observation using optical microscopy. Al made the formation of ferrite and pearlite shift to the left side, and the formation of bainite and martensite to higher temperatures on the CCT diagram as Al narrows the austenite phase region strongly and increases the Ac3 point and Ms point. P reduces kinetics of the cementite precipitation, and when its content reaches 0. 14 wt%, it causes a shift of the forming temperature of pearlite and bainite to the right side on the CCT diagram significantly. No significant effect of P on ferrite and martensite transformation is observed. The Bs points of the investigated steels ( A6,567 ℃; P1,556 ℃ ; P2,514 ℃; P3,548 ℃ ) are estimated using para-equilibrium shear growth model, which is in agreement with the experimental values. The results also indicate that Al increases the Bs point as it both reduces Δμγ→αFe,ch ( increases the

  14. 车轮滚动接触疲劳与磨耗耦合关系数值模拟%Simulation of Coupling Relationship between Wheel Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁军君; 孙树磊; 李芾; 黄运华

    2012-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue and wear are the main modes of wheel failure. The normal and tangential stresses at contact patch and the maximum shear stresses at different depths of material are calculated according to three dimensional elastic bodies non-hertzian rolling contact theory. In the case of CL60 and bainete steel, LM wheel profile and 75 kg · m-1 rail profile are matched, the effects of wheel/rail contact conditions and wheel materials on competition relationship between rolling contact fatigue and wear is analyzed based on "layer" rolling contact fatigue model and Zobory wheel wear model. The results indicate that, when the friction coefficient is 0.3, the rolling contact fatigue damage occurs in CL60 steel under low creepage condition, while under high creep condition the damage only occurs when axleload is over 301; for bainite steel, only under high creep condition and when axleload is 30 t, the damage occurs before the number of load cycles reaches 1×105; when the friction coefficient is 0.6, there is almost no contact fatigue damage in CL60 and bainite steel under all conditions, because the rates of wear are always higher than the contact fatigue damage.%滚动接触疲劳和磨耗是车轮失效的主要方式.通过三维弹性体非赫兹滚动接触理论得到接触斑内的法向、切向应力和材料上不同深度处的最大切应力分布,以CL60钢和贝氏体车轮钢为例,基于“layer”滚动接触疲劳失效模型和Zobory车轮磨耗模型,分析LM型车轮踏面和75kg·m-1钢轨型面匹配时轮轨接触条件和车轮材质对车轮滚动接触疲劳和磨耗竞争关系的影响.计算结果表明,摩擦因数为0.3时,CL60钢在小蠕滑条件下会发生滚动接触疲劳损伤,在大蠕滑条件下只有轴重大于30t时才会出现滚动接触疲劳损伤,而贝氏体车轮钢只有在大蠕滑条件且轴重为30 t时,载荷循环次数小于1×105的情况下才会出现滚动接触疲劳损伤;摩擦因数为0.6

  15. 抗变形X100管线钢模拟焊接热影响区的组织与韧性研究%MICROSTRUCTURE AND TOUGHNESS OF THE SIMULATED WELDING HEAT AFFECTED ZONE IN X100 PIPELINE STEEL WITH HIGH DEFORMATION RESISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文金; 尚成嘉; 由洋; 张晓兵; Sundaresa Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    A single welding thermal-cycles with different heat inputs (8, 16, 20, 25, 30 and 50 kJ/cm) were simulated by Gleeble 3800 to study the correlation of toughness, hardness and microstructure in heat affect zone (HAZ) of the X100 pipeline steel with multi-phases and 0.10%Nb (mass fraction). The microstructures of the CGHAZ in HAZ were characterized by means of OM, SEM and EBSD, and mechanical properties were tested. The results show that for a low heat input of less than 20 kJ/cm, the microstructure is lath bainite or acicular ferrite structure with high-density of large-angle boundaries (>15°), which exhibits good Charpy impact toughness. However, for a large heat input over 25 kJ/cm, the uniformity of prior austenite grains becomes worse, the M/A constituents and the granular bainite (GB) are coarsening, and the amount of large-angle boundaries decreases with the increase of heat input. The results of the instrumented Charpy impacttest and the observation of fracture surfaces on the specimens indicate that the cracks are induced near the coarse M/A constituents and the large—angle boundaries can remarkably restrict crack propagations. Therefore, in order to ensure a strong match between the HAZ and the base metal, and the resistance to hydrogen induced delayed damage because of high hardness of HAZ, the heat input energy should be about between 15 and 20 kJ/cm.%采用Gleeble-3800热模拟机研究了多相抗变形X100高Nb含量管线钢的焊接性能,利用金相显微技术(OM)、扫描电镜(SEM)、电子背散射衍射(EBSD)对模拟焊接热影响区的组织进行了表征,结合示波冲击及微观硬度实验结果分析了影响模拟焊接热影响粗晶区(CGHAZ)的低温韧性及热影响区硬度与组织之间的关系.研究表明,高Nb抗变形X100管线钢单道次焊接热输入小于20kJ/cm时的CGHAZ具有较高韧性,形成大角晶界密度较高的板条贝氏体或针状铁素体;焊接热输入大于等于25kJ/cm会导致CGHAZ晶

  16. Mejoras en la construcción de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustión interna ciclo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Pérez, F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system pistonsegment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project.El análisis del sistema tribológico pistón-segmentos-cilindro durante el funcionamiento de un motor de combustión, permitió valorar las características, mediante el empleo de métodos de ingeniería usados en el mundo, para calcular las tasas de desgaste y otros parámetros resultantes en cada uno de los componentes del sistema antes mencionado. Se definió la camisa de cilindro, como elemento fundamental de los usados en el sistema tribológico y se analizaron las características metalográficas predominantes en su construcción actual de aleaciones de hierro fundido gris con matriz perlítica, lo que permitió proponer una nueva aleación con matriz bainítica que brindara una mayor resistencia al desgaste. Para demostrar el rendimiento de este nuevo producto propuesto se llevó a cabo una técnica experimental basada en el

  17. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  18. Technological impact in steels degree API 5L X-70 for the manufacture of resistant ducts of 36 inches of diameter to the bitter gas; Impacto tecnologico de aceros grado API 5L X-70 para la fabricacion de ductos de 36 pulgadas de diametro resistentes al gas amargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo Perez, G.; Garcia Galan, S.; Perez Campos, R.; Juarez Islas, J.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    Several steel plates in the as-hot rolled plus cooled condition were studied, in order to evaluate the impact of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical processing plus the cooling media. The steelmaking route to produce the slabs involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously cast. After soaking, a controlled thermomechanical processing the resulting steel plates cooled in air showed a banded structure, which sometimes presented a central segregation region. The worst plates with a central segregation region showed intermetallic compounds in it. After modifications of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical/cooling schedule, a steel plate with a ferritic microstructure plus 0.5% in vol of bainite was obtained. This microstructure together with the resulting mechanical properties, fulfilled the API grade 5LX-70 properties, required by the petroleum industry. [Spanish] Se evaluo el impacto del proceso en la fabricacion de planchones de acero grado APIX-70, asimismo, el proceso de deformacion termomecanico controlado, mas enfriamiento de placas. El proceso para producir los planchones involucra el uso de 100% de hierro esponja, el cual es alimentado a un horno electrico, desgasificado al vacio y colado continuamente. Al planchon resultante se le aplica un programa de laminacion en caliente controlado y a las placas resultantes se le aplica un enfriamiento al aire o acelerado. La mayoria de las placas enfriadas al aire mostraron una estructura bandeada, algunas presentaron una region con segregacion central y otras las segregacion central mas la presencia de intermetalicos. Despues de modificar el proceso de fabricacion del acero, su control termomecanico y su programa de enfriamiento, se obtuvo una placa con una microestructura ferrifica mas un 0.5% en volumen de bainita. Esta microestructura junto con el resultado de sus propiedades mecanicas

  19. Third Generation of AHSS: Microstructure Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, David K.; Speer, John G.

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS), particularly for automotive applications. Descriptive terminology has evolved to describe the “First Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels that possess primarily ferrite-based microstructures, and the “Second Generation” of AHSS, i.e. austenitic steels with high manganese contents which include steels that are closely related to austenitic stainless steels. First generation AHSS have been referred to by a variety of names including dual phase (DP), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), complex-phase (CP), and martensitic (MART). Second generation austenitic AHSS include twinninginduced plasticity (TWIP) steels, Al-added lightweight steels with induced plasticity (L-IP®), and shear band strengthened steels (SIP steels). Recently there has been increased interest in the development of the “Third Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels with strength-ductility combinations significantly better than exhibited by the first generation AHSS but at a cost significantly less than required for second generation AHSS. Approaches to the development of third generation AHSS will require unique alloy/microstructure combinations to achieve the desired properties. Results from a recent composite modeling analysis have shown that the third generation of AHSS will include materials with complex microstructures consisting of a high strength phase (e.g. ultra-fine grained ferrite, martensite, or bainite) and significant amounts of a constituent with substantial ductility and work hardening (e.g. austenite). In this paper, design methodologies based on considerations of fundamental strengthening mechanisms are presented and evaluated to assess the potential for developing new materials. Several processing routes will be assessed, including the recently identified Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) process developed in the authors’ own laboratory.

  20. Correlation of microstructure, tensile properties and hole expansion ratio in cold rolled advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Oscar R.

    The demand for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with higher strengths is increasing in the automotive industry. While there have been major improvements recently in the trade-off between ductility and strength, sheared-edge formability of AHSS remains a critical issue. AHSS sheets exhibit cracking during stamping and forming operations below the predictions of forming limits. It has become important to understand the correlation between microstructure and sheared edge formability. The present work investigates the effects of shearing conditions, microstructure, and tensile properties on sheared edge formability. Seven commercially produced steels with tensile strengths of 1000 +/- 100 MPa were evaluated: five dual-phase (DP) steels with different compositions and varying microstructural features, one trip aided bainitic ferrite (TBF) steel, and one press-hardened steel tempered to a tensile strength within the desired range. It was found that sheared edge formability is influenced by the martensite in DP steels. Quantitative stereology measurements provided results that showed martensite size and distribution affect hole expansion ratio (HER). The overall trend is that HER increases with more evenly dispersed martensite throughout the microstructure. This microstructure involves a combination of martensite size, contiguity, mean free distance, and number of colonies per unit area. Additionally, shear face characterization showed that the fracture and burr region affect HER. The HER decreases with increasing size of fracture and burr region. With a larger fracture and burr region more defects and/or micro-cracks will be present on the shear surface. This larger fracture region on the shear face facilitates cracking in sheared edge formability. Finally, the sheared edge formability is directly correlated to true fracture strain (TFS). The true fracture strain from tensile samples correlates to the HER values. HER increases with increasing true fracture strain.

  1. A preliminary study of material homogeneity for size effect investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Kalkhof, D.

    1999-06-01

    The forged material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906) with a heat treatment of 900 {sup o}C, water quenched, 730 {sup o}C, air cooled, was subjected to an intensive quality control consisting of chemical analysis, metallography, hardness tests, tensile tests, and impact tests. Six plates of the material were investigated, and all specimens were taken from a diagonal of each plate in three positions, outer margins and the centre of the plates. The quality control exhibits the following results: (1) The material fulfill the material specification in all respects. (2) This material is a fine grained homogeneous ferritic material of bainitic structure; neither from the chemical analysis, metallography, nor from hardness tests influences from the position of the specimens taken from the plates could be derived. (3) The tensile tests clearly revealed position dependent material properties. With the exception of one plate, one of the selected positions exhibits no natural yield strength, higher rupture strength, and lower elongation to fracture compared with the other two positions at 293 K and 573 K. (4) Many of the data obtained from the impact tests at room temperature were larger than the capacity of the impact machine, i.e. 225 Joule; the experimental condition was changed from tests at 573 K to tests at 253 K to obtain data from the transition region. The main conclusions drawn for the size effect experiments where that all the tensile test results for different specimen sizes have to be discussed with respect of the specimen positions within the plates, and that for all bend bar as well as impact experiments with different specimen sizes the notch depth to specimen width ratio a/w has to be changed from a/w = 0.2 to a/w = 0.3 to get reasonable results within the frame of the available test equipment. (author)

  2. Influences of gaseous environment on low growth-rate fatigue crack propagation in steels. Annual report No. 1, January 1980. Report No. FPL/R/80/1030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF WAVELET-MULTIFRACTAL ANALYSIS IN PROBLEMS OF METAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLCHUK V. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In order to obtain acceptable results of the evaluation of the metal structure developed methodology should include the use of both classical and modern methods of its evaluation and the properties of the produced goods. Thus, to establish the relationship between mechanical properties and structural elements of metal to use multifractal theory. The proposed method is the most appropriate to quantify the majority of real structures, which are integral approximation figures Euclid introduces some uncertainty, and therefore not always acceptable in practical problems of modern materials science. According to the proposed method, each of heterogeneous objects, which are the structures most metals can be characterized by variety of statistical Renyi dimensions. The range of dimensions multifractals interpreted as some of the physical laws, which have a separate statistical properties that make it possible to their financial performance. Application of statistical dimensions of the structural elements for the assessment of qualitative characteristics of metal contributes to their formalization as a function of the fractal dimension. This in turn makes it possible to identify and anticipate the physical and mechanical properties of the metal without producing special mechanical tests. Purpose  obtain information about the possible application of wavelet-multifractal analysis to assess the microstructure of the metal. Conclusion. Using the methods of wavelet multifractal analysis, a statistical evaluation of the structural elements of steel St3ps. An analysis of the characteristics of uniformity, consistency and regularity of the structural elements has shown that most of the change observed in the samples subjected to accelerated cooling water in the temperature range of the intermediate (bainitic conversion 550 – 4500С, less - in samples cooled in the temperature range 650 pearlite transformation  6000С and the smallest

  4. In-Situ Phase Mapping and Direct Observations of Phase Transformations During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T

    2005-09-13

    In-situ Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time x-ray diffraction data. The results were compiled along with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids weld model to create a phase map of the HAZ. This map shows the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation taking place during weld heating and the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation taking place during weld cooling. Superheating is required to complete the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation, and the amount of superheat above the A3 temperature was shown to vary with distance from the centerline of the weld. Superheat values as high as 250 C above the A3 temperature were observed at heating rates of 80 C/s. The SRXRD experiments also revealed details about the {gamma} phase not observable by conventional techniques, showing that {gamma} is present with two distinct lattice parameters as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine grained region of the HAZ, at distances greater than 2 mm from the fusion line, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region of the HAZ where the cooling rates are below 40 C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. For HAZ locations closer to the fusion line, undercoolings of 200 C or more below the A1 temperature are required to complete the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation. In this region of the HAZ, grain growth coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 C/s causes the transformation to occur by a bainitic mechanism.

  5. Real-time structural analysis of quenching and partitioning (Q and P) in an experimental martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigg, Timothy D., E-mail: t.d.bigg@leeds.ac.uk; Edmonds, David V., E-mail: d.v.edmonds@leeds.ac.uk; Eardley, Edwin S., E-mail: e_s_eardley@hotmail.com

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We present an innovative method of studying the Q and P heat treatment process. •A specially engineered steel was used to study carbon partitioning in real-time. •Measurements were obtained using a neutron diffractometer with an in situ furnace. •Real-time evidence of partitioning was observed in the form of lattice dilatation. •Carbon ‘trapping’ is hypothesised to reduce the carbon available for partitioning. -- Abstract: Quenching and Partitioning (Q and P) is a new concept in martensitic steel heat treatment which, as well as other opportunities, offers potential for expansion of the elongation versus strength envelope available to steel users, especially the automotive industry. The Q and P steel concept shares similarities with TRIP steel in that both promote multiphase microstructures of stabilised retained austenite and a harder phase of bainite (TRIP) or martensite (Q and P), although in Q and P the two stages of martensite formation and austenite stabilisation by carbon partitioning are separated. The procedure also provides for both protection and temper strengthening of the martensite fraction. However, confirmatory study of reaction mechanisms has been frustrated by the elevated temperatures required to date to apply Q and P heat treatment to commercial steel compositions. Consequently, a model alloy has been used to separate the various stages of the Q and P heat treatment process, thus allowing diffraction experiments, particularly real-time in situ neutron diffractometry, to measure lattice parameter, lattice strain and phase fraction in order to deduce the concentration and distribution of carbon at different stages during the Q and P treatment.

  6. Master curve analysis of the SA508 Gr. 4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steels for reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Hyoung; Wee, Dang Moon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Low alloy steels used as Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs) materials directly relate to the safety margin and the life span of reactors. Currently, SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel is generally used for RPV material. But, for larger capacity and long-term durability of RPV, materials that have better properties including strength and toughness are needed. Therefore, tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel is considered as a candidate material due to excellent mechanical properties. The fracture toughness loss caused by irradiation embrittlement during reactor operation is one of the important issues for ferritic RPV steels, because the decrease of fracture toughness is directly related to the integrity of RPVs. One reliable and efficient concept to evaluate the fracture toughness of ferritic steels is master curve method. In ASTM E1921, it is clearly mentioned the universal shape of the median toughness-temperature curve for ferritic steels including tempered martensitic steels. However, currently, concerns have arisen regarding the appropriateness of the universal shape in ASTM for the tempered martensitic steels such as Eurofer97. Therefore, it may be necessary to assess the master curve applicability for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. In this study, the fracture toughness behavior with temperature of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels was evaluated using the ASTM E1921 master curve method. And the results were compared with those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 low alloy steel. Furthermore, the way to define the fracture toughness behavior of Gr.4N steels well is discussed.

  7. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel; Tratamientos termicos en un acero convencional para reproducir la microestructura de un acero grado nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-07-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  8. Effects of short immersion time and cooling rates of copperizing process to the evolution of microstructures and copper behavior in the dead mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Sutarsis, Cunika, Aprida Ulya

    2017-01-01

    In a dead mild steel with maximum carbon content of 0.15%, carbon does not contribute much to its strength. By adding copper as an alloying element, a balance between strength and ductility could be obtained through grain refining, solid solution, or Cu precipitation. This research aimed to analyse the changes in microstructures and copper behaviour on AISI 1006, including the phases formed, composition, and Cu dispersion. The addition of cooper was done by immersing steel into molten copper or so we called, copperizing using the principles of diffusion. Specimens were cut with 6 × 3 × 0.3 cm measurement then preheated to 900°C and melting the copper at 1100°C. Subsequently, the immersion of the specimens into molten copper varied to 5 and 7 minutes, and also varying the cooling rate to annealing, normalizing, and quenching. A series of test being conduct were optical microscope test, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the longer the immersion time and slower cooling rate, the more Cu diffused causing smaller grain size with the highest Cu diffused recorded was 0.277% in the copperized AISI 1006 steel with 7 minutes of immersion and was annealed. The grain size reduced to 23041.5404 µm2. The annealed specimens show ferrite phase, the normalized ones show polygonal ferrite phase, while the quenched ones show granular bainite phase. The phase formed is single phase Cu. In addition, the normalized and quenched specimens show that Cu dissolved in Fe crystal forming solid solution.

  9. Influence of heat treatment process on microstructure and mechanical properties of 60Si2CrVA spring steel%热处理工艺对60Si2CrVA弹簧钢组织及性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占玲; 赵飞; 谭文龙

    2014-01-01

    利用SEM、金相显微镜、X射线应力测定仪、MTS 万能试验机等研究了淬火-等温( Q-I )及淬火-等温-回火( Q-I-T )工艺对60Si2CrVA弹簧钢组织及性能的影响,并与传统工艺进行了比较。结果表明,经Q-I工艺处理的60Si2CrVA弹簧钢具有良好的综合力学性能,抗拉强度可达到2142 MPa,断面收缩率为42.17%,冲击吸收能量达到了43.3 J。 Q-I工艺得到的复相组织中较多的残留奥氏体与下贝氏体是提高材料塑韧性的主要原因。%The influence of quenching-isothermal ( Q-I ) and quenching-isothermal-tempering ( Q-I-T ) processes on microstructure and mechanical properties of 60Si2CrVA steel was studied by SEM, optical microscopy, X-ray stress analyzer, MTS and so on, and compared with the traditional treatment .The results show that the 60Si2CrVA steel treated by Q-I process has fine comprehensive mechanical properties, tensile strength is 2142 MPa, the percentage reduction of area is 42.17%, and the impact absorbed energy is 43.3 J.The duplex microstructure with many retained austenite and bainite obtained by Q-I is the main factor to improve the toughness and ductility .

  10. Experimental Production of Non-Quenched and Tempered Steel for Grade 10.9 Fasteners%10.9级紧固件用非调质钢试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹杰; 阎军; 孙维; 刘雅政; 章静; 于同仁

    2012-01-01

    为开发高强度紧固件用非调质钢,在高速线材轧机上进行了试验轧制,并对试制产品的组织性能进行了检测。结果表明,在给定工艺条件下钢的组织基本上为粒状贝氏体组织,抗拉强度为897.5MPa,伸长率为21.8%。热轧材拉拔减面后达到或超过10.9级紧固件的力学性能要求。当拉拔量为25.0%时,可承受59.3%的压缩变形不开裂。%In order to develop a non-quenched and tempered steel for high strength fasteners, experimental production was carried out on a high-speed wire rod mill. The microstrueture and properties of the rolling products was tested. The microstrueture of the steel is basically granular bainite under the given technology, the tensile strength and elongation ratio of the steel are respectively 897.5 MPa and 21.8%. After drawing reduction, the steel can meet or exceed the mechanical requirement of grade 10.9 fasteners. When the drawing reduction is 25.0%, the steel can bear the compression of 59.3% without cracking.

  11. APPLICATION OF RESULTS OF WAVELET AND MULTIFRACTAL ANALYSIS OF METAL STRUCTURE FOR PROGNOSIS OF ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLCHUK V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. At present , to implement a deterministic method of assessment of the mechanical features is not possible based on the analysis of causalit links, because they are influenced with a large number of variables that are highly correlated with each other, and some part of them are changing in a wide range of unpredictable ways. Especially, this problem is in assessing the mechanical properties of metal constructions and products of special purpose in the process of their expluatation: oil pipes, carcasses of residential buildings, etc. In these cases, mechanical testing is the problem is not always technically feasible, and out of variety of express methods of non-destructive control are used often in practice in verbal or semiquantitative. The difficulty is that under the impact of various factors: temperature, corrosive environments, etc., structural changes occur far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and as result the mixed structures are got, including widmanshtatten structure. Use of classical methods of metallography is not always possible to quantify such structures with the precision that may be necessary for practical purposes. In this regard, considerable interest is the search for new approaches to assess the metal structure with a purpose of prognosis of its mechanical properties. Purpose. To obtain information about the possible application of wavelet-multifractal analysis to assess the mechanical properties of metal. Conclusion. Sensitiveness between strength properties and uniformity is set with regularity of structure elements of bainite-perlite group, and also between the viscous properties and uniformity, a regularity of element of the ferrite group. The results suggest that the realization of this method allows in the minimal and possible cost for the real tests to provide the necessary accuracy for practical purposes.

  12. TRANSFORMATION ISOTHERME D'UN ACIER A HAUTE RESISTANCE 40 CDV 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUTEFNOUCHET

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude dilatométrique du comportement de l'austénite en condition isotherme d'un acier ternaire, à haute résistance mécanique de nuance 40 CDV 13, nous a permis de tracer son diagramme TTT. L'austénitisation a été réalisée pendant 10 minutes à  qg = 950°C (utilisée dans  l'industrie. Les températures de maintien sont comprises entre Ac1 = 810°C et Ms  = 310°C. Dans ce diagramme TTT, on distingue deux domaines de transformation isotherme de l'austénite. Le domaine I (625°C £  qiso < Ac1 = 810°C dans lequel l'austénite se transforme en ferrite et en perlite, et le domaine II (325°C  £  qiso £ 475°C où l'austénite se transforme en bainite ou en ferrite probainitique. Ces transformations sont précédées pour toutes les températures de maintien isotherme d'une précipitation de carbures. En outre, ces deux domaines de transformation de l'austénite sont séparés par une large zone de stabilité de l'austénite comprise entre 500°C et 600°C. L'analyse approfondie des courbes dilatométriques enregistrées durant le maintien isotherme et le refroidissement final jusqu'à l'ambiante, nous a permis de déterminer qualitativement et quantitativement les phase mises en jeu par ces transformations isothermes de l'austénite.

  13. Deformation and fragmentation of explosively loaded steel tubes%内部爆炸加载条件下钢管变形与破碎研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓越; 杨道明; 王富耻

    2001-01-01

    用高速摄影研究了钢管膨胀历程,并对破碎机制进行了分析.结果表明:材料动态塑性是决定破片最终速度的主要因素;圆管膨胀时外表面形成以剪切为主的裂纹,并向内扩展,接近内表面的绝热剪切带伴随着圆管的膨胀而扩展,并未出现失稳现象,但在正应力的作用下成为优先的断裂通道、决定破片的尺寸和形态;中碳Si-Mn贝氏体钢与50SiMnVB钢的破碎性能相近,但贝氏体钢动态塑性很更好,破碎前的膨胀量较大、更有利于提高破片初速,是弹箭比较理想的候选材料.%By means of high-speed photography, the history of expansion of explosively loaded steel tubes havebeen recorded, and the fragmentation mechanisms have been analyzed. The results show that dynamical ductil-ity dominated final velocity of fragments. During tube expansion, the shear fracture appears preferentially a-long the adiabatic shear bands under positive stress, so the adiabatic shear band determines the size and shapeof fragments. Though the fragmentation behaviour of medium carbon Si - Mn bainific steel is close to that ofsteel 50SiMnVB, medium carbon Si - Mn bainitic steel is an ideal candidate material for the tubular bombs be-cause it is better in dynamical ductility, which can enable the tubes to gain high speeds before fragmentation.

  14. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  15. Effects of Finish Cooling Temperature on Tensile Properties After Thermal Aging of Strain-Based API X60 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak; Ro, Yunjo; Lee, Chang Sun; Hwang, Byoungchul

    2015-09-01

    Two types of strain-based American Petroleum Institute (API) X60 linepipe steels were fabricated at two finish cooling temperatures, 673 K and 723 K (400 °C and 450 °C), and the effects of the finish cooling temperatures on the tensile properties after thermal aging were investigated. The strain-based API X60 linepipe steels consisted mainly of polygonal ferrite (PF) or quasi-polygonal ferrite and the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased with the increasing finish cooling temperature. In contrast, the volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) and secondary phases decreased. The tensile properties before and after thermal aging at 473 K and 523 K (200 °C and 250 °C) were measured. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and yield ratio increased with the increasing thermal aging temperature. The strain hardening rate in the steel fabricated at the higher finish cooling temperature decreased rapidly after thermal aging, probably due to the Cottrell atmosphere, whereas the strain hardening rate in the steel fabricated at the lower finish cooling temperature changed slightly after thermal aging. The uniform elongation and total elongation decreased with increasing thermal aging temperature, probably due to the interactions between carbon atoms and dislocations. The uniform elongation decreased rapidly with the decreasing volume fractions of BF and martensite and secondary phases. The yield ratio increased with the increasing thermal aging temperature, whereas the strain hardening exponent decreased. The strain hardening exponent of PL steel decreased rapidly after thermal aging because of the large number of mobile dislocations between PF and BF or martensite or secondary phases.

  16. Correlation Between Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Strain-Based API X60 Pipeline Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Ro, Yunjo; Lee, Chang Sun; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between the microstructures and tensile properties of strain-based American Petroleum Institute (API) X60 pipeline steels was investigated. Eight types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the chemical compositions, such as C, Ni, Cr, and Mo, and the finish cooling temperatures, such as single-phase and dual-phase regions. In the 4N and 5C steels, the volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) and the secondary phases increased with the increasing C and adding Cr instead of Ni. In the 5C and 6NC steels, the volume fractions of acicular ferrite (AF) and BF decreased with increasing C and adding Ni, whereas the volume fractions of polygonal ferrite (PF) and the secondary phases increased. In the 6NC and 6NM steels, the volume fraction of BF was increased by adding Mo instead of Cr, whereas the volume fractions of PF and the secondary phases decreased. In the steels rolled in the single-phase region, the volume fraction of polygonal ferrite ranged from 40 to 60 pct and the volume fraction of AF ranged from 20 to 40 pct. In the steels rolled in the dual-phase region, however, the volume fraction of PF was more than 70 pct and the volume fraction of AF was below 20 pct. The strength of the steels with a high volume fraction of AF was higher than those of the steels with a high volume fraction of PF, whereas the yield point elongation and the strain hardening exponent were opposite. The uniform elongation after the thermal aging process decreased with increasing volume fraction of PF, whereas the uniform elongation increased with increasing volume fraction of AF. The strain hardening exponent increased with increasing volume fraction of PF, but decreased with increasing volume fraction of AF and effective grain size.

  17. 等温处理工艺对等温淬火球铁显微组织和硬度的影响%Effect of Austempering Technics on Microstructure and Hardness of Austempered Ductile Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚斌; 张宝昌; 贾非; 李乃朴; 房灿峰; 郝海; 张兴国; 刘恒乐; 蔡勇; 孟宪军

    2012-01-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) with high-strength and high toughness was created by method of austempering in the 1970s, which is characterized to have a tensile strength over 1000MPa, and an elongation more than 15%. With an orthogonal test and the method of austempering, the effect of the austempering technics on the microstructure and hardness of austempered ductile iron was discussed. It is found that austempered ductile iron which microstructure contains bainite and retained austenite can be gained in all of the designed austempering technics through the experiment. The hardness of samples could be mostly affected by the temperature of austempered, followed by the austenitizing temperature and austenitizing time, and the timing of austempering is proved to have the least influence on the hardness of samples.%上世纪70年代,通过奥氏体等温淬火开发出抗拉强度大于1000MPa、伸长率大于15%的高强度、高韧性等温淬火球铁。利用正交试验法,研究了等温淬火工艺参数对等温淬火球铁显微组织及硬度的影响。结果发现,在设计的试验工艺内全部可以得到以针状铁素体和富碳奥氏体为基体的等温淬火球铁组织;在等温淬火工艺中,等温淬火温度对试样硬度影响最为显著,其次是奥氏体化温度与奥氏体化时间,而等温淬火时间对于试样硬度的影响最小。

  18. Study on Microstructure and Properties of ADI Pneumatic Cylinder Casting%ADI风镐缸体铸件组织与力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄之德; 王生玖

    2012-01-01

    研制了一种含Cu、Ni合金成分的风镐缸体铸件,比较了其厚壁和薄壁处铸态和等温淬火态的组织和性能.结果表明:奥贝球铁风镐缸体铸态基体组织为珠光体,存在少量铁素体,石墨比较细小,大部分为球形,圆整度较好,球状石墨数量多;加入适量的合金,采用合理的热处理工艺,等温淬火后,厚壁和薄壁处的金相组织皆由贝氏体、奥氏体和少量碳化物组成,此时ADI(等温淬火球墨铸铁)具有较高的强度和塑性,能满足风镐缸体的使用要求,提高风镐的使用寿命,具有良好的经济性.%The microstructurc and mechanical properties of thick and thin wall of austempeted ductile iron cylinder casting with Cu, Ni alloy as-cast and isothermal quenching state were compared. The results show that the as-cast microstructure consists of pearlite, and a small amount of ferrite, graphite is small, most of graphite is spherical shape, good round degree, nodular graphite number is many, microstructure of isothermal quenching consists of bainite, austenitic and a small amount of carbide, austempered ductile iron with high strength and plasticity after isothermal quenching, can meet the requirements for the use of pneumatic cylinder.

  19. The Strain-Hardening Behavior of Partially Austenitized and the Austempered Ductile Irons with Dual Matrix Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicli, Volkan; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2008-04-01

    In the current study, an unalloyed ductile iron containing 3.50 C wt.%, 2.63 Si wt.%, 0.318 Mn wt.%, and 0.047 Mg wt.% was intercritically austenitized (partially austenitized) in two-phase regions (α + γ) at different temperatures for 20 min and then was quenched into salt bath held at austempering temperature of 365 °C for various times to obtain different ausferrite plus proeutectoid ferrite volume fractions. Fine and coarse dual matrix structures (DMS) were obtained from two different starting conditions. Some specimens were also conventionally austempered from 900 °C for comparison. The results showed that a structure having proeutectoid ferrite plus ausferrite (bainitic ferrite + high-carbon austenite (retained or stabilized austenite)) has been developed. Both of the specimens with ˜75% ausferrite volume fraction (coarse structure) and the specimen with ˜82% ausferrite volume fraction (fine structure) exhibited the best combination of high strength and ductility compared to the pearlitic grades, but their ductility is slightly lower than the ferritic grades. These materials also satisfy the requirements for the strength of the quenched and tempered grades and their ductility is superior to this grade. The correlation between the strain-hardening rates of the various austempered ductile iron (ADI) with DMS and conventionally heat-treated ADI microstructures as a function of strain was conducted by inspection of the respective tensile curves. For this purpose, the Crussard-Jaoul (C-J) analysis was employed. The test results also indicate that strain-hardening behavior of ADI with dual matrix is influenced by the variations in the volume fractions of the phases, and their morphologies, the degree of ausferrite connectivity and the interaction intensities between the carbon atoms and the dislocations in the matrix. The ADI with DMS generally exhibited low strain-hardening rates compared to the conventionally ADI.

  20. The Nature of the Tensile Fracture in Austempered Ductile Iron with Dual Matrix Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicli, Volkan; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2010-02-01

    The tensile fracture characteristics of austempered ductile irons with dual matrix structures and different ausferrite volume fractions have been studied for an unalloyed ductile cast iron containing (in wt.%) 3.50 C, 2.63 Si, 0.318 Mn, and 0.047 Mg. Specimens were intercritically austenitized (partially austenitized) in two phase region (α + γ) at various temperatures for 20 min and then quenched into a salt bath held at austempering temperature of 365 °C for various times and then air cooled to room temperature to obtain various ausferrite volume fractions. Conventionally austempered specimens with fully ausferritic matrix and unalloyed as-cast specimens having fully ferritic structures were also tested for comparison. In dual matrix structures, results showed that the volume fraction of proeutectoid ferrite, new (epitaxial) ferrite, and ausferrite [bainitic ferrite + high-carbon austenite (stabilized or transformed austenite)] can be controlled to influence the strength and ductility. Generally, microvoids nucleation is initiated at the interface between the graphite nodules and the surrounding ferritic structure and at the grain boundary junctions in the fully ferritic microstructure. Debonding of the graphite nodules from the surrounding matrix structure was evident. The continuity of the ausferritic structure along the intercellular boundaries plays an important role in determining the fracture behavior of austempered ductile iron with different ausferrite volume fractions. The different fracture mechanisms correspond to the different levels of ausferrite volume fractions. With increasing continuity of the ausferritic structure, fracture pattern changed from ductile to moderate ductile nature. On the other hand, in the conventionally austempered samples with a fully ausferritic structure, the fracture mode was a mixture of quasi-cleavage and a dimple pattern. Microvoid coalescence was the dominant form of fracture in all structures.

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of a Wear-Resistant Alloyed Ductile Iron Austempered at Various Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Junjun; Chen, Liqing

    2015-08-01

    To further improve the mechanical performance of a new type of alloyed bainitic wear-resistant ductile iron, the effects of the various austempering temperatures have been investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed ductile iron Fe-3.50C-1.95Si-3.58Ni-0.71Cu-0.92Mo-0.65Cr-0.36Mn (in weight percent). This alloyed ductile iron were firstly austenitized at 1123 K (850 °C) for 1 hour and then austempered in a salt bath at 548 K, 573 K, and 598 K (275 °C, 300 °C, and 325 °C) for 2 hours according to time-temperature-transformation diagram calculated by JMatPro software. The microstructures of austempered wear-resistant ductile irons consist of matrix of dark needle-like ferrite plus bright etching austenite and some amount of martensite and some dispersed graphite nodules. With increasing the austempering temperature, the amount of ferrite decreases in austempered ductile iron, while the amount of austenite and carbon content of austenite increases. There is a gradual decrease in hardness and increase in compressive strength with increasing austempering temperature. The increased austenite content and coarsened austenite and ferrite can lead to a hardness decrease as austempering temperature is increased. The increased compressive strength can be attributed to a decreased amount of martensitic transformation. The alloyed ductile iron behaves rather well wear resistance when the austempering is carried out at 598 K (325 °C) for 2 hours. Under the condition of wear test by dry sand/rubber wheel, the wear mechanisms of austempered ductile irons are both micro-cutting and plastic deformation.

  2. Effect of heat input on microstructure and properties of hybrid fiber laser-arc weld joints of the 800 MPa hot-rolled Nb-Ti-Mo microalloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.-N.; Zhang, S.-H.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, M.; Chen, C.-J.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid fiber laser-arc welding (HLAW) process was applied to a novel hot-rolled Nb-Ti-Mo microalloyed steels of 8 mm thickness. The steel is primarily used to manufacture automotive and construction machinery components, etc. To elucidate the effect of heat input on geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties, different heat inputs (3.90, 5.20 and 7.75 kJ/cm) were used by changing the welding speeds. With increased heat input, the depth/width of penetration was decreased, and the geometry of fusion zone (FZ) changed to "wine cup-like" shape. In regard to the microstructural constituents, the martensite content was decreased, but granular bainite (GB) content was increased. The main microstructural difference was in the FZ cross-section at 7.75 kJ/cm because of the effect of thermal source on the top and bottom. The microstructure of the top part consisted of GB, grain boundary ferrite, and acicular ferrite, while the bottom part was primarily lath martensite. The hardness distribution was similar for different heat inputs. Hardness in FZ, coarse-grained HAZ and mixed-grained HAZ was higher than the base metal (BM), but for the fine-grained HAZ was similar or marginally less than the base metal (BM). Tensile strain was concentrated in the BM such that the fracture occurred in this region. In summary, the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties of weld joints were superior at heat input of 5.20 kJ/cm.

  3. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapetto, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe-C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe-C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  4. Correlation of microstructure and fracture toughness of advanced 9Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: Lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant of Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Renjie [Shanghai Turbine Works Company, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cui, Haichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-25

    In this paper, the fracture toughness and the related microstructure characteristics of dissimilarly welded joint manufactured by advanced 9Cr and CrMoV steels were systematically investigated. The dissimilarly welded joint was fabricated by narrow gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW) applying multi-layer and multi-pass technique. Fracture toughness, as one of the most important property to assess the reliability of welded joint, was studied for different regions including CrMoV base metal (CrMoV-BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side (CrMoV-HAZ), weld metal (WM), heat affected zone of 9Cr side (9Cr-HAZ) and 9Cr base metal (9Cr-BM). It was found that the fracture toughness of CrMoV-BM, CrMoV-HAZ and WM was better than that of 9Cr-HAZ and 9Cr-BM. In order to illustrate these results, the microstructure of the whole welded joint was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) detailedly. It was found that the fine high-temperature tempered martensite and bainite in WM, CrMoV-BM and CrMoV-HAZ contribute to the higher fracture toughness, while lower fracture toughness for 9Cr-BM and HAZ was caused by coarse tempered lath-martensite. Furthermore, the fracture morphology showed that ductile fracture occurred in WM and CrMoV side, while brittle fracture appeared in BM and HAZ of 9Cr side.

  5. High strength hot rolled and aged microalloyed 5%Ni steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper was to give information about low temperature strength and impact CharpyVtoughness of low carbon microalloyed 5%Ni bainitic steel after thermomechanical rolling (TMR orthermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP and ageing at different temperatures: 580°C/2 h, 640°C/1hand 680°C/1h.Design/methodology/approach: The tensile strength tests were performed at -196, -60 and 20°C and Charpy Vsamples were broken at -100, -80, -60, -40, -20 and 20°C temperatures. The tensile strength TS, yield strengthYS, elongation A5 and reduction of area RA were established from tensile experiments. After TMCP 16 mm steelplate had YS = 730MPa, TS = 950 MPa, A5 = 22,5% and RA = 61% and impact energy > 50 J at -196°C.Findings: The best combination of mechanical properties; yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved forsteel after TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h; YS = 800MPa, TS = 900 MPa, A5 = 22.5%, at -1000C KVmin.= 110 J.Research limitations/implications: The precise methodology for retained austenite identification and itsamount content determination in the investigated microstructures is still metallographic problem which needsto be resolved.Practical implications: The best combination of yield strength and Charpy V toughness was achieved for steelafter TMR and ageing 580°C/ 2h. At liquid nitrogen temperature ultrahigh strength properties were: YS = 1140MPa, TS = 1280 MPa, A5 = 26%, RA = 55% and KV 122 J at -100°C.Originality/value: The detailed microstructure examination of the steel with optical and mainly scanningtransmission electron microscopy was needed to explain its good properties at very low temperature. TRIP effectwas observed due to the presence of highly alloyed retained austenite in the microstructure. That type of steelmay be used for contemporary military and structural applications working at low temperatures.

  6. High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a &apos

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE AND IMPACT FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF HAZ OF F460 HEAVY SHIP PLATE WITH HIGH STRENGTH AND TOUGHNESS%F460高强韧厚船板焊接热影响区的组织和冲击断裂行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东升; 程丙贵; 罗咪

    2011-01-01

    Thermal cycles of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of an advanced F460 steel plate used as offshore structure and ship-building in the future were simulated by employing a Gleeble 3800 ther-momechanical simulator. The microstructures of the HAZ formed at different heat input energies (E) were characterized by means of OM, SEM, EBSD and TEM, and mechanical properties were measured. When E is equal to 15 kJ/cm, the microstructures consist of mainly lath-like martensite (LM) with high density dislocations and large misorientations, between the laths exist fine martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents. When E is equal to 30 kJ/cm, lath-like bainite (LB) is formed. The lath grains and M/A constituents will coarsen and the amount of high angle (≥15°) boundaries will decrease with the increase of E to 50 kJ/cm. When E is in a range of 100-300 kJ/cm, the microstructures consist of granular bainite (GB)+upper bainite (UB)+quasi-polygonal ferrite (QPF). The hardness of the HAZ (HV), the maximum Charpy V notch (CVN) impact load (Pm), the brittle fracture arrested load (Pa), the crack propagation rate, and the entire displacement (d0) of the CVN impact course decrease with the increase of E. The size of cleavage facets increases with the increase of E, which can be used to explain the effective grain size of the HAZ increases with the increase of E, as a result, the hardness decreases and low temperature toughness deteriorates as E increases. The upper limit of the simulated heat input E for the F460 steel is 30 kJ/cm which makes the toughness of the HAZ equivalent to that of the mother plate at -60 ℃.%使用Gleeble-3800热模拟试验机模拟单道次焊接条件下大厚度(50 mm)F460钢板热影响区(HAZ)热循环过程,通过OM,SEM,EBSD和TEM研究了HAZ的显微组织随热输入(E)的演化规律.测试了不同E下HAZ的室温硬度(HV),在-40和-60℃下进行了Charpy冲击示波实验(CVN).当E=15 kJ/cm时,显微组织为高位错密度板条马氏体(LM),板条

  8. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-C Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-02-01

    The solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-C steel ingots containing different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by Thermo-Calc to assist development of the continuous casting technology of Fe-Mn-C steels. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is higher than that of the 3Mn steel. The thermal conductivity of the 6Mn steel is the lowest in the three kinds of steels below 1023 K (750 °C) and the highest above 1173 K (900 °C). The 0Mn steel has the highest value of the proportion of equiaxed grain zone area in the three kinds of steels, whereas the 3Mn steel has the lowest value of it in the steels. Manganese has the effect of promoting the coarsening of grains. The microstructure is martensite and a little retained austenite (3.8 mass pct) in the 6Mn steel, whereas the microstructure is bainite in the 3Mn steel. The 0Mn steel is characterized by ferrite and pearlite. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.6 × 10-5 K-1, and the determinations of mold tapers of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels can refer to low-carbon steel. Using RA steel is 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C), whereas those of the 3Mn steel and the 0Mn steel are 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C) and 873 K to 1173 K (600 °C to 900 °C), respectively. In the 6Mn and 3Mn steels, the deformation-induced ferrite (DIF) forms in sufficient quantities cause the recovery of the ductility at the low temperature end. However, since low strains are present when straightening, sufficient quantities of DIF cannot be formed. Thus, the ductility of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels cannot be improved during the continuous casting process. Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region.

  9. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  10. Effect of Ni and Mo additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloyed welding wire steel%添加Ni和Mo对焊丝钢盘条组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鑫; 张宇; 郭慧英; 王纳

    2015-01-01

    Effects of addition of mass fraction of 0.35%Ni and Mo, respectively, on microstructure and strength of hot-rolled welding wire steel were investigated by means of Gleeble simulation machine and industrial rolling test .It was found that austenite decomposition temperature region of Ni-bearing steel is 600-750 ℃, and the critical cooling rate for formation of M-A constituents and bainite ( B ) is determined to be 0.8℃/s and 2.0 ℃/s, respectively.The Mo-bearing steel has a austenite decomposition temperature region of 480-640 ℃, and the formation of M-A constituents and B occurs with a cooling rate of 0.1℃/s.Under the same rolling conditions , the Mo-bearing steel exhibits an average of 50 HV5 hardness and 150 MPa strength higher than that of the Ni-bearing steel .%通过热模拟和工业轧制试验研究了分别添加(质量分数)0.35%的Ni和Mo对焊丝钢盘条组织和强度的影响. 结果表明,含Ni焊丝钢的相转变温度区间为600~750℃,产生马氏体-残留奥氏体(M-A)组元和贝氏体(B)的临界冷速分别为0.8 ℃/s和2.0 ℃/s;含Mo焊丝钢的相转变区间约为480~640 ℃,且在0.1 ℃/s的冷速下已发生B和M-A转变. 在相同热轧工艺条件下,含Mo焊丝钢盘条比含Ni焊丝钢的硬度高约50 HV5,强度高约150 MPa.

  11. 焊接规范对10Ni3CrMoV药芯焊丝熔敷金属化学成分及力学性能的影响%Influence of Welding Condition on Chemical Composition and Performance of Deposited Metal of 10Ni3CrMoV Flux-cored Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱志; 彭冀湘; 刘健

    2013-01-01

    对焊接电流、焊接速度和道间温度等焊接规范参数的变化对10Ni3CrMoV药芯焊丝熔敷金属化学成分及力学性能的影响进行了研究与量化.结果表明,焊接电流增大时,具有脱氧同时兼具强化作用的合金元素烧损相对多一些,熔敷金属中的针状铁素体略显粗大;焊接速度变大时,熔敷金属中的先共析铁素体含量相对少一些;道间温度控制较高时,熔敷金属中的粒状贝氏体相对多一些.总体来说,当焊接电流在220~260A、焊接速度在25~35 cm/min、道间温度在80~120℃范围内变化时,对10Ni3CrMoV药芯焊丝熔敷金属化学成分和力学性能的影响不大.%The influences of welding conditions such as welding current, welding speed and interpass temperature on the chemical composition and performance of the deposited metal of 10Ni3CrMoV flux-cored wire were studied. The results show that when the welding current increases, the loss of the alloying element with the reinforced and deoxidation effect is relatively more, the acicular ferrite in the deposited metal is slightly large; when the welding speed becomes large, the proeutectoid ferrite content in the deposited metal is relatively less; when the interpass temperature control is high, the granular bainite in the deposited metal is relatively more. When the welding current is 220-260 A,welding speed is 25-35 cm/min, interpass temperature is 80-120 °C , the welding condition has less effects on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of 10Ni3CrMoV flux-cored wire.

  12. Industrial Trials and Production of TMCP High Strength Low Alloy Heavy Plate Steel%高强度低合金厚板TMCP工业试验与生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 赵德文; 刘相华; 杜林秀; 何元春; 隋鹤龙

    2009-01-01

    The industrial trials of 90 mm-gauge heavy plate steel were carried out through thermal mechanical control process (TMCP) with Q345D continuously cast slabs. The effect of total reduction in austenite non-recrystalliza-tion zone on microstructure and mechanical property was studied. The results indicate that using finishing rolling temperature 800-750℃, finishing cooling temperature 670-630℃, and adjusting the total reduction in austenite non-recrystallization zone, the strength of the heavy plate can reach the level of Q420E. The microstructure in sur-face layer consists of bainite and polygon proeutectoid ferrite which precipitated along the original austenite grain boundary, but in centre it consists of polygon ferrite and pearlite. As the total reduction in austenite non-recrystal-lization zone was increased from 25% to 36%, the grain was refined,z-direction property was enhanced and inter-nal soundness was improved. Up to the present, 4 200 t heavy plates have been successfully produced by using 36% to-tal reduction in austenite non-recrystallization zone.%利用Q345D连铸坯料,采用TMCP工艺进行了规格90 mm高强度厚板工业试验,研究了奥氏体未再结晶区总变形量对厚板组织性能的影响.结果表明,终轧温度800~750℃,终冷温度670~630℃时,调整奥氏体未再结晶区总变形量,钢板强度可达Q420E级,表面组织为沿奥氏体晶界析出的多边形先共析铁素体+贝氏体,心部为铁素体+珠光体.随着未再结晶区总变形量由25%增加到36%,钢板晶粒细化,z向性能提高,内部质量改善.目前,钢板批量试制产量已达4 200 t.

  13. Analysis on Belleville Spring Fracture of Controlling Gear of Gas Insulated Switchgear in 220 kV Substation%220 kV 变电站气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备操作机构碟形弹簧断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文胜; 董重里; 胡平; 王伟; 林介东

    2016-01-01

    通过宏观检查、金相试验、光谱分析、洛氏硬度试验、扫描电镜观察和能谱分析等试验,对一起220 kV变电站气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备(gas insulated switchgear,GIS)操作机构碟形弹簧断裂的原因进行分析。结果表明,碟形弹簧断裂的原因可以推断是弹簧下表面外径边缘至 U 形凹槽的区域在制造过程中形成原始缺陷,此处存在应力集中现象,在使用过程中,裂纹扩展并最终导致弹簧断裂。此外,碟形弹簧的显微组织保留了明显的马氏体针状形态,还出现了少量的羽毛状回火贝氏体,这些特征表明弹簧在使用过程中较易发生脆性断裂。%This paper analyzes reasons for Belleville spring fracture of controlling gear of gas insulated switchgear in 220 kV substation by experiments of microscopic test,metallographic test,spectral analysis,Rockwell hardness test,scanning elec-tron microscope observation,energy spectrum analysis,and so on. Results indicate that reasons for Belleville spring fracture may be deduced for original defect of the area along the edge of external diameter of the lower surface of the spring to the U-shaped groove in manufacturing process where exists stress concentration,and in use procedure,cracks extend and finally cause spring fracture. In addition,microscopic structure of the Belleville spring keeps obvious martensitic acicular form and there is a little featheriness tempered bainite,which indicates that brittle fracture is easy to occur on the spring in use procedure.

  14. An investigation of rolling-sliding contact fatigue damage of carburized gear steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Patrick C.

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in RSCF performance between vacuum and gas carburized steels as well as to investigate the evolution of damage (wear and microstructure changes) leading to pitting. Vacuum and gas carburizing was performed on two gear steels (4120 and 4320) at 1010°C. The carburized specimens were tested in the as-carburized condition using a RSCF machine designed and built at the Colorado School of Mines. The tests were conducted at 3.2 GPa nominal Hertzian contact stress, based on pure rolling, 100°C, and using a negative twenty percent slide ratio. Tests were conducted to pitting failure for each condition for a comparison of the average fatigue lives. Pure rolling tests were also conducted, and were suspended at the same number of cycles as the average RSCF life for a comparison of fatigue damage developed by RCF and RSCF. Incremental tests were suspended at 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles for the vacuum carburized steels to evaluate the wear and damage developed during the initial cycles of RSCF testing and to relate the wear and damage to pitting resistance. Incremental damage was not investigated for gas carburizing due to the limited number of available specimens. The vacuum carburized samples showed a decreased pitting fatigue resistance over the gas carburized samples, possibly due to the presence of bainite in the vacuum carburized cases. Pitting was observed to initiate from surface micropitting and microcracking. A microstructural change induced by contact fatigue, butterflies, was shown to contribute to micropitting and microcracking. Incremental testing revealed that the formation of a microcrack preceded and was necessary for the formation of the butterfly features, and that the butterfly features developed between 10,000 and 100,000 cycles. The orientation and depth of butterfly formation was shown to be dependent upon the application of traction stresses from sliding. RSCF butterflies formed

  15. Perspectives on the exploitation of CuZnAl alloys, FeMnSi-based alloys and ZrO{sub 2}-containing shape-memory ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, T.Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (St. Helena). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Cu-Zn-Al alloys possess advantages for exploitation such as low cost, easy fabrication and excellent shape memory effect (SME). The deficiencies of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, i.e. the appearance of the stabilization of martensite, degradation of SME in prolonged application and the rather low fatigue life, can be overcome by various processing such as immediate up-quenching, alloying addition for retarding the incubation of bainite formation and grain refinement. Fe-Mn-Si based alloys are one-way shape memory material with high strength, high action temperatures, good workability and low cost. Addition of nitrogen or rare earth (RE) elements can considerably strengthen the austenite and lower the Neel temperature in Fe-Mn-Si alloys. Partial replacement of Mn with Cr and addition of RE elements to Fe-Mn-Si may reduce its stacking fault energy. Nitrogen and RE elements also lower the M{sub s} temperature of Fe-Mn-Si and Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, stabilizing the austenite after shape recovery. The newly developed Fe-25Mn-6Si-5Cr-0.14N alloy possesses not only a complete shape memory recovery with a recoverable strain of 3% through only one cycle of training, but also the nice corrosion resistance in aqueous solution of NaOH and NaCl. The SME of Fe-Mn-Si-RE is superior to that of Fe-Mn-Si, e.g. its recoverable strain is about two-fold larger than that of Fe-Mn-Si when the pre-strain {epsilon}>3%. The exploitation of the Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-N and Fe-Mn-Si-RE alloys as coupling materials seems to be foresighted. Studies on (8{proportional_to}12)mol%CeO{sub 2}-(0.25{proportional_to}0.75)mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} with various grain size and density after different sintering processes show that 8mol%CeO{sub 2}-0.5mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} fabricated by sintering at 1773 K for 6 hours exhibits best SME, i.e. a complete shape memory recovery and a recoverable strain of 1.2% at high temperatures (above 773 K). The shape memory ceramics 8Ce-0.5Y-TZP is worthy to be developed. (orig.)

  16. Production of 415-ton ingots for backup rolls in the conditions of PJSC "Energomashspetsstal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Victorovich Efimov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of work on melting, pouring, forging and heat treatment of 415-ton 45H3M1F steel ingots as semiproducts for manufacturing large backup rolls at the request of  «Severstal» Company. For the production of rollers, a new grade of steel based on 0.45%С and 3%Cr, additionally alloyed by Mo and V, was developed in PJSC «Energomashspetsstal» and applied in industry. Steel of bainite class provides the best combination of strength and plasticity properties. Metal was prepared by melting 7 heats in arc steel-melting furnaces with the capacity of 100 and 50 tons with subsequent out-of-furnace treatment on ladle – furnace and ladle – degassing units. The pouring of steel was carried out from four steel-pouring ladles into a vertical mould under vacuum through a tundish ladle with the protection of stream by argon. The forging of ingots was conducted on the automated 150MN forging system. The obtained billets were exposed to primary heat treatment which consisted of heating for recrystallization, isothermal soaking, in order to provide the removal of residual stresses, additional dehydrogenization to give the material lower hardness and controlled cooling for the prevention of snowflake formation. Heating of ingots for forging and preliminary heat treatment was carried out in heat treatment furnaces with the carrying capacity of up to 500 tons. For the heat treatment of the backup roll, a horizontal sprayer unit was applied. The tooling of the backup roll was executed on a lathe with one pace-plate and the final mechanical treatment was conducted on the machine-tool of Hercules NWD 1500×18000 CNC. Finished products with 225-ton mass of the following dimensions: a barrel with a diameter and a length of 2,360 mm and 4,800 mm, respectively, at a general length of 10,650 mm were obtained.  

  17. S-N Curves of high resistance steels in the gigacyclic regime; Curvas S-N de aceros de alta resistencia dentro del regimen gigaciclico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez G, I [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers-Institut des Technologies et des Materiaux Avances (CNAM-ITMA), Paris (France); Dominguez A, G [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bathias, C [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers-Institut des Technologies et des Materiaux Avances (CNAM-ITMA), Paris (France)

    2004-04-15

    In this paper, the fatigue behavior of high strength steel used for mechanical parts has been investigated in the gigacycle fatigue regime. An experimental study has been carried out with both: R = 0.1 (perlitic-ferritic steel) and R = -1 (perlitic-ferritic steel, bainitic steel, martensitic steels) loads, at a high frequency of 20 khz up to 1010 cycles, to determine the S-N curves when fatigue life is more than 107 cycles. Comparison of experimental results at frequencies of 20 khz and 30 Hz with R = -1, shows that the S-N curve has a good agreement between 105 and 107 cycles for the high strength steels, Furthermore, fracture surface observations are made by SEM; the transition of crack initiation site is described. The generalization of gigacycle fatigue behavior is analyzed. More often initiation of fatigue crack at 109 cycles is a bulk phenomenon with an important effect of stress concentration due to mineral inclusions or perlitic platelets. Thus, the Murakami model is efficient when we can measure the defects associated with fracture, but it can not take into account the microstructure effect related to platelets phenomenon. [Spanish] En este trabajo se investigo el comportamiento en fatiga gigaciclica de varios aceros de alta resistencia utilizados en la industria automotriz. El estudio experimental se llevo a cabo utilizando dos diferentes valores de carga: R = 0.1 (acero perlitoferritico) y R = -1 (acero perlito-ferritico, acero bainitico, aceros martensiticos), a una frecuencia de ensayo de 20 kHz y hasta 1010 ciclos, para determinar las curvas S-N arriba de 107 ciclos. La comparacion de resultados experimentales obtenidos utilizando frecuencias de ensayo de 20 kHz y 30 Hz con la relacion de carga R = - 1, muestran la continuidad de las curvas S-N entre 105 y 107 ciclos para estos aceros de alta resistencia. Por otro lado, observaciones de la superficie de fractura se efectuaron utilizando el microscopio electronico de barrido; se describe la transicion

  18. Evaluation of the AISI 904L Alloy Weld Overlays Obtained by GMAW and Electro-Slag Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Jorge C. F.; Meira, O. G.; Madalena, F. C. A.; de Souza, L. F. G.; Araujo, L. S.; Mendes, M. C.

    2017-03-01

    The use of superaustenitic stainless steels (SASS) as an overlay replacement for nickel-based alloys can be an interesting alternative for the oil and gas industries, due to its lower cost, when compared to superalloys. Usually, the deposition is made with several welding passes by using conventional arc welding processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. In this respect, electro-slag welding (ESW), which promotes high heat inputs and low dilution of the welds, can also be attractive for this application, as it provides a higher productivity, once only one layer is needed for the deposition of the minimum thickness required. The present work evaluates the behavior of an AISI 904L SASS weld overlay deposited on a carbon steel ASTM A516 Grade 70 by ESW and GMAW processes. Both as-welded and heat-treated conditions were evaluated and compared. A multipass welding by GMAW process with three layers and 48 passes was performed on 12.5 × 200 × 250 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 1.0 kJ/mm. For ESW process, only one layer was deposited on 50 × 400 × 400 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 11.7 kJ/mm. After welding, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 620 °C for 10 h was performed in half of the steel plate, in order to allow the comparison between this condition and the as-welded one. For both processes, the austenitic microstructure of the weld deposits was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction. A low proportion of secondary phases were observed in all conditions, and the PWHT did not promote significant changes on the hardness profile. Martensite for GMAW process and bainite for ESW process were the microstructural constituents observed at the coarse grain heat-affected zone, due to the different cooling rates. For ESW process, no evidences of partially diluted zones were found. As a consequence of the microstructural

  19. Experimental and numerical studies of the effect of plasticity mechanisms on the brittle rupture by cleavage in low alloy steels; Etudes experimentale et numerique de l'effet des mecanismes de plasticite sur la rupture fragile par clivage dans les aciers faiblement allies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M

    2007-09-15

    It is indispensable to guarantee the integrity of PWR reactor vessels during an accidental running: in this context, the understanding and the modelling of the mechanisms of brittle rupture of steels are decisive elements of the complicated estimation of the service life of reactor vessels. The models of local approach of rupture by cleavage are one of the main tools of anticipation of the tensile strength of low alloy steels. In this work, the effect of the stresses heterogeneities in a local criteria of initiation of cleavage has been taken into account. The results of the microstructure calculations are used for proposing a statistical description of the local stresses distribution evolution. This statistical approach allows to propose a local approach model of the rupture depending both of the mechanical heterogeneities and of the sizes distributions of the defects. The behaviour of the material and its evolution are characterized at the microscopic and macroscopic scales in the temperature range [25 C, -196 C]. Simple tensile tests, velocity and temperature rises tests and toughness tests have been carried out. A micro-mechanical behaviour model describing the plastic behaviour below the transition temperature T{sub a} has been proposed. The behaviour law is based on the deformation mechanisms described in bibliography and identified by an inverse method from mechanical tests. The TEM observations and the characterization of the behaviour thermally activated allow to determine several parameters of the model. Simulations are carried out in order to model the main stress distributions {sigma}{sub 1} in two bainite microstructures corresponding to the elementary volume of the local approach of the rupture. The temperature and the triaxiality effects on the evolutions of the heterogeneities is characterized. A distribution function describing the distribution of the local values of {sigma}{sub 1} in terms of the main and equivalent mean stresses {sigma}{sub 1

  20. 含Ti微合金低碳钢连续冷却过程中组织演变行为%Transformation behavior of Ti microalloyed low carbon steel during continuous cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    利成宁; 袁国; 康健; 王国栋

    2016-01-01

    The transformation behavior of Ti microalloyed low carbon steel during continuous cooling was investigated by thermal dilation method and metallographic analysis,and the effects of Ti content and cooling rate on the transformation were discussed.The results show that Ti microalloying element plays important roles in refining the ferrite grains,suppressing the ferrite transformation and promoting the transformations of bainite and martensite.When the Ti content increases from 0.015% to 0.10%,the average grain size of ferrite obtained at 0.5 ℃ /s decreases from 24.5 μm to 13 μm,the range of cooling rate for ferrite transformation narrows from lower than 5 ℃ /s to lower than 1 ℃ /s,and the critical cooling rate of martensite transformation reduces from 40 ℃ /s to 20 ℃ /s.The transformation behaviors,especially the starting temperature of diffusion transformation,are governed by the combined effects of Ti content and cooling rate.%通过热膨胀法及金相分析法,研究Ti含量为0.015% ~0.10%的低碳钢连续冷却条件下组织演变行为,探讨了Ti含量及冷却速率对低碳钢相变行为的影响规律.结果表明,Ti微合金元素具有细化铁素体晶粒尺寸,抑制铁素体相变,促进贝氏体和马氏体相变的作用.当Ti含量由0.015%增加至0.10%时,0.5℃/s下获得的铁素体平均晶粒尺寸可由24.5 μm细化至13 μm,铁素体相变的冷却速率范围由≤5℃/s缩小至<1℃/s,马氏体临界冷却速率由40℃/s降低至20℃/s.冷却速率及Ti含量共同决定Ti微合金低碳钢的组织演变行为,特别是对扩散型的相变开始温度具有显著的影响.

  1. Microstructure and Precipitation Behavior in HAZ of V and Ti Microalioyed Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; YONG Qi-long; YANG Cai-fu; SU Hang

    2009-01-01

    Three steels containing 0.05%C-0.1%V-0.01%N (steel V-LN),0.05%C-0.1%V-0.02%N (steel V-HN),and 0.05%C-0.1%V-0.02%N-0.01%Ti (steel V-HN-Ti),which were all essentially vanadium microalloyed steels,were subjected to simulating the microstructure of a coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ).The process involved reheating to 1 350 ℃,rapid cooling to room temperature,and varying the welding heat input from 15 kJ/cm to 54 kJ/cm,including four cooling rates of t8/5 equal to 7.5 s,20 s,40 s,100 s,and the relationship of heat input to t8/5 was calculated by Quiksim software.The microstructure and precipitation of vanadium and titanium carbon nitrides are studied.The results indicate that the microstructure consists of granular bainite and some side plate ferrite in the grain boundary when the steels are produced with the highest heat input.As the heat input decreased,numerous polygonal ferrites and grain boundary ferrites appeared,and the size apparently increased.When the steel contained high nitrogen,it was considerably easier to form martensite-austenite island,which was even worse for the toughness and other properties of the steel.For the limitation of cooling time,vanadium carbon nitrides could not precipitate sufficiently,but as titanium was added,the unmelted or precipitated TiN on cooling absorbed some fraction of nitrogen in the matrix and made more precipitate positions for the round V(C,N),and thus several useful round particles could be seen in titanium-contained steel,and most of them were around TiN.By this experiment,we can conclude that with the help of titanium,nitrogen-enhanced steel had a better prior austenite grain size,was considerably easier to precipitate,reduced free nitrogen in the matrix effectively,and provided a very effective mechanism for restriction grain growth in the HAZ.

  2. Fatigue Strength of (Fe)-C-N Alloys After Precipitation Hardening%(Fe)-C-N合金经沉淀硬化后的疲劳强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksander Nakonieczny; Jan Tacikowski; Jerzy Michalski; Tomasz Babul

    2004-01-01

    为了寻求新的方法促进渗氮工艺在重型机械零件中的应用,渗氮层的硬化及通过对基体和心部进行进一步奥氏体化并快冷使其硬化的可能性引起了注意.本文给出了渗氮后的45钢(C-0.45%; Mn-0.65%)经沉淀硬化处理后的疲劳强度试验结果.试验结果表明经沉淀硬化后其近表层获得了不同的组织,可发现形态上与不同沉淀分散程度的贝氏体组织相似的纯马氏体区.渗氮后沉淀硬化有利于碳钢及其抗疲劳强度.本文还讨论了渗氮后沉淀硬化处理可替代渗碳或感应淬火.%In search for new solutions promoting expansion of nitriding application to heavy duty machine parts there has been drawn attention to a possibility of hardening of a nitrided layer, of hardening of its substrate and its core through further austenitizing connected with fast cooling. In the paper, there were given results of fatigue strength tests carried out on nitrided 45 carbon steel (C-0.45%; Mn-0.65%) after precipitation hardening. It was found that the near-surface zone obtained different structure after precipitation hardening. There could be found pure martensitic areas, morphologically similar to bainitic structure of various levels of precipitate dispersion. Research showed that nitriding followed by precipitation hardening beneficially affect carbon steel and fatigue strength. Discussed here nitriding process followed by precipitation hardening could create an alternative for carburising or induction hardening.

  3. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P. (Carpenter Technologies, Inc.); Magee, J. (Carpenter Technologies, Inc.)

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  4. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design.El desarrollo de nuevos grados de acero se tropieza con frecuencia con la necesidad de incrementar la resistencia mecánica al mismo tiempo que se reduce la temperatura de transición dúctil-frágil y se eleva la energía del palier dúctil. Hacer frente a este reto requiere un diseño microestructural. La tenacidad en aceros está controlada por diferentes constituyentes microestructurales. Algunos de ellos, como las inclusiones son intrínsecos, pero otros que se manifiestan a diferentes escalas microestructurales dependen de las condiciones de proceso. Existen algunas ecuaciones empíricas que permiten calcular para ferrita-perlita en aceros de bajo carbono la temperatura de transición como suma de contribuciones de elementos en solución sólida, nitrógeno libre, carburos, fracción de perlita, tamaño de grano y, eventualmente

  5. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    amount of dissipated heat from each source should be differentiated. An intermediate heat source model was employed for this purpose. The latter model is after Myhr and Grong that is called distributed point heat sources. This model can be accurately fit to the weld cross section geometry if calibrated accurately. The calibrated parameters were found to be very close to the ones required by Double-ellipsoidal heat source model. By using this approach, not only the effect of welding parameters on weld bead geometry can be categorized, but also the spent time for double-ellipsoidal heat source adjustments will be cut by 90%.A Gaussian heat source was also employed for welding thermal cycle simulations. Accompanying experiments suggested that the thermal gradients hardly change as pressure elevates. However, it was found that the increased pressure level might not necessarily result in higher or lower cooling rates despite the geometrical changes. In a parallel investigation, the metallurgical effect of different shielding environments on phase transformation and mechanical properties of the bead-onplate weld samples was studies. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) techniques were used to identify the effect of five different shielding environments on the phase transformation. Argon and Helium chamber gases offer the conditions that facilitate the highest amount of acicular ferrite transformation, yet, they show some differences in a number of crystallographic details. Co2 gas provided conditions for a lot of porosity in addition to the dominant polygonal ferrite/bainite transformation. He+1/2Co2 mixture resulted in bainite transformation that was found to follow the maximum heat flow direction in terms of crystallographic orientations.(Author)

  6. 低C含Cu NV-F690特厚钢板的精细组织和强韧性%FINE MICROSTRUCTURE AND TOUGHNESS OF LOW CARBON COPPER CONTAINING ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH NV-F690 HEAVY STEEL PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东升; 程丙贵; 陈圆圆

    2012-01-01

    -like bainite (LB), between the laths exist fine martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents. At center thickness (t/2), the as quenched microstructures consist of granular bainite (GB)+dislocated LB. The fraction of high angle grain boundary (HAGB) at t/4 of the quenched plate is 67.5% while that at t/2 is 63.0%. After tempering at 650 ℃ for 150 min, the average width of the laths is 0.2 μm at t/4 and 0.4 μm at t/2. Cell structures with high misorientations exist in the tempered LB at t/4 while these are absent at t/2. The fraction of HAGB is increased to 71.7% at t/4 while that at t/2 is not significantly changed. Profuse Cu precipitation occurs and the M/A constituents decompose into Cr-Mo containing carbides during tempering. Ductile fracture behaviour is observed even at -80℃ at both t/2 and t/4 of the 80 mm thick NV-F690 plate treated by the QT process. The impact toughness at t/4 is higher than that at t/2 due to the predominance of finer LB and higher fraction of HAGB. With the increase of the displacement of the ductile crack propagation, the area with dimples and the size of the dimples increase leading to increased Charpy impact absorbed energy of the NV-F690 plate at -80 ℃

  7. Effect of soaking temperature on microstructure and properties of 590 MPa grade hot-dip galvanized dual phase steel%均热温度对590 MPa级热镀锌双相钢组织与性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝春福; 郑之旺; 王礞

    2016-01-01

    C-Mn steel were respectively soaked at 760 ℃, 800 ℃ and 850 ℃ for 120 s, and then rapidly cooled to 460 ℃ to simulate the hot-dip galvanizing. The pre-straining (2%) and baking treatment (170 ℃ for 20 min) were carried out to measure the BH values after annealing cycle. The influences of the soaking temperature on microstructure, mechanical properties and bake-hardening behavior of the 590 MPa grade hot-dip galvanized dual phase steel were investigated by means of microscope, SEM, tensile test machine and so on. The results show that the microstructure is composed of ferrite and martensite when annealed at 760-850 ℃, and no bainite is observed. Therefore, the tensile strength of the hot-dip galvanized dual phase steel reaches more than 590 MPa. The steel with excellent comprehensive properties (Rp0.2 =295 MPa, Rm =606 MPa, A=32. 1%, Rm × A=19 450 MPa·%) are obtained by annealing at 800 ℃. The BH value increases first and then decreases with increasing the soaking temperature from 760 ℃ to 850 ℃. And the BH value reaches maximum value (81 MPa) at the soaking temperature of 800 ℃.%将C-Mn钢分别加热至760、800和850℃均热120 s后,快速冷却至460℃以模拟热镀锌工艺。退火后对试验钢进行预应变(2%)和烘烤处理(170℃×20 min)以测量其烘烤硬化( BH)值。通过金相显微镜、扫描电镜、拉伸等技术,研究了均热温度对590 MPa级热镀锌双相钢微观组织、力学性能和烘烤硬化性能的影响。结果表明,在760~850℃范围内退火时,试验钢中未观察到贝氏体组织,微观组织由铁素体和马氏体组成,抗拉强度均达到590 MPa以上。热镀锌双相钢在800℃退火时,具有优良的综合力学性能,其屈服强度为295 MPa,抗拉强度为606 MPa,伸长率为32.1%,强塑积为19450 MPa·%。随着均热温度提高,BH值呈先增加后降低趋势;均热温度为800℃时,BH达最大值81 MPa。

  8. Effect of microstructure on the corrosion and deformation behavior of a newly developed 6Mn-5Cr-1.5Cu corrosion-resistant white iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. N. V. R. S. S. V. Prasada; Patwardhan, A. K.; Jain, N. C.

    1993-02-01

    An experimental study has been made of the effect of heat treatment on the transformation behavior of a 4.8 pct Cr white iron, alloyed with 6 pct Mn and 1.5 pct Cu, by employing optical metallography, X-ray diffractometry, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques, with a view to assess the suitability of the different microstructures in resisting aqueous corrosion. The matrix microstructure in the as-cast condition, comprising pearlite + bainite/martensite, transformed to austenite on heat-treating at all the temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. Increasing the soaking period at each of the heat-treating temperatures led to an increase in the volume fraction and stability of austenite. M3C was the dominant carbide present in the as-cast condition. On heat-treating, different carbides formed: M23C6 carbide was present on heat-treating at 900 °C and 950 °C; on heat-treating at 1000 °C, M7C3 formed and persisted even on heattreating at 1050 °C. The possible formation of M5C2 carbide in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions (900 °C and 950 °C) is also indicated. Dispersed carbides (DC), present in austenite up to 950 °C, mostly comprised M3C and M5C2. On stress relieving of the heat-treated samples, M7C3-type DC also formed. The hardness changes were found to be consistent with the micro-structural changes occurring on heat-treating. The as-cast state was characterized by a reasonable resistance to corrosion in 5 pct NaCl solution. On heat-treating, the corrosion resistance improved over that in the as-cast state. After 4 hours soaking, increasing the temperature from 900 °C to 1050 °C led to an improvement in corrosion resistance. However, after 10 hours soaking, corrosion resistance decreased on increasing the temperature from 900 °C to 950 °C and improved thereafter on increasing the heat-treating temperature. Deformation behavior responded to the microstructure on similar lines as the corrosion behavior. Although in an early stage of

  9. Effects of the heat input in the mechanical integrity of the welding joints welded by GMAW and LBW process in Transformation Induced Plasticity steel (TRIP used in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. López Cortéz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work an Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS sheet of the Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP type currently employed in the automotive sector was welded using a Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW and a CO2 Laser Beam Welding (LBW processes. The mechanical properties of welded tensile specimens including microhardness were determined and the results were related to the exhibited microstructures. It was found that LBW lead to relatively high hardness in the fusion zone (FZ indicating that the resultant microstructure was predominantly martensite. In the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, a mixture of phases consisting of bainite and ferrite was present. Similar phase mixtures were found in the HAZ and Fusion Zone (FZ of the GMAW samples. The exhibited microstructure did not result in mechanical degradation when the GMAW specimens were tested in tension as all the fractures occurred in the BM. In contrast, the region adjacent to the HAZ of most tensile specimens welded using LBW failed by brittle cleavage. Apparently, in this region tempering effects due to heat dissipation in the LBW process promoted carbide growth and a relatively coarse microstructure. No embrittlement was found that could be associated with the development of martensite.Neste trabalho, uma chapa de aço de alta resistência (AHSS - Advanced High Strength Steel tipo TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity empregado atualmente no setor automotivo foi soldado usando o processo de soldagem a arco com arame solido sob proteção gasosa (GMAW e soldagem com LASER de CO2 (LBW. As propriedades mecânicas das amostras soldadas quanto a tração e microdureza foram determinadas e os resultados foram relacionados com as microestruturas apresentadas. Verificou-se que a solda com LBW chegou a valores realtivamente altos de dureza na zona fundida (ZF, indicando que a microestrutura resultante foi predominantemente de martensita. Na zona termicamente afetadas (ZTA, encontrou-se uma mistura de fases

  10. 26.4 mm厚规格X80HD2管线钢的开发%Development of 26.4 mm Thick Specification X80HD2 Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    Based on low C and high manganese content, Nb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and other Alloying elements were added for design the alloy system. Using clean steel metallurgy technology alloy system, strengthening and combining with the two stage rolling and ACC multi path laminar cooling process to ensure the strength and toughness, the X80HD2 steel plate with the large strain was developed. The transverse yield strength of the steel plate with ferrite+bainite dual phase structure is 470-568 MPa, the transverse tensile strength is 660-760 MPa and the Rt0.5/Rm is 0.65-0.79. The longitudinal yield strength of the plate is 455-540 MPa, the longitudinal tensile strength is 660-727 MPa and the Rt0.5/Rm is 0.64-0.77, the Rt1.5/Rt0.5 is more than 1.13 and the Rt2.0/Rt1.0 is more than 1.06. All the intensity indexes meet the requirements of the Standard and the performance indexes show a normal distribution. Combing with the newly developed pipe manufacture process, the X80HD2 welding pipe with anti deformation property put into mass production have good strength and large uniform elongation and stress ratio.%以低C高Mn为基础,添加Nb、Cr、Ni、Ti、Cu等合金进行合金体系设计,采用洁净钢冶金技术,通过强化并结合两阶段轧制和ACC多路径层流冷却工艺来保证钢板的强度和高韧性,开发了大应变X80HD2管线钢。钢板具有铁素体+贝氏体双相组织,横向屈服强度470~568 MP,抗拉强度660~760 MPa,屈强比0.65~0.79;纵向屈服强度455~540 MPa,抗拉强度660~727 MPa,屈强比0.64~0.77;Rt1.5/Rt0.5均>1.13,Rt2.0/Rt1.0均>1.06。各项强度指标满足标准要求,各项性能指标呈正态分布。结合新开发的制管工艺,使批量生产的X80HD2抗大变形焊管具有良好的强度、大的均匀伸长率和应力比等优点。

  11. 780 MPa级微合金钢的激光相变硬化工艺及组织性能%Laser Transformation Hardening Process and Microstructure and Properties of 780 MPa Grade Micro-alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茜; 邸洪双; 李峻臣

    2016-01-01

    A Nb-Ti-Mo micro-alloyed ultra-high strength hot-rolled low carbon steel was treated by laser induced phase transformation hardening process,using IPG 4 kW fiber laser. The effects of laser power and scanning speed on macroscopic morphology and mirco-hardness were investigated. The microstructure evolution in laser transformation zone was also discussed. The results showed that when the laser power increased or the scanning speed decreased,the width and depth of the laser transformation zone increased. Laser transformation zone can be characterized into three smaller zones in general:micro-melting zone ( MZ ), hardening zone ( HZ ) and transition zone( TZ). In this study,the microstructure in the MZ was ferrite,granular bainite and martensite, whereas the microstructure in the HZ was fully martensite, compared to the microstructure in the TZ which consisted of the relatively finer individual martensite and the structure mixed with ferrite and martensite. The average hardness of the HZ reached 320 HV, which was 30% higher than that of the matrix. The wear resistance of the steel was significantly improved by 30% after the laser treatment.%利用4 kW光纤激光器对一种780 MPa级Nb-Ti-Mo微合金化的低碳钢进行了激光相变强化处理,研究了激光功率和扫描速度对激光相变区宏观形貌和显微硬度的影响,讨论了激光相变区显微组织的演变规律.结果表明:随着激光功率的增加或扫描速度的降低,激光相变区宽度和深度逐渐增加.激光相变区包含三个区域:微熔区、硬化区和过渡区.微熔区显微组织为铁素体、粒状贝氏体和马氏体;硬化区显微组织为全马氏体;过渡区为相对细小的全马氏体或与铁素体的混合组织.在所研究的参数中,硬化区的硬度可超过母材30%左右,平均硬度达到320 HV.实验钢表面耐磨性能提高30%左右.

  12. Applied Crystallography - Proceedings of the XVth Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawiec, H.; Ströż, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * The International Centre for Diffraction Data and Its Future Developments * The Rietveld Method - A Historical Perspective * Real Structure in Quantitative Powder Diffraction Phase Analysis * Neutron Focusing Optics in Applied Crystallography * The Crystal Structures of Oxygen Deficient Rare Earth Oxides * Short-Range Order in Layer-Structured Ba1-xSrxBi2Nb2O9 Ferroelectrics * Radial Distribution Function as a Tool of Structural Studies on Noncrystalline Materials * Determination of Radial Distribution Function (RDF) of Electrodeposited Cu-Cd Alloys After Annealing * Spheres Packing as a Factor Describing the Local Environment and Structure Stability * X-Ray Stress Measurement of Samples Combined with Diffraction Line Analysis * Phase Stability and Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn and Cu-Zn-Al Single Crystals * Order, Defects, Precipitates and the Martensitic Transformation in β Cu-Zn-Al * Effect of γ Precipitates on the Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn-Al Alloys * Phase Transitions and Shape Memory Effect in a Thermomechanically Treated NiTi Alloy * Structure of Martensite and Bainite in CuAlMn Alloys * Glass-Ceramics * Mechanism of Texture Formation at the Rolling of Low Stacking Fault Energy Metals and Alloys * Shear Texture of Zinc and the Conditions of Its Occuring * The Development of Texture of ZnAlMg Sheets Depending on Deformation Geometry * Texture Stability of the D.S. NiAlMoCrTi Alloy After Heat Treatment * X-Ray Diffraction Method for Controlling of Texture Evolution in Layers * Texture and Lattice Imperfections Study of Some Low Alloyed Copper Alloys * Selected Examples of the Calculation of the Orientation Distribution Function for Low Crystal and Sample Symmetries * Automatical X-Ray Quantitative Phase Analysis * Application of a PC Computer for Crystallographic Calculations * Electron Diffraction Analysis using a Personal Computer * CA.R.INE Crystallography Version 2

  13. Weldability of Advanced High Strength Steels using Ytterbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet high power laser for Tailor-Welded Blank applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajashekhar Shivaram

    transverse direction were evaluated. Metallographic examinations determined that most of the fusion zone is martensitic with small regions of bainite and ferrite. High microhardness values of the order of 550--600 Hv were noted in most joints, which are attributed to high alloy content of the fusion zone as well as high rates of cooling typical of laser welds. During tensile, fatigue and formability tests, no fractures in the fusion or heat affected zones were observed. Geometric variability evaluations indicated that coatings such as aluminum (in the case of USIBOR) and galvanized zinc (TRIP780) can affect the variability of the weld zone and the surface roughness on the top of the weld. Excessive variability in the form of weld concavity in the weld zones can lead to fractures in the weld region, even though higher hardness can, to some extent, compensate for these surface irregularities. The 2-factor design of experiments further confirmed that coatings adversely affect the surface roughness on the top of the welds. Although thickness differentials alone do not make a significant impact on surface roughness, together with coatings, they can have an adverse effect on roughness. Tensile tests in the direction of rolling as well as in the transverse direction indicate that TRIP780 seems weaker in the direction of rolling when compared to transverse direction while mild steel is stronger in the direction of rolling. Weldability analyses revealed that the typical melting efficiency is on the order of 50--70% for full penetration welding. Formability tests showed that TR/MS joints fractured in a direction parallel to the weld line when tested with the loads perpendicular to the weld line. Tests have also confirmed that weld speed and power have no impact on the outcome of formability results. Overall, this work conclusively proves that high power Yb:YAG lasers can effectively join high strength materials such as DP980, TRIP780, USIBOR, as well as mild steel, for use in tailor

  14. The influences of the parameters in the welding process to the refinement of the zone by affected the temperature in the Cr-Mo-V steels; Influencia de los parametros del proceso de soldadura a la refinacion de la zona afectada por la temperatura en los aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw

    2001-07-01

    obtained results of the prediction of the microstructure in the ZAT of a fillet weld are sufficiently reliable and justify the use of the model to simulate the microstructure of the ZAT in the multiple cord welds in order to obtain the refinement of grains of heavy bainite of the ZAT and to improve the behavior of the weld union during the operation. In the second stage of the work a methodology of prediction of the microstructure of the zone affected by the temperature (ZAT) in the multiple cord deposits of two layers was developed, applied to the low alloy steel 1.25 Cr-1 Mo-0.25 V by the welding process with protected electric arc (SMAW). A computer program was developed to calculate the extension of the regions of interest in the ZAT of multiple cords of two layers and to predict the percentage of refinement of heavy grains of the ZAT for certain parameters of welding, preheating temperature and cords overlapping. The validation of the model was carried out experimentally depositing several fillet welds in two layers, obtaining a reasonable agreement between the prediction of the model and the structural distribution of the ZAT measured during the experiment. It was confirmed that the microstructure and its space distribution in the ZAT of multiple cords in the heavy sections can be predicted in base of the knowledge of the dimensions of the fillet weld, the weld process variables and basic metallurgy. It was found that the control of the relation of heat induction of second and first undercoat of fillet welds is essential to achieve the success of the refinement of heavy grains of the ZAT. Practically, this can be achieved by a selection of the size of electrodes, selection of amperage and velocity. [Spanish] La fisuracion de las uniones por soldadura que operan en la temperatura y presion elevada es un problema considerable. El comportamiento de las uniones por soldadura en ambos casos durante el proceso de soldadura y durante su operacion, dependen de manera