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Sample records for bagre rayado pseudoplatystoma

  1. Variación estacional de las características seminales del bagre rayado Pseudoplatystoma metaense (Telostei, pimelodidae

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    Juan Ramirez-Merlano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la variación de la calidad, el contenido iónico y la osmolaridad del plasma seminal de Pseudoplatystoma metaense durante la estación reproductiva. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron machos sexualmente maduros durante un periodo reproductivo (marzo a agosto. La espermiación fue inducida con Extracto de Hipófisis de Carpa (4 mg/kg. Se evaluó el volumen (mL, movilidad masal (%, tiempo de activación (sg, espermatocrito (%; concentración espermática (106 sptz/µL y viabilidad (%. También fue determinada la movilidad (% y velocidad individual por medio de un Sistema de Análisis Espermático Asistido por Computador (CASA. La osmolaridad (mOsm/Kg y la concentración de iones (Na+, Cl+, K+ y Mg2+ y glucosa fue determinada en plasma seminal obtenido por centrifugación del semen a 14.000 g. La concentración de iones y glucosa fue establecida a través de un sistema de reflectancia. Resultados. El semen de Pseudoplatystoma metaense presentó una movilidad masal mayor al 90%, con el menor valor de movilidad progresiva lineal rápida para el mes de abril (34.9±9.0% y en general valores de espermatozoides inmóviles menores al 10%. El plasma seminal mostró una osmolaridad de 259.3± 3.5 mOsm/Kg, con una concentración promedio de glucosa e iones Na+, Cl+, K+ y Mg2+ de 142.7±2.8, 118±2.2, 4.8±0.4 y 0.33±0.0 mmol/L, respectivamente, durante la época reproductiva. Conclusiones. La calidad seminal de bagre rayado no presentó variaciones en la estación reproductiva mostrando una alta calidad para los procesos de fecundación.

  2. Apuntes sobre la reproduccion de algunos Bagres marinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo, José A.

    1973-01-01

    Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the bu

  3. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

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    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Hammond, John

    2010-02-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is an isometric plant virus of 30 nm containing two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Both particles are composed of two serologically related, carboxy co-terminal, coat proteins (CP) of apparent molecular mass 21-22 kDa (CP2) and 24-28 kDa (CP1) in a molar ratio of 3:1, respectively; CP1 contains a 37 amino acid amino terminal extension of CP2. In our study, expression of CP1 or CP2 in Escherichia coli resulted in assembly of each capsid protein into virus-like particles (VLPs), appearing in electron microscopy as stain-permeable (CP2) or stain-impermeable particles (CP1). CP1 VLPs encapsidated bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA, but not CP mRNA, while CP2 VLPs encapsidated neither CP mRNA nor 16S ribosomal RNA. Expression of CP1 and CP2 in E. coli using a co-expression vector resulted in the assembly of VLPs which were stain-impermeable and encapsidated CP mRNA. These results suggest that the N-terminal 37 amino acid residues of CP1, although not required for particle formation, may be involved in the assembly of complete virions and that the presence of both CP1 and CP2 in the particle is required for specific encapsidation of MRFV CP mRNA.

  4. Levels of digestible protein to surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages

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    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudoplatystoma sp. is species of carnivorous fish that require special attention in the diet offered. This work had the objective to determine the digestible protein requirement of juvenile the Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages. The test consisted of four isoenergetic diets (2606.69 ± 39.16 kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing increasing levels of digestible protein (23, 24, 26 and 28%PD provided to juveniles of surubim (157.35±11.23g for five months. The parameters of growth, fillet composition, metabolic liver enzymes and morphometry of the intestine and liver were analyzed in completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates. An increase of protein in the diet provided better weight gain. The metabolic liver enzymes increased in fish fed 24PD. The histopathological changes were not observed in the liver of the fish. The bowel histology showed adaptation to increased protein in the diet until the 26 level PD. juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma sp. Were demanding in digestible protein, showing the best results of production performance and nutrient use efficiency with the diet containing 28%PD.

  5. Filogenia de los bagres marinos (Siluriformes: Ariidae del nuevo mundo

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    Betancur Rodríguez Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Ariidae comprende peces marinos, estuarinos y dulceacuícolas, distribuidos en aguas tropicales y subtropicales de todos los continentes. La nomenclatura específica y genérica en el grupo es caótica y no hay continuidad de su uso en la literatura. En este trabajo se presenta una filogenia robusta para 37-41 especies de ariidos americanos y dos especies del Viejo Mundo, basada en un máximo de 2.922 caracteres del genoma mitocondrial (citocromo b, ATP sintetasa 8 y 6, 12S y 16S y 978 del nuclear (gen activador de la recombinación 2, por reconstrucción con los criterios de máxima parsimonia (MP e inferencia bayesiana (BI. Adicionalmente, se complementó el trabajo morfológico previo incluyendo siete especies y 11 caracteres adicionales, para una matriz final de 26 especies y 56 caracteres. Las secuencias mitocondriales proporcionaron alta resolución a diferentes niveles (subfamiliar, genérico y específico. Aunque BI recuperó en más ocasiones nodos débiles incongruentes con otros conjuntos de datos, mostró mayor sensibilidad que MP a la escasa señal filogenética del locus nuclear, el cual ofreció poca
    resolución. La evidencia morfológica fue congruente con las hipótesis moleculares a nivel subfamiliar, genérico y en gran medida intergenérico; las discrepancias más marcadas entre ambos
    enfoques se dan al interior del género Bagre. Las filogenias obtenidas concuerdan todas con la división de Ariidae en dos subfamilias: Ariinae y el grupo de los Galeichthyinos, el cual requiere
    estatus nomenclatural. Se corroboró la validez, y en gran medida la monofilia de los géneros Ariopsis, Bagre, Cathorops, Galeichthys, Potamarius y Selenaspis (incluyendo a S. proops y S. parkeri. El
    género Arius sensu lato no es monofilético y no debe ser usado para referir a las especies americanas. El linaje 'Arius A' conforma un grupo monofilético anfiamericano al cual debe atribuírsele un nombre gen

  6. Early Pleistocene lineages of Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Ariidae, from the Atlantic coast of South America, with insights into the demography and biogeography of the species

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    Wemerson C. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of 'soft' barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre , were recognized from their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability, inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.

  7. Efecto de tres tipos de presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Prieto-Guevara; Jhiry Hernández B.; Catalino Gómez R.; Sandra Pardo C.; Victor Atencio-Garcia; Rosa, Priscila V

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus). Materiales y métodos. Al inicio de la alimentación exógena de Sorubim cuspicaudus, se ofreció zooplancton producido en mesocosmos (T1), zooplancton silvestre (T2) y nauplios de Artemia (T3), en concentración de 10.000 zoop/L, dos veces al día, durante seis días. Se utilizaron 18 acuarios de cinco litros de volumen útil, con densidad de 25 Larvas/L, seis réplicas por tratamie...

  8. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: A haematological approach

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male. Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and reached concentrations greater than 105 CFU mL−1 in tubes containing de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. In particular, Weissella cibaria (P36 reached 106 CFU mL−1 in MRS and was able to reduce the pH of the medium to 3.85. In the in vivo intestinal colonization studies, 72 healthy hybrid surubims were fed with a commercial diet supplemented with probiotic W. cibaria for 15 days. Changes in gut community composition were then analyzed, and probiotic profile of W. cibaria was determined molecularly by amplification of rRNA 16S gene was performed using PCR. Compared to control fish, W. cibaria-supplemented fish showed an increase in RBC. These results show the efficacy of our haematological approach to probiotic screening in hybrid sorubim.

  9. Genetic variability of two populations of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum from the Upper Paraguay River Basin

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    Marcia Matos de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catfishes of the genus Pseudoplatystoma are very important species due to both their high commercial value and their ecological role as voracious predators. They undertake lengthy migratory movements during their life-cycle, this including reproductive migration which occurs from October to December in the rainy season. In the present study, seven microsatellite loci were analyzed to access genetic variability in two samples of P. reticulatum from the Upper Paraguay Basin. The loci were highly polymorphic (mean = 7.28. According to all analysis, the two samples of P. reticulatum revealed pronounced genetic differentiation. Fst value was 0.2290, Rst value 0.1067 and AMOVA 22.90% (Fst and 10.67% (Rst, all being highly significant (p < 0.001. The division of the fishes into two groups was confirmed by microsatellite multi-locus Bayesian assignment testing. The results obtained present evidence of genetic structuring in a P. reticulatum population.

  10. Rétrécissement saisonnier des superficies d'eau, variation physico-chimique et production des pêcheries artisanales de Bagré. Centre-Est Burkina-Faso

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    Kabré, AT.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Draw-down of Water Surfaces, Physico-Chemical Variations and the Production of Artisanal Fisheries in the Bagre. East-Center Burkina-Faso. A maping method in respect of the surface of artisanal fisheries using the GPS (Global Positioning System was experimented with in dam waters of the Great Bagre and the Small Bagre. This method has made it possible to estimate an average draw-down of 8.6 % per month in the dry season. This applies more particularly in the small fisheries. The study shows that the water draw-down creates a fluctuation in the depth of the epilimnion and seasonal variations in turbidness and conductivity in the two fisheries. These physico-chemical variations are less significant in the Great Bagre than in the Small Bagre. They are reflected by a relative stability in fish production in the Great Bagre.

  11. Molecular identification of a cryptic species in the Amazonian predatory catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma (Bleeker, 1962) from Peru.

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    García-Dávila, Carmen; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Castro-Ruiz, Diana; Villacorta, José; Quérouil, Sophie; Chota-Macuyama, Werner; Núñez, Jesus; Römer, Uwe; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando; Renno, Jean-François

    2013-09-01

    Pseudoplatystoma species are highly prized South American Pimelodid migratory catfishes. Until recently, their taxonomy was not clearly established, with discrepancies between morphological and molecular analyses. Here, Pseudoplatystoma species from the Peruvian Amazon were characterized at the molecular level from a sample representing the observed range of their color pattern variations in the study area. Analyses were performed using seven microsatellite loci for 103 specimens and, for part of them (52), using sequences of two regions of their mitochondrial genome [Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and Control Region (CR)]. Factorial correspondence analysis and assignment tests based on microsatellite polymorphism showed that the specimens originally identified as P. punctifer belonged to two different gene pools highly differentiated from P. tigrinum. Morphological examination identified two different morphotypes (with and without black stripes), suggesting the existence of two distinct taxa within P. punctifer. This result was corroborated by the ML tree based on CR sequences, where all individuals but four clustered in a similar way as in the FCA and Bayesian assignment tests. For these four individuals, mitochondrial introgression or retention of ancestral polymorphism was likely. In contrast, the ML tree based on COI sequences showed that reciprocal monophyly was not yet achieved for this marker for the two P. punctifer taxa. The existence of three sympatric species of Pseudoplatystoma in the Peruvian Amazon is discussed in relation to their molecular characteristics, color patterns and ecology. Evolutionary scenarios regarding their divergence are hypothesized.

  12. Efecto de tres tipos de presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus

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    Martha Prieto-Guevara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus. Materiales y métodos. Al inicio de la alimentación exógena de Sorubim cuspicaudus, se ofreció zooplancton producido en mesocosmos (T1, zooplancton silvestre (T2 y nauplios de Artemia (T3, en concentración de 10.000 zoop/L, dos veces al día, durante seis días. Se utilizaron 18 acuarios de cinco litros de volumen útil, con densidad de 25 Larvas/L, seis réplicas por tratamiento en un diseño al azar. Se estimaron la ganancia en peso (Gp y longitud (Gl, tasa de crecimiento específico (G, sobrevivencia (S, resistencia al estrés (Re, mortalidad acumulada (Ma y mortalidad por canibalismo (Mc. Resultados. Las larvas alimentadas con mesocosmos presentaron la mayor sobrevivencia (81.3±15.9%; aunque el mejor crecimiento lo presentaron las larvas alimentadas con zooplancton silvestre (T2 las cuales presentaron la mayor mortalidad (42.0±10.7% y la menor resistencia al estrés (30.0±33.0%. El canibalismo se observó en todos los tratamientos, oscilando entre 4.0 (T2 y 14.3% (T1 sin diferencias significativas entre estos valores (p>0.05. Conclusiones. El uso de zooplancton producido bajo condiciones controladas permitió una alta sobrevivencia, adecuado desempeño y resistencia de las larvas, perfilándose como alternativa viable en la primera alimentación de bagre blanco.

  13. Biomarcadores histológicos em duas espécies de bagres estuarinos da Costa Maranhense, Brasil

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    D.B.P.Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se validar lesões branquiais como biomarcadores em peixes de importância econômica (Sciades herzbergii e Bagre bagre capturados pela pesca artesanal em dois locais diferenciados da Baía de São Marcos, MA, a fim de selecionar um táxon como bioindicador capaz de ser utilizado em programas de biomonitoramento. O primeiro ponto (S1 foi utilizado como uma área de referência - Ilha dos Caranguejos -, e o segundo ponto (S2 foi considerado potencialmente impactado - Complexo Portuário de São Luís, MA. Encontraram-se várias alterações histológicas para as duas espécies em S2, destacando-se: estreitamento lamelar, teleangectasia, fusão e descolamento do epitélio da lamela secundária. Lesões branquiais em B. bagre coletados em S1 também foram observadas, não sendo possível diferenciar os indivíduos das duas áreas analisadas. Os dados indicam que S. herzbergii é um bioindicador mais apropriado para análise de biomarcadores de contaminação aquática.

  14. TANTANGAN BISNIS IKAN HIAS TIGER CATFISH (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum MELALUI PENGUASAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMIJAHAN

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    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum merupakan salah satu ikan hias hasil introduksi yang berasal dari Sungai Amazon Amerika Latin dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi terutama untuk komoditas ekspor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang pembenihan ikan tiger catfish secara buatan. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemijahan buatan ikan tiger catfish ini adalah dengan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin. Calon induk ikan hias tiger catfish dapat matang gonad dipelihara dalam kolam beton berukuran 2,5 m x 2,0 m x 0,8 m dengan ke dalaman air antara 50-60 cm dilengkapi dengan sistem sirkulasi. Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina yaitu 1:2. Bobot rata-rata induk yang siap dipijahkan sekitar 2,5 kg dan sudah berumur minimal dua tahun. Jumlah telur yang dihasilkan setiap satu induk dapat mencapai 300.000 butir dengan daya tetas rata-rata 80%. Telur akan menetas semua dalam waktu 15 19 jam pada suhu berkisar antara 26oC-30oC. Larva yang telah menetas tetap dibiarkan dalam akuarium sampai kuning telur yang menempel di tubuh habis termakan. Keberhasilan pembenihan diawali dari pengelolaan induk yang benar untuk dapat matang gonad, sehingga kualitas telur bagus dan akan menghasikan benih-benih yang berkualitas. Teknik pembenihan juga menjadi faktor yang menentukan untuk keberhasilan pembenihan. Teknologi pemijahan buatan dengan menggunakan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin ikan tiger catfish telah dikuasai dan telah berkembang di para breeder ikan hias.

  15. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

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    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-05-09

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.

  16. El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818: estado actual y problemática en México

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    Ana Laura Lara-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus es uno de los peces endémicos de Norte América con mayor potencial para la acuicultura. A pesar de esto, los datos sobre su distribución actual son escasos y se desconocen muchos aspectos de su dinámica y desempeño productivo. En el presente estudio se reportan los resultados de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de campo que permiten describir la situación actual del bagre de canal con respecto a su distribución geográfica histórica y actual, así como de la problemática que enfrentan los sistemas productivos de esta especie en México. Se identificó la falta de información e indicadores que permitan conocer la extensión de su hábitat natural, movilización o potencial productivo. La calidad y disponibilidad del agua figuran entre las principales problemáticas de la industria; el alimento supone el mayor gasto para los productores y existe gran heterogeneidad de manejo tanto en granjas reproductoras como de engorde, gran parte de la dinámica productiva sigue un modelo de ensayo y error. Se requiere optimizar y homologar los procesos del sistema productivo de bagre de canal, así como caracterizar correctamente las poblaciones domésticas y silvestres para aprovechar al máximo su potencial.

  17. Survival and growth of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pisces - Pimelodidae larvae: effect of photoperiod Sobrevivência e crescimento de larvas de surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pisces, Pimelodidae: efeito do fotoperíodo

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    R. Campagnolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival and the growth of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans larvae exposed to four photoperiods: light:dark (LD 0:24, LD 10:14, LD 14:10, and LD 24:0, in a brackish water (5‰ culture were analyzed. Larvae were fed with Artemia sp. nauplii at a 500 nauplii/larvae/day ratio. Survival on day 5 was inversely related to the length of photoperiod. From days 5 to 10, intermediate photoperiods resulted in a better survival, although LD 0:24 and LD 14:10 resulted in similar survival on day 10. Larvae presented higher weight at intermediate photoperiods. The results suggested that photoperiod requirements shifted during early development of P. corruscans larvae.A sobrevivência e o crescimento de larvas de surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, submetidas a quatro fotoperíodos: luz:escuro (LE 0:24, LE 10:14, LE 14:10 e LE 24:0 em água salinizada (5‰ foram avaliadas. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. na proporção de 500 náuplios/larva/dia. Após cinco dias de experimento, a sobrevivência apresentou relação inversa ao aumento do fotoperíodo. Entre o quinto e o 10º dia, houve tendência de maior sobrevivência nos fotoperíodos intermediários, mas foram registradas sobrevivências semelhantes no intervalo entre LE 0:24 e LE 14:10 no 10º dia. As larvas apresentaram maior peso nos fotoperíodos intermediários. Os resultados sugerem que a exigência de fotoperíodo das larvas de P. corruscans sofre mudanças durante o cultivo.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome from South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and its impact in Siluriformes phylogenetic tree.

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    Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among five marine Catfish species (Pisces: Ariidae from Mexico Relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies de bagres (Pisces: Ariidae de México

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    Guadalupe Tenorio-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the marine catfish of the family Ariidae is controversial because at the present time the number of species and genera in the family, or their relationships, remain uncertain. Phylogenetic relationships among five representative species of marine catfish of the family Ariidae from both the Pacific and the Atlantic coasts of Mexico were assessed by the analysis of the variability in 21 alloenzymatic loci, and by the comparison of the electrophoretic patterns of whole muscle proteins. Interspecific genetic divergence levels obtained by both electrophoretic methods showed a clear separation among the genera Cathorops, Bagre and Ariopsis, as well as in the studied species of Cathorops and Ariopsis, with Bagre marinus showing a greater genetic similarity with the Ariopsis group. Finally, our results contribute to the definition of the presence of this species in the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico.La sistemática de los bagres marinos pertenecientes a la familia Ariidae es controversial, porque hasta la actualidad, no se conoce con exactitud el número de especies y géneros existentes en la familia, ni las relaciones que se establecen entre ellos. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies representativas de bagres marinos de la familia Ariidae, de ambas costas del Pacífico y del Atlántico Mexicano. El mencionado análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el análisis de la variabilidad en 21 loci aloenzimáticos y a través de la comparación de patrones electroforéticos de proteínas totales de músculo. Los niveles de divergencia interespecífica obtenidos por ambos métodos electroforéticos mostraron una clara separación entre los géneros Cathorops, Bagre y Ariopsis, así como entre las especies estudiadas de Cathorops y Ariopsis con Bagre marinus, mostrando una mayor similitud genética con el grupo Ariopsis. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio contribuyen al establecimiento de la

  20. HISTOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DEL SILÚRIDO BAGRE TIGRITO (Pimelodus pictus)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El bagre tigrito Pimelodus pictus es un pez ornamental con gran aceptación en el mercado acuarista internacional, sin embargo, se desconocen muchos aspectos de la biología básica de esta especie. Por tal motivo, se realizó un estudio histológico y morfométrico del sistema digestivo a Àn de contribuir al diseño de futuras dietas. Se sacriÀcaron 7 individuos adultos de P. pictus de 10 ± 0,5 cm de longitud total con una sobredosis de MS-222 (0,5 g/l). Los especímenes se Àjaron en formaldehído al...

  1. Monitoring water turbidity and surface suspended sediment concentration of the Bagre Reservoir (Burkina Faso) using MODIS and field reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Pinet, Sylvain; Gal, Laetitia; Cochonneau, Gérard; Martinez, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters is essential to address several important issues: erosion, sediment transport and deposition throughout watersheds, reservoir siltation, water pollution, human health risks, etc. This is especially important in regions with limited conventional monitoring capacities such as West Africa. In this study, we explore the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (MODIS, MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 products, red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands) to monitor turbidity and SSSC for the Bagre Reservoir in Burkina Faso. High values ​​of these parameters associated with high spatial and temporal variability potentially challenge the methodologies developed so far for less turbid waters. Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The NIR/R ratio is found to be the most suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity for both in-situ spectoradiometer measurements and satellite reflectance from MODIS. The spatio temporal variability of MODIS NIR/R together with rainfall estimated by the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) and altimetry data from Jason-2 is analyzed over the Bagre Reservoir for the 2000-2015 period. It is found that rain events of the early rainy season (February-March) through mid-rainy season (August) are decisive in triggering turbidity increase. Sediment transport is observed in the reservoir from upstream to downstream between June and September. Furthermore, a significant increase of 19% in turbidity values is observed between 2000 and 2015, mainly for the July to December period. It is especially well marked for August, with the central and downstream areas showing the largest increase. The most probable hypothesis to explain this evolution is a change in land use, and particularly an increase in the amount of bare soils, which enhances particle transport by runoff.

  2. Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans = The use of eugenol as an anaesthetic for the handling of Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência do eugenol como anestésico em juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans através de ensaios. No primeiro, os peixes (n=6 foram individualmente expostos a concentrações de 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol durante 10 minutos e os parâmetros de observação estabelecidos foram: perda de equilíbrio, efeito calmante e redução do movimento opercular. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol, em que os animais foram mantidos na água com anestésico até atingirem o estágio IV de anestesia: perda total de equilíbrio, do tônus muscular e redução dos movimentos operculares. A recuperação foi conduzida em um aquário, contendo 10 litros de água livre de anestésico, com aeração constante. Após os dois ensaios, foi constatada a eficiência do eugenol como substância anestésica em juvenis de pintado, sendo a concentração de 50 mg L-1 considerada a mais adequada para procedimentos usuais no manejo desses animais em piscicultura.In this work the efficacy of eugenol as an anaesthetic in Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans was evaluated by two experimental assays. In the first one, the animals (n=6 were exposed for 10 minutes to four concentrations of eugenol (25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1. The observed behavioral patterns were: loss of equilibrium, sedative effect and reduction of opercular movement. In the secondassay, the concentrations of 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 of eugenol were tested. The animals were maintained in the anaesthetic bath until they reached the stage of anaesthesia IV: total loss of equilibrium, muscle tonus and reduction of opercular movement. The recovery wasconducted in an aquarium containing 10 liters of anaesthetic free water, with constant aeration. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaestetics for Pintado juveniles were demonstrated after the assays and the 50 mg L-1 concentration was defined as the most adequate to usual

  3. Phylogenetic and host-parasite relationship analysis of Henneguya multiplasmodialis n. sp. infecting Pseudoplatystoma spp. in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, E A; Carriero, M M; Maia, A A M; Silva, M R M; Naldoni, J; Ceccarelli, P S; Arana, S

    2012-04-30

    A new species of the genus Henneguya (Henneguya multiplasmodialis n. sp.) was found infecting the gills of three of 89 specimens (3.3%) of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and two of 79 specimens (2.6%) of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum from rivers in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene of the spores obtained from one plasmodium from the gills of P. corruscans and other one from the gills of P. reticulatum, respectively, resulted in a total of 1560 and 1147 base pairs. As the spores of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. resemble those of Henneguya corruscans, which is also a parasite of P. corruscans, sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene of the spores of H. corruscans found on P. corruscans caught in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland was also provided to avoid any taxonomic pendency between these two species, resulting in 1913 base pairs. The sequences of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. parasite of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and H. corruscans did not match any of the Myxozoa available in the GenBank. The similarity of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. obtained from P. corruscans to that from P. reticulatum was of 99.7%. Phylogeny revealed a strong tendency among Henneguya species to form clades based on the order and/or family of the host fish. H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. clustered in a clade with Henneguya eirasi and H. corruscans, which are also parasites of siluriforms of the family Pimelodidae and, together with the clade composed of Henneguya spp. parasites of siluriforms of the family Ictaluridae, formed a monophyletic clade of parasites of siluriform hosts. The histological study revealed that the wall of the plasmodia of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. were covered with a stratified epithelium rich in club cells and supported by a layer of connective tissue. The interior of the plasmodia had a network of septa that divided the plasmodia into numerous compartments. The septa were composed of connective tissue also covered on both sides with a stratified

  4. Estudio del comportamiento mecánico de un sistema recubierto mediante simulación computacional del ensayo de rayado//Mechanical Behavior study of a coated system by computer simulation of the scratch test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Pérez Ruiz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Una forma de evaluar un sistema recubierto es a través del ensayo de rayado. Los resultados obtenidos dependen de variables como: propiedades y geometría del indentador, tasa de carga, tasa de desplazamiento, propiedades de los materiales del sistema a evaluar como dureza, módulo elástico, microestructura, rugosidad superficial, espesor, entre otras. El presente trabajo analizó, a través de simulación computacional del ensayo de rayado, el efecto que tiene la geometría del indentador (cónica y esférica, la carga de rayado (20 N y 50 N, el espesor del recubrimiento (2,1 µm y 4,6 µm y el coeficiente de fricción (0,3 y 0,5 en el comportamiento de los esfuerzos y la deformación plástica en la superficie de un sistema recubierto. Los resultados sugieren que el coeficiente de fricción como variable de ensayo tiene una alta importancia en el comportamiento mecánico del sistema recubierto.Palabras claves: ensayo de rayado, simulación computacional, sistema recubierto.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractOne way to evaluate a coated system is through the scratch test. The results obtained depend of the variables including mechanical properties and geometry of indenter, loading, displacement, material properties in the system as hardness, elastic modulus, microstructure, roughness surface, thickness, among others, which are indicated in ASTM C1624 / 05. This paper analyzes through scratch test simulation, the effect of the indenter geometry (conical and spherical, the loading (20 N and 50 N, the thickness coating (2,1 µm and 4,6 µm and the friction coefficient values (0,3 and 0,5 in the stresses and plastic deformation behavior at the surface of a coated system. The results suggest that the coefficient of friction has a high importance in the mechanical performance of the coated system.Key words: scratch test, computacional simulation, coated system.

  5. Perfil sanguíneo de híbridos de surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum X P. coruscans) criados em diferentes densidades de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Rosa Labarrere

    2011-01-01

    Peixes do gênero Pseudoplatystoma são conhecidos por sua elevada taxa de crescimento e bom rendimento de carcaça, assim como por sua carne de sabor delicado e sem mio-espinhos. Muitos estudos têm sido desenvolvidos objetivando determinar as melhores condições de cultivo destes animais. Nestas situações, o perfil sanguíneo pode ser uma ferramenta relevante, uma vez que é considerado um indicador de saúde nos peixes ajudando, desta forma, a determinar a influência do manejo sobre a homeostase d...

  6. Intestinal histomorphology in Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed bovine colostrum as source of protein and bioactive peptides Histomorfologia intestinal de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum alimentado com colostro bovino como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oeda Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Histological responses of the intestine are key for evaluating nutritional value of feed ingredients, since the organ is not only the chief site of feed digestion and nutrient absorption but also plays an important immunological function. Histomorphological alterations were evaluated in the intestine of juvenile striped catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, fed diets containing 0 (control, 10 or 20% inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC, as source of protein or bioactive peptides, for either 30 or 60 days. Fish fed 20LBC presented at 60d a distinct pattern of macrophages and, some of them, higher number of vacuoles in rectum mucosa. The thickness of the muscle layer (TML in fish fed diets with LBC was higher in the first portion of medium intestine than fish fed 0LBC. All fish presented significant increase of TML in the second portion of medium intestine along feeding period, but fish fed 20LBC had smaller values of TML than those of fish fed 0 and 10LBC which might be related to the higher intestinal coefficient found for this group. The TML of rectum was higher just for fish fed 10LBC. Dietary LBC altered morphometrical features of juvenile striped catfish intestine and possibly induced inflammatory reaction in the rectal mucosa, as a function of level of inclusion, feeding period and segment of intestine analyzed.Respostas histológicas do intestino são fundamentais para avaliar o valor nutritivo de ingredientes alimentares, uma vez que o órgão não é só o principal local de digestão e absorção dos nutrientes, mas também exerce uma importante função imunológica. Alterações histomorfológicas foram avaliadas no intestino de juvenis de cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, alimentado com dietas contendo 0 (controle, 10 e 20% de inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado (CBL como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos, aos 30 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, peixes alimentados com 20CBL apresentaram macrófagos de aspecto distinto

  7. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  8. Antimalaric antiobodies in school children in El Bagre, Colombia Detección de anticuerpos antimaláricos en un grupo de escolares del municipio de El Bagre, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Polanco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A cases and controls study was carried out in 1996 in El Bagre, Colombia, endemic zone for malaria, in order to determine the relationship between nutritional situation and immune response to malaria in 51 children with malaria and 49 without it; IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by means of indirect inmunofluorescence .against P. falciparum antigens (Strain FCB2. Nutritional situation was evaluated according to USA National Center for Health Statistics. No child was found positive for IGM antibodies; concerning IgG response, it was positive in 29 (56.9% malaric children but only in 4 (8.2% of the non-malaric ones (p<0.00001 . Difference was also signjficant (p<0.00001 for malarja antecedents in the previous year (70.6% in malaric children vs 10.2% jn the nonmalaric ones. Of the 29 malaric seropositive children 20 (69% were malnourished (p<0.01 . En 1996, en el municipio de El Bagre (Antioquia-Colombia, zona endémica para malaria y con altos niveles de desnutrición, se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con el objeto de determinar la relación entre el estado nutricional y la respuesta inmune humoral de niños con y sin malaria. Se trabajó con un grupo de 100 niños entre 4 y 9 años de edad, 51 con malaria y 49 sin ella, al cual se le determinaron los niveles de anticuerpos antimaláricos IgG e IgM por la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI, empleando antigenos de P. falciparum cepa FCB 2 mantenida en cultivo continuo. El estado nutricional se evaluó por comparación de las medidas antropométricas con la referencia de crecimiento del National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS de los Estados Unidos. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la tasa de positividad de anticuerpos IgG entre los niños maláricos y los no maláricos. En efecto: Veintinueve niños maláricos (56.9% y sólo 4 de los no maláricos (8.2% tenían dichos anticuerpos (P<0.00001 ; la diferencia también fue significativa para el antecedente de

  9. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  10. Desempenho produtivo de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans estocados em sistemas de criação: semi-intensivo (viveiro escavado e intensivo (tanque-rede Growth performance of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans stocked in rearing systems: semi-intensive (ponds and intensive (cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daniela de Sousa Liranço

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar o desempenho produtivo e custos de produção de exemplares de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, estocados em dois sistemas de criação: semi-intensivo (viveiro escavado, VE e intensivo (tanque-rede, TR. Trezentos (300 peixes, com um ano de idade, foram estocados, sendo 150 em um VE (médias de peso e comprimento: 1,48±0,46kg e 57,31±6,42cm e 150 divididos em três TR (médias de peso e comprimento: 1,27±0,34kg e 55,05±4,11cm. Foram alimentados com ração extrusada de 15mm (diâmetro 40% PB e 3110kcal ED kg-1, ajustada mensalmente à quantidade de ração. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água, observados durante o experimento, foram temperatura = 24,08°C±3,23; pH=6,89±0,39 e oxigênio dissolvido = 7,57±0,97mg L-1. Os reultados obtidos dos valores médios finais dos comprimentos (VE=74,07±4,34cm; TR=70,33±5,02cm e pesos dos peixes (VE=3,41±0,58kg e TR=2,94±0,60kg indicaram desempenho semelhante nos dois sistemas. As médias do fator de condição (0,09-0,036; ganho em peso diário (9,29g dia-1 - 8,95g dia-1; conversão alimentar (3,09-4,15; consumo total de ração (29,60g dia-1 - 74,16g dia-1; índice de crescimento (0,219-0,215 e sobrevivência (97,33-90,67% para VE e TR, respectivamente. Houve interação significativa entre os sistemas de criação e mês (PThe objective of this study was to compare the growth performance and cost of production of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans stocked in two culture systems: semi-intensive (ponds, P and intensive (cage, C. From three hundred (300 one-year-old fish, one hundred fifty (150 were stocked in one pond (mean weight and length 1.48±0.46kg and 57.31±6.42cm, one hundred fifty (150, distributed in three cages (mean weight and length 1.27±0.34kg and 55.05±4.11cm. The fish were fed with extruded commercial ration with 15.0mm floating pellets containing 40% crude protein (CP and, 3,110Kcal of digestible energy (DE, adjusted monthly. The parameters of water

  11. Resíduos de processamento do pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) como fonte de protease ácida e colágeno

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, Douglas Henrique de Holanda

    2015-01-01

    A presente tese reporta a purificação parcial e caracterização enzimática de uma protease ácida proveniente do estômago do Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, bem como o aproveitamento de resíduos deste peixe para aplicação na extração de colágeno. Neste âmbito, o primeiro capítulo tratou da caracterização enzimática de uma protease ácida do estômago do pintado e aplicação desta enzima na extração de colágeno da pele de Oreochromis niloticus. A caracterização com substratos e inibidores específicos ...

  12. HISTOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DEL SILÚRIDO BAGRE TIGRITO (Pimelodus pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Olaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El bagre tigrito Pimelodus pictus es un pez ornamental con gran aceptación en el mercado acuarista internacional, sin embargo, se desconocen muchos aspectos de la biología básica de esta especie. Por tal motivo, se realizó un estudio histológico y morfométrico del sistema digestivo a Àn de contribuir al diseño de futuras dietas. Se sacriÀcaron 7 individuos adultos de P. pictus de 10 ± 0,5 cm de longitud total con una sobredosis de MS-222 (0,5 g/l. Los especímenes se Àjaron en formaldehído al 4%, durante cinco días a 4 °C. Luego se siguió el procedimiento para técnica en paraÀna. Se realizaron cortes de 5 μm de espesor y se colo-rearon con H&E. El sistema digestivo presentó cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa. En el esófago la mucosa estaba compuesta por epitelio plano estratiÀcado con gran número de células caliciformes, y una submucosa de tejido conectivo laxo, seguida por músculo estriado esquelético con dos orientaciones (circular y longitudinal. En todos los órganos evaluados la capa serosa fue muy delgada. En el estómago se identiÀcaron dos regiones, la pilórica y la cardíaca, encontrándose glándulas gástricas en esta última, ambas regiones presentaban una mucosa con epitelio cilíndrico simple, una submucosa de tejido conectivo laxo, y una capa de músculo liso con dos orientaciones (circular y longitudinal así mismo, este órgano fue el que exhibió el mayor espesor en la capa mucosa y muscular. La histología de la mucosa, la submucosa y la capa muscular del intestino fue similar a lo presentado por el estómago, aunque morfométricamente esta región fue la que exhibió los menores valores en todas las capas evaluadas. El estómago bien deÀnido y el intestino con pocos ciegos pilóricos hace suponer que P. pictus es de hábitos omnívoros con preferencia de los alimentos de origen animal.

  13. Biomarcadores histológicos em duas espécies de bagres estuarinos da Costa Maranhense, Brasil Histology biomarkers in two estuarine catfish species from the Maranhense Coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B.P.Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se validar lesões branquiais como biomarcadores em peixes de importância econômica (Sciades herzbergii e Bagre bagre capturados pela pesca artesanal em dois locais diferenciados da Baía de São Marcos, MA, a fim de selecionar um táxon como bioindicador capaz de ser utilizado em programas de biomonitoramento. O primeiro ponto (S1 foi utilizado como uma área de referência - Ilha dos Caranguejos -, e o segundo ponto (S2 foi considerado potencialmente impactado - Complexo Portuário de São Luís, MA. Encontraram-se várias alterações histológicas para as duas espécies em S2, destacando-se: estreitamento lamelar, teleangectasia, fusão e descolamento do epitélio da lamela secundária. Lesões branquiais em B. bagre coletados em S1 também foram observadas, não sendo possível diferenciar os indivíduos das duas áreas analisadas. Os dados indicam que S. herzbergii é um bioindicador mais apropriado para análise de biomarcadores de contaminação aquática.This study aimed to validate branchial lesions as a biomarker in fish (Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre caught by traditional fishing in two different places at São Marcos Bay, MA, in order to select a bioindicator taxon which can be used in biomonitoring programs. The first point (S1 was used as a reference area - Caranguejos (Crab Island and the second point (S2 was considered potentially impacted - Port Complex of São Luis, MA. Several histological changes were found for both species in S2, including: narrowing lamellar, teleangectasy, fusion and separation of secondary lamellar epithelium. Gill lesions in B. bagre collected were also observed in S1, it is not possible to differentiate between individuals of the two areas analyzed. The data indicate that S. herzbergii is more appropriate as a bioindicator for analysis of biomarkers of aquatic contamination.

  14. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii refrigerados

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    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p acetato de sodio > lactato de sodio > ajo. La vida útil de los productos tratados fue, al menos, de 15 días. Por lo tanto, el acetato de sodio, lactato de sodio, romero y ajo pueden ser utilizados como preservativos seguros para el pescado almacenado bajo refrigeración.

  15. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii refrigerados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p acetato de sodio > lactato de sodio > ajo. La vida útil de los productos tratados fue, al menos, de 15 días. Por lo tanto, el acetato de sodio, lactato de sodio, romero y ajo pueden ser utilizados como preservativos seguros para el pescado almacenado bajo refrigeración.

  16. Desempenho produtivo e econômica de surubins (Pseudoplatystoma sp. alimentados com níveis de proteína e estocados em tanque-rede

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    C. A. Honorato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. é uma das espécie de peixe mais apreciadas para o consumo. Por ser uma espécie carnívora, exige atenção especial no que tange às suas exigências nutricionais. Até o momento, poucos estudos foram realizados para estabelecê-las na fase de engorda, em especial em sistema de cultivo intensivo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os desempenhos zootécnico e econômico de surubins (Pseudoplatystoma sp. na fase final de crescimento, estocados em tanque-rede e alimentados com dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína. Os peixes, com peso de 356,6±40,3g, foram acondicionados em 12 tanques-rede de 18m3, nos quais permaneceram por cinco meses até adquirirem o peso comercial para abate. O tratamento experimental foi constituído por três dietas extrusadas comerciais, com os níveis de proteína bruta (36, 38, 40%PB sendo substituídos gradativamente por carboidratos. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de crescimento, rendimento de filé, enzimas metabólicas e desempenho econômico. O ganho de peso, o ganho de peso diário, o consumo de dieta, a taxa de eficiência proteica, a sobrevivência e o rendimento de filé não apresentaram diferença significativa. A conversão alimentar foi melhor para os peixes alimentados com a dieta com 38 e 40%PB. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os parâmetros de índice hepatossomático e de enzimas hepáticas. Apesar dos maiores gastos com a ração contendo 38%PB em comparação à dieta com 36%PB, esta foi a que apresentou o melhor índice de custo por kg de peixe produzido. Os melhores índices de crescimento e o menor custo de arraçoamento foram obtidos pelos peixes alimentados com a dieta 38%PB, sendo esta, portanto recomendada para o arraçoamento na fase final de surubins em tanque-rede.

  17. Effects of the acute exposition to glyphosate-based herbicide on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant responses in a hybrid Amazon fish surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos dos Santos; Miléski, Kelly Márcia Lazarotto; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moreira, Paula Sueli Andrade; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Loro, Vania Lúcia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute glyphosate (active ingredient) exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of a hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp). The fish were exposed to different herbicide concentrations for 96 h. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and antioxidant responses were verified. The 15 mg a.pL(-1) of herbicide resulted in the death of 50% of the fish after 96 h. An increase in liver and muscle TBARS levels was observed when fish were exposed to the herbicide. The protein carbonyl content was also increased in the liver (4.5mg a.pL(-1) concentration) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration). The antioxidant activities decreased in the liver and brain after exposure to herbicide. Levels of ascorbic acid in the liver (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) and 4.5 mg a.pL(-1) concentrations) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration) were increased post-treatment. Levels of total thiols were increased in the liver and brain (2.25 mg L(-1) and 7.5mg a.pL(-1), respectively). Glyphosate exposure, at the tested concentrations affects surubim health by promoting changes that can affect their survival in natural environment. Some parameters as TBARS and protein carbonyl could be early biomarkers for Roundup exposure in this fish species.

  18. Monitoring Inland Water Turbidity: Contribution of SPOT5 Take5 to Health Hazard Monitoring in West Africa (Bagre Lake, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Somdecoste, Tom; Gal, Laetitia

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters in tropics is essential to assess human health risks, in particular the diarrheal disease risk. In this study, we explore the use of Spot5 time series acquired for the Spot5Take5 Program to monitor turbidity and SSSC on the Bagre Lake (Burkina Faso). Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The combination of the NIR with a visible band (R or G) is found to be the best suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity from Spot5 images. Large differences between upstream and downstream areas of the lake are well capture by the Spot5 time series, with large difference in the seasonal maximum both for absolute values and timing. A large sediment transport is observed from upstream to downstream between June and September caused by surface runoff and erosion. The high turbidity values observed suggest that the associated health hazard is potentially high, especially at the beginning of the rainy season and in the upstream areas of the lake.

  19. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  20. Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400 The use of eugenol as an anaesthetic for the handling of Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400

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    Gustavo Rodamilans de Mecêdo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência do eugenol como anestésico em juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans através de ensaios. No primeiro, os peixes (n=6 foram individualmente expostos a concentrações de 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol durante 10 minutos e os parâmetros de observação estabelecidos foram: perda de equilíbrio, efeito calmante e redução do movimento opercular. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol, em que os animais foram mantidos na água com anestésico até atingirem o estágio IV de anestesia: perda total de equilíbrio, do tônus muscular e redução dos movimentos operculares. A recuperação foi conduzida em um aquário, contendo 10 litros de água livre de anestésico, com aeração constante. Após os dois ensaios, foi constatada a eficiência do eugenol como substância anestésica em juvenis de pintado, sendo a concentração de 50 mg L-1 considerada a mais adequada para procedimentos usuais no manejo desses animais em piscicultura.In this work the efficacy of eugenol as an anaesthetic in Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans was evaluated by two experimental assays. In the first one, the animals (n=6 were exposed for 10 minutes to four concentrations of eugenol (25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1. The observed behavioral patterns were: loss of equilibrium, sedative effect and reduction of opercular movement. In the second assay, the concentrations of 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 of eugenol were tested. The animals were maintained in the anaesthetic bath until they reached the stage of anaesthesia IV: total loss of equilibrium, muscle tonus and reduction of opercular movement. The recovery was conducted in an aquarium containing 10 liters of anaesthetic free water, with constant aeration. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaestetics for Pintado juveniles were demonstrated after the assays and the 50 mg L-1 concentration was defined as the most adequate to

  1. Canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cultivadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543 Cannibalism among larvae of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans bred under different stockage densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543

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    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae confinadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem em condições de laboratório, foi desenvolvido um experimento no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, perfazendo um período de 72 horas, onde foram utilizadas 500 larvas com 96 horas de vida e peso inicial de 2,2 ± 0,3mg. Estas foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, em recipientes de 700mL, cujas densidades variaram de 14, 28, 42 e 56 larvas/L. As variáveis analisadas foram mortalidade natural, mortalidade por predação intra-específica e peso final. Ao final, verificou-se que o aumento da densidade afetou de forma negativa o desenvolvimento e provocou um aumento linear nas taxas de mortalidade e canibalismo entre os animais. Concluiu-se que, à medida que se aumenta a concentração de larvas de pintado, ocorre redução não apenas no desempenho, mas também na taxa de sobrevivênciaThe development, survival and cannibalism among larvae of the pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae are verified. Larvae were confined at different stockage densities in lab conditions. The experiment was developed at the Aquaculture Lab of the State University of Maringá, during 72 hours, with 500 larvae aged 96 hours, initial weight 2.2 ± 0.3mg. Larvae were distributed in an entirely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions, in 700mL-containers, at densities varied 14, 28, 42 and 56 larvae per L. Natural mortality, mortality by intraspecies predation and final weight were the variables analyzed. After finished, density increase affected negatively the larvae’s development. It also caused a linear increase in mortality rates and in cannibalism among the animals. Increase in concentration of pintado larvae was proportional to decrease in

  2. Processo de maturação das gônadas de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans alimentado com dois níveis proteicos e suplementados com óleo de milho Process of gonad maturation of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans fed diets containing different levels of protein and supplemented with corn oil

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    V.X.L. Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição de C18:2n6, por meio da inclusão de óleo de milho em dietas com dois níveis de proteína bruta, sobre o processo de maturação de gametas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, mantidos em tanques-rede. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência, relação peso x comprimento, fator de condição (K e índice gonadossomático (IGS. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2006, em 12 tanques-rede, distribuídos em seis viveiros-escavados de 600m² e densidade de estocagem de 20 peixes/tanque-rede. Utilizaram-se três tratamentos (T com duas repetições/viveiro: T1 com 28% de PB; T2 com 28% de PB + 5% óleo de milho e T3 com 40% de PB. O crescimento foi ligeiramente mais alto nos peixes do T3. As taxas de sobrevivência foram acima de 77%. Pode-se inferir que as rações ofertadas não causaram alterações histomorfológicas durante o processo de maturação gonadal dessa espécie. O IGS e o K foram ligeiramente mais altos nos animais alimentados com a ração enriquecida com óleo de milho.It was studied the effect of the addition of C18:2n6, by the inclusion of corn oil, in diets with different levels of crude protein (CP on the process of gonad maturation in surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. Survival rate, weight x length ratio, condition factor (K, and gonadossomatic index (GSI were evaluated. The experiment was carried out from March 2004 to February 2006, using 12 cages distributed in six tanks, with 20 fishes per cage. Three treatments (T were: T1 28% CP; T2 28% CP + 5% corn oils, and T3 40% CP. No effect of the diet was observed on growth in the 1st and 2nd years of age, with a slightly superior growth of T3 fish. The survival rates were superior to 77%. It can be inferred that the offered diet did not cause histomorphological alterations during the process of gonadal maturation of this species. However, the GSI and the K were slightly advanced and superior in the animals

  3. Diferenciação genética entre populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra do rio Paraná Genetic differentiation among populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isolated by the Guaíra Falls in the Paraná River

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    Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Os saltos de Guaíra, também denominados Sete Quedas, constituíam até 1982 uma barreira para a dispersão de peixes migradores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae eram isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra. Amostras provenientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (PL, do reservatório Itaipu (IT e de jusante de Yacyretá (YA, foram comparadas por RAPD. O FST de Lynch foi significativo entre PL e IT (0,090 e PL e YA (0,112. O fluxo gênico estimado (Nm variou de 2,0 entre PL e YA a 8,1 entre IT e YA, e a distância genética de Nei de D = 0,0638 entre PL e YA a D = 0,0174 entre IT e YA. Estes resultados indicam existência de diferenciação genética e que, possivelmente, Sete Quedas isolavam reprodutivamente as populações. Sugerem, também, a possibilidade de áreas diferentes de desova, impedindo parcialmente a homogeneização genética das populações IT e PL.Until 1982, the Guaíra Falls, also named the Seven Falls, constituted a barrier to the dispersion of migratory fish in the Paraná River. The objective of this work was to verify if populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae were isolated by the Guaíra Falls. Samples from the Upper Paraná River floodplain (PL, the Itaipu reservoir (IT, and downstream Yacyretá reservoir (YA were compared by RAPD markers. Lynch's FST was significant between PL and IT (0.090, and PL and YA (0.112. Estimated gene flow (Nm varied from 2.0 between PL and YA to 8.1 between IT and YA. Nei's genetic distance varied from D = 0.0638 between PL and YA to D = 0.0174 between IT and YA. These results indicate the existence of genetic differentiation and that, possibly, the Guaíra Falls isolated the populations reproductively. They also suggest the possibility of different spawning areas, partially avoiding the genetic homogenization of the IT and PL populations.

  4. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

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    Ana María Abreu Velez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims : Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA, Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results : Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion : The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439 in the control group.

  5. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  6. Growth of juvenile Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and Pseudoplatystoma spp. in pond

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    Aline Mayra da Silva Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fish is an important factor that determines the potential of various species for economic exploitation. The aim this work was evaluates the growth juvenile cachara and hybrid grown in pond. Information was collected of weight and morphometric measures during the experimental period. Total length gain, body height gain, body width gain, weight gain, growth index, morphometric ratios and body percentage were calculated. The methodology of generalized linear models was used, considering Gamma distribution and inverse link function. The variances and averages of variables were submitted tests F of the Snedecor and Chi-Square, respectively. The hybrids gained more weight in second and third biometrics, beyond of presented greater total length gain and body percentage. The head size and head width of cacharas were higher in three biometrics. The variances of hybrids were higher in the second and third biometrics. The hybrids presented better performance, but lesser standardization for traits evaluated than pure specie, confirming the need development genetic improvement programs that performs pure species selection for increased commercial production.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF THE MEAT IN SOME SPECIES OF CATFISH: A REVIEW REVISIÓN: CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD NUTRICIONAL DE LA CARNE EN ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE BAGRE

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    Nubia Estella Cruz Casallas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the most consumed fish in the world is Silurid, also called "leather fish" or catfish, whose main characteristic is the absence of intramuscular bones and scales, as well as its high productivity. In recent years, the nutritional characterization of the meat of some of these species has been carried out, finding that, although the proximal composition is within the broad ranges for fish, the fat content provides a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA particularly as regards omega-3 (w-3, furthermore the w-6/w-3 ratio is within the proscriptions of the World Health Organization (WHO for many of these species of catfish. Likewise, the contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and amino acids, minerals and vitamins reveal a high variability between individuals and species associated with the type of cultivation and dietary habits and also with the age and weight at slaughter. Furthermore quality parameters have been defined in relation to susceptibility to autolysis, oxidation and hydrolysis of fats and disturbances caused by microorganisms that cause decisive changes in the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. This review compiles current information regarding the nutritional composition of catfish meat and the quality parameters.Resumen. Una de las carnes de pescado de mayor consumo en el mundo es la de Silúridos, también denominados peces de cuero o bagres, cuya principal característica es la ausencia de espinas intramusculares y de escamas, además de su alta productividad. En los últimos años se ha logrado realizar la caracterización nutricional de la carne de algunas de estas especies, hallándose que aunque la composición proximal se encuentra dentro de los rangos generales para peces, el contenido de grasa ofrece menor proporción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGP particularmente en lo referente a la serie omega 3 (w-3, aunque la relación w-6/w-3

  8. [Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

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    Campos, Cristiane M de; Moraes, Julieta R E de; Moraes, E Flávio R de

    2008-01-01

    Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5microm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolus porofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P. mesopotamicus were also related. Up to 50% of P. mesopotamicus and P. lineatus liver samples showed diffuse hepatodistrofy. Liver sections also showed concentric hialin structures in over 80% of samples and esteatosis in 50% of them. In P. mesopotamicus kidney, 95.23% of them showed tissue changes consisted of 60% with diffuse moderate nefrodistrofy and congestion of glomerular sinusoids. In P. lineatus kidney, 20% of the samples showed tissues changes. No heavy damage was observed in the fish spleen.

  9. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004) Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Vázquez; Tomás R Florville-Alejandre; Miguel Herrera; Luz María Díaz de León

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  10. Redescription of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from freshwater fishes (Pimelodidae) in the basins of the Paraná and La Plata Rivers, Argentina, with comments on P. bagre Pearse, 1920.

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    Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita C; Arredondo, Nathalia J; Doma, Irene L; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A

    2011-01-01

    The type-specimens of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) from Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, and new material from Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken), Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken), Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes), Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes), P. argenteus Perugia and P. maculatus caught in the basins of the La Plata and Paraná Rivers, Argentina, were studied to elucidate its taxonomic status. The type-specimens of Parspina bagre Pearse, 1920 from Pimelodella metae Eigenmann in Lake Valencia, Venezuela, were also studied and new observations on its morphology recorded. The amendation of the generic diagnosis of Parspina Pearse, 1920 is proposed based on the study of both species, which revealed, among other features, the absence of a thin walled-membrane enclosing the male terminal genitalia. Parspina argentinensis is characterised by the following features: absence of a gonotyl; presence of a bipartite seminal vesicle, pars prostatica and ejaculatory duct; caeca of nearly equal length; uterus extending from the level of the ventral sucker to end of body; testes symmetrical to slightly oblique; ovary transversely elongate, compact and variable in shape; and the utilisation of a wide range of freshwater fishes as hosts. The tegumental surface of this species is covered with pectinate spines arranged quincuncially. Spines decrease in size and density from forebody to hindbody. There are two types of sensory papillae, ciliated and dome-shaped. Ciliated papillae are distributed on the surface of the oral region and on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body, whereas dome-shaped papillae are found on the surface of the ventral rim of the oral sucker associated with a ciliated papilla. Gland-duct openings are interspersed with the spines of the oral crown. In addition, the infection indices of P. argentinensis vary widely, not only among different hosts but also between the Paraná and La Plata River basins. Higher prevalences of P. argentinensis

  11. Biología reproductiva del bagre cominate Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae en el sureste del golfo de California Reproductive biology of the cominate sea catfish Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae from the southeastern Gulf of California

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    Felipe Amezcua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste del golfo de California, el bagre cominate presenta gran abundancia y es explotado comercialmente. Sin embargo, estudios sobre su biología son escasos y no existen normas que regulen su explotación en México. En este trabajo se describe la biología reproductiva de Occidentarius platypogon. Se capturaron 480 organismos con redes agalleras entre octubre 2008 y diciembre 2009. El estado de madurez gonadal se determinó macroscópicamente. Esta especie tiene una época de desove de mayo a agosto con un desarrollo sincrónico en dos lotes. La fecundidad media fue de 37 ovocitos maduros. La baja fecundidad se debe a que esta especie presenta cuidado parental con incubación oral por parte de los machos, lo cual reduce su mortalidad natural en las primeras etapas de desarrollo. La talla de primera madurez fue de 37,6 cm y la longitud estimada de primera captura de la pesquería artesanal con redes de enmalle fue de 23,4 cm, lo que indica la captura de organismos que aún no alcanzan su talla reproductiva. La mayoría de los organismos capturados fueron machos incubando, por lo tanto, podría ser alta la mortalidad por pesca de juveniles.The cominate sea catfish from the southeastern Gulf of California is an important species that is commercially exploited. However, studies on biology of this species are scarce; therefore, harvest regulations do not exist for this species in Mexico. The aim of this work was to describe reproductive biology of Occidentarius platypogon. Gillnet samples were carried out from October 2008 to December 2009. In total, 480 fish were dissected; gender sex and gonad maturity stage were determined macroscopically. Results indicated that the spawning season runs from May to August and generally with synchronic gonad development. Fecundity of the chihuil sea catfish was 37, which is low because this species shows parental care via oral incubation of fry, reducing mortality. Estimated length at first maturity is 37

  12. Avaliação dos estoques pesqueiros de quatro espécies de grandes bagres (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae na bacia do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal norte, Brasil, utilizando alguns Pontos de Referência Biológicos Fisheries stock assessment of four large catfish (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae in the Cuiaba River basin, north Pantanal, Brazil, using some Biological Reference Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia A. F. Mateus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros de crescimento e mortalidade estimados a partir da estrutura em comprimento foram utilizados para avaliar o estado de explotação dos estoques de quatro espécies de grandes bagres da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal norte. As espécies estudadas foram o barbado, o cachara, o jaú e o pintado. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio do modelo de rendimento por recruta, considerando os Pontos de Referência Biológicos Fmax, F0,1, F = M e F BDR. As análises indicam que os estoques do pintado e do jaú estão bem conservados. Os estoques do cachara e, menos fortemente, o do barbado estão em iminente ameaça de sobrepesca na bacia do rio Cuiabá.The growth and mortality parameters estimated from length structure were used to evaluate the state of explotation of the stocks of four large catfish species from Cuiabá River basin, north Pantanal. The species studied were the Flatwhiskered catfish, the Jaú, the Barred sorubim, and the Spotted sorubim. The assessment were conducted with the yield per recruit model, and the Biological Reference Points Fmax, F0.1, F = M, and F BDR. The analysis indicates that the stocks of the Spotted sorubim, and of the Jaú are not overexploited. However, the stocks of the Barred sorubim, and, in lower degree, of the Flatwhiskered catfish of the Cuiabá River basin are in imminent threat of overfishing.

  13. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004 Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg We analyzed the heavy metal content in the muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulf of México between 2001 and 2004. The research was done in order to establish an environmental frame of reference for this organism. The metal concentration was as follows: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Cobalt and vanadium contents were found to decrease and those of nickel, mercury, and chromium to ulerease; however, neither of these trends was observed for the lead content. One-way analyses of variance con-firm significant temporal variation only for cobalt, mercury, lead, and vanadium. Significant linear correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05 were found for Co-V, Cr-Ni, Cr-Pb, Co-Hg, Ni-V, and V-Pb. The first three associa-tions showed positive correlations, whereas the remaining ones had negative correlations. A factor analysis grouped the studied metals depending on their origins. The metal levels found in the muscular tissue of A. felis from the southern Gulf of México were lower than those set by national and international regulations.

  14. Reprodução do bagre amarelo, Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Siluriformes, Ariidae, da Baía de Pinheiros, região estuarina do litoral do Paraná, Brasil Reproduction of the Madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Siluriformes, Ariidae, of the Pinheiros Bay, estuarine coastal area of Paraná, Brazil

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    Luís F. Fávaro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a biologia reprodutiva do bagre amarelo Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 na Baía de Pinheiros, litoral do Paraná, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente no período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004, com rede de arrasto de fundo. De cada exemplar foram tomados os dados de comprimento total, peso total, sexo e peso da gônada. As seis fases de desenvolvimento ovocitário (ovogênese e os cinco estádios de desenvolvimento ovariano (escala de maturidade foram determinadas por análises microscópicas dos ovários. Através dos valores individuais e media mensais do Índice gônado-somático (IGS tratado para sexos separados, da freqüência relativa dos estádios de desenvolvimento ovariano e das análises histológicas durante o período de estudo foi possível determinar que o período reprodutivo de C. spixii dá-se entre os meses de setembro e novembro. Fêmeas apresentando ovários desovados ou em recuperação foram registradas nos meses de novembro a abril, com altos percentuais no período de dezembro a março. A desova foi caracterizada como sendo do tipo total.The present study investigated the reproductive biology of Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 in Pinheiros Bay, littoral of Paraná State, Brazil. Fishes were captured monthly from June 2003 to May 2004 by using bottom trawls. For each individual, total body length, total weight, sex, and gonadal weight were recorded. The oogenesis (six ovarian follicle phases of development and gonadal development stages (five stages were also defined based on the histological examination of the ovaries. It was defined that the reproductive period of C. spixii extends from September to November, based on the analyses of individual gonadosomatic index (GSI values distribution in relation to the sampling periods, on the monthly variation of the GSI mean values (Curve of Maturation, both for males and females, and on the monthly variation of the relative frequencies of

  15. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

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    Bayona-Vásquez Natalia Juliana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae pertenece a los sciaenidae, ésta familia es ampliamente reconocida por ser un recurso
    pesquero importante a nivel mundial, principalmente de especies marinas o estuarinas. P. magdalenae es una
    especie de importancia económica, dada su frecuencia de captura y comestibilidad de su carne, que se encuentra
    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y

  16. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

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    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  17. The biological and reproductive parameters of the invasive armored catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus from Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán-Guerrero, Mexico Parámetros biológicos y reproductivos del bagre armado invasivo Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus del embalse Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán-Guerrero, México

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    Rebeca Aneli Rueda-Jasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 (synonymy: Liposarcus multiradiatus armored catfish were first reported in Mexico in 1995 and have spread successfully in several aquatic ecosystems. In Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán - Guerrero, the population of this armored catfish is growing substantially because natural predators are not present and exploitation by humans does not occur. Over a complete annual cycle, we studied the following population parameters: weight, total and standard length, the relationship of weight to total length, the hepatosomatic (HSI and gonadosomatic (GSI indices, total fecundity (TF and relative fecundity (RF. The average total (TL and standard lengths (SL were 248 ± 37.5 and 188 ± 30.7 mm, respectively, and the average weight (W was 135.3± 66.8 g. The largest fish reported was 520 mm in TL and weighed 1 280 g. The species showed an extended reproductive season from May to November, as indicated by the GSI, TF and RF. The strongest reproductive peak occurred from July through October. During the annual cycle, the highest monthly average fecundity was 2 447 eggs, and the average relative fecundity was 12.6 eggs per g of fish (August and September. This information will be crucial for calculating the current biomass and future growth of the population. The calculation of these results could provide a basis for the exploitation of this resource for human consumption and animal feeds.La especie invasiva "bagre armado" P. disjunctivus (Weber 1991 (sinonimia de Liposarcus multuradiatus fue registrada por primera vez en México en 1995; en diversos sistemas acuáticos se ha distribuido exitosamente. En la presa Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán - Guerrero, la población de peces armados se ha incrementado considerablemente debido a la ausencia de depredadores y la falta de aprovechamiento. Por ello, a lo largo de un ciclo anual evaluamos los siguientes par

  18. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Doncel,Oscar; Paramo,Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N) fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44) y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17). El aná...

  19. Aeromonas species isolated from PINTADO fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp: virulence factors and drug susceptibility

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    Vera Lúcia Mores Rall

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas has been described as an emergent foodborne pathogen of increasing importance. In this study, we report that 48% of 50 Pintado fish samples collected at the retail market of São Paulo city were positive for Aeromonas sp, as detected by the direct plating method. When the presence/absence method was used, the positivity was 42%. A. caviae was the most frequent species, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Production of cytotoxic enterotoxin, observed in suckling mouse assay, was detected in 67% of A. sobria strains, in 60% of A. hydrophila strains and in 40% of A. caviae strains. In vitro tests, performed with HEp-2 cells, showed that 88% of A. hydrophila, 27% of A. sobria and 13% of A. caviae strains were positive for this toxin. The in vivo production of cytotonic enterotoxin, tested after heating the filtrates at 56ºC for 20 minutes, was detected in 17% of A. sobria, in 10% of A. caviae and in none of A. hydrophila strains in vivo. All analyzed strains did not alter HEp-2 cells. 20% and 16% of A. sobria and A. caviae isolates, respectively, presented capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cells. In counterpart, invasion of HEp-2 cells was not observed in any isolate. The Aeromonas isolates were sensitive to the majority of the antimicrobiol agents tested.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas têm sido descritas como patógenos emergentes de importância crescente em alimentos. Neste estudo, relatamos que 48% das amostras de peixe "Pintado" coletado no comércio de São Paulo, foram positivas para Aeromonas sp quando isoladas pelo método de plaqueamento direto. Quando o método Presença/Ausência foi utilizado, a porcentagem de positividade foi de 42%. A. caviae foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por A. hydrophila e A. sobria. Produção de enterotoxina citotóxica, determinada em camundongos recém-nascidos, foi observada em 67% das cepas de A. sobria, em 60% das de A. hydrophila e em 40% das de A. caviae. No teste in vitro em células HEp- 88% das cepas de A. hydrophila, 27% das cepas de A. sobria e 13% das cepas de A. caviae revelaram-se positivas. Com relação a produção de enterotoxina citotônica, testada após o aquecimento do sobrenadante a 56ºC por 20 minutos, 17% das cepas de A. sobria, 10% das de A. caviae e nenhuma das de A. hydrophila foram positivas in vivo e para todas as cepas analisadas, os testes foram negativos em cultura de célula HEp-2. Quanto a capacidade de adesão, 20% das 5 cepas de A. sobria e 16% das 20 cepas de A. caviae aderiram a células HEp-2. A capacidade de invasão em células HEp-2 não foi detectada em nenhuma das cepas testadas. As cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a maior parte dos antimicrobianos testados.

  20. Estudio preliminar de ictioplancton de la Amazonia peruana con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae

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    María Rojas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa y describen las larvas de peces presentes en la naciente del río Madre de Dios, con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae. Las colectas se realizaron entre noviembre y diciembre de 2004, utilizando una red de ictioplancton (300 micras de malla, en 8 transectos que cubrieron un tramo aproximado de 2 km aguas arriba y aguas abajo de la ciudad de Puerto Maldonado. Un total de 83750 larvas fueron examinadas, la mayor abundancia la presentaron los Characiformes (81%, seguido por Siluriformes (18%. En la familia Pimelodidae, se identificaron 12 especies de consumo, destacando Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, P. fasciatum y Sorubim lima. Los principales órdenes encontrados en el ictioplancton siguen un patrón de abundancia relativa similar al estado adulto. La presencia de larvas de los grandes bagres migradores (familia Pimelodidae en la zona de muestreo sugiere que esta parte del río Madre de Dios es un área de reproducción, y por ende de importancia para la conservación de estas especies.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE ETILENGLICOL COMO CRIOPROTECTOR EN LA CRIOCONSERVACIÓN DE SEMEN DE BAGRE BLANCO (Sorubim cuspicaudus, PIMELODIDAE

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    VÍCTOR J. ATENCIO-GARCÍA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el semen crioconservado de Sorubim cuspicaudus utilizando etilenglicol (ETG a tres niveles de inclusión (5, 10, 15 %. Machos (n = 13 en fase de espermiación y hembras (n = 6 en maduración final se indujeron con 0,4 ml de Ovaprim®/Kg, después de 12 a 14 horas post-inducción se colectó el semen en viales Eppendorf de 2 ml de capacidad. Las diferentes soluciones crioprotectoras se prepararon con glucosa 6 % (p/v, leche en polvo descremada 5 % (pv y agua destilada. El semen fue diluido en proporción 1:3 (semen:diluyente, empacado en macrotubos de 2,5 ml y congelado en vapores de nitrógeno líquido (NL durante 30 minutos y luego almacenados en termos criogénicos sumergidos directamente en NL (-196 °C. El semen crioconservado fue descongelado en baño serológico a 35 °C durante 90 segundos. La movilidad total, progresividad y velocidad espermática del semen fresco y descongelado se analizó con el software Sperm Class Analizer SCA® (Microptic SL, España. La fertilidad y eclosión se evaluó con 1,0-1,5 g de ovocitos en incubadoras experimentales de flujo ascendente de dos litros de capacidad. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado. El semen fresco registró tasa de eclosión de 51,8±21 %, sin observarse diferencia significativa con la obtenida con el semen crioconservado con ETG 5 % (38,6 ± 13,9 % (p> 0,05; mientras que ETG 15 % (9,6 ± 2,9 % reportó la menor eclosión (p <0,05. Los resultados sugieren que la solución crioprotectora compuesta por ETG 5 %, glucosa 6 % y leche en polvo 5 % es una alternativa viable para la criocon- servación de semen de Sorubim cuspicaudus con fecundaciones similares al usar semen fresco.

  2. Aspectos biometricos del bagre Arius Furthii Steindachner (Pisces Ariidae, colectado en punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

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    Maurizio Protti Quesada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan estadísticamente algunos parámetros biométricos de 257 ejemplares de Arius furthii (Ariidae, colectados en una zona de playa y otra de manglar en Punta Morales, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Las colectas se realizaron por medio de “arrastres” con una red tipo “chinchorro”. La talla de los especímenes capturados osciló entre 55 y 276 mm de longitud total y 1,3 a 176 g en peso fresco. El análisis estadístico mostró que la longitud total es la mejor variable para la estimación del peso fresco a través de una ecuación de regresión logarítmica.  Además, se mostró que no existen diferencias significativas en el peso de los Arius furthii colectados en la playa y los colectados en el manglar.

  3. Caracterización de la transformación de fase del material Y-TZP mediante ensayos de rayado

    OpenAIRE

    Grannec, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Doble titulació La circona tetragonal estabilizada con itria, Y-TZP, es una cerámica que se emplea como biomaterial, gracias a sus buenas propiedades mecánicas y a su biocompatibilidad. Ha sido utilizada en la la fabricación de cabezas femorales de prótesis de cadera y en restauraciones dentales. Pero debido a la degradación in vivo observada en cabezas femorales explantadas, su utilización como cabeza femoral ha sido retirada del mercado. La causa exacta de la degradación e...

  4. Produção e caracterização de um marcador potencial de linfócitos T em surubim híbrido (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans X P. fasciatum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1636 Production and characterization of a putative T-cell marker in hybrid surubim catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz x Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1636

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    Avery Jerald Ainsworth

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a produção e caracterização de um anticorpo monoclonal (PST 33 reativo com os timócitos e linfócitos T de surubim híbrido. PST 33 foi produzido por meio de imunização de camundongos com timócitos de surubim e moléculas isoladas das membranas celulares destas células. PST 33 mostrou-se reativo com a maioria dos timócitos e com linfócitos T periféricos. Por citometria de fluxo foi possível quantificar os linfócitos T no sangue periférico (34,1%, baço (36,6%, rim (19,1% e timo (87,5%. Esse marcador reagiue com uma molécula de 215 kDa expressa na maioria dos linfócitos T. Seu uso em imunohistoquímica permitiu também a localização de linfócitos T no timo e baço, demonstrando assim o seu potencial para estudar a ontogenia do sistema imune dos surubins. Em imuno-electron microscopia PST 33 reagiu com células de aparência linfocítica. Morfologicamente essas células apresentaram-se como pequenos linfócitos de elevada relação núcleo/citoplasmaA monoclonal antibody against hybrid surubim thymocytes and circulating T-cells (PST 33 was produced and characterized. The mAb was obtained by immunizing mice with isolated membrane molecules of hybrid surubim thymocytes, and whole thymocytes. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mAb PST 33 reacted with 87.5% of the thymocytes, 34.1% of circulating, 19.1% of pronephros, and 36.6% of spleen lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that PST 33-immunoreactive cells are mostly present in the medullar region of the thymus, and in the vicinity of arterioles spread throughout the parenchyma of the spleen. PST 33 appeared as a suitable marker for immunohistochemistry, and should prove useful in studying the ontogeny of surubim immune system. Immunogold labeling revealed that PST 33+ cells were lymphoid-like cells. Morphologically they appeared as small lymphocytes with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Western blotting of non-reduced membrane lysates showed that PST 33 reacted with a 215 kDa molecule

  5. EVALUACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE JUVENILES DE PEZ BLANCO (Menidia estor) ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS A BASE DE PROTEÍNA HIDROLIZADA DE BAGRE ARMADO (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus).

    OpenAIRE

    AVALOS SÁNCHEZ, ANA MAURICIA

    2012-01-01

    El pez blanco Menidia estor (Jordan 1879) del Lago de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, es una especie nativa y endémica del altiplano mexicano, perteneciente a la familia Atherinopsidae. Por su valor económico, cultural y nutricional es la especie de mayor importancia en la región, que por muchos años ha sido la base de la subsistencia del pueblo Purépecha. Debido a la intensa explotación y deterioro de su hábitat se le considera como una especie amenazada (Marez y Morales 2003), razón po...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0199 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0199 ref|NP_115455.1| putative movement protein [Maize rayado fino vir...us] gb|AAK52839.1|AF265566_2 putative movement protein [maize rayado fino virus] NP_115455.1 0.086 27% ...

  7. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with the habitat conditions. In the analysis of 148 stomachs 45.3%o were found to be full and 54.7%> empty. The most representative preys (%>N were: Portunus spp. (27.3 %>; n = 44 and Squilla intermedia (10.6%>; n = 17, whereas the gravimetric analysis (%>P showed the heaviest preys to be Gastropoda (31.8%>; 51.74 g and Farfantepenaeus spp. (17.5%>; 28.52 g. The frequeney of oceurrence (%>FO showed that Portunus spp. (25.4%>; 17 stomachs and S. intermedia (10.5%>; 7 stomachs were the most frequent preys. According to the IRI (%>, Portunus spp. (43.01%> and Gastropoda (13.38%> were the most representative categories. The diet of L. synagris was found to consist of four types of main preys: Portunidae (837.06, Gastropod (260.29, Squillidae (234.66, and Penaeidae (218.05; and two types of secondary preys: Sicyoniidae (126.35 and Trichiuridae (75.64; with all others being incidental preys. The spatial distribution of the breadth of the trophic niche and the size of L. synagris allowed us to identify two zones. The first, between Riohacha and Dibulla, had the highest niche breadth valúes (0.64-1.00, denoting generalist predators, and the smallest specimens of L. synagris. The second zone, between Riohacha and Punta Gallinas, had the lowest niche breath values (0.00-0.23, indicating a high degree of dietary specialization, and the largest-sized individuals.

  8. Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína e energia de alguns ingredientes utilizados em dietas para o pintado (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and energy of some ingredients used in diets for pintado, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829

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    Emílio Guedes Gonçalves

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia dos principais alimentos utilizados na formulação de dietas para alevinos de pintado. Foram utilizados 600 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 9,80 ± 1,48 g e comprimento total médio de 13,00 ± 1,00 cm. Na coleta de fezes, foi utilizado o sistema de Guelph modificado. As 12 dietas-teste foram constituídas por 69,50% de uma dieta de referência, 0,50% de óxido de cromo (marcador inerte e 30% do ingrediente estudado. Após receberem as dietas teste durante três dias, os peixes foram transferidos para os aquários de coleta (incubadoras de fibra de vidro de 80 litros de capacidade, onde as fezes foram coletadas em intervalos de meia hora. Com base nos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica, os alimentos que apresentaram maior aproveitamento para esse nutriente foram: farinha de peixe (84,14%, farelo de soja (67,10%, milho (64,18% e farinha de vísceras de aves (61,25%. Foram observados valores razoáveis somente para a digestibilidade do conteúdo energético em metade dos ingredientes estudados; para as farinhas de peixe, milho, soja integral tostada e os farelos de soja, de trigo e de arroz, os coeficientes médios foram: 72,80; 57,39; 64,95; 61,66; 53,20 e 51,84%, respectivamente. A farinha de peixe foi o melhor ingrediente para o pintado (45,38% PD e 2790,42 kcal ED/kg, seguido do farelo de soja (30,86% PD e 2708,45 kcal ED/kg, da soja integral tostada (18,34% PD e 3121,06 kcal ED/kg, do milho (5,86% PD e 2691,53 kcal ED/kg e do farelo de trigo (8,08% PD e 2265,13 kcal ED/kg.The present work was developed in order to determine the protein and energy apparent digestibility coefficients of the principal ingredients used in the pintado juvenile diets. Six hundred juveniles with initial weight and total length means of 9.80 ± 1.48 g and 13.00 ± 1.00 cm, respectively, were used. The modified Guelph system was appraised to collect feces. All the twelve test diets were constituted of 69.50% of the reference diet, 0.50% of chromium oxide used as inert marker, and 30% of the ingredient tested. After three days of feeding with the test diets, fish were transferred to the collect aquariums, where feces were collected in intervals of 30 minutes. Using digestibility of the protein, ingredients with best results in this nutrient were fish meal (84.14%, soybean meal (67.10%, corn (64.18% and chicken poultry by-product (61.25%. Was only observed reasonable values for energy digestibility in half of the ingredients tested; for fish meal, corn, soybean (whole, toasted and soybean meal of wheat and rice, the mean coefficients values were: 72.80, 57.39, 64.95, 61.66, 53.20, and 51.84%, respectively. Fish meal was the best ingredient available for pintado juveniles diet formulation (45.38%DP and 2790.42 kcal DE/kg, followed by soybean meal (30.86%DP and 2708.45 kcal DE/kg, soybean (whole, toasted (18.34%DP and 3121.06 kcal DE/kg, corn (5.86%DP and 2691.53 kcal DE/kg, and wheat meal (8.08%DP and 2265.13 kcal DE/kg.

  9. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea), Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae) y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae) de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae) de El Bagre, Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia; Velásquez Trujillo, Luz Elena; Gómez Carmona, Catalina; Ramírez Pérez, Auxilio

    2012-01-01

    Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatu...

  10. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea, Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatus. Muestras de la superficie, boca e intestino de ambos anélidos se inocularon en agar sangre, agar sangre con ampicilina y agar eosina azul de metileno. La identificación de las bacterias y su sensibilidad a antibióticos se evaluaron por el método automatizado Vitek (Biomerieux®. Se hicieron en total 26 aislamientos pertenecientes a 12 especies de nueve géneros. Enterobacter cloacae fue la especie más frecuente en ambos anélidos. Las bacterias fueron sensibles a los antibióticos comúnmente empleados en las infecciones causadas por este tipo de microorganismos. Se sugiere hacer profilaxis con antibióticos en los pacientes que reciban terapia con los anélidos investigados e implementar los protocolos estandarizados para el lavado de los animales antes de su uso y para el aseo de los acuarios en donde se los mantenga.

  11. Estudo bioquímico e fisiológico sobre os bagres marinhos do Brasil: I. Sobre padrão eletroforético do plasma em gel de poliacrilamida dos bagres da região estuarino lagunar de Cananéia

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    Phan Van Ngan

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the use of electropherogrames of plasma proteins in polyacrylamide slab gel in the study of populations of marine cat-fishes was examined. A total of 176 samples of plasma from four species. Sciadeichtys luniscutis. Arius spixii, Genidens genidens and Netuma barbas was used. Inter-specific as well as intra-specific differences were found and the locus E of the plasma of all the four species showed a typical dialelic variation. The locus is recommended as one of alternatives which deserve due consideration in the planing of studies of populations of these species by means of biochemical methods.

  12. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es considerar distintos aspectos que surgen del análisis de las exportaciones pesqueras provenientes de la pesca comercial artesanal de la Cuenca del Plata, Argentina. Se trata de identificar aquellos impactos vinculados a las prácticas pesqueras sobre las poblaciones naturales involucradas y los compromisos relacionados con la conservación de la biodiversidad de la ictiofauna de la cuenca. Se analizan 17 años de datos de las pesquerías comerciales artesanales correspondientes al tramo argentino del río Paraná sobre registros oficiales de los productos pesqueros exportados para distintas especies durante el período 1994-2010. Los registros de los productos exportados expresados en toneladas en peso (ton se refieren particularmente a especies autóctonas de gran tamaño e interés comercial como el sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, la boga (Leporinus obtusidens, la tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, el surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., el dorado (Salminus brasiliensis y el patí (Luciopimelodus pati, además de varias especies acompañantes en las capturas como bagres, armados y pejerreyes (Odontesthes bonariensis. Las exportaciones pesqueras muestran un incremento sumamente importante con un total de 331.517 ton para el período 1994-2010. La especie blanco de la pesquería es el sábalo con 88,77 % de las exportaciones totales y le siguen en orden de importancia la tararira con el 4,16 %, la boga con el 3,70 %, el patí con un 1,35 % y otras especies de menor captura. Los países de destino de los productos pesqueros son Brasil, Colombia, Bolivia y Nigeria, entre otros. Sin embargo, desde el 2003, Colombia compra en promedio el 50 % del total de las exportaciones pesqueras de la Argentina. El análisis de los datos históricos de las exportaciones pesqueras (1994-2010 evidencia la necesidad de implementar medidas mas claras sobre el control y manejo de los recursos pesqueros y las posibles implicancias derivadas

  13. Distribuição, abundância relativa e movimentos sazonais de bagres marinhos (Siluriformes, Ariidae no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos (RS, Brasil

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    Francisco Gerson Araújo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Three ariid fish, Netuma barba, Netuma planifrons and Genidens genidens, use the estuary of the Patos Lagoon (32ºS, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as a nursery and feeding ground in various stages of their life history. A comparative study was made of the temporal and spatial distribution and relative abundance. Seasonal movements were interpreted on the basis of distribution and abundance of the young of these coexisting sea catfishe. Monthly otter trawl samples were made between November, 1979 and April, 1983. Temperature, salinities and dissolved oxygen contents were taken at each of the 674 sample stations. All three species were caught in ample temperature (12,1 to 26,3ºC, salinity (0,3 to 35,5‰ and dissolved oxygen (4,7 to 11,5 mg/l ranges. However, they were more abundant in stations of low temperature and in salinity with highly dissolved oxygen content. N. barba was the most abundant catfish caught in the estuary, it constituted 81,9% in number and 81,4% in weight of ali ariid trawl catches during the study. N. barba occurred throughout the estuary, from the adjacent coastal region to the upper reaches of the Patos Lagoon estuary near the liminetic zone. N. planifrons occurred from adjacent coastal regions to low saline parts of the Patos Lagoon estuary, whereas G. genidens were distributed mainly in low saline and freshwater parts of the lagoon. Young-of-the-year N. barba aggregated near of the entrance of the lagoon in fall and winter, then moved up to intermediary parts of the estuary in spring, and they went to the upper part of the estuary in summer. Yearlings N. barba moved into the estuary in common with young-of-the-year but did not reach the coastal adjacent area. Young-of-the-year and yearling N. planifrons moved in to the estuary as the same pattern as N. barba but they became scarce during the late summer and early fall. G. genidens were scarcely captured in the estuary throughout the year. The spatial and temporal segregations among Netuma and Genidens were evident. A hypothetical model for the life history of N. barba is suggested.

  14. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

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    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  15. Revalidação de Cathorops arenatus e Cathorops agassizii (Siluriformes, Ariidae, bagres marinhos das regiões norte e nordeste da América do Sul

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    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As espécies nominais das regiões norte e nordeste da América do Sul, reconhecidas na literatura como sinônimos júnior de Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 têm seu status específico revisto. Os tipos de Arius arenatus Valenciennes, 1840, Arius fissus Valenciennes, 1840, Tachisurus agassizii Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 e Arius pleurops Boulenger, 1897 foram examinados. Cathorops arenatus e Cathorops agassizii são espécies válidas, Cathorops fissus é sinônimo júnior de Cathorops arenatus e Cathorops pleurops sinônimo júnior de Cathorops agassizii. Os caracteres morfométricos tradicionalmente usados em descrições e chaves de identificação para espécies da família Ariidae são redefinidos e novos caracteres são utilizados.Nominal species from north and northeast South America, traditionally recognized in the literature as synonymous of Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829, have their specific status redefined. Type specimens of Arius arenatus Valenciennes, 1840, Arius fissus Valenciennes, 1840, Tachisurus agassizii Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 and Arius pleurops Boulenger, 1897 were examined. Cathorops arenatus and Cathorops agassizii are considered valid, Cathorops fissus is a junior synonym of Cathorops arenatus and Cathorops pleurops a junior synonym of Cathorops agassizii. The morphometric characters traditionally used in descriptions and keys in the family Ariidae are redefined and new characters are used.

  16. Fontes não-convencionais de proteína na primeira alimentação do bagre sul americano (Rhamdia quelen Unconventional protein sources in the first feeding of South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    David Roque Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes fontes de proteína na primeira alimentação de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sob condições de laboratório. Foram testadas três rações balanceadas secas: ovo de peixe (TA, hidrolisado de carcaça do peixe (TB e fígado de frango cru (TC, na quais foram analisadas, pelo crescimento, a biomassa final produzida e a sobrevivência das larvas. O ensaio teve uma duração de 20 dias, e as rações foram fornecidas ad libitum. As larvas alimentadas com ovo de peixe apresentaram os melhores resultados com peso médio individual de 340mg, sobrevivência de 57% e biomassa final de 1.350mg, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação de rações balanceadas com ovos de peixes fornecida na primeira alimentação de larvas de jundiá pode tornar-se uma alternativa promissora na larvicultura dessa espécie.This study aimed to evaluate different proteins sources in first feeding of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen under laboratory conditions. Three balanced dry rations were tested, fish roe (TA, biological fish silage (TB and crude chicken liver (TC evaluating specific growth rate, final biomass produced and survival rate. The experiment was performed in 20 days, and all the rations were provided ad libitum. Larvae fed with fish roe presented better results, with 340mg of individual mean weight, 57% of survival rate and 1.350mg of final biomass, differing significantly with the other treatments. The results show that the inclusion of fish roe in balanced rations offered at the first feeding of jundiá larvae may become a promising alternative for the hatchering of the species.

  17. Mercury in fishes of the J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 26 to 30,1990 spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and largemouth bass...

  18. Mercury in fishes of the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) were collected from...

  19. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  20. Presencia de Arius grandicassis en el Caribe colombiano, incluyendo una clave para la identificación de los peces de la familia Ariidae en el área

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Ladino, L.M.; Betancur-R., R.; Acero-P., A.; Zarza-G-, E.

    2002-01-01

    The family Ariidac in the Colombian Caribbean coast includes five well known species (Ariopsis bonillai, Arius props, Bagre bagre, B. marinus and Selenaspis herzbergii) and at least two undescribed of the genus Cathorops. In this paper we report by the first time the presence of Arius gandicassis Valenciennes, 1840 in the region, based on three specimens of 342 - 495 mm total length captured in offshore waters at San Lorenzo de Camarones (La Guajira), widening in this way the species distribu...

  1. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae, en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae, in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818, colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así como algas verdes del orden Charales. Además, se encontraron otros siete órdenes de invertebrados: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera y Scorpionida, además de dos órdenes de plantas: Poales y Fabales. El orden Perciforme constituyó casi la mitad del total del peso del contenido estomacal, seguido por los órdenes Atheriniforme y Charales. En las estaciones de verano e invierno se presentó el mayor número de estómagos vacíos, mientras que en primavera se encontró el mayor número de estómagos llenos. La cantidad de alimento ingerida en la estación de invierno fue significativamente menor que en las demás estaciones. El principal alimento en primavera, verano y otoño, fueron los peces, mientras que en invierno hubo mayor preferencia por las algas.Having the objective of determining their trophic spectrum and their variations within a year, the contents of 240 stomachs of Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 were analyzed from 2006 to 2007. The items of the stomach contents were determined to the order level. The data was analyzed by different quantitative and qualitative methods. The most frequent orders were Perciforms and Atheriniforms corresponding to forage fish, along with green algae of the Charales order. Also, seven orders of invertebrates were found: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Scorpionida, and two orders of plants: Poales and Fabales. The Perciform order made up almost half of the total weight of the stomach contents, followed by the Atheriniform and the Charales orders. The greatest number of empty stomachs showed up during summer and winter, while the greatest number of filled-up stomachs was found during the spring season. The quantity of food consumed during winter time was significantly lower than the amount consumed during all other seasons. The kind of food consumed during the spring, summer and autumn was mainly fish, while algae were preferred during the winter season.

  2. Manual de métodos parasitológicos e histopatológicos en piscicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Recientes problemas provocados por epiemias de infecciones de Ichthyophthirius multifiliie en la cría de bagre negro (Rhandia sapo) cultivado por el Departamento de Acuicultura del INAPE de Uruguay, y el conocimiento de que todos los piscicultores tienen problemas con los parásitos, constituyeron la base y antecedente para el inicio de un programa de investigaciones parasitológicas. Este programa incluyó. 1) Disección de bagres capturados en Laguna de Sauce y colecta de parásitos. 2) Disecció...

  3. Una visión de la biología tropical a través del microscopio electrónico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The first electron microscope in Costa Rica was a donation from the government of Japan throught its International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 1974. This donation made possible the consolidation of what was to become the University of Costa Rica’s Electron Microscope Unit (UME). Within three years the first scientific papers were published, dealing with ultrastructural aspects of “Corn’s rayado fino virus” and rotavirus, viral agent of human diarrhea. Subsequent papers out of the UME were pu...

  4. In situ assessment of two catfish species (pisces, Ariidae) to evaluate pollution in a harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Junior, Audalio Rebelo Torres; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Sousa de Oliveira Mota Andrade, Ticianne; Torres, Hetty Salvino; da Silva Castro, Jonatas; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia

    2016-12-01

    A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Harbor area) and Caranguejos Island (reference area) in Brazil is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. The total length (Lt), standard length (Ls), furcal length (Lf), total weight (Wt), and gonad weight (Wg) of each fish were recorded. As expected, most populations of catfish considered in this study are highly heterogeneous, with lengths and weights deviating from the reference sample. No histopathological lesions were observed in Sciades herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of the catfish S. herzbergii from sites located in the Harbor Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. As opposed to what was observed in S. herzbergii, more than 86.33% of Bagre bagre individuals showed histopathological alterations in both areas. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was able to differentiate one impacted site (Port Area/ São Luís Island) from a region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area/ Caranguejos Island).

  5. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  6. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  7. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en el Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez; Jesús Ricardo Sánchez Pale; Antonio Laguna Cerda; José Francisco Ramírez Dávila; Artemio Balbuena Melgarejo; Omar Guadalupe Alvarado Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  8. Nuevo registro de Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae en la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, Coahuayana, Michoacán, México New record of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae in the mouth of Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Raúl Sandoval-Huerta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, al noroeste del estado de Michoacán fue registrada la presencia del plecostoma rayado, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae. Se describe e ilustra un ejemplar adulto de sexo indeterminado, con longitud total de 386 mm, recolectado el 4 de julio de 2010.Vermiculated Salifin Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae, is reported at the mouth of the river Coahuayana, northwest of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. On July 4, 2010, an adult specimen of this species was collected. The specimen measured 386 mm and sex was not determined. The specimen is described and illustrated.

  9. A Pre-Restoration Fishery Resource Utilization Assessment of an Estuarine Borrow Pit in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    felis Hardhead Catfish - - 7 7 14 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Cynoscion arenarius White Trout 2 4 - 6 12 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Bairdiella chrysoura...Bagre marinus Gafftopsail Catfish - - 1 1 2 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Brevoortia patronus Gulf Menhaden - - - 1 2 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Larimus...arenarius White Trout 2 1 - 3 6 - - - 0 0 - 1 3 4 8 Bairdiella chrysoura Silver Perch 1 1 4 6 12 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Arius felis Hardhead Catfish

  10. Avaliação do jundiá (Rhamdia quelen em diferentes sistemas de cultivo para a região do litoral centro norte de Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El bagre (Rhamdia quelen, un pez nativo habitante de la mayoría de los ríos, lagos y lagunas de Santa Catarina, y que pertenecen a la orden Siluriformes, familia Pimelodidae, género Rhandia. El estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeño de este pez nativo en los sistemas más utilizados en Santa Catarina. El experimento se llevó a cabo en el ámbito del Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú CEPC-EPAGRI, cuando 11 tanques excavados fueron utilizados, tres en representación de un monocultivo de bagre con una densidad de 1,5 p/m2, tres en representación de un bicultivo de bagre y tilapia con una densidad de 3p/m2, tres en representación de un policultivo de la carpa, tilapia y "jundiás" con una densidad de 3p/m2, y en dos tanques excavados fueron instalados seis tanques redes, en representación de las culturas de alta densidad de 50 y 100 p/m3.

  11. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

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    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  12. MAST CELLS, MAST/STEM CELL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (C-KIT/CD117 AND IGE MAY BE INTEGRAL TO THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENDEMIC PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS

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    Ana Maria Roselino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pemphigus foliaceus (PF is endemic in some South American countries, especially in Colombia and Brazil; in Brazil, it is also known as fogo selvagem (FS. We aimed to study the presence of mast cells and the expression of the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit/CD117 in PF skin biopsies, as well as the role of IgE in the disease pathogenesis. Methods: Forty-four skin biopsies from patients affected by endemic PF (EPF (30 patients from El Bagre, Colombia, and 14 from the northeastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 48 control biopsies from Colombian and Brazilian endemic areas, and additional control biopsies from none endemic areas in Colombia and the USA non were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to evaluate skin biopsies with anti-mast cell tryptase (MCT, anti-c-kit and anti-IgE antibodies. We also searched for serum IgE in 30 EPF and 30 non-atopic controls from the El Bagre region via ELISA. In our El Bagre patients and controls, we also searched for IgE in skin samples by direct immunofluorescence. Results: In 100% of the EPF biopsies, MCT, c-kit and IgE were identified with stronger expression relative to control biopsies, especially in the inflammatory infiltrates around upper dermal blood vessels and dermal eccrine glands. IgE staining was positive along the BMZ in some EPF skin samples. The DIF results confirmed a linear deposition of IgE at the BMZ. Increased IgE serum levels were also noted in PF patients relative to controls.. Conclusions: In patients with EPF, the observed increased expression of MCT, c-kit and IgE in lesional skin, associated with higher serum IgE levels may indicate possible IgE participation in the antigenic response.

  13. Relevamiento íctico con espineles en el río Alto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Sergio Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir al arte de pesca denominado “espinel” que utilizamos en el alto Iguazú durante las décadas de los 80 y los 90, en un plan de relevamiento científico, y que permitió recolectar especies raras o nuevas para la Argentina (Gómez y Somay, 1985) como por ejemplo el bagre exótico Ictalurus nebulosus (Gómez, 2008). Se describen los espineles utilizados en el Alto Iguazú y la frecuencia o abundancia de las principales especies capturadas con este arte de pesc...

  14. APORTACIÓN A LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA HUMANA POR LA ACTIVIDAD PESQUERA EN EL LAGO DE ZAPOTLÁN Y LA PRESA BASILIO VADILLO

    OpenAIRE

    J. Guadalupe Michel Parra; Isabel Montaño Larios; Evangelina Díaz Andrade

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio ecológico, tuvo como objetivo conocer las aportación productivas y nutrimentales de la actividad pesquera del lago de Zapotlán y la presa Basilio Vadillo, a la seguridad alimentaria; las especies ictiológicas alimentarias en común de los humedales son; tilapia, carpa y lobina. El charal y el bagre son la diferencia entre ambos. La captura mínima por pescador en la Laguna de Zapotlán es de 12.56 kg/día, y en la presa Basilio Vadillo es de 20 kg/día. El esfuerzo pesquero ...

  15. Two new species in the genus Cucullanus (Nematoda - Cucullanidae from the australian region

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    A. J. Petter

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Cucullanus are described: C. bourdini n. sp. and C. laurotravassosi n. sp. C. bourdini is a parasite of Pristipomoides filamentosus , Aprion virescens and P. flavipinnis (Lutjanidae in New Caledonia. The species is closely related to C. amadai, C. bulbosus and C. hians by the disposition of the post-and ad-cloacal papille but differs by the more posterior position of the deirids. C. laurotravassosi n. sp., a parasite of Arius sp. in Australia, is close to C. bagre but can be distinguished by the more posterior position of post-cloacal papillae.

  16. Two new species in the genus Cucullanus (Nematoda - Cucullanidae) from the australian region

    OpenAIRE

    Petter,A. J.; Le Bel,J.

    1992-01-01

    Two new species of Cucullanus are described: C. bourdini n. sp. and C. laurotravassosi n. sp. C. bourdini is a parasite of Pristipomoides filamentosus , Aprion virescens and P. flavipinnis (Lutjanidae) in New Caledonia. The species is closely related to C. amadai, C. bulbosus and C. hians by the disposition of the post-and ad-cloacal papille but differs by the more posterior position of the deirids. C. laurotravassosi n. sp., a parasite of Arius sp. in Australia, is close to C. bagre but can ...

  17. Thermal properties of natural nanostructured hydroxyapatite extracted from fish bone waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2007-04-01

    In a previous study, natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) from the bones of Brazilian river fish was calcined at 900 °C (4-12 h), and optical characterization using the near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy technique enabled the establishment of 8 h as the best calcination time for nanostructure stabilization when milled in a high-energy milling device [T. M. Coelho, E. S. Nogueira, W. R. Weinand, W. M. Lima, A. Steimacher, A. N. Medina, M. L. Baesso, and A. C. Bento, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094312 (2006)]. The fish wastes used were from species such as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans), jaú (Paulicea lutkeni), and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). In this study, the characterization of the thermal properties of the same natural HAp is discussed for samples milled from 0 to 32 h, with nanostructures from 80 to 24 nm. The powders were pressed into disks at 350 MPa and sintered for 4 h at 1000 °C. Thermophysical parameters were obtained by thermal wave interferometry and nonadiabatic relaxation calorimetry. Results for thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity showed that the parameters increase with milling time, although they present a transition (a plateau) in the interval from 8 to 16 h. Two different slopes were observed and this was interpreted as being due to the size of the crystallites, which fall rapidly, dropping from 80 nm to near 22 nm when milling time is increased from 0 to 16 h, and forming agglomerates up to 32 h.

  18. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.

  19. Trostky e Inglaterra

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    Keynes John Maynard

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En una reciente reseña del libro de León Trotsky ¿A dónde va Gran Bretaña? se dice que: 2El autor repite perogrulladas como un disco rayado". Podría imaginar que Trotsky, dictó esa frase. En su ropaje inglés, este libro refleja oscuramente el tono insolente propio de los actuales escritos revolucionarios rusos. El tono dogmático con que se refiere a nuestra situación, en el que incluso los destellos de lucidez se ven opacados por su ignorancia acerca de lo que está hablando, no permite recomendarlo al lector inglés. Sin embargo, Trotsky tiene cierto estilo. Detrás de su lenguaje distorsionante se percibe su personalidad. Y no todo son pergulladas.

  20. Trostky e inglaterra

    OpenAIRE

    Keynes John Maynard

    2010-01-01

    En una reciente reseña del libro de León Trotsky ¿A dónde va Gran Bretaña? se dice que: 2El autor repite perogrulladas como un disco rayado". Podría imaginar que Trotsky, dictó esa frase. En su ropaje inglés, este libro refleja oscuramente el tono insolente propio de los actuales escritos revolucionarios rusos. El tono dogmático con que se refiere a nuestra situación, en el que incluso los destellos de lucidez se ven opacados por su ignorancia acerca de lo que está hablando, no permite recome...

  1. Influencia de la electroerosión sobre las características tribológicas de materiales compuestos WC-Co

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    Casas, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electrical discharge machining (EDM on the abrasive wear resistance of two WC-10wt Co cemented carbides with different carbide grain size has been studied. Different surface finish conditions were evaluated corresponding to sequential EDM as well as grinding and polishing with diamond. The abrasive wear resistance was determined through microscratch measurements using a nanoindentation system. Contrary to the results obtained from hardness measurements, this technique allows to discern tribological differences among the distinct surface finish conditions studied. Finally, the abrasive wear resistance degradation associated with sequential EDM is discussed as a function of microstructure in terms of a damage parameter.

    En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de la electroerosión sobre la resistencia a la abrasión mediante rayado, en términos de volumen de material removido, de dos carburos cementados WC-10 % en peso de Co con diferente tamaño de carburo medio. Se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de acabado superficial correspondientes a distintos procesos de mecanizado: electroerosión y desbaste y pulido con diamante. La resistencia a la abrasión mediante rayado fue determinada utilizando un sistema de nanoindentación. A diferencia de los resultados obtenidos para mediciones de dureza, esta técnica permite discernir diferencias tribológicas significativas entre los distintos acabados evaluados. Finalmente, la degradación de la resistencia a la abrasión por efecto de la electroerosión es discutida en función de la microestructura, en términos de un parámetro de daño.

  2. Simulación de un sistema tribológico formado por sustrato recubrimiento rugoso usando métodos numéricos//Simulation tribological system formed by substrate roughness coating using numeric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Pérez‐Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en simular y analizar usando el Método de los Elementos Finitos, los esfuerzos obtenidos en un sistema sustrato+recubrimiento como consecuencia del contacto con una partícula rígida, sometida a carga normal y deslizamiento a lo largo de la superficie del sistema, la cual cuenta con una rugosidad Ra de 0,36μm. Los resultados evidencian la importancia de considerar larugosidad del sistema recubierto durante la simulación del ensayo de rayado, contrario a las simulaciones que reporta la literatura, ya que esta afecta el comportamiento de esfuerzos y deformaciones durante el contacto y deslizamiento. Además los resultados sugieren que al considerar la rugosidad del sistema, aumenta la posibilidad de surgimiento prematuro de grietas durante el ensayo de rayado.Palabras claves: método de los elementos finitos, sistemas recubiertos, rugosidad, esfuerzos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis research focuses on simulate and to analyze using Finite Element Method, the stresses behavior obtained in a system (substrate+coating as a result of the contact with a rigid particle under normal load and sliding along the surface of the system, which has roughness Ra of 0,36μm. The results show that in the scratch test simulation, the roughness of coated system must be considered contrary to the literature simulations of this field, since this affects the stresses and deformations behavior during contact and sliding. Thus, to increase surface roughness peaks greater possibility of inducing stress cracking.Key words: finite element method, coated systems, roughness, stresses.

  3. Gestión de nuevos cultivares de frijol común en las condiciones de la UBPC “Santa Maria 4”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Avila Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se real izó en la UBPC Santa Maria 4 perteneciente a la UEB Antonio Guiteras del municipio Puerto padre, provincia Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 28 de noviembre de 2012 hasta el 16 de febrero de 2013, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de siete cultivares de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. , en un suelo Pardo sialítico mullido carbonatado con vista a incrementar la biodiversidad y elevar el rendimiento agrícola de este cultivo. Los cultivares evaluados fueron (Velazco Largo, Colorado E-120, frijol Rayado, Rojo E-114, Frijol Crema Japones, Rojo E-130, frijol Blanco Español, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas, la fitotecnia aplicada fue la tradicional establecida para este cultivo, los aspectos evaluados fueron los siguientes, altura de las plantas, número de hojas, grosor del tallo, altura de la primera vaina, granos por vainas, peso de 100 granos, rendimiento agrícola, incidencia de las principales plagas y valoración económica de la producción. El cultivar que obtuvo mayor rendimiento fue el Velazco Largo y los de menor el Rojo E-114 y el Rayado, los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar que desde el punto de vista económico es factible la realización de estas siembras, pues se pueden obtener incrementos en el ingreso por ventas de $ 6242.90 – 20108.85 pesos por hectárea. En el experimento las condiciones edafoclimáticas fueron favorables en todo el ciclo del cultivo, no se registraron altos niveles de infestación de plagas y enfermedades.

  4. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

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    Jian-Guo Huang

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA, the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH, and density (N for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR, were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2>0.67 to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  5. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Guo; Stadt, Kenneth J; Dawson, Andria; Comeau, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA), the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH), and density (N) for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR), were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2)>0.67) to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  6. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  7. Malaria in the colombian regions of Uraba and Bajo Cauca, province of Antioquia: an overwiew to interpret the antimalarial therapeutic failure La malaria en Colombia, Antioquia y las zonas de Urabá y Bajo Cauca: panorama para interpretar la falla terapéutica antimalárica. Parte 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: in the past 5 years we have studied the treatment response to antimalarials and their combinations in the Antioquia region (Turbo, Zaragoza and El Bagre municipalities. The interpretation and better understanding of the treatment outcome (adequate clinical response, early treatment failure or late treatment failure require further information since this response depends on host’s and parasite’s factors, independently of the characteristics of the antimalarial administered. Objectives: to define an adequate reference frame which allows for interpretation of results obtained during antimalarials treatment assessment studies. This would include demography, epidemiology, climatic and social-economic information about Colombia, Antioquia, the regions of Uraba, Bajo Cauca and the municipalities of Turbo and El Bagre. Methodology: research of secondary information (publications reports and internet resources, and some primary information (taken from Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Antioquia (Sivigila of Dirección Seccional de Salud de Antioquia DSSA. Data about treatment response were primary information (produced by Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, or obtained from other authors. With the gathered data, tables and graphs were produced and calculations were carried out using other variables. Results: the frequency of malaria is presented for Colombia during the period 1960-2002 and the results of the malaria eradication and control programs, and their failure, are described. Similarly, the frequency of malaria in Antioquia during 1959-2003 is discussed and presented in terms of incidence rates and parasite annual indexes (PAI. Non adjusted and adjusted rates and PAI were obtained, therefore adjusted rates are presented by exposed population, which is less of 20%. Adjusted results are 5-6 fold higher that non-adjusted values in Antioquia. However this is not true for the Uraba and Bajo Cauca regions, where 100% of the

  8. Parasitofauna de cachara cultivado em tanque-rede no rio Paraguai

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    Gabriela Tomas Jeronimo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa, Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscissus e Nominoscolex sudobim (Cestoda, Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea e Digenea. O protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi o parasito com maior prevalência.

  9. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

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    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  10. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae) en condiciones de laboratorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luna-Figueroa; Elsah Arce Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos), II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%), III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%). Los resultados indican que e...

  11. IN SITU IMMUNE RESPONSE EVALUATION VIA IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response in skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD is not well characterized. Aim: Our investigation attempts to immunophenotype cells in lesional skin in several ABD, utilizing immunohistochemistry (ICH. Methods: We tested by IHC for CD4, CD8, CD19, CD20, CD45, CD56/NCAM, PAX-5, granzyme B, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, LAT and ZAP-70 in patients affected by ABD. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: We found a predominantly CD8 positive/CD45 positive T cell infiltrate in all ABD. Our skin biopsies demonstrated consistently positive staining for myeloperoxidase, but negative staining for neutrophil elastase. Most ABD biopsies displayed negative staining for CD4 and B cell markers; natural killer cell markers were also rarely seen. ZAP-70 and LAT were frequently detected. In El Bagre-EPF, a significant fragmentation of T cells in lesional skin was noted, as well as autoreactivity to lymph nodes. Conclusions: The documented T cell and myeloperoxidase staining are indicative of the role of T lymphocytes and neutrophils in lesional biopsies in patients with ABD, in addition to previously documented deposition of B cells, immunoglobulins and complement in situ. In El Bagre-EPF, T cells could also target lymph nodes; however, further studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  12. Malaria, desnutrición y parasitosis intestinal en los niños colombianos: interrelaciones interrrelations between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal parasitism in colombian children

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    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo resume datos colombianos y los hallazgos del Grupo Malaria (Universidad de Antioquia sobre las relaciones entre malaria, desnutrición y funcionamiento inmunitario, trabajos realizados en niños (4-11 años de las poblaciones antioqueñas de Turbo, El Bagre y Zaragoza. Se hace énfasis en las relaciones malaria, parásitos intestinales y desnutrición (desnutrición crónica, hipovitaminosis A, las cuales se exploran a través de su articulación en el sistema inmunitario. Se formulan recomendaciones para la aplicación clínica (individual y epidemiológica (colectiva con respecto a la formulación de suplemento de vitamina A y antihelmínticos de amplio espectro. En Turbo y en El Bagre y Zaragoza: 1 la frecuencia de malaria registra índices parasitarios anuales de 39 (Turbo y 156 casos por cada mil sujetos expuestos (El Bagre-Zaragoza en 1996-2000; 2 el riesgo de desnutrición crónica (índice talla/ edad es de 63% en los niños de 3-11 años; 3 se encontró anemia en el 26% de los palúdicos y 17% de los no palúdicos; 4 el 65% de los niños con malaria y el 35% de aquellos sin malaria mostraron valores de retinol bajos (<0,3 µg/mL; 5 se hallaron niveles anormalmente bajos de apoproteína A-1, tanto en los niños sin malaria como, sobre todo, en los que sí la tenían; 6 el 96% de los niños (4-9 años con malaria mostraron títulos de interleuquina 10 (IL10 muy altos con relación a lo normal y estadísticamente superiores a los exhibidos por los niños sin malaria; 7 los títulos de IgE total y específica anti-Plasmodium estuvieron anormalmente altos en los niños de ambos municipios e igual sucedió con los niveles de FNT-; 8 en estudiantes y docentes de enfermería, aparentemente sanos, con edades de 18-44 años, hallamos parásitos intestinales en el 97% y parásitos intestinales patógenos en el 42%. En menores de 5 años de Turbo hay parásitos intestinales patógenos en un 30-35% de los niños, con predominio de G

  13. Overexpression and self-assembly of virus-like particles in Nicotiana benthamiana by a single-vector DNA replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Jisu; Kang, Sebyung; Kim, Moonil; Mason, Hugh S; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent developments, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered to be perfect candidates as nanoplatforms for applications in materials science and medicine. To succeed, mass production of VLPs and self-assembly into a correct form in plant systems are key factors. Here, we report expression of synthesized coat proteins of the three viruses, Brome mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Maize rayado fino virus, in Nicotiana benthamiana and production of self-assembled VLPs by transient expression system using agroinfiltration. Each coat protein was synthesized and cloned into a pBYR2fp single replicon vector. Target protein expression in cells containing p19 was fourfold higher than that of cells lacking p19. After agroinfiltration, protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and quantitative image analyzer. Quantitative analysis showed that BMVCP, CMVCP, and MRFVCP concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 0.8 mg · g(-1) leaf fresh weight, respectively. VLPs were purified by sucrose cushion ultracentrifugation and then analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggested that BMVCP and CMVCP proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves were able to correctly self-assemble into particles. Moreover, we evaluated internal cavity accessibility of VLPs to load foreign molecules. Finally, plant growth conditions after agroinfiltration are critical for increasing heterologous protein expression levels in a transient expression system.

  14. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO Y. FUJIMOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings.A vitamina C é essencial para dietas de peixe porque muitas espécies não conseguem sintetizá-la. Esta vitamina é necessária par a formação de cartilagem e matriz óssea. Além disso, age como antioxidante e melhora as resposta do sistema imunológico. O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans pela incidência de deformidades na estrutura óssea e cartilaginosa. O ascorbil polifosfato (AP foi utilizado como fonte de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado durante o período de três meses. Seis dietas foram formuladas: uma dieta controle (0 mg de vitamina C / kg e cinco dietas 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 e 2.500 mg de AP / kg. Os peixes alimentados sem suplementação de vitamina C apresentaram deformidades óssea na cabeça e mandíbula e fragilidade de nadadeiras. Assim, a dieta de 500 mg de AP/kg foi suficiente para prevenir a ocorrência de deformidades, e a ausência desta vitamina prejudica o desenvolvimento ósseo de juvenis de pintados.

  15. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY VERSUS IMMUNOFLUORESENCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs, the diagnostic gold standard has classically been direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF, despite inherent technical problems of autofluorescence. Aim: We sought to overcome autofluorescence issues and compare the reliability of immunofluorescence versus immunohistochemistry (IHC staining in the diagnoses of these diseases. Methods: We tested via IHC for anti-human IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE, Kappa light chains, Lambda light chains, Complement/C3c, Complement/C1q, Complement/C3d, albumin and fibrinogen in 30 patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF, and 30 control biopsies from the endemic area. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with ABDs whose diagnoses were made clinically, histopathologically and by DIF/IIF studies from 2 independent dermatopathology laboratories in the USA. Specifically, we tested 34 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 18 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 30 control skin samples from plastic esthetic surgery reduction surgeries. Results: The diagnostic correlation between IHC and DIF-IIF was almost 98% in most cases. IHC revealed evidence of autofluorescence around dermal blood vessels, dermal eccrine glands and neurovascular packages feeding skin appendices in ABDs; this autofluorescence may represent a non-specific immune response. Strong patterns of positivity were seen also in endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, as well as between dermal fibrohistiocytic cells. In PV, we noted strong reactivity to neurovascular packages supplying sebaceous glands, as well as apocrine glands with edematous changes. Conclusions: We suggest that IHC is as reliable as DIF or IIF for the diagnosis of ABDs; our findings further suggest that what has previously been considered DIF/IIF autofluorescence

  16. Genetic variability of broodstocks of restocking programs in Brazil

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    Nelson Lopera-Barrero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was evaluate the genetic diversity of the following broodstocks: piapara (Leporinus elongatus, dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum already useful for restocking programs in the Paranapanema, Iguaçu and Paraná Brazilian Rivers. Materials and methods. Samples from the caudal fin of 122 fish were analyzed. DNA was extracted by NaCl protocol. PCR products were separated by a horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis. The fragments were visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Results. The amplification of 25 primers generated different fragments in studied species that allowed characterizing 440 fragments of 100-2900 bp. High percentage of polymorphic fragments (66.67 to 86.29, Shannon index (0.365 to 0.486 and genetic diversity of Nei (0.248 to 0.331 were detected. Conclusions. The level of genetic variability in the broodstocks was adequate for allowing their use in restocking programs in the studied Rivers. However, periodical monitoring studies of genetic variability in these stocks, the mating system, reproductive system and general management must be made to guarantee the preservation of wild populations.

  17. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

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    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  18. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  19. Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Pimelodus blochii, comparison with other pimelodines, and comments on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui

    2005-07-01

    The cephalic and pectoral girdle structures of the pimelodin Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodus group) are described and compared to those of representatives of the two other main pimelodin groups, namely Calophysus macropterus (Calophysus group) and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Sorubim group), and of a representative of the peculiar pimelodin genus Hypophthalmus, H. edentatus, and several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae. Three new, additional potential synapomorphies to support the monophyly of the Pimelodinae are pointed out: (1) presence of a 'muscle 1 of the mandibular barbels' running from the antero-ventro-mesial surface of the cartilaginous plates carrying these barbels to the dentaries; (2) presence of a muscle tensor tripodis running from the posterior surface of the neurocranium to the dorsal surface of the swimbladder near the tripus; and (3) presence of a 'drumming muscle of the swimbladder' running from the parapophyses of the fourth vertebra and, eventually, the posterior surface of the neurocranium, to the antero and antero-ventral surface of the swimbladder. The subfamilies Pimelodinae, Heptapterinae and Pseudopimelodinae seem to constitute a monophyletic assemblage, thus contradicting the commonly accepted idea that the family Pimelodidae is a polyphyletic clade.

  20. Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplastystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Cuiabá River, Brazil

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    Talitha M. Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae (males and females were estimated through the analysis of growth rings in spines of pectoral fins. Fish were collected from January to December 2007, in the area directly influenced by the Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso (APM Manso and in the Cuiabá River (upper parts of the Pantanal. The maximum number of growth rings was seven for males, and eight, for females. The analysis of temporal variations in mean marginal increment showed that rings found in the spines were formed annually, in December. Growth rings were associated to spawning (in the study region from November to March of the species. The growth curve in length was obtained by the von Bertalanffy model adjusted by the Ford-Walford transformation. The equations are: Ls = 72.7*[1-e-0.44(t+1.5974] for males, and Ls = 84.5*[1-e-0.33(t+2.0943] for females. The equations that describe the growth curve in weight are: Wt = 4991.61*[1-e-0.44 (t+1.5974] 2.70 for males and Wt = 7503.17*[1-e-0.33 (t+2.0943] 2.99 for females.

  1. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

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    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.

  2. Molecular identification of intergenus crosses involving catfish hybrids: risks for aquaculture production

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    Diogo T. Hashimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring of the interspecific hybrid production and trade is essential for the appropriate management of these animals in fish farms. The identification of catfish hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly of juveniles and post-F1 individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we used five molecular markers (four nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene to detect hybrids in the trade of pimelodid juvenile fish from different stocks purchased of five seed producers in Brazil. Samples commercialized as pintado (pure species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from three fish farms were genetically identified as hybrid cachapinta (♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ P. corruscans . In the stocks purchased as cachandiá (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Leiarius marmoratus and cachapira (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , we suggested the occurrence of intergenus crosses involving the hybrid cachapinta, which was used instead of the pure species P. reticulatum . The problems involving the hybrid cachapinta production were discussed in the present study, especially because these animals have caused genetic contamination and threatened the genetic integrity of natural and cultivated populations. In order to improve the surveillance of the production and provide criteria for the correct management of catfish hybrids, genetic markers has become an excellent alternative to the morphological identification, including juveniles or post-F1 generations.

  3. Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Gröhn, Janina; Tropp, Magdalena; Vikström, Anna; Wolpher, Henriette; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Meili, Markus; Oliveira, Lázaro J

    2006-10-01

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  4. Flor de Mayo Eugenia, nueva variedad de frijol para riego y temporal en el centro de México Flor de Mayo Eugenia, new bean cultivar for irrigated and rainfall conditions in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del frijol tipo Flor de Mayo, el subtipo 'media oreja' esta cobrando importancia en el norte-centro de México, éste es de tamaño mediano, forma alargada y color rosa atractivo. Se describe una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME se derivó de una cruza interracial entre Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (raza Jalisco y Rayado Rojo (raza Nueva Granada. El rendimiento promedio de FME en temporal varia de 0.8 a 2.0 t ha-1 y bajo riego el máximo rendimiento ha sido de 3.8 t ha-1. El peso de 100 semillas promedio de diferentes localidades de FME es significativamente superior al de FMA en condiciones de temporal, 32 vs 26 g 100 semillas, y riego 35 vs 31 g 100 semillas. En cuanto la calidad del grano, el tiempo promedio de cocción de FME en cocedor tipo Mattson es 97 min, mientras que el de FMA es de 109 min; el contenido promedio de proteína del grano de FME es 19% en base a peso seco, similar al de FMA, mientras que el contenido de hierro de FME resultó superior al de FMA con 6.1 vs 5 mg 100 g. FME es tolerante a las razas de roya presentes en el Altiplano de México, a la raza 292 de antracnosis y tolerante a los tizones común y de halo.Within 'Flor de Mayo' bean type, the 'media oreja' subtype is becoming important in North-Central México; this last type has a mid-size elongated seed with showy pink color. A new bean cv. of 'media oreja' subtype is described: Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME was derived from an interracial cross between Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (Jalisco breed and Rayado Rojo (Nueva Granada breed. The seed yield of FME under rainfall conditions varied from 0.8 to 2.0 t ha-1 and under irrigation the highest yield recorded was 3.8 t ha-1. The 100-seed weight of FME across different locations was significantly superior to the weight of FMA, 32 vs 26 g per 100 seeds under rainfall conditions and 35 vs 31 g per 100 seeds under irrigation conditions. In regard to seed quality, cooking time average of

  5. Incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimativa de perdas causadas por molicutes em milho no Paraná

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    Oliveira Elizabeth de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimar as perdas causadas por enfezamentos na cultura do milho safrinha. Os diagnósticos baseados em sintomas foram confirmados por PCR ou RTPCR. Em todas as lavouras, foram identificadas plantas com sintomas de enfezamentos, em incidência de 6,2% a 49,9% (média de 20,7%. Na identificação de insetos vetores desses patógenos, a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis foi detectada em 20 lavouras das 24 amostradas, constituindo 66,6% do total de espécimens de cigarrinhas coletadas. A perda potencial causada pelos enfezamentos no período foi estimada em cerca de 16,5 milhões de dólares. A ocorrência de plantas com sintomas de "Maize rayado fino virus" e "Maize dwarf mosaic virus" foi baixa e o diagnóstico confirmado por RTPCR. A análise de 441 amostras suspeitas de infecção por "Mal de Río Cuarto virus", por DASELISA, mostrou ausência desse vírus. Resultados de PCR indicaram a presença de um possível fitoplasma distinto de "Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma" em duas plantas apresentando nanismo acentuado, folhas estreitas, enrijecidas, com deformações, e grãos na inflorescência, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para a confirmação da identidade desse possível novo fitoplasma.

  6. Una especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides de importancia médica (Scorpiones: Buthidae del estado de Guerrero, México A new scorpion species of medical importance of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the state of Guerrero, Mexico

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    José Guadalupe Baldazo-Monsivaiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides villegasi sp. nov. del municipio de Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, que es la novena especie de Centruroides registrada para el estado. Se compara con C. limpidus (Karsch, 1879 por su parecido morfológico y por habitar la misma zona geográfica. Se compara también con C. balsasensis Ponce y Francke, 2004, C. meisei Hoffmann, 1938 y C. tecomanus Hoffmann, 1932, por pertenecer al grupo "alacranes rayados" (sensu Hoffmann, 1932, por su parecido morfológico y por su registro en Guerrero. Es una especie de importancia médica que no se había recolectado o reconocido previamente. Se incluye una lista de las especies de alacranes reconocidas para Guerrero, después de actualizar datos y hacer las correcciones necesarias a los registros históricos para el estado.Centruroides villegasi sp. nov. from the municipality of Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, Mexico is described. It is the nineth species of Centruroides reported for this state. The new species is compared with C. limpidus (Karsch, 1879 which is morphologically similar and inhabits the same geographic zone. The species C. balsasensis Ponce and Francke, 2004, C. meisei Hoffmann, 1938, and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, 1932 are also compared because they are found in Guerrero and belong to the "striped scorpions" group (sensu Hoffmann, 1932, and therefore they are morphologically similar to the new species. It is a species of medical importance that had not been collected or recognized previously. A list of species of scorpions recorded for the state of Guerrero is included after the revision and correction of historical records.

  7. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

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    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p Colombia.

  8. Crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus Balsanus (pisces:ictaluridae en condiciones de laboratorio.

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    Jorge Luna-Figueroa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de tres dietas sobre el crecimiento de alevines de Ictalurus balsanus en condiciones de laboratorio. La talla inicial de los peces fue 39.68 ± 2.0 mm de longitud total y 411.47 ± 17.00 mg de peso corporal, colocados en grupos de 10 peces por acuario de 80L. Los bagres fueron alimentados con tres dietas diferentes: I(31,13% proteína, 2,70% grasa, 56,53% carbohidratos, II(39,12%, 3,0%, 35,0%, III(53,57%, 19,37%, 4,17%. Los resultados indican que el incremento en el peso y en la longitud total de I. balsanus fueron mayores (P0.05 entre los peces nutridos con los distintos alimentos. Por lo que se concluye que las características propias del alimento vivo y, en particular, la alta concentración proteica de Daphnia sp. Generaron mayor incremento en la tasa de crecimiento especifico de I. balsanus.

  9. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

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    Angélica Castellanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001; for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  10. [Impact of water resource installations on the distribution of schistosomiasis and its intermediary hosts in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Jean-Noël; Sondo, Blaise; Parent, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Dams generally are a favourable biotope for the molluscs acting as intermediary hosts to schistosomiasis. The importance of the schistosomiasis endemic which follows depends on the interactions taking place between the parasites and their definitive (humans) and intermediary hosts. A preliminary sound knowledge of the prevailing epidemiological situations is therefore necessary to define an efficient programme to fight these infections. The extension of schistosomiasis following the installation of water resource facilities is significative of the part played by these hosts. In the hydroagricultural complex of Sourou, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis increased from 19% in 1954 to more than 70% in 1998-1999 in Guiédougou, the most ancient site. As to digestive schistosomiasis, almost unheard of until 1987, its prevalence ranged from 8% to 69% in 1998 in the villages located alongside the areas thus equipped. In the Kou Valley, the prevalence went up from 14% in 1957 to 80% in 1974 for urinary schistosomiasis and from 1.3% to 45% for intestinal schistosomiasis. The same tendencies are likely to appear in the hydraulic installations of Bagré, Ziga, and Kompienga. Dams thus constitute amplifying factors for the proliferation of species and for parasite-host interactions. All the actors (developers, populations and scientists) are faced with the challenge of finding a mean to control the development of schistosomiasis infections which are likely to seriously lessen the benefits expected from these hydraulic installations.

  11. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  12. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

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    Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  13. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  14. Rendimentos do processamento e composição química de filés de surubim cultivado em tanques-rede Processing yield and chemical composition of fillets of surubim reared in net cages

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    Denilson Burkert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito da utilização de três rações comerciais indicadas para alimentação de peixes carnívoros sobre os rendimentos do processamento e a composição de filés de surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp cultivados em tanques-rede. Os surubins foram cultivados em tanques-rede durante um ano, período em que foram alimentados com três rações contendo 43,5; 42,6 e 42,1% de proteína bruta; 6,3; 8,7 e 4,5% de extrato etéreo e 5.078; 4.931 e 4.994 kcal de energia bruta, respectivamente, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e três repetições. Em cada tanque, foram selecionados cinco peixes com pesos entre 1.280 e 1.340 g, que foram insensibilizados e sacrificados para determinação dos rendimentos de carcaça com e sem pele, cabeça, filé total, lateral e abdominal, fígado, pele e esqueleto. Amostras de filés laterais e abdominais foram tomadas para análises bromatológicas. Foram avaliados 22 fêmeas e 23 machos, no entanto, não foi observada diferença entre os sexos quanto aos principais rendimentos de processamento. Os rendimentos de filé abdominal e de resíduos com e sem pele diferiram entre as rações. A composição bromatológica dos filés (lateral e abdominal não foi influenciada pelas rações e não diferiu entre os cortes. A utilização de rações comerciais no cultivo não acarretou mudanças na quantidade e na qualidade dos principais cortes do surubim.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three commercial feeds recommended for carnivorous fish on processing yield and fillet composition of surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp raised in net cages. The surubim fishes were raised in net cages during one year, when were fed three diets with 43.5, 42.6, and 42.1% crude protein; 6.3, 8.7, and 4.5% ether extract and 5,078, 4,931, and 4,994 kcal of gross energy, respectively. Fishes were allotted to a completely randomized design, with three treatments and

  15. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

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    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  16. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  17. Fauna parasitária dos híbridos siluriformes cachapinta e jundiara nos primeiros estágios de desenvolvimento

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    Arlene Sobrinho Ventura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fauna parasitária dos peixes híbridos cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans macho x P. reticulatum fêmea e jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus macho x P. reticulatum fêmea no período de larvicultura. Um total de 315 animais, 126 híbridos jundiara e 189 híbridos cachapinta, foram examinados de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento: larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos. Larvas e pós-larvas foram prensadas entre lâmina e lamínula e observadas sob microscopia óptica. Os alevinos foram observados externamente em estereomicroscópio e necropsiados para avaliação interna dos órgãos. Foram aferidos os parâmetros de qualidade de água em todas as fases de cultivo. O exame parasitológico revelou a presença dos protozoários Epistylis sp. e Trichodina sp., no tegumento e nas brânquias, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis no tegumento, dos helmintos Monogenea nas brânquias, e das metacercárias de digenéticos em brânquias, baço, rins, fígado e intestino, em ambos os híbridos analisados. Os parasitos Epystilis sp., Trichodina sp. e metacercária de digenéticos ocorrem com maior frequência nos dois híbridos, nas fases de pós-larvas e alevinos. Há maior prevalência e diversidade de parasitos na fase de alevinagem dos híbridos estudados.

  18. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, S; Ismiño, R; Sánchez, H; David, F; Núñez, J; Dugué, R; Darias, M J; Römer, U

    2014-08-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses.

  19. The effect of two cryoprotectant mixtures on frozen surubí surimi

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    Medina J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available "Surimi" itself is not a food; it is an intermediate phase of the production of "kamaboko"(a gel formed by the addition of salt to the surimi and direct heating to 80-90ºC and a series of high-priced shellfish analogs. The protective effect that two cryoprotectant mixtures exerted during freezing and frozen storage of frozen surimi of surubí (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans on the functional quality of the gels prepared was studied. The selected washing conditions selected to obtain an acceptable functional quality of gels prepared from frozen surimi (25% extracted proteins and of final moisture using the response surface methodology were wash temperature, 18ºC; washing time for each of the three washing cycles, 4.62 min. and water-mince ratio, 3.5:1. Cryoprotectant mixtures used were sucrose/sorbitol (1:1 and maltodextrin/sorbitol (1:1 and they were added (8% to the washed and drained minced fish before freezing. To evaluate the functionality of the frozen surimi during six months of storage, the penetration test to measure the gel strength was chosen; samples were assessed at 4, 45, 90 and 180 days of frozen storage. Results showed that even with the cryoprotectants freezing decreased gel strength, since it produced a decrease of almost 32% in the strength of the gel prepared with fresh surimi. However, the two cryoprotectant mixtures tested showed very good behaviour throughout frozen storage; specially at 45 and 90 days of storage the surimi gels with the sucrose/sorbitol mixture had a greater resistance than those with maltodextrin/sorbitol.

  20. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in

  1. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  2. Determinación del efecto cicatrizante de Piper aduncum (matico en fibroblastos humanos

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    Karen Paco

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto cicatrizante del extracto hidroetanólico de Piper aduncum, en una línea celular de fibroblastos Dermales Adultos Humanos (hDFa. Materiales y métodos. El extracto se obtuvo mediante extracción sólido-líquido, fue concentrado y liofilizado. Se purificaron las proteínas del extracto mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia de fase reversa (RP-HPLC; las proteínas fueron identificadas por espectrometría de masas en tándem de péptidos trípticos y se analizaron por MALDI-TOF-TOF en un espectrómetro de masa ABSciex4800. Los valores de concentración efectiva media (EC50, concentración inhibitoria media (IC50, y el porcentaje de proliferación celular; fueron determinados por ensayos con sales de tetrazolio (MTT . La migración celular se evaluó mediante la "técnica de rayado" . Se analizó la expresión de factores de crecimiento mediante el ensayo de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa a tiempo real (RT- qPCR. Resultados. La línea hDFa evidenció un IC50 de 200 µg/mL con el extracto, el valor de EC50 fue 103,5 µg/mL. En el ensayo de proliferación, la proteína K2; mostró mayor actividad en la proliferación respecto de otros tratamientos (1 µg/mL. En el ensayo de migración de fibroblastos, la proteína K2 mostró mayor actividad (50 µg/mL. La expresión relativa del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas (PDGF se incrementó 8,6 veces respecto al control, en presencia de la proteína K2. Conclusiones. El extracto hidroetanólico, de Piper aduncum, así como las proteínas que contiene, incrementaron la proliferación y migración de fibroblastos dermales humanos (hDFa; así mismo, aumentaron la expresión de factores de crecimiento que intervienen en el proceso de cicatrización.

  3. Phylogeography of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus albicans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from río de la Plata basin, South America, and conservation remarks

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    Julia Vergara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 (common name "moncholo" or "bagre blanco" is an endemic species of the family Pimelodidae in the río de la Plata basin. Phylogenetic approach based on cytochrome b sequences was performed to test the existence of a unique evolutionary lineage in P. albicans and to discriminate populations units or subpopulations related to a migration behavior of this taxon in the río de la Plata basin. This study included 34 samples of P. albicans of different collecting sites in the río de la Plata estuary and in the río Arrecifes belonging to the río Paraná basin. Among 614 base pairs in the cytochrome b sequence data set, 203 were variable and 120 were phylogenetically informative sites in P. albicans. A total of twenty haplotypes, nucleotide diversity (p = 0.032 and haplotype diversity = 0.941 were found. Tajima's test showed significant value D= -1.88 (pPimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 (popularmente conhecida como moncholo ou bagre branco é uma espécie endêmica da família Pimelodidae na bacia do rio da Prata. Estudos filogeográficos baseados nas seqüências do citocromo b mitocondrial foram realizados para testar a existência de uma única linhagem evolutiva in P. albicans e para discriminar unidades populacionais relacionadas ao comportamento migratório desse táxon na bacia do rio da Prata. Um total de 34 amostras de P. albicans provenientes de diferentes lugares de coleta no estuário do rio da Prata e rio Arrecifes na bacia do rio Paraná foram analisados. Entre as 614 pares de bases do citocromo b no conjunto de dados, 203 deles variaram e 120 foram sítios filogeneticamente informativos para P. albicans. No presente estudo foi encontrado um total de vinte haplótipos, diversidade de nucleotídeos (p = 0,032 e diversidade de haplótipos = 0,941. O teste de Tajima mostrou valores significativos D= -1,88 (p<0,05 rejeitando a hipótese de mutação neutra para os dados de P. albicans. Todas as an

  4. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

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    Álvarez Tania

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region, El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region, applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO. Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ, amodiaquine (AQ, mefloquine (MQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP, amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP, mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP, were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up.

  5. Línea de base para evaluar el impacto de una planta de celulosa en el Río Uruguay

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    Carlos Saizar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Como parte del proceso de evaluación del impacto ambiental ante la puesta en funcionamiento de la planta de pulpa de celulosa Kraft Botnia (actual UPM, se realizaron estudios de línea de base entre los años 2005 y 2007. El diseño de muestreo incluyó tres transectas perpendiculares a la línea de costa, en tres sitios: Nuevo Berlín, Fray Bentos y Las Cañas. Se realizaron estudios de parámetros físico-químicos del agua (nutrientes, sustancias orgánicas, metales, compuestos orgánicos adsorbibles (AOX, dioxinas y furanos, materia orgánica y granulometría del sedimento, estudios biológicos de las comunidades planctónicas, zoobentónicas e ícticas y bioacumulación de dioxinas en peces. El fósforo en la columna de agua presentó en promedio valores por encima de lo recomendado por la normativa nacional, mientras los contaminantes orgánicos (AOX, clorofenoles, ácidos resínicos, fitosteroles, dioxinas y furanos se mantuvieron por debajo de los valores guía recomendados a nivel internacional. Las comunidades planctónicas variaron significativamente entre muestreos, la de peces entre sitios y muestreos, mientras que la de bentos no presentó variaciones significativas espaciales ni temporales. El bagre trompudo (Iheringichthys labrosus es propuesto como especie a sermonitoreada debido a su ubicuidad y abundancia. Este trabajo ofrece una visión general de los estudios de línea de base, destacando la multiplicidad y la periodicidad de los parámetros en dos años de estudio.

  6. Malaria vivax en niños: aspectos clínicos y respuesta a la cloroquina.

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    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En Colombia, no hay información actualizada sobre malaria vivax en niños. Objetivo: Describir el cuadro clínico-paraclínico de la enfermedad y evaluar la eficacia de la cloroquina (dosis estándar para curar el ataque agudo de paludismo vivax en niños (4-10 años. Metodología: Diseño experimental, balanceado, no ciego; 82 pacientes, residentes en Turbo o El Bagre. Seguimiento, 30 días. Resultados: Los síntomas y signos concordaron con la literatura. Hubo desnutrición de largo plazo en 62%, anemia en 53%, retinol bajo (19 μg/dl, recuento leucocitario normal, pruebas hepáticas y creatinina normales. A los 25-28 días postratamiento todas las alteraciones, excepto la desnutrición, habían desaparecido. Falla de la cloroquina: dos posibles fallas tardías. Proporción de falla según tres técnicas de análisis según la intención de tratar: 2.4% (0 a 24%, según el protocolo 2.6% (0 a 25%, según el peor escenario 7.3% (0 a 29%. Conclusión: El cuadro clínico-paraclínico fue similar al de los adultos. El paludismo, más que la desnutrición, fue responsable de las alteraciones clínicas-paraclínicas. La cloroquina sola, sin primaquina, resultó altamente eficaz para el ataque agudo de malaria vivax en niños y debe conservarse como primera opción terapéutica.

  7. Ciclo reprodutivo de Parauchenipterus striatulus (Pisces - Auchenipteridae na represa de Ribeirão das Lajes - RJ

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    Araújo F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo reprodutivo do bagre de água doce Parauchenipterus striatulus, na represa de Ribeirão das Lajes, Rio de Janeiro. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos dos estádios de maturação gonadal bem como variações no índice gonadossomático, relação peso:comprimento, fator de condição e condição gonadal. A amostragem dos peixes foi feita bimestralmente entre abril de 1996 e maio de 1997 com o uso de redes de espera de 100m de comprimento, 4m de altura e com malha entre 25 e 65mm de distância entrenós. Os 339 indivíduos capturados ao longo do período de amostragem corresponderam a 40% do total de peixes. Cinco estádios de maturação gonadal foram determinados por meio de análise macroscópica para ambos os sexos: imaturo, maturação I, maturação II, maduro, desovado (fêmeas e esvaziado (machos. O índice gonadossomático foi mais elevado entre outubro e março para ambos os sexos, sugerindo amplo período de desova enquanto o fator de condição atingiu seu máximo entre fevereiro e junho, mostrando uma relação inversa entre essas duas características. A relação peso-comprimento para machos foi de W= 0,0095L3,0862 e fêmeas de W= 0,0116L3,0126, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas entre os coeficientes de alometria para ambos os sexos.

  8. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

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    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  9. Impact of increasing market access on a tropical small-scale fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kara; Irwin, Brian J.; Kramer, Daniel; Urquhart, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries have historically been marginalized in management and policy investments, and they often remain under-reported in national economic and fisheries statistics. Even so, small-scale fisheries are not entirely buffered from the impacts of globalization, such as the introduction and expansion of markets. This study measures the long-term impact of market-access on a coastal fishery on Nicaragua׳s remote Atlantic Coast from approximately the time when fishermen had access to stable and predictable local markets until the present, when the region has been transformed by road connection. In the last four years, fisheries trade has expanded as road connection has facilitated export to distant markets. Fishery-independent surveys were used to measure changes in indicators of fish-community status such as length-frequency, mean trophic level, and relative biomass. Species-level changes in relative biomass of common snook Centropomus undecimalis and gafftopsail catfish Bagre marinus were also evaluated since these species are the most economically valuable and likely account for the most fish biomass in the system. Using historical records, reports, current observations and interviews, changes in indicators of fishing intensity and market access over the past 17 years were assessed. From 1994 to 2011, community and species-specific metrics of the lagoon fishery declined significantly across all indicators examined. The potential social and economic outcomes of the decline in the fishery are far-reaching for the region, because this tropical fishery comprises the main source of protein and income for residents of twelve indigenous and Afro-descendent communities.

  10. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

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    Francisco Provenzano R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.Harttia merevari, uma espécie nova de bagre loricarideo é descrita com base em oito exemplares capturados no alto rio Caura, bacia do rio Orinoco, Venezuela. A espécie nova se distingue pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: abdome nu; duas ou três placas preanais; presença de uma placa óssea anterior a cada abertura branquial; sete placas laterais entre as nadadeiras peitorais e pélvicas; barbilhão maxilar curto e unido ao disco oral por uma dobra carnosa; superfície dorsal da cabeça e região anterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com numerosos pontos negros arredondados, região dorsal e posterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com cinco bandas transversais negras, as duas bandas anteriores com a parte dorsocentral difusa. A descoberta desta espécie nova estende a distribuição do gênero ao noroeste incluindo a bacia do rio Orinoco na vertente norte do Escudo das Guianas.

  11. Metals and metalloid in eight fish species consumed by citizens of Bogota D.C., Colombia, and potential risk to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrera, Ellie Anne; Barragán-Gonzalez, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    The risk imposed upon society by consumption of foods contaminated with metals and metalloids is an environmental problem attributed to the increasing number of mining extraction activities currently underway in Colombia. The aim of the current study was to determine concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and a metalloid arsenic (As) found in the species of most consumed fish species by citizens of Bogota D.C. (Colombia), and the consequent potential risk to human health was also calculated. Muscle samples of 8 fish species were obtained from 203 individuals collected through 2014. The highest metal concentrations detected were as follows: Pb in Oncorhynchus sp. (0.0595 mg/kg), Cd and Hg in Pimelodus sp. (0.0072 and 0.0579 mg/kg, respectively), and As in Scomberomorus sp (0.0471 mg/kg). Further, the levels of metal accumulation from consumption of fish were calculated utilizing the metal pollution index (MPI), with elevated values noted in Pseudoplatystoma sp (0.06 mg/kg), followed by Scomberomorus sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively). The multiple species exposure index (Em.j) denotes the level of exposure associated with consumption of various contaminated fish species, and this level occurred in decreasing order as follows: As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The multiple chemical exposure index (Ej.m), which accounts for exposure to multiple metals, identified Prochilodus sp. as the species displaying the highest level of exposure per consumption (8 × 10(-6) mg/kg-d). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for human health indicated high levels for Hg and Cd in Prochilodus sp. (0.026 and 0.005, respectively), Pb in Oncorhynchus sp (0.025), and As in Pseudoplatistoma sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.023). Data emphasize the need for adequate nationwide public policies that promote assessment of exposure levels and potential adverse health risks associated with dietary consumption of different fish species in Colombia.

  12. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  13. Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil Reprodução do surubim (Pisces, Pimelodidae do Rio São Francisco, Região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais

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    M.F.G. Brito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the surubim, P. coruscans of the São Francisco River, in the Pirapora region was studied from December/98 to November/99. Reproduction occurred between October and January with high frequency of fishes in the advanced ripening/mature and spawned/spent stages along with higher values of the gonadosomatic index. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses indicated that P. coruscans presents total spawning. The reproductive period coincided with highest rainfall and water turbidity values in the region. The smallest male captured had a total length of 63.3cm and the smallest female 92.0cm in total length. The largest male in the maturation stage was recorded to be 97.0cm and the largest female 144.1cm in total length. Surubim were more frequently captured than females, at a proportion of approximately one female to three males. The gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic, stomach repletion, and coelomic fat indexes, as well as the condition factor were related to stages of the reproductive cycle.Estudou-se a biologia reprodutiva do surubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans do Rio São Francisco, na região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais no período de dezembro/98 a novembro/99. A reprodução ocorreu entre outubro e janeiro, com alta freqüência de peixes em maturação avançada/maduros e desovados/espermiados, e os maiores valores do índice gonadossomático nesse período. Análises macro e microscópicas indicaram que P. coruscans apresenta desova total. A época reprodutiva coincidiu com maior turbidez da água e maior incidência de chuva na região. O menor e maior macho capturado em maturação apresentou 63,3cm e 97,0cm e a menor e maior fêmea neste estádio 92,0cm e 144,1cm de comprimento total, respectivamente. Registraram três machos para cada fêmea e somente as fêmeas apresentaram comprimento acima de 100cm. Os índices biológicos gonadossomático, hepatossomático, repleção estomacal, gordura celômica e fator de condi

  14. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

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    Aurélio Ferreira Borges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. Aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia presents two fish production systems: extensive and semi-intensive. In the semi-intensive system, stocking rate was one fish per m3, on average; tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, tilapias (Oreochromis spp., pirarucu (Arapaima gigas and pintado (Pseudoplatystoma spp. were the species farmed at the largest number. The rate of water renewal was due to the greater availability of natural food in this system. Water renewal was constant in the ponds (1,500 liters per minute. In the semi-intensive system using dug ponds, alevins were stocked and fed during the entire rearing time with natural and exogenous food. The extensive system relied on the natural production of the pond, with stocking density limited by the production of natural food. The little renewal of water made the cultivation tank itself acted as a decantation lake, with the occurrence of oxidation and sedimentation of residual organic matter, consisting of feces, debris and organic fertilizer. Production of reduced effluent volume took place in the extensive system, compared to the cultivation area. In addition, there was high water turbidity, caused by high concentration of planktonic organisms, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water

  15. Low total mercury in Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) as compared to carnivorous, and non-carnivorous fish consumed by Amazonian indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S J; Pacheco, L F; Achá, D; Molina, C I; Miranda-Chumacero, G

    2016-11-01

    Mercury contamination in the River Beni basin is an important health risk factor, primarily for indigenous communities that live along the river. Among them are the Tacana, living in their original territory with sustainable use of their natural resources, consuming fish, Caiman yacare, and other riverine resources as their main source of protein. To assess mercury exposure to Tacana people, total mercury (THg) was evaluated in the muscle of seven commercial fish, and Caiman yacare (yacare caiman) during 2007 and 2008. THg was extracted by acid digestion and concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean mercury concentrations in C. yacare was 0.21 ± 0.22 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. (wet weight), which is lower than expected given its high trophic level, and its long life-span. It is possible that mercury in C. yacare is accumulated in other organs, not included in this study; but it is also possible that physiological mechanisms are involved that help caimans get rid of ingested mercury, or simply that C. yacare's diverse diet reduces THg accumulation. Carnivorous fishes (Pygocentrus nattereri, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Zungaro zungaro, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Leiarius marmoratus) had the highest total mercury concentrations, ranging from 0.35 to 1.27 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. moreover, most were above the limit recommended by WHO (0.5 μg g(-1)Hg w.w.); except for Leiarius marmuratus, which presented a mean of 0.353 ± 0.322 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. The two non-carnivorous fish species (Prochilodus nigricans, and Piaractus brachypomus) present mean concentrations of 0.099 ± 0.027, and 0.041 ± 0.019 μg g(-1)Hg w.w., respectively. Finally, recommendations on the consumption habits of Tacana communities are discussed.

  16. Tissue-specific mercury concentrations in two catfish species from the Brazilian coast

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    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some regions of Brazil have particularly high levels of mercury (Hg emissions due to industrial activities, and their fish species may therefore suffer high levels of contamination through bioaccumulation. In this paper we assess Hg contamination in the muscle, liver, gills and blood of two different species of catfish collected from the Cananéia and Santos-São Vicente estuaries, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish from the most polluted site (Santos-São Vicente showed higher median Hg concentrations in both species (Cathorops spixii - liver: 1530 µg Kg-1, muscle: 327 µg Kg-1 and gill: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - liver: 2617 µg Kg-1, muscle: 393 µg Kg-1 and gill: 118 µg Kg-1. Multivariate analysis revealed the importance and influence of key biological variables (size, condition, etc. in determining the overall level of Hg and its distribution within different tissues.Algumas regiões do Brasil apresentam, altos níveis de emissões de mercúrio (Hg devido às atividades industriais, e suas espécies de peixes podem, portanto, estar expostos a elevados níveis de contaminação por meio da bioacumulação. Neste trabalho avaliamos a contaminação por Hg no músculo, fígado, brânquias e sangue de duas espécies de bagres coletados nos estuários de Cananéia e Santos-São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil. Peixes amostrados no local mais poluído (Santos-São Vicente mostraram maiores concentrações de Hg em ambas as espécies (Cathorops spixii - fígado: 1530 µg Kg-1, músculo: 327 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - fígado: 2617 µg Kg-1, músculo: 393 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 118 µg Kg-1. Análises multivariadas revelaram a importância e influência das principais variáveis biológicas (tamanho, condição, etc. no teor geral de Hg e sua distribuição nos diferentes tecidos.

  17. Sciades herzbergii oxidative stress biomarkers: an in situ study of an estuarine ecosystem (São Marcos' Bay, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho-Neta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of environmental contamination on wild fish, sites were sampled in São Marcos' Bay. The first is located near the ALUMAR/ALCOA port, a potentially contaminated area. The second, located near the Coqueiro beach, was used as a reference area. The activity of antioxidant defence catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST in S. herzbergii was compared with the biometric data and gonadosomatic index (GSI. The result showed that GSI decreased significantly in females (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da contaminação ambiental em peixes amostrados em dois locais da Baía de São Marcos. O primeiro ponto está localizado próximo ao porto da ALUMAR/ALCOA, considerado como uma área potencialmente contaminada. O segundo ponto, situado na praia do Coqueiro, foi usado como uma área de referência. Dados da atividade da enzima de defesa antioxidante catalase (CAT e da glutationa S-transferase (GST em S. herzbergii foram comparados com os dados biométricos e o índice gonadossomático (GSI. Resultados mostraram que o GSI diminuiu significativamente em fêmeas (p <0.05 no local contaminado. A atividade da CAT foi mais alta nos peixes do local contaminado. Uma diferença significativa foi observada na atividade de GST de S. herzbergii no local contaminado e no local de referência (p <0.05. GSI possibilitou uma nova abordagem quanto à natureza da resposta de destoxificação nessa espécie de bagre porque este índice não apresentou correlação com as enzimas no local potencialmente contaminado, mas apresentou no local de referência. Assim, sugere-se que a boa correlação da GST/CAT e GSI poderia estar relacionada à reprodução dos animais no local de referência, mas não no local potencialmente contaminado. Se esse for o caso, pode-se concluir que GST/CAT e GSI podem ser utilizados como bons biomarcadores para avaliar contaminação aquática.

  18. Arius kesslerl & Sciadeops troschelii (Pisces: Ariidae growth in floating net cages in estuarine waters of Buenventura Bay-Colombia Crecimiento de Arius kekkleri y Sciadeops troschelli (Pises: Ariidae en jaulas flotantes en zonas estuarinas de la bahía de Buenaventura

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    Arroyo Rafael

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Two species of estuary catfish the Arius kessleri (CoCoCo and the Sciadeops troschelii (Nato were held in floating net cages at varying densities in estuarine waters of Buenventura Bay-Colombia. After 120 days for the Cococo had weights of 84.1 g Y64 g with densities of 5 and 30 specimen/rn'. The growth average was 0.58-0.39 g/day; the net yield obtained vary from 0.35 to 1.16 Kg/m', the food conversion ratio vary from 3.3 to 5.0 and de survival rate vary from 86% to 100%. With the Nato we obtained weights of 164 and 184 g, beginning with weights of 41 and 108 g their growth average vary from 0.50 to 0.82 g/day. The net yield obtained vary from 0.58 to 0.75 Kg/m' and the survival rate vary from 83% to 100%. From these results we conclude that the two species of catfish studied are strong species but they do not offer good possibilities for fish farming in estuarine waters.

    Dos especies de Bagres estuarinos Arius kessleri (CoCoCo y Sciadeops troschelii (Nato fueron criados en jaulas flotantes a densidades variables en zonas estuarinas de la bahía de Buenaventura. Después de 120 días, para el Cococo se obtuvieron pesos de 84.1 y 64 g a densidades de 5-30 individuos/rrr' con tasas de crecimiento de 0.58 a 0.39 g/día; las producciones netas obtenidas fluctúan entre 0.35-1.16 Kg/m', la supervivencia fluctúa entre 86-100% y las tasas de conversión de alimento f1uctuaron entre 3.3 y 5.0. El Nato alcanza pesos de 164 y 184 g a partir de pesos iniciales de 41 y 108 g; sus tasas de crecimiento f1uctuaron entre 0.50 y 0.82 g/día; las producciones netas obtenidas f1uctuaron entre 0.58 y 0.75 Kg/m', y sus supervivencias fluctuaron entre 83 y 100%. Se concluye que a pesar de su gran rusticidad y supervivencia, estas dos especies ofrecen poco potencial para ser criadas en jaulas en zonas estuarinas.

  19. Phylogeography of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus albicans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from río de la Plata basin, South America, and conservation remarks

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    Julia Vergara

    Full Text Available Pimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 (common name "moncholo" or "bagre blanco" is an endemic species of the family Pimelodidae in the río de la Plata basin. Phylogenetic approach based on cytochrome b sequences was performed to test the existence of a unique evolutionary lineage in P. albicans and to discriminate populations units or subpopulations related to a migration behavior of this taxon in the río de la Plata basin. This study included 34 samples of P. albicans of different collecting sites in the río de la Plata estuary and in the río Arrecifes belonging to the río Paraná basin. Among 614 base pairs in the cytochrome b sequence data set, 203 were variable and 120 were phylogenetically informative sites in P. albicans. A total of twenty haplotypes, nucleotide diversity (p = 0.032 and haplotype diversity = 0.941 were found. Tajima's test showed significant value D= -1.88 (p<0.05 rejecting the neutral mutation hypothesis for the P. albicans data set. All phylogenetic approaches showed that P. albicans included four monophyletic assemblages that were supported by high bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability values. Minimum spanning network corroborated these groups for P. albicans haplotypes. High genetic structure was found in P. albicans by means of AMOVA analysis showing that the río Arrecifes samples constitute an isolated lineage. Moreover, the high value of genetic divergence (10% between the río de la Plata and the río Arrecifes populations could suggest that P. albicans may be conformed by a sibling species complex. On the other hand, a degree of genetic structuring was detected among different sites of the río de la Plata. A partial isolation of the 760 site may suggest that P. albicans could migrates to different tributaries for reproduction, generating different schools of haplotypes which could mix in the río de la Plata estuary. The high nucleotide diversity found in the 765 site and the existence of gene flow

  20. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  1. Flujos de energía en el sistema de surgencia tropical de la península de la Guajira , Caribe colombiano

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    García Camilo Bernardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Guajira es un sistema de surgencia explotado en el Caribe colombiano. Con el propósito de integrar la información disponible sobre el sistema se construyó un modelo trófico de 27 grupos funcionales usando el programa ECOPATH 5.0 Beta. Se obtuvo una base cuantitativa a través de la construcción del modelo, para compararlo con otros sistemas de surgencia. La Guajira presenta una biomasa total de 68 t/km2/año, la producción primaria neta del sistema es de 1248,51 t/km2/año y las transferencias totales del sistema son de 3.275 t/km2/año, lo que
    indica un ecosistema con una surgencia moderada comparada con otros sitios. Las mayores transferencias de energía se dan del nivel trófico I-II (68,93%, aunque existe una importante proporción de flujos al detritus (32%. Las flotas pesqueras afectan principalmente los recursos
    de las fracciones del nivel trófico III, la flota artesanal esta ejerciendo mayor presión sobre el pámpano, bonito y jurel, la flota parguera sobre pargos y meros y la flota industrial sobre las corvinas. Los resultados en los atributos de madurez del sistema sugieren que La Guajira es un
    ecosistema inmaduro debido a que la relación P/R excede a uno y está en desarrollo debido a la baja ascendencia (33,7% y alta capacidad de desarrollo (66,3% como ocurre con otras surgencias donde se presentan valores de ascendencia entre 20% y 35%. Aunque los datos básicos de entrada en el modelo fueron buenos, debido a las investigaciones que se han elaborado entre 1995 y 2000, existen algunos grupos donde no se encuentra aun información disponible. Especialmente en los valores de biomasa del fitoplancton, invertebrados, bagres, peces depredadores
    pelágicos, así como estimaciones de producción en invertebrados, peces  depredadores pelágicos y peces pequeños pelágicos. No existe una cuantificación de las poblaciones de mamíferos y aves en el área de estudio, los cuales constituyen depredadores

  2. Tocopherols and phytosterols in sunflower seeds for the human food market

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    Fernández-Cuesta, A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seeds for the human food market are derived from both oilseed-type cultivars, with black achenes and low hull proportion, and confectionery-type cultivars, with striped achenes and high hull proportion. The objective of this research was to evaluate tocopherol and phytosterol contents in the seeds of both types of cultivars. Five oilseed-type and seven confectionery-type cultivars were evaluated in replicated field trials in two locations of Morocco and Spain. Large variations were found in hundred-kernel weight (2.6 to 5.5 g, kernel oil content (42.7 to 67.5%, tocopherol content (203 to 397 mg kg–1 kernel, and phytosterol content (2179 to 3555 mg kg–1 kernel. Both types of cultivars did not differ for kernel weight, kernel oil content, or tocopherol and phytosterol profiles. However, oilseed-type cultivars had significantly greater average tocopherol and phytosterol contents, though confectionery-type cultivars with levels of tocopherols and phytosterols similar to the best oilseed-type cultivars were identified. The large variations in kernel tocopherol and phytosterol contents found in this research suggest that there is room for breeding for increased levels of these compounds in order to develop healthier sunflower cultivars for the human food market.

    Las semillas de girasol para consumo directo proceden tanto de cultivares oleaginosos, con aquenios negros y baja proporción de cáscara, como de cultivares de consumo directo, con aquenios de colores claros o rayados y elevada proporción de cáscara. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido en tocoferoles y fitoesteroles en semillas de ambos tipos de cultivares. Se evaluaron cinco cultivares oleaginosos y siete cultivares de consumo directo en ensayos de campo replicados en dos localidades de Marruecos y España. Se identificó gran variación para peso de 100 semillas (aquenios descascarillados; 2.6 a 5.5 g, contenido en aceite en la

  3. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el Valle de Toluca

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    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP o enfermedad del “amarillamiento por psilidos” la cual es asociada con la presencia de “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”. El objetivo de esta investigación fue detectar la presencia de esta bacteria y de fitoplasmas en plantas de papa que presentaban la coloración purpura de los foliolos. Durante el ciclo primavera – verano 2011 y 2012 se hizo un muestreo en los municipios de Tenango del Valle, Zinacantepec, Villa de Allende y San José del Rincón, del Estado de México. La detección de ambos patógenos se realizó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con los iniciadores específicos para fitoplasmas: P1/P7, R16mF2/R16mR1 y para Ca Liberibacter solanacearum: OA2/Oi2c, resultando el 35,8% de las plantas positivas para fitoplasmas y el 11,6% para la bacteria. Los resultados indican  que en algunas regiones productoras de papa del Estado de México,  los dos presuntos agentes causales del síndrome de  PMP, fitoplasmas y Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, pueden estar asociados. Palabras clave: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum; Fitoplasma; punta morada. Abstract In Mexico and Central America have been detected stained potato tubers with internal browning; recently in Texas, USA, this disease has been called "Zebra Chip" (ZC or striped potato, foliar symptoms resemble the syndrome called "Potato Purple Top" (PPT or "psyllid yellows" disease which is associated with the presence of "Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum

  4. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  5. Nuevas representaciones de antropomorfos en el Magdaleniense Medio Cantábrico

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    Soledad CORCHÓN RODRIGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian nuevas representaciones de antropomordos, grabados en plaquitas de arenisca procedentes del Magdaleniense medio antiguo de Las Caldas. En dos de ellas (plaquitas 1595, 6080 son visibles huellas de impacto o rayados, posteriores a la ejecución de los grabados. Una de estas plaquitas (1595 muestra el grabado de un Coelodonta antiquitatis, reiterando un tema conocido anteriormente (plaquita 1040 y la presencia de fauna fría de carácter estépico en el Arte mueble de Las Caldas. Las representaciones grabadas de esta fauna (mamut, reno y rinoceronte lanudo corresponden al Magdaleniense medio antiguo, circa 14 000 / 13 650 BP (niveles IX a VII de la Sala II. Por otra parte, la serie de antropomorfos de Las Caldas reúne personajes tratados con naturalismo junto a otros semihumanos o mixtos (plaquitas 6080, 3201, 680, con máscaras o cabezas bestializadas, además de un acéfalo provisto de cola. En algún caso se han representado en actitud dinámica: con los brazos extendidos hacia delante, en cuclillas o portando un bulto a la espalda. Finalmentre, el estilo de los antropomorfos es tosco, si bien puede traslucir posibles actividades sociales. Ello contrasta, vivamente, con el naturalismo, el carácter estático y los elaborados convencionalismos de representación (pelajes, crineras, despieces y modelados que presentan los sujetos animales en los mismos niveles del yacimiento.ABSTRACT: A study was made of new representations of anthropomorphs, carved in sandstone plaquettes from the ancien Middle Magdalenian period of Las Caldas Cave. On two of them (plaquettes 1595, 6080 there are visible signs of impact or scratches, subsequent to the carvings. One of these plaquettes (1595 shows the carving of a Coelodonta antiquitatis, repeating a previously known theme (plaque 1040 and the presence of cold steppe fauna in the portable art of Las Caldas. The carved representations of this fauna (mammoth, reindeer and tichorrhine

  6. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

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    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    y 7,1% otros teleósteos. Entre los tiburones, la especie más relevante fue el tiburón azulejo (Prionace glauca, 16,5%o, seguido por el tiburón jaquetón (Carcharhinus spp., 6,9%. Entre los atunes e istiofóridos, el marlín rayado (Tetrapturus audax, 8,0% y el atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, 4,9% fueron también importantes (≥ 4% en número. Se reporta el número de ejemplares por especie, su rendimiento nominal en número y peso, y el peso promedio eviscerado, además de los estadísticos descriptivos de talla. La estructura poblacional de pez espada estuvo dominada por machos y no se registraron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos. Se observaron ejemplares con altos valores de IG durante todos los cruceros, principalmente durante diciembre-febrero, lo que sugiere un area reproductiva para esta especie. El tiburón azulejo mostró una predominancia de machos, y se observaron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos, posiblemente debido a una segregación espacial y temporal.

  7. La malaria en Colombia, Antioquia y las zonas de Urabá y Bajo Cauca: panorama para interpretar la falla terapéutica antimalárica. Parte 1

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    Jaime Cardona Fonseca

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Problema: en 1998-2002 se investigó en Antioquia (Turbo, Zaragoza y El Bagre, la eficacia terapéutica de medicamentos y combinaciones antimaláricos. La interpretación de la respuesta terapéutica (adecuada, fallas precoz y tardía requiere información adicional para una mejor comprensión. Objetivo: definir un marco de referencia para interpretar los resultados de las evaluaciones de respuesta terapéutica antimalárica, constituido por información sobre el comportamiento de los programas antimaláricos en Colombia y por información demográfica, epidemiológica, climatológica y socioeconómica sobre el departamento de Antioquia, las regiones de Urabá y Bajo Cauca y los municipios de Turbo y El Bagre. Metodología: se usó información oficial secundaria y en menor cantidad, información primaria. Con los datos recogidos se construyeron cuadros y gráficos, y se hicieron cálculos sobre otras variables. Resultados: se describe la malaria (paludismo en Colombia en 1960-2002. En 2002, de los 43,707 millones de habitantes, 22,403 millones (51,17% están expuestos (41,88% con bajo riesgo. El P. vivax es la especie predominante (66% de los casos, excepto en la región del Pacífico, donde el P. falciparum causa el 75% de los casos. Hay brotes de malaria cada 2 a 7 años; la más intensa epidemia en la historia conocida ocurrió en 1998. La mortalidad ha pasado de 25 por cien mil en 1983 a 3 por cien mil en 2000. El índice parasitario anual (IPA ha estado alrededor de 8 por mil expuestos después de 1990, valor que es el cuádruple del existente en 1960-1970. La ineficacia del programa ha sido evidente casi desde su inicio en 1958 y la tendencia de la enfermedad siempre ha sido creciente. El fracaso de los programas gubernamentales antimalaria no tiene origen en fenómenos principalmente biológicos (resistencias del plasmodio a los medicamentos y del anofeles a los insecticidas, ni tampoco en las “condiciones de orden p

  8. O impacto da pesca do camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante (Decapoda, Penaeidae nas assembléias de peixes e siris do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The impact of the Pink Shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante (Decapoda, Penaeidae fishery on the fish and crab assemblages of Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou do impacto da pesca do camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante, 1967 sobre a assembléia de peixes e crustáceos do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe. Constatou-se que, em média, a composição nas capturas da pesca do camarão-rosa, com a arte de pesca aviãozinho, é semelhantes àquelas descrita em para outros estuários do Rio Grande do Sul, quando considerada apenas a proporção das grandes categorias analisadas (espécie alvo - camarão-rosa 53%: captura acessória 24%: rejeito 23%. A composição da fauna acompanhante (captura acessória + rejeito apresente diferenças pronunciadas ao longo do gradiente salino da laguna. No geral, ao nível específico, as espécies de peixes capturadas com maior intensidade - Brevoortia pectinata (Jenyns, 1842, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 e Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 - diferem daquelas capturadas em outros estuários do Rio Grande do Sul, onde, além de M. furnieri, os bagres Genidens barbus (Lacepède, 1803 e Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829 dominam nas capturas. As estimativas do potencial de impacto das capturas acessório e do rejeito apresentaram valores, do ponto de vista pesqueiro, bastantes satisfatórios, quando comparados com outras artes de pesca do camarão, o que sugere que a decisão de proibir a pesca no Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe não deve ser baseada no impacto da pesca do camarão-rosa sobre a fauna acompanhante, mas sim na atividade pesqueira em si, uma vez que a legislação Brasileira vigente proíbe a pesca dentro de Parques Nacionais.This work evaluates the impact of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante, 1967 fishery on fish and crab assemblages of Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Brazil. We observed that composition of catches is similar to shrimp fisheries using fyke-net at others estuaries of Rio Grande do Sul State: pink shrimp (53%, accessory catches (24% and bycatch (23%. However, fishery

  9. Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus liver treated with fumonisin B1

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    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1 injected intraperitoneally (IP, was evaluated in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Fishes were divided into four Groups. Groups II, III and IV were treated IP with FB1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. At the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. The livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. Livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by FB1 doses. The occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. At the highest FB1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. The image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. The apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. There was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of FBs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.Os efeitos histopatológicos da fumonisina B1 (FB1 foram avaliados quando a toxina foi aplicada intraperitoneal (IP em bagre (Ictalurus punctatus. Os peixes foram divididos em 4 Grupos, sendo que os Grupos II, III e IV foram tratados com FB1 em injeções IP nas concentrações de 1; 5 e 10 mg/kg p.c./dia, respectivamente, durante 21 dias. No 7º, 14ºe 21º dia de tratamento, amostras de peixe de cada Grupo foram sacrificadas. Os figados foram analisados histopatologicamente por microscopia de luz e de transmissão eletrônica. Desde o dia 7 de coleta, os fígados apresentaram alterações em diversas organelas, principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, citoplasma, núcleo e nucléolo mediadas pelas doses de FB

  10. Ecological analogies between estuarine bottom trawl fish assemblages from Patos Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and York River, Virginia, USA Analogias ecológicas entre as assembléias de peixes de fundo dos estuários da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e York River, Virginia, EUA

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    João P. Vieira

    2006-03-01

    estudar sua variação temporal ou espacial de abundância. Após um ano de coleta mensal foram observadas 65 espécies nas coletas de arrasto de fundo na Laguna dos Patos e 63 espécies no York River. Em ambas as localidades as maiores modas de tamanho foram menores que 80 mm de comprimento total (CT, e diversas espécies ocorrem em tamanho menor do que 100 mm CT. Entre 80 e 100 mm CT foi possível separar efetivamente diversas espécies em UET. Diferentes UET de uma mesma espécie ocorrem em diferentes habitats e em épocas distintas, podendo assim ser classificadas como "Taxas Ecológicos" distintos de uma mesma espécie. Nos meses quentes, quando ocorre a maior pressão de predação dos grandes peixes piscívoros, a abundância dos peixes com tamanhos entre 80 e 100 mm CT nas coletas de arrasto de fundo é baixa em ambos os sistemas. Somente dois grupos de peixes são abundantes neste tamanho, os bagres marinhos da Laguna dos Patos que estão protegidos da predação pelos espinhos dorsais e peitorais, e o linguado-Zebra no York River, que se enterra no substrato evitando a predação.

  11. Reproduction of duckbill catfish Sorubim lima in captivity (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae by means of hormonal induction/ Reprodução em cativeiro do jurupecê Sorubim lima (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae por meio de indução hormonal

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    Sandro Geraldo de Castro Britto

    Full Text Available Sorubim lima is a migratory catfish that do not reproduce in lenthic environments such as those formed after construction of hydroelectric power plants. An alternative for conservation of the species in these environments is the stocking with fingerlings produced in captivity. The technique used to reproduce it in captivity was the induction by carp pituitary hormone, with dosage of 5 mg.kg-1 for females (1 mg.kg-1 in the first dose and 4 mg.kg-1 in the second and 3 mg.kg-1 for males (1 mg.kg-1 in the first dose and 2 mg.kg-1 in the second, with an interval of 14 hours. The determination of extrusion moment of oocytes was made by monitoring the migration of nucleus from central to peripheral position. After UTA 264.5 (accumulated thermal units the oocytes were obtained by compression of the ventral region of the female, but males were sacrificed for extraction of sperm. The eggs were kept in an incubator and the time of hatching of larvae was 370 UTA. The larvae were initially fed with plankton and showed no cannibalism. Moreover, they were not demanding about the food, accepting prepared rations after fifteenth day of life. The weight gain of larvae was very low, even close to 20 mm in length (14 days, not exceeding 0.05 mg per day. After that both weight and length increased rapidly.Sorubim lima é um bagre migratório que não se reproduz em ambientes lênticos como os que são formados após a construção de usinas hidrelétricas. Uma das alternativas para conservação da espécie nesses ambientes é a estocagem com alevinos produzidos em cativeiro. A técnica utilizada para a sua reprodução em cativeiro foi a da indução por hormônio hipofisário de carpa, com dosagem de 5 mg.kg-1 para fêmeas (1 mg.kg-1 na primeira dose e 4 mg.kg-1 na segunda e 3 mg.kg-1 para machos (1 mg.kg-1 na primeira dose e 2 mg.kg-1 na segunda, com intervalo de 14 horas. A determinação do momento da extrusão dos óvulos foi feita pelo acompanhamento da migra

  12. Primeiro registro da utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros na cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328 First account on the use of fishing resources as medicines in the city of São Félix, Bahia State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328

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    Juliana Nascimento Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros pelos moradores da cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre maio de 2004 a março de 2005, entrevistando-se 29 indivíduos de ambos os sexos com idades que variaram de 11 a 79 anos. As informações foram obtidas junto a pescadores e a suas famílias por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas. A maior parte das entrevistas foi gravada, usando-se micro-gravador, sempre com o consentimento dos informantes. As transcrições feitas em caderno de campo encontram-se mantidas no Laboratório de Etnobiologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Estado da Bahia. Espécimes de peixes foram coletados, identificados e depositados no Laboratório de Ictiologia da UEFS. Os resultados mostram que, no sistema de classificação etnoictiológico dos pescadores de São Félix, diferentes organismos não sistematicamente relacionados são incluídos no domínio etnozoológico “Peixe”. Por essa razão, sete etnoespécies de peixes foram citadas como recursos medicinais: bagre (Genidens genidens, camarão (Macrobrachium sp., cambotá (Callichthys sp., piau (Leporinus sp., piranha (Serrasalmus branditi, peixe-boi (Trichechus sp. e traíra (Hoplias malabaricus. Esses animais fornecem matérias-primas que são utilizadas na elaboração de medicamentos que visam tratar e/ou curar enfermidades diagnosticadas localmente. O registro escrito da medicina tradicional implica conservação da cultural local, além de permitir que os recursos zooterapêuticos possam ser avaliados quanto à provável existência de compostos biologicamente ativosThis article deals with the medicinal use of fishing resources by the inhabitants of São Félix, Bahia State. Fieldwork was carried out from May 2004 to March 2005 by interviewing 29 individuals of both sexes, whose ages ranged from 11 to 79 years old. Data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews

  13. A new species of sand-dwelling catfish, with a phylogenetic diagnosis of Pygidianops Myers (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae: Glanapteryginae

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    Mário C. C. de Pinna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand-dwelling catfish genus Pygidianops, P. amphioxus, is described from the Negro and lower Amazon basins. The new species differs from its three congeners in the elongate eel-like body, the short barbels, and the small caudal fin, continuous with the body, among other traits of internal anatomy. The absence of anal fin further distinguishes P. amphioxus from all other Pygidianops species except P. magoi and the presence of eyes from all except P. cuao. The new Pygidianops seems to be the sister species to P. magoi, the two species sharing a unique mesethmoid with a dorsally-bent tip lacking cornua, and a produced articular process in the palatine for the articulation with the neurocranium. Pygidianops amphioxus is a permanent and highly-specialized inhabitant of psammic environments. Additional characters are proposed as synapomorphies of Pygidianops, including a hypertrophied symphyseal joint and associated ligament in the lower jaw; an elongate, laterally-directed, process on the dorsal surface of the premaxilla; and a rotated lower jaw, where the surface normally facing laterally in other glanapterygines is instead directed ventrally. These and other characters are incorporated into a revised phylogenetic diagnosis of Pygidianops.Uma nova espécie do gênero de bagre arenícola Pygidianops, P. amphioxus, é descrita de diferentes localidades na Amazônia brasileira. A nova espécie difere de seus três congêneres pelo corpo alongado e anguiliforme, pelos barbilhões curtos e pela pequena nadadeira caudal, contínua com o corpo, além de outras características da anatomia interna. A ausência de nadadeira anal distingue P. amphioxus de todos os outros Pygidianops exceto P. magoi e a presença de olhos de todos exceto P. cuao. O novo Pygidianops parece ser o grupo-irmão de P. magoi, as duas espécies compartilhando um mesetmóide com a extremidade dobrada dorsalmente, sem cornua, e um processo articular prolongado no

  14. The fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, during 40 years of impoundment

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    Jan H. Mol

    2007-09-01

    had a lower biomass in Brokopondo Reservoir than in Suriname River. Serrasalmus rhombeus showed reduced body length in Brokopondo Reservoir as compared to riverine populations.Foram pesquisadas as modificações a longo prazo na ictiofauna do reservatório de Brokopondo, o primeiro de grande porte (1560 km² construído em floresta tropical úmida. Antes do fechamento da barragem em 1964, a ictiofauna do rio Suriname possuía 172 espécies, com diversidade e equitabilidade altas. A fauna do rio era dominada por espécies de pequeno porte, mas nenhuma delas dominava em número de indivíduos. Em termos de biomassa, os grandes bagres eram dominantes. As espécies estavam homogeneamente distribuídas nos diferentes hábitats: corredeiras, afluentes e canal principal. Quatro anos depois do fechamento da barragem, somente 62 espécies de peixes foram coletadas no reservatório de Brokopondo, mas a composição da ictiofauna ainda estava mudando. Em 1978, a ictiofauna do reservatório era semelhante à de 2005, indicando que um equilíbrio estável foi atingindo 14 anos depois do fechamento da barragem. A ictiofauna do reservatório tinha 41 espécies, diversidade e equitabilitade baixas. A maioria das espécies do rio Suriname que tinham exigências estreitas de hábitat não sobreviveram no reservatório. A estrutura das comunidades de peixes foi diferente nos quatro hábitats do reservatório de Brokopondo. O hábitat das águas abertas (10 espécies foi dominado pelos piscívoros Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis e Cichla ocellaris e suas presas Bryconops melanurus e duas espécies de Hemiodus. Bryconops alimentou se de zooplâncton, pupas de Culicidae e invertebrados terrestres. Hemiodus alimentou se de detritos floculentos, demostrando que a cadeia alimentar baseada em detritos ainda era importante em estágios avançados de desenvolvimento dos reservatórios. Serrasalmus rhombeus também come queixadas que se afogam quando tentam atravessar nadando o

  15. Evaluation of Ethylene Glycol as a Cryoprotectant in the Sperm Cryopreservation of Trans-andean Shovelnose Catfish (Sorubim Cuspicaudus, Pimelodidae

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    Victor Julio Atencio García

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus cryopreservation semen was evaluated using three levels (5, 10, 15% of ethylene glycol (ETG. Males (n = 13 undergoing spermiation and in final maturation females (n = 6 were induced with 0.4 ml Ovaprim®/Kg, after 12 and 14 post-induction the semen was collected in 2 ml Eppendorf vials. The different cryoprotectants solutions were prepared with glucose 6% (w/v skimmed milk powder 5% (w/v and distilled water. The semen was diluted in ratio 1:3 (semen:extender, packed in macrotubes of 2.5 ml and frozen in liquid nitrogen (NL vapor for 30 minutes, then the macrotubes were stored in cryogenic tanks submerged directly in NL. The sperm were thawed in serological bath to 35 °C for 90 seconds. The total motility, total progressivity and velocities in fresh and thawed semen were analyzed with the Sperm Class Analyzer software (SCA Microptic SL, Spain. Fertility and hatching rates were assessed with 1.0-1.5 g of oocytes in experimental up flow incubators 2 L, a completely randomized design was used. The hatching rate of fresh semen was 51.8 ± 21.0%, with no significant differences with semen cryopreserved with ETG 5% (38.6±13.9% (p>0.05, while ETG 15% (9.6±2.9%, recorded the lower hatching rate (p<0.05. The results suggest that the cryoprotectant solution composed of ETG 5%, glucose 6% and powdered milk 5% is a viable alternative for semen cryopreservation of the catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus. EVALUACIÓN DE ETILENGLICOL COMO CRIOPROTECTOR EN LA CRIOCONSERVACIÓN DE SEMEN DE BAGRE BLANCO (Sorubim cuspicaudus, PimelodidaeSe evaluó el semen crioconservado de Sorubim cuspicaudus utilizando etilenglicol (ETG a tres niveles de inclusión (5, 10, 15%. Machos (n=13 en fase de espermiación y hembras (n=6 en maduración final se indujeron con 0.4 ml de Ovaprim®/Kg, después de 12 a 14 horas post-inducción se colectó el semen en viales Eppendorf de 2 ml de capacidad. Las diferentes soluciones crioprotectoras se prepararon con

  16. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae, a revisionary study

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    Richard P. Vari

    2005-06-01

    . Denticetopsis includes seven species: D. epa, new species, rio Tocantins; D. iwokrama, new species, Siparuni River; D. macilenta, Potaro River; D. praecox, río Baria; D. royeroi, upper río Negro; D. sauli, upper río Negro; and D. seducta, new species, western portions of rio Amazonas and río Orinoco. Paracetopsis consists of three species: P. atahualpa, new species, río Tumbes, northwestern Peru, and río Zarumilla, southwestern Ecuador; P. bleekeri, río Guayas and río Santa Rosa, south-western Ecuador; and P. esmeraldas, new species, rivers of northwestern Ecuador. Cetopsis ventralis and C. occidentalis are synonyms of Paracetopsis bleekeri. A neotype is designated for Paracetopsis bleekeri. Lectotypes are designated for Cetopsis candiru, Cetopsis chalmersi, and Cetopsis plumbeus.Os bagres da subfamília Cetopsinae, da família neotropical Cetopsidae, são revisados. Quatro gêneros, Cetopsidium novo gênero, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis,e Paracetopsis Bleeker são reconhecidos como válidos. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, e Pseudocetopsis são considerados sinônimos de Cetopsis, enquanto que Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean e Cetopsogiton sinônimos de Paracetopsis. Trinta e sete espécies são reconhecidas em Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium inclui seis espécies: C. ferreirai, nova espécie, rio Trombetas; C. minutum, rio Essequibo; C. morenoi, partes central e ocidental do río Orinoco; C. orientale, rios costeiros do Suriname e Guiana Francesa, e tentativamente rio Tocantins e rio Xingu; C. pemon, nova espécie, río Caura, río Caroni, río Meta, e rio Branco; e C. roae, nova espécie, rio Rupununi. Cetopsis inclui 21 espécies: C. amphiloxa, río San Juan, río Atrato, e río Patia, Colombia ocidental, e rios do noroeste do Equador; C. arcana, nova espécie, rio Tocantins; C. baudoensis, río Baudo; C. caiapo, nova espécie, rio Tocantins; C. candiru, bacia Amazônica; C. fimbriata, nova espécie, río Truando; C. coecutiens, rio Amazonas, rio Tocantins, e río Orinoco; C

  17. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces en la costa de Campeche, México Spatial and temporal variability of fish community abundance and diversity off the coast of Campeche, Mexico

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    Luis Amado Ayala-Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad de peces en el sur del golfo de México es abundante y diversa y sus componentes se encuentran afectados por la captura incidental de la pesquería del camarón siete barbas. El presente trabajo describe y analiza los patrones de variación espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces, identificando las especies con dominio ecológico. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero 2006 y enero 2007 en 37 sitios localizados desde la desembocadura del sistema Grijalva-Usumacinta hasta la desembocadura del sistema Chumpam-Balchacah al interior de la Laguna de Términos, en el estado de Campeche al sur del golfo de México. Se realizaron 444 arrastres experimentales con una red de prueba camaronera y se capturaron 26.386 peces con un peso conjunto de 407,1 kg. Se identificaron 94 especies agrupadas en 65 géneros y 38 familias. La abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces se analizó en escalas espacial y temporal en términos de densidad (ind m-2, biomasa (g m-2, peso promedio (g ind-1, índice de diversidad (H'n, riqueza de especies (DMg e índice de equidad (J'. En cuanto a abundancia se distinguieron los altos valores registrados en agosto y septiembre, en sitios cercanos a las desembocaduras de los sistemas Grijalva-Usumacinta y Palizada-Del Este. La especie más importante en términos de abundancia fue el bagre Cathorops melanopus. Los intervalos de variación de los índices de diversidad en escala espacial fueron: H'n = 0,5-2,8 bits; Dmg = 2,6-5,3 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,1-0,8 bits. En escala temporal los intervalos fueron H'n = 1,8-2,6 bits; Dmg = 5,1-6,7 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,4-0,6 bits. Se identificaron nueve especies dominantes con 16.840 individuos y un peso conjunto de 278,5 kg, equivalente al 63,8% de la captura total.The fish community of the southern Gulf of Mexico is abundant and diverse, and its components are affected by the bycatch of the seabob shrimp fishery. The spatial and

  18. Aquatic food webs in mangrove and seagrass habitats of Centla Wetland, a Biosphere Reserve in Southeastern Mexico

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    Manuel Mendoza-Carranza

    2010-03-01

    objetivo identificar a importância do carbono derivado desses produtores para a produção aquática secundária nessa unidade de conservação tão pouco estudada. As razões isotópicas de carbono e nitrogênio das fontes basais e dos consumidores aquáticos indicam que as teias alimentares, ricas em espécies, de ambos os habitats, são dependentes da produção ripária. O abundante mangue-vermelho Rhizophora mangle parece ser a fonte primária de carbono no habitat dominado por manguezais. Em contraste, muito embora as pradarias de gramíneas sejam conspícuas no ambiente lagunar estudado, muitos dos consumidores da teia alimentar nessa região parecem depender do carbono oriundo da vegetação ripária (e.g. Phragmites australis.A espécie de bagre exótica Pterygoplichthys pardalis possui assinaturas isotópicas que se sobrepõem a das espécies nativas (incluindo algumas de elevado valor comercial na pesca, sugerindo competição potencial por recursos. Novas investigações deveriam avaliar o papel dos insetos terrestres como elo de conexão entre as teias alimentares da mata ripária e do ambiente aquático, bem como os impactos da expansão da população de P. pardalis sobre o funcionamento do ecossistema e das pescarias no ''Pântano de Centla''. Considerando os múltiplos impactos antrópicos na região, os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho podem ser utilizados como uma base de referência em programas de gerenciamento e conservação da diversidade nessa importante Reserva da Biosfera.