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Sample records for bagre rayado pseudoplatystoma

  1. Variación estacional de las características seminales del bagre rayado Pseudoplatystoma metaense (Telostei, pimelodidae

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    Juan Ramirez-Merlano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la variación de la calidad, el contenido iónico y la osmolaridad del plasma seminal de Pseudoplatystoma metaense durante la estación reproductiva. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron machos sexualmente maduros durante un periodo reproductivo (marzo a agosto. La espermiación fue inducida con Extracto de Hipófisis de Carpa (4 mg/kg. Se evaluó el volumen (mL, movilidad masal (%, tiempo de activación (sg, espermatocrito (%; concentración espermática (106 sptz/µL y viabilidad (%. También fue determinada la movilidad (% y velocidad individual por medio de un Sistema de Análisis Espermático Asistido por Computador (CASA. La osmolaridad (mOsm/Kg y la concentración de iones (Na+, Cl+, K+ y Mg2+ y glucosa fue determinada en plasma seminal obtenido por centrifugación del semen a 14.000 g. La concentración de iones y glucosa fue establecida a través de un sistema de reflectancia. Resultados. El semen de Pseudoplatystoma metaense presentó una movilidad masal mayor al 90%, con el menor valor de movilidad progresiva lineal rápida para el mes de abril (34.9±9.0% y en general valores de espermatozoides inmóviles menores al 10%. El plasma seminal mostró una osmolaridad de 259.3± 3.5 mOsm/Kg, con una concentración promedio de glucosa e iones Na+, Cl+, K+ y Mg2+ de 142.7±2.8, 118±2.2, 4.8±0.4 y 0.33±0.0 mmol/L, respectivamente, durante la época reproductiva. Conclusiones. La calidad seminal de bagre rayado no presentó variaciones en la estación reproductiva mostrando una alta calidad para los procesos de fecundación.

  2. Apuntes sobre la reproduccion de algunos Bagres marinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo, José A.

    1973-01-01

    Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the bu

  3. Ovarian differentiation and development in cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum.

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    Valentin, F N; Batlouni, S R; Nascimento, N F; Silva, R C; Manzini, B; Hilbig, C C; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O

    2016-07-01

    One thousand five hundred cachara or tiger shovelnose catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, obtained from induced reproduction, were used to determine the onset of ovarian differentiation and development and to record the main characteristics of this process. Samples were collected from 0 to 240 days post-fertilization (dpf) and the results classified into stages I-XII. Ovarian formation was histologically detected for the first time when juveniles measured mean ± s.d. 51·5 ± 8·3 mm total length (LT ) at 39-45 dpf (stages I-V), with intense somatic cell proliferation originating in the ovarian cavity. Both LT and age of fish had a positive correlation (P r(2)  = 0·95) than age (r(2)  = 0·85), especially during the initial stages of development. From stages VI to VII, the ovarian cavity was enlarged and undifferentiated oogonia were present. At stage VIII, small projections formed in the ovarian stroma towards the ventral region of the gonad (future ovarian lamellae) and the basal membrane and differentiated oogonia nests could be seen. At stages IX and X, the germ cells entered meiosis and folliculogenesis was completed by stages XI and XII, which can be considered late in comparison to other Siluriformes. This study has demonstrated that ovarian differentiation in P. fasciatum begins with an intense proliferation of squamous epithelial cells (somatic cells) during the early stages of development and that sex inversion protocols could, thus, be applied successfully before this period. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated that both size and age can influence gonad differentiation and development in this species. PMID:27401482

  4. Filogenia de los bagres marinos (Siluriformes: Ariidae del nuevo mundo

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    Betancur Rodríguez Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Ariidae comprende peces marinos, estuarinos y dulceacuícolas, distribuidos en aguas tropicales y subtropicales de todos los continentes. La nomenclatura específica y genérica en el grupo es caótica y no hay continuidad de su uso en la literatura. En este trabajo se presenta una filogenia robusta para 37-41 especies de ariidos americanos y dos especies del Viejo Mundo, basada en un máximo de 2.922 caracteres del genoma mitocondrial (citocromo b, ATP sintetasa 8 y 6, 12S y 16S y 978 del nuclear (gen activador de la recombinación 2, por reconstrucción con los criterios de máxima parsimonia (MP e inferencia bayesiana (BI. Adicionalmente, se complementó el trabajo morfológico previo incluyendo siete especies y 11 caracteres adicionales, para una matriz final de 26 especies y 56 caracteres. Las secuencias mitocondriales proporcionaron alta resolución a diferentes niveles (subfamiliar, genérico y específico. Aunque BI recuperó en más ocasiones nodos débiles incongruentes con otros conjuntos de datos, mostró mayor sensibilidad que MP a la escasa señal filogenética del locus nuclear, el cual ofreció poca
    resolución. La evidencia morfológica fue congruente con las hipótesis moleculares a nivel subfamiliar, genérico y en gran medida intergenérico; las discrepancias más marcadas entre ambos
    enfoques se dan al interior del género Bagre. Las filogenias obtenidas concuerdan todas con la división de Ariidae en dos subfamilias: Ariinae y el grupo de los Galeichthyinos, el cual requiere
    estatus nomenclatural. Se corroboró la validez, y en gran medida la monofilia de los géneros Ariopsis, Bagre, Cathorops, Galeichthys, Potamarius y Selenaspis (incluyendo a S. proops y S. parkeri. El
    género Arius sensu lato no es monofilético y no debe ser usado para referir a las especies americanas. El linaje 'Arius A' conforma un grupo monofilético anfiamericano al cual debe atribuírsele un nombre gen

  5. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): A haematological approach

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Gabriella do Vale Pereira; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; Adolfo Bezerra Jatobá; Thiago Tetsuo Ushizima; Bruno Correa da Silva; Walter Quadros Seiffert; Gabriel Fernandes Alves Jesus; Maurício Laterça Martins

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male). Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and r...

  6. Efecto de tres tipos de presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus

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    Martha Prieto-Guevara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas vivas en la larvicultura de bagre blanco (Sorubim cuspicaudus. Materiales y métodos. Al inicio de la alimentación exógena de Sorubim cuspicaudus, se ofreció zooplancton producido en mesocosmos (T1, zooplancton silvestre (T2 y nauplios de Artemia (T3, en concentración de 10.000 zoop/L, dos veces al día, durante seis días. Se utilizaron 18 acuarios de cinco litros de volumen útil, con densidad de 25 Larvas/L, seis réplicas por tratamiento en un diseño al azar. Se estimaron la ganancia en peso (Gp y longitud (Gl, tasa de crecimiento específico (G, sobrevivencia (S, resistencia al estrés (Re, mortalidad acumulada (Ma y mortalidad por canibalismo (Mc. Resultados. Las larvas alimentadas con mesocosmos presentaron la mayor sobrevivencia (81.3±15.9%; aunque el mejor crecimiento lo presentaron las larvas alimentadas con zooplancton silvestre (T2 las cuales presentaron la mayor mortalidad (42.0±10.7% y la menor resistencia al estrés (30.0±33.0%. El canibalismo se observó en todos los tratamientos, oscilando entre 4.0 (T2 y 14.3% (T1 sin diferencias significativas entre estos valores (p>0.05. Conclusiones. El uso de zooplancton producido bajo condiciones controladas permitió una alta sobrevivencia, adecuado desempeño y resistencia de las larvas, perfilándose como alternativa viable en la primera alimentación de bagre blanco.

  7. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  8. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: A haematological approach

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male. Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and reached concentrations greater than 105 CFU mL−1 in tubes containing de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. In particular, Weissella cibaria (P36 reached 106 CFU mL−1 in MRS and was able to reduce the pH of the medium to 3.85. In the in vivo intestinal colonization studies, 72 healthy hybrid surubims were fed with a commercial diet supplemented with probiotic W. cibaria for 15 days. Changes in gut community composition were then analyzed, and probiotic profile of W. cibaria was determined molecularly by amplification of rRNA 16S gene was performed using PCR. Compared to control fish, W. cibaria-supplemented fish showed an increase in RBC. These results show the efficacy of our haematological approach to probiotic screening in hybrid sorubim.

  9. Biomarcadores histológicos em duas espécies de bagres estuarinos da Costa Maranhense, Brasil

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    D.B.P.Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se validar lesões branquiais como biomarcadores em peixes de importância econômica (Sciades herzbergii e Bagre bagre capturados pela pesca artesanal em dois locais diferenciados da Baía de São Marcos, MA, a fim de selecionar um táxon como bioindicador capaz de ser utilizado em programas de biomonitoramento. O primeiro ponto (S1 foi utilizado como uma área de referência - Ilha dos Caranguejos -, e o segundo ponto (S2 foi considerado potencialmente impactado - Complexo Portuário de São Luís, MA. Encontraram-se várias alterações histológicas para as duas espécies em S2, destacando-se: estreitamento lamelar, teleangectasia, fusão e descolamento do epitélio da lamela secundária. Lesões branquiais em B. bagre coletados em S1 também foram observadas, não sendo possível diferenciar os indivíduos das duas áreas analisadas. Os dados indicam que S. herzbergii é um bioindicador mais apropriado para análise de biomarcadores de contaminação aquática.

  10. Molecular identification of a cryptic species in the Amazonian predatory catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma (Bleeker, 1962) from Peru.

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    García-Dávila, Carmen; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Castro-Ruiz, Diana; Villacorta, José; Quérouil, Sophie; Chota-Macuyama, Werner; Núñez, Jesus; Römer, Uwe; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando; Renno, Jean-François

    2013-09-01

    Pseudoplatystoma species are highly prized South American Pimelodid migratory catfishes. Until recently, their taxonomy was not clearly established, with discrepancies between morphological and molecular analyses. Here, Pseudoplatystoma species from the Peruvian Amazon were characterized at the molecular level from a sample representing the observed range of their color pattern variations in the study area. Analyses were performed using seven microsatellite loci for 103 specimens and, for part of them (52), using sequences of two regions of their mitochondrial genome [Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and Control Region (CR)]. Factorial correspondence analysis and assignment tests based on microsatellite polymorphism showed that the specimens originally identified as P. punctifer belonged to two different gene pools highly differentiated from P. tigrinum. Morphological examination identified two different morphotypes (with and without black stripes), suggesting the existence of two distinct taxa within P. punctifer. This result was corroborated by the ML tree based on CR sequences, where all individuals but four clustered in a similar way as in the FCA and Bayesian assignment tests. For these four individuals, mitochondrial introgression or retention of ancestral polymorphism was likely. In contrast, the ML tree based on COI sequences showed that reciprocal monophyly was not yet achieved for this marker for the two P. punctifer taxa. The existence of three sympatric species of Pseudoplatystoma in the Peruvian Amazon is discussed in relation to their molecular characteristics, color patterns and ecology. Evolutionary scenarios regarding their divergence are hypothesized.

  11. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of Myxobolus cf. cuneus, a parasite of patinga hybrid and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma, a parasite of pintado hybrid.

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    Milanin, Tiago; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Silva, Márcia Ramos Monteiro; Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson Aparecido

    2015-09-01

    Through morphological, histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of Myxobolus cuneus Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2006 and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma Naldoni, Arana, Maia, Ceccarelli, Tavares, Borges, Pozo et Adriano, 2009 were identified infecting pacu respectively (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and hybrid pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) taken from Brazilian fish farms. The present study describes 18S rDNA sequencing of Myxobolus cf. cuneus infecting the spleen of farmed patinga, a hybrid fish resulting from the crossing of P. mesopotamicus x Piaractus brachypomus, and H. pseudoplatystoma found in farmed hybrid pintado from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study also provides new details of the host-parasite interface of M. cf. cuneus, which reveal that the plasmodial wall is composed of a single membrane connected to the plasmodium ectoplasm by numerous pinocytic canals. The plasmodia also displayed asynchronous development but had disporic pansporoblasts at different developmental stages; immature and mature spores were found at different depth levels of the plasmodium. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that M. cf. cuneus appeared as a sister species of Henneguya pellucida Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2005 in a sub-clade composed mainly of myxosporean parasites of characiforms, and that H. pseudoplatystoma clustered in a sub-clade composed of Henneguya/Myxobolus spp. parasites of siluriform fish. PMID:26204181

  12. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

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    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-05-09

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.

  13. Hematology and time of macrophage migration catfish Pseudoplatystoma spp. front of inoculation Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    André Luiz Nunes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was studied in this work the definition of time in phagocytic activity of macrophages in the celomatic cavity in surubim Pseudoplatystoma spp. and the hematological and biochemistry alterations after the inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisae. 24 fishes weighting an average of 15,6 ± 4,3 g were used. The delineation used was entirely randomized, and the incubation times were one, two and three hours, and a control group, where six fishes were used per group. For inoculation, 1.5 mL of solution of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in concentration of 9,000 cells mm-3 were injected intraperitoneally. The hematological and biochemistry variables analyzed were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, total number of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, trombocyte count of total blood and total count of differential leukocyte and glucose. The phagocytic capacity and index of macrophages were evaluated. Variance analysis was performed (P<0.05 and the means that showed significative diffence were compared through the Tukey test at 5%. The eosinophills concentration was lower in the times of two and three hours compared to the control group. There was not significative difference to the plasmatic glucose among the times of incubation. The incubation period of two hours proved to be enough to promote migration and optimal activation of serubim macrophages.

  14. Estudio del comportamiento mecánico de un sistema recubierto mediante simulación computacional del ensayo de rayado//Mechanical Behavior study of a coated system by computer simulation of the scratch test

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    Eduardo A. Pérez Ruiz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Una forma de evaluar un sistema recubierto es a través del ensayo de rayado. Los resultados obtenidos dependen de variables como: propiedades y geometría del indentador, tasa de carga, tasa de desplazamiento, propiedades de los materiales del sistema a evaluar como dureza, módulo elástico, microestructura, rugosidad superficial, espesor, entre otras. El presente trabajo analizó, a través de simulación computacional del ensayo de rayado, el efecto que tiene la geometría del indentador (cónica y esférica, la carga de rayado (20 N y 50 N, el espesor del recubrimiento (2,1 µm y 4,6 µm y el coeficiente de fricción (0,3 y 0,5 en el comportamiento de los esfuerzos y la deformación plástica en la superficie de un sistema recubierto. Los resultados sugieren que el coeficiente de fricción como variable de ensayo tiene una alta importancia en el comportamiento mecánico del sistema recubierto.Palabras claves: ensayo de rayado, simulación computacional, sistema recubierto.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractOne way to evaluate a coated system is through the scratch test. The results obtained depend of the variables including mechanical properties and geometry of indenter, loading, displacement, material properties in the system as hardness, elastic modulus, microstructure, roughness surface, thickness, among others, which are indicated in ASTM C1624 / 05. This paper analyzes through scratch test simulation, the effect of the indenter geometry (conical and spherical, the loading (20 N and 50 N, the thickness coating (2,1 µm and 4,6 µm and the friction coefficient values (0,3 and 0,5 in the stresses and plastic deformation behavior at the surface of a coated system. The results suggest that the coefficient of friction has a high importance in the mechanical performance of the coated system.Key words: scratch test, computacional simulation, coated system.

  15. HISTOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DEL SILÚRIDO BAGRE TIGRITO (Pimelodus pictus)

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    CM Olaya; CH Ovalle; E. Gómez; D. Rodríguez; ML Caldas; H. Hurtado

    2007-01-01

    El bagre tigrito Pimelodus pictus es un pez ornamental con gran aceptación en el mercado acuarista internacional, sin embargo, se desconocen muchos aspectos de la biología básica de esta especie. Por tal motivo, se realizó un estudio histológico y morfométrico del sistema digestivo a Àn de contribuir al diseño de futuras dietas. Se sacriÀcaron 7 individuos adultos de P. pictus de 10 ± 0,5 cm de longitud total con una sobredosis de MS-222 (0,5 g/l). Los especímenes se Àjaron en formaldehído al...

  16. Histología y morfometría del sistema digestivo del silúrido bagre tigrito (pimelodus pictus)

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya, C. M.; Ovalle, C. H.; Gómez Ramírez, E.; Rodríguez Caicedo, D.; Caldas Martínez, M. L.; Hurtado Giraldo, H.

    2009-01-01

    El bagre tigrito Pimelodus pictus es un pez ornamental con gran aceptación en el mercado acuarista internacional, sin embargo, se desconocen muchos aspectos de la biología básica de esta especie. Por tal motivo, se realizó un estudio histológico y morfométrico del sistema digestivo a fin de contribuir al diseño de futuras dietas. Se sacrificaron 7 individuos adultos de P. pictus de 10 ± 0,5 cm de longitud total con una sobredosis de MS-222 (0,5 g/l). Los especímenes se fijaron en formaldehído...

  17. South American pemphigus foliaceus: study of an epidemic in El Bagre and Nechi, Colombia 1982 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, M A; Prada, S; Jaramillo, D; Leon, W

    1988-06-01

    Between 1982 and 1986 we have had the chance to study 21 patients with pemphigus foliaceus of the 'fogo selvagem' type. The patients came from El Bagre and Nechi, rural areas of Colombia with some gold mining. This is the first outbreak of South American pemphigus foliaceus reported in Colombia. The majority of the patients were mestizo men, who worked as farmers or miners or both, with an average age of 44. Five patients were relatives. Eleven patients (52%) had mild disease, three (14%) moderate disease and seven (33%) severe disease. During hospitalization, three patients died due to complications or as a result of immunosuppressive treatment. Of the remaining 18 patients, 10 were in remission with treatment, one was in remission without treatment, while no information was available on the remaining seven. PMID:3401411

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among five marine Catfish species (Pisces: Ariidae from Mexico Relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies de bagres (Pisces: Ariidae de México

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    Guadalupe Tenorio-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the marine catfish of the family Ariidae is controversial because at the present time the number of species and genera in the family, or their relationships, remain uncertain. Phylogenetic relationships among five representative species of marine catfish of the family Ariidae from both the Pacific and the Atlantic coasts of Mexico were assessed by the analysis of the variability in 21 alloenzymatic loci, and by the comparison of the electrophoretic patterns of whole muscle proteins. Interspecific genetic divergence levels obtained by both electrophoretic methods showed a clear separation among the genera Cathorops, Bagre and Ariopsis, as well as in the studied species of Cathorops and Ariopsis, with Bagre marinus showing a greater genetic similarity with the Ariopsis group. Finally, our results contribute to the definition of the presence of this species in the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico.La sistemática de los bagres marinos pertenecientes a la familia Ariidae es controversial, porque hasta la actualidad, no se conoce con exactitud el número de especies y géneros existentes en la familia, ni las relaciones que se establecen entre ellos. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies representativas de bagres marinos de la familia Ariidae, de ambas costas del Pacífico y del Atlántico Mexicano. El mencionado análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el análisis de la variabilidad en 21 loci aloenzimáticos y a través de la comparación de patrones electroforéticos de proteínas totales de músculo. Los niveles de divergencia interespecífica obtenidos por ambos métodos electroforéticos mostraron una clara separación entre los géneros Cathorops, Bagre y Ariopsis, así como entre las especies estudiadas de Cathorops y Ariopsis con Bagre marinus, mostrando una mayor similitud genética con el grupo Ariopsis. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio contribuyen al establecimiento de la

  19. Monitoring water turbidity and surface suspended sediment concentration of the Bagre Reservoir (Burkina Faso) using MODIS and field reflectance data

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    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Pinet, Sylvain; Gal, Laetitia; Cochonneau, Gérard; Martinez, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters is essential to address several important issues: erosion, sediment transport and deposition throughout watersheds, reservoir siltation, water pollution, human health risks, etc. This is especially important in regions with limited conventional monitoring capacities such as West Africa. In this study, we explore the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (MODIS, MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 products, red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands) to monitor turbidity and SSSC for the Bagre Reservoir in Burkina Faso. High values ​​of these parameters associated with high spatial and temporal variability potentially challenge the methodologies developed so far for less turbid waters. Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The NIR/R ratio is found to be the most suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity for both in-situ spectoradiometer measurements and satellite reflectance from MODIS. The spatio temporal variability of MODIS NIR/R together with rainfall estimated by the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) and altimetry data from Jason-2 is analyzed over the Bagre Reservoir for the 2000-2015 period. It is found that rain events of the early rainy season (February-March) through mid-rainy season (August) are decisive in triggering turbidity increase. Sediment transport is observed in the reservoir from upstream to downstream between June and September. Furthermore, a significant increase of 19% in turbidity values is observed between 2000 and 2015, mainly for the July to December period. It is especially well marked for August, with the central and downstream areas showing the largest increase. The most probable hypothesis to explain this evolution is a change in land use, and particularly an increase in the amount of bare soils, which enhances particle transport by runoff.

  20. Carcass yield of surubins Pseudoplatystoma spp. reared in ponds under different stocking densities

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    Letícia Emiliani Fantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate carcass yield of surubins Pseudoplatystoma spp. reared in ponds under different stocking densities. We performed a completely randomized design, with three treatments (density and nine repetitions. The densities were: density 1 (1peixe/5m2, density 2 (1 fish/3m2 and 3 density (1 fish/2.14 m2. Surubins total average weight of 1.144 ± 0.340 kg, were slaughtered by thermal shock in ice for determining yields of eviscerated fish with and no head (YEFWH; YEFWNH, the lateral fillet with and with no skin (YLFWS; YLFWNS of abdominal fillet with and with no skin (YAFWS; YAFWNS, head (YH, skin (YS, viscera (YV of residues (YR. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and average was compared by Tukey test at 5%. In order to steeming the relation among income on percentage of carcass components depending on the final weight of the fish we reckoned regression equations. There was no difference (P>0.05 of treatment through the variables of income. Average values for YEFWH, YH, YLFWNS, YAFWNS, YS, YV and YR were 91.44 ± 2.20%, 21.17 ± 1.57%, 30.01 ± 2.48%, 12.74 ± 1, 17%, 6.71 ± 1.21%, 7.61% ± 2.23, 20.11 ± 3.01%, respectively. The correlations of weight of fish yields were trivial, thus, they showed that the final weight is not a reliable indicator of yield cuts. The principal component analysis (PC indicated that four of those tests were sufficient to explain 90% of the total variation, resulting from the combination of the variables final weight and yields. The performance evaluation of income on percentage of participation in the fish total weight of the different components of carcass depending on the final weight of the animals showed linear manner for (YEFWH, YH and YV. Surubim yields processing does not depend on stocking density and they have similar values.

  1. Morphological deformities in the osseous structure in spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz & Spix, 1829) with vitamin C deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Carneiro, Dalton J

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans) fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP) was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C) and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings. PMID:23460425

  2. Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans = The use of eugenol as an anaesthetic for the handling of Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans

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    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência do eugenol como anestésico em juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans através de ensaios. No primeiro, os peixes (n=6 foram individualmente expostos a concentrações de 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol durante 10 minutos e os parâmetros de observação estabelecidos foram: perda de equilíbrio, efeito calmante e redução do movimento opercular. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol, em que os animais foram mantidos na água com anestésico até atingirem o estágio IV de anestesia: perda total de equilíbrio, do tônus muscular e redução dos movimentos operculares. A recuperação foi conduzida em um aquário, contendo 10 litros de água livre de anestésico, com aeração constante. Após os dois ensaios, foi constatada a eficiência do eugenol como substância anestésica em juvenis de pintado, sendo a concentração de 50 mg L-1 considerada a mais adequada para procedimentos usuais no manejo desses animais em piscicultura.In this work the efficacy of eugenol as an anaesthetic in Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans was evaluated by two experimental assays. In the first one, the animals (n=6 were exposed for 10 minutes to four concentrations of eugenol (25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1. The observed behavioral patterns were: loss of equilibrium, sedative effect and reduction of opercular movement. In the secondassay, the concentrations of 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 of eugenol were tested. The animals were maintained in the anaesthetic bath until they reached the stage of anaesthesia IV: total loss of equilibrium, muscle tonus and reduction of opercular movement. The recovery wasconducted in an aquarium containing 10 liters of anaesthetic free water, with constant aeration. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaestetics for Pintado juveniles were demonstrated after the assays and the 50 mg L-1 concentration was defined as the most adequate to usual

  3. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) refrigerados

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero; Elisabetta Tomé; Marisa Guerra; Rosa Raybaudi

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p < 0,05) contra la proliferación de distintas categorías de microorganismos deteriorativos, incluyendo poblaciones aeróbicas y psicrotróficas, Pseudomonas spp., b...

  4. Modelo de restauración de áreas degradadas por minería en El Bagre – Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas Villa, Huber Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: Actualmente la minería aurífera aluvial, explota la mayor parte del área de humedales asociados al río Nechí en el municipio del Bagre, Antioquia - Colombia. En los humedales operados por las grandes empresas mineras, sus programas de “recuperación de tierras” en el Bajo Cauca antioqueño, incluyen medidas como reforestación, parcelas productivas, recuperación de humedales, conformación de diques de protección, manejo de sedimentos, etc. Sin embargo, se han identificado algunos efecto...

  5. Parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of Monogenea parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Gonçalves, Eduardo Luis Tavares; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, South America. A total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. Water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. Histopathology was used to observe the effects of the parasites and environment on the fish gills. The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the monogeneans (Ameloblastella sp., Amphocleithrium paraguayensis, Vancleaveus ciccinus, V. fungulus and V. janacauensis) were the most prevalent parasites detected in both seasons in both farms, with prevalence above 80%. It was stated that parasites did not cause important damage in the health status of the hybrid surubim. These results might be related to general good management practices and environmental quality implemented by the fish farmers. The presence of uncommon monogenean parasites to this hybrid compared to their parents causing an environmental and ecological concern is here discussed. PMID:27334818

  6. Intestinal histomorphology in Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed bovine colostrum as source of protein and bioactive peptides Histomorfologia intestinal de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum alimentado com colostro bovino como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos

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    Ana Paula Oeda Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Histological responses of the intestine are key for evaluating nutritional value of feed ingredients, since the organ is not only the chief site of feed digestion and nutrient absorption but also plays an important immunological function. Histomorphological alterations were evaluated in the intestine of juvenile striped catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, fed diets containing 0 (control, 10 or 20% inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC, as source of protein or bioactive peptides, for either 30 or 60 days. Fish fed 20LBC presented at 60d a distinct pattern of macrophages and, some of them, higher number of vacuoles in rectum mucosa. The thickness of the muscle layer (TML in fish fed diets with LBC was higher in the first portion of medium intestine than fish fed 0LBC. All fish presented significant increase of TML in the second portion of medium intestine along feeding period, but fish fed 20LBC had smaller values of TML than those of fish fed 0 and 10LBC which might be related to the higher intestinal coefficient found for this group. The TML of rectum was higher just for fish fed 10LBC. Dietary LBC altered morphometrical features of juvenile striped catfish intestine and possibly induced inflammatory reaction in the rectal mucosa, as a function of level of inclusion, feeding period and segment of intestine analyzed.Respostas histológicas do intestino são fundamentais para avaliar o valor nutritivo de ingredientes alimentares, uma vez que o órgão não é só o principal local de digestão e absorção dos nutrientes, mas também exerce uma importante função imunológica. Alterações histomorfológicas foram avaliadas no intestino de juvenis de cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, alimentado com dietas contendo 0 (controle, 10 e 20% de inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado (CBL como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos, aos 30 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, peixes alimentados com 20CBL apresentaram macrófagos de aspecto distinto

  7. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  8. HISTOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DEL SILÚRIDO BAGRE TIGRITO (Pimelodus pictus

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    CM Olaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El bagre tigrito Pimelodus pictus es un pez ornamental con gran aceptación en el mercado acuarista internacional, sin embargo, se desconocen muchos aspectos de la biología básica de esta especie. Por tal motivo, se realizó un estudio histológico y morfométrico del sistema digestivo a Àn de contribuir al diseño de futuras dietas. Se sacriÀcaron 7 individuos adultos de P. pictus de 10 ± 0,5 cm de longitud total con una sobredosis de MS-222 (0,5 g/l. Los especímenes se Àjaron en formaldehído al 4%, durante cinco días a 4 °C. Luego se siguió el procedimiento para técnica en paraÀna. Se realizaron cortes de 5 μm de espesor y se colo-rearon con H&E. El sistema digestivo presentó cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa. En el esófago la mucosa estaba compuesta por epitelio plano estratiÀcado con gran número de células caliciformes, y una submucosa de tejido conectivo laxo, seguida por músculo estriado esquelético con dos orientaciones (circular y longitudinal. En todos los órganos evaluados la capa serosa fue muy delgada. En el estómago se identiÀcaron dos regiones, la pilórica y la cardíaca, encontrándose glándulas gástricas en esta última, ambas regiones presentaban una mucosa con epitelio cilíndrico simple, una submucosa de tejido conectivo laxo, y una capa de músculo liso con dos orientaciones (circular y longitudinal así mismo, este órgano fue el que exhibió el mayor espesor en la capa mucosa y muscular. La histología de la mucosa, la submucosa y la capa muscular del intestino fue similar a lo presentado por el estómago, aunque morfométricamente esta región fue la que exhibió los menores valores en todas las capas evaluadas. El estómago bien deÀnido y el intestino con pocos ciegos pilóricos hace suponer que P. pictus es de hábitos omnívoros con preferencia de los alimentos de origen animal.

  9. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii refrigerados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p acetato de sodio > lactato de sodio > ajo. La vida útil de los productos tratados fue, al menos, de 15 días. Por lo tanto, el acetato de sodio, lactato de sodio, romero y ajo pueden ser utilizados como preservativos seguros para el pescado almacenado bajo refrigeración.

  10. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii refrigerados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p acetato de sodio > lactato de sodio > ajo. La vida útil de los productos tratados fue, al menos, de 15 días. Por lo tanto, el acetato de sodio, lactato de sodio, romero y ajo pueden ser utilizados como preservativos seguros para el pescado almacenado bajo refrigeración.

  11. Biomarcadores histológicos em duas espécies de bagres estuarinos da Costa Maranhense, Brasil Histology biomarkers in two estuarine catfish species from the Maranhense Coast, Brazil

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    D.B.P.Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se validar lesões branquiais como biomarcadores em peixes de importância econômica (Sciades herzbergii e Bagre bagre capturados pela pesca artesanal em dois locais diferenciados da Baía de São Marcos, MA, a fim de selecionar um táxon como bioindicador capaz de ser utilizado em programas de biomonitoramento. O primeiro ponto (S1 foi utilizado como uma área de referência - Ilha dos Caranguejos -, e o segundo ponto (S2 foi considerado potencialmente impactado - Complexo Portuário de São Luís, MA. Encontraram-se várias alterações histológicas para as duas espécies em S2, destacando-se: estreitamento lamelar, teleangectasia, fusão e descolamento do epitélio da lamela secundária. Lesões branquiais em B. bagre coletados em S1 também foram observadas, não sendo possível diferenciar os indivíduos das duas áreas analisadas. Os dados indicam que S. herzbergii é um bioindicador mais apropriado para análise de biomarcadores de contaminação aquática.This study aimed to validate branchial lesions as a biomarker in fish (Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre caught by traditional fishing in two different places at São Marcos Bay, MA, in order to select a bioindicator taxon which can be used in biomonitoring programs. The first point (S1 was used as a reference area - Caranguejos (Crab Island and the second point (S2 was considered potentially impacted - Port Complex of São Luis, MA. Several histological changes were found for both species in S2, including: narrowing lamellar, teleangectasy, fusion and separation of secondary lamellar epithelium. Gill lesions in B. bagre collected were also observed in S1, it is not possible to differentiate between individuals of the two areas analyzed. The data indicate that S. herzbergii is more appropriate as a bioindicator for analysis of biomarkers of aquatic contamination.

  12. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  13. Desempenho produtivo de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans estocados em sistemas de criação: semi-intensivo (viveiro escavado e intensivo (tanque-rede Growth performance of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans stocked in rearing systems: semi-intensive (ponds and intensive (cages

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    Andressa Daniela de Sousa Liranço

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar o desempenho produtivo e custos de produção de exemplares de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, estocados em dois sistemas de criação: semi-intensivo (viveiro escavado, VE e intensivo (tanque-rede, TR. Trezentos (300 peixes, com um ano de idade, foram estocados, sendo 150 em um VE (médias de peso e comprimento: 1,48±0,46kg e 57,31±6,42cm e 150 divididos em três TR (médias de peso e comprimento: 1,27±0,34kg e 55,05±4,11cm. Foram alimentados com ração extrusada de 15mm (diâmetro 40% PB e 3110kcal ED kg-1, ajustada mensalmente à quantidade de ração. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água, observados durante o experimento, foram temperatura = 24,08°C±3,23; pH=6,89±0,39 e oxigênio dissolvido = 7,57±0,97mg L-1. Os reultados obtidos dos valores médios finais dos comprimentos (VE=74,07±4,34cm; TR=70,33±5,02cm e pesos dos peixes (VE=3,41±0,58kg e TR=2,94±0,60kg indicaram desempenho semelhante nos dois sistemas. As médias do fator de condição (0,09-0,036; ganho em peso diário (9,29g dia-1 - 8,95g dia-1; conversão alimentar (3,09-4,15; consumo total de ração (29,60g dia-1 - 74,16g dia-1; índice de crescimento (0,219-0,215 e sobrevivência (97,33-90,67% para VE e TR, respectivamente. Houve interação significativa entre os sistemas de criação e mês (PThe objective of this study was to compare the growth performance and cost of production of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans stocked in two culture systems: semi-intensive (ponds, P and intensive (cage, C. From three hundred (300 one-year-old fish, one hundred fifty (150 were stocked in one pond (mean weight and length 1.48±0.46kg and 57.31±6.42cm, one hundred fifty (150, distributed in three cages (mean weight and length 1.27±0.34kg and 55.05±4.11cm. The fish were fed with extruded commercial ration with 15.0mm floating pellets containing 40% crude protein (CP and, 3,110Kcal of digestible energy (DE, adjusted monthly. The parameters of water

  14. Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Pleistophora hyphessobryconis (Microsporidia) infecting hybrid jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) in a Brazilian aquaculture facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Andrew D; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Souza, Marcos D E A; Colodel, Edson M; Soares, Mauro P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A microsporidian infecting the skeletal muscle of hybrid jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) in a commercial aquaculture facility in Brazil is described. Affected fish exhibited massive infections in the skeletal muscle that were characterized by large opaque foci throughout the affected fillets. Histologically, skeletal muscle was replaced by inflammatory cells and masses of microsporidial developmental stages. Generally pyriform spores had a wrinkled bi-layer spore wall and measured 4·0 × 6·0 µm. Multinucleate meronts surrounded by a simple plasma membrane were observed. The polar filament had an external membrane and a central electron dense mass. The development of sporoblasts within a sporophorous vesicle appeared synchronized. Ultrastructural observations and molecular analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the microsporidian was Pleistophora hyphessobryconis. This study is the first report of a P. hyphessobryconis infection in a non-ornamental fish. PMID:26522338

  15. Feeding of larvae of the hybrid surubim Pseudoplatystoma sp. under two conditions of food management - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15359

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    Aryadne Simões Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the growth and diet composition of hybrid surubim larvae (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x P. reticulatum produced in two fish farming by using different systems of feeding with natural plankton: M I, larvae are transferred to fertilized fish pond for being freely fed with natural plankton; M II, larvae are remained inside laboratory in glass fiber boxes and plankton are gathered with a plankton net and offered in a controlled way. It was collected 10 individuals daily during the feeding period with live plankton for 20 days. After the biometry, stomachs were opened and the food items identified and quantified by the volumetric method. The items were represented by algae, protozoa, microcrustacean, insect larvae and surubim fragments (cannibalism. The items with higher volumetric percentage were Chironomidae larvae (29.25% followed by surubim fragments (19.68% in M I, and surubim fragments (21.85% and Moina micrura (19.97% in MII. The items Chydorus sp., Diaphanosoma sp., sp. Macrothrix and Ephemeroptera larvae were found only in fish of M I, while algae Ulothrix sp., Oscillatoria sp. and the protozoa Difflugia sp were only found in stomachs of surubim from M II. Regarding the growth, the surubim had grown faster in M I.

  16. Bases científicas para contribuir a la gestión de la pesquería comercial de bagres (familia pimelodidae) en la Amazonia colombiana y sus zonas de frontera

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Córdoba, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Los peces son uno de los principales recursos alimenticios, culturales y económicos en la Amazonia, importantes para la seguridad alimentaria de los núcleos familiares ribereños como en la generación de ingreso a quienes dependen económicamente de la extracción de este recurso natural. Esta tesis doctoral, se ha enfocado en analizar variables biológicas y pesqueras en varios bagres de la familia Pimelodidae, así como el componente humano y económico de esta actividad en la frontera en Colomb...

  17. Biología reproductiva del bagre cominate Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae) en el sureste del golfo de California Reproductive biology of the cominate sea catfish Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae) from the southeastern Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Amezcua; Víctor Muro-Torres

    2012-01-01

    En el sureste del golfo de California, el bagre cominate presenta gran abundancia y es explotado comercialmente. Sin embargo, estudios sobre su biología son escasos y no existen normas que regulen su explotación en México. En este trabajo se describe la biología reproductiva de Occidentarius platypogon. Se capturaron 480 organismos con redes agalleras entre octubre 2008 y diciembre 2009. El estado de madurez gonadal se determinó macroscópicamente. Esta especie tiene una época de desove de may...

  18. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

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    Ana María Abreu Velez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims : Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA, Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results : Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion : The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439 in the control group.

  19. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  20. Processo de maturação das gônadas de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans alimentado com dois níveis proteicos e suplementados com óleo de milho Process of gonad maturation of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans fed diets containing different levels of protein and supplemented with corn oil

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    V.X.L. Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição de C18:2n6, por meio da inclusão de óleo de milho em dietas com dois níveis de proteína bruta, sobre o processo de maturação de gametas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, mantidos em tanques-rede. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência, relação peso x comprimento, fator de condição (K e índice gonadossomático (IGS. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2006, em 12 tanques-rede, distribuídos em seis viveiros-escavados de 600m² e densidade de estocagem de 20 peixes/tanque-rede. Utilizaram-se três tratamentos (T com duas repetições/viveiro: T1 com 28% de PB; T2 com 28% de PB + 5% óleo de milho e T3 com 40% de PB. O crescimento foi ligeiramente mais alto nos peixes do T3. As taxas de sobrevivência foram acima de 77%. Pode-se inferir que as rações ofertadas não causaram alterações histomorfológicas durante o processo de maturação gonadal dessa espécie. O IGS e o K foram ligeiramente mais altos nos animais alimentados com a ração enriquecida com óleo de milho.It was studied the effect of the addition of C18:2n6, by the inclusion of corn oil, in diets with different levels of crude protein (CP on the process of gonad maturation in surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. Survival rate, weight x length ratio, condition factor (K, and gonadossomatic index (GSI were evaluated. The experiment was carried out from March 2004 to February 2006, using 12 cages distributed in six tanks, with 20 fishes per cage. Three treatments (T were: T1 28% CP; T2 28% CP + 5% corn oils, and T3 40% CP. No effect of the diet was observed on growth in the 1st and 2nd years of age, with a slightly superior growth of T3 fish. The survival rates were superior to 77%. It can be inferred that the offered diet did not cause histomorphological alterations during the process of gonadal maturation of this species. However, the GSI and the K were slightly advanced and superior in the animals

  1. Características morfométricas e crescimento do cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766, em cativeiro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2002 Morphometric characteristics and growth in cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766 in captivity - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2002

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    Heloisa Maria Godinho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as características morfométricas e o crescimento de machos e fêmeas do cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Pimelodidae, em cativeiro. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 4 viveiros de 600m2, na densidade de 1,0 peixe/2m2. Dados de peso total (Wt /g, comprimento total (Lt/cm, padrão (Ls/cm, cabeça (Lh/cm e altura do corpo (Hb/cm foram obtidos bimestralmente, de janeiro/99 a janeiro/01, considerando-se 5% de cada lote. Foram analisados 132 machos e 248 fêmeas, que atingiram peso médio final, de 1.233,0g e 2.266,0g, respectivamente. A relação Lt/Wt apresentou alta correlação, com valores de b superiores a 3, onde o dimorfismo entre os sexos não foi observado. As relações Lt/Ls e Lt/Lh foram lineares, e para Lt /Hh obteve-se um melhor valor de b superior para as fêmeas. Não ocorreram diferenças entre os sexos para essas variáveis. O fator de condição não apresentou grandes variações sazonais.Morphometric characteristics and growth of males and females of “cachara”, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Pimelodidae, were studied. Fishes were distributed in four ponds (600m2, at the rate of 1fish/2m2. Total weight (g, total length (cm, standard length (cm, head length (cm, body height (cm were obtained bimonthly, from January/99 to January/01, from 5% of each pond population. One hundred thirty two males and two hundred forty eight females were analyzed showing an average final weight of 1,233.0g and 2,266.0g, respectively. The Lt/Wt relationship showed high correlation, with b values slightly above 3, where no sexual dimorphism was observed. The relationship Lt /Ls and Lt /Hl presented linear tendency with high correlation. For Lt /HC, the females b values were higher than males. There were no differences between the sexes for those variables. Condition factor remained relatively constant without showing seasonal fluctuation.

  2. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  3. Canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cultivadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543 Cannibalism among larvae of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans bred under different stockage densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543

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    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae confinadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem em condições de laboratório, foi desenvolvido um experimento no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, perfazendo um período de 72 horas, onde foram utilizadas 500 larvas com 96 horas de vida e peso inicial de 2,2 ± 0,3mg. Estas foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, em recipientes de 700mL, cujas densidades variaram de 14, 28, 42 e 56 larvas/L. As variáveis analisadas foram mortalidade natural, mortalidade por predação intra-específica e peso final. Ao final, verificou-se que o aumento da densidade afetou de forma negativa o desenvolvimento e provocou um aumento linear nas taxas de mortalidade e canibalismo entre os animais. Concluiu-se que, à medida que se aumenta a concentração de larvas de pintado, ocorre redução não apenas no desempenho, mas também na taxa de sobrevivênciaThe development, survival and cannibalism among larvae of the pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae are verified. Larvae were confined at different stockage densities in lab conditions. The experiment was developed at the Aquaculture Lab of the State University of Maringá, during 72 hours, with 500 larvae aged 96 hours, initial weight 2.2 ± 0.3mg. Larvae were distributed in an entirely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions, in 700mL-containers, at densities varied 14, 28, 42 and 56 larvae per L. Natural mortality, mortality by intraspecies predation and final weight were the variables analyzed. After finished, density increase affected negatively the larvae’s development. It also caused a linear increase in mortality rates and in cannibalism among the animals. Increase in concentration of pintado larvae was proportional to decrease in

  4. Diferenciação genética entre populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra do rio Paraná Genetic differentiation among populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isolated by the Guaíra Falls in the Paraná River

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    Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Os saltos de Guaíra, também denominados Sete Quedas, constituíam até 1982 uma barreira para a dispersão de peixes migradores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae eram isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra. Amostras provenientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (PL, do reservatório Itaipu (IT e de jusante de Yacyretá (YA, foram comparadas por RAPD. O FST de Lynch foi significativo entre PL e IT (0,090 e PL e YA (0,112. O fluxo gênico estimado (Nm variou de 2,0 entre PL e YA a 8,1 entre IT e YA, e a distância genética de Nei de D = 0,0638 entre PL e YA a D = 0,0174 entre IT e YA. Estes resultados indicam existência de diferenciação genética e que, possivelmente, Sete Quedas isolavam reprodutivamente as populações. Sugerem, também, a possibilidade de áreas diferentes de desova, impedindo parcialmente a homogeneização genética das populações IT e PL.Until 1982, the Guaíra Falls, also named the Seven Falls, constituted a barrier to the dispersion of migratory fish in the Paraná River. The objective of this work was to verify if populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae were isolated by the Guaíra Falls. Samples from the Upper Paraná River floodplain (PL, the Itaipu reservoir (IT, and downstream Yacyretá reservoir (YA were compared by RAPD markers. Lynch's FST was significant between PL and IT (0.090, and PL and YA (0.112. Estimated gene flow (Nm varied from 2.0 between PL and YA to 8.1 between IT and YA. Nei's genetic distance varied from D = 0.0638 between PL and YA to D = 0.0174 between IT and YA. These results indicate the existence of genetic differentiation and that, possibly, the Guaíra Falls isolated the populations reproductively. They also suggest the possibility of different spawning areas, partially avoiding the genetic homogenization of the IT and PL populations.

  5. Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400 The use of eugenol as an anaesthetic for the handling of Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400

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    Gustavo Rodamilans de Mecêdo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência do eugenol como anestésico em juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans através de ensaios. No primeiro, os peixes (n=6 foram individualmente expostos a concentrações de 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol durante 10 minutos e os parâmetros de observação estabelecidos foram: perda de equilíbrio, efeito calmante e redução do movimento opercular. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol, em que os animais foram mantidos na água com anestésico até atingirem o estágio IV de anestesia: perda total de equilíbrio, do tônus muscular e redução dos movimentos operculares. A recuperação foi conduzida em um aquário, contendo 10 litros de água livre de anestésico, com aeração constante. Após os dois ensaios, foi constatada a eficiência do eugenol como substância anestésica em juvenis de pintado, sendo a concentração de 50 mg L-1 considerada a mais adequada para procedimentos usuais no manejo desses animais em piscicultura.In this work the efficacy of eugenol as an anaesthetic in Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans was evaluated by two experimental assays. In the first one, the animals (n=6 were exposed for 10 minutes to four concentrations of eugenol (25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1. The observed behavioral patterns were: loss of equilibrium, sedative effect and reduction of opercular movement. In the second assay, the concentrations of 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 of eugenol were tested. The animals were maintained in the anaesthetic bath until they reached the stage of anaesthesia IV: total loss of equilibrium, muscle tonus and reduction of opercular movement. The recovery was conducted in an aquarium containing 10 liters of anaesthetic free water, with constant aeration. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaestetics for Pintado juveniles were demonstrated after the assays and the 50 mg L-1 concentration was defined as the most adequate to

  6. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

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    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude

  7. Growth of juvenile Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and Pseudoplatystoma spp. in pond

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    Aline Mayra da Silva Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fish is an important factor that determines the potential of various species for economic exploitation. The aim this work was evaluates the growth juvenile cachara and hybrid grown in pond. Information was collected of weight and morphometric measures during the experimental period. Total length gain, body height gain, body width gain, weight gain, growth index, morphometric ratios and body percentage were calculated. The methodology of generalized linear models was used, considering Gamma distribution and inverse link function. The variances and averages of variables were submitted tests F of the Snedecor and Chi-Square, respectively. The hybrids gained more weight in second and third biometrics, beyond of presented greater total length gain and body percentage. The head size and head width of cacharas were higher in three biometrics. The variances of hybrids were higher in the second and third biometrics. The hybrids presented better performance, but lesser standardization for traits evaluated than pure specie, confirming the need development genetic improvement programs that performs pure species selection for increased commercial production.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF THE MEAT IN SOME SPECIES OF CATFISH: A REVIEW REVISIÓN: CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD NUTRICIONAL DE LA CARNE EN ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE BAGRE

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    Nubia Estella Cruz Casallas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the most consumed fish in the world is Silurid, also called "leather fish" or catfish, whose main characteristic is the absence of intramuscular bones and scales, as well as its high productivity. In recent years, the nutritional characterization of the meat of some of these species has been carried out, finding that, although the proximal composition is within the broad ranges for fish, the fat content provides a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA particularly as regards omega-3 (w-3, furthermore the w-6/w-3 ratio is within the proscriptions of the World Health Organization (WHO for many of these species of catfish. Likewise, the contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and amino acids, minerals and vitamins reveal a high variability between individuals and species associated with the type of cultivation and dietary habits and also with the age and weight at slaughter. Furthermore quality parameters have been defined in relation to susceptibility to autolysis, oxidation and hydrolysis of fats and disturbances caused by microorganisms that cause decisive changes in the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. This review compiles current information regarding the nutritional composition of catfish meat and the quality parameters.Resumen. Una de las carnes de pescado de mayor consumo en el mundo es la de Silúridos, también denominados peces de cuero o bagres, cuya principal característica es la ausencia de espinas intramusculares y de escamas, además de su alta productividad. En los últimos años se ha logrado realizar la caracterización nutricional de la carne de algunas de estas especies, hallándose que aunque la composición proximal se encuentra dentro de los rangos generales para peces, el contenido de grasa ofrece menor proporción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGP particularmente en lo referente a la serie omega 3 (w-3, aunque la relación w-6/w-3

  9. [Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cristiane M de; Moraes, Julieta R E de; Moraes, E Flávio R de

    2008-01-01

    Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5microm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolus porofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P. mesopotamicus were also related. Up to 50% of P. mesopotamicus and P. lineatus liver samples showed diffuse hepatodistrofy. Liver sections also showed concentric hialin structures in over 80% of samples and esteatosis in 50% of them. In P. mesopotamicus kidney, 95.23% of them showed tissue changes consisted of 60% with diffuse moderate nefrodistrofy and congestion of glomerular sinusoids. In P. lineatus kidney, 20% of the samples showed tissues changes. No heavy damage was observed in the fish spleen.

  10. Influence of the type of environment and of the hydrological level variation in endoparasitic infrapopulations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz and Schizodon borelli (Boulenger (Osteichthyes of the high Paraná River, Brazil

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    Marion H Machado

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ten specimens of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Pimelodidae, "pintado", and 582 specimens of Schizodon borelli (Boulenger, 1900 (Anostomidae, "piava", collected in the floodplain of the high Paraná River were analyzed. P. corruscans presented 74.54% of parasitism while S. borelli presented 19.42%. Results of the present research show that in the case of P. corruscans, two species of proteocephalideans presented a significant relationship with the type of environment with regard to prevalence. Spasskyelina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935 was the only species that presented a relationship between the intensity of infection and the environment. In S. borelli only Cucullanus pinnai Travassos. Artigas & Pereira, 1928 presented a relationship with the environment. In this case the mean intensity was greater in lentic environments. The high values of the similarity index in the three environments studied indicate a considerable homogeneity of the endohelminths' species with regard to P. corruscans and S. borelli. This is probably due to what occurs with environments during the high water period when they are interlinked. The hydrological level was a less influential variable in endoparasitic infrapopulations of the hosts studied. In P. corruscans only three species, S. spinulifera, Nomimoscolex sudobim Woodland, 1934 and Megatnylacus travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992 presented higher mean intensities in the high water period. This fact was also observed in the case of C. pinnai in S. borelli.

  11. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004) Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Vázquez; Tomás R Florville-Alejandre; Miguel Herrera; Luz María Díaz de León

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  12. Comparación química y funcional de tres dietas comerciales y una experimental, a través de la tasa de crecimiento de bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus) y su efecto en la calidad del agua

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    Sánchez Pérez, Karina Yurittsy

    2013-01-01

    Dietas de alta calidad nutricional, bajo impacto ambiental y económicamente rentables, son una necesidad apremiante para alcanzar mayor eficiencia alimenticia, tasa máxima de crecimiento de los peces y reducir los recambios en el ciclo de engorda. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento y los efectos de la proteína dietaría sobre la degradación de la calidad del agua, a través de la acumulación de nutrientes no asimilados en el agua de cultivo del bagre (Ictalurus punctatus).

  13. Biología reproductiva del bagre cominate Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae en el sureste del golfo de California Reproductive biology of the cominate sea catfish Occidentarius platypogon (Pisces: Ariidae from the southeastern Gulf of California

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    Felipe Amezcua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste del golfo de California, el bagre cominate presenta gran abundancia y es explotado comercialmente. Sin embargo, estudios sobre su biología son escasos y no existen normas que regulen su explotación en México. En este trabajo se describe la biología reproductiva de Occidentarius platypogon. Se capturaron 480 organismos con redes agalleras entre octubre 2008 y diciembre 2009. El estado de madurez gonadal se determinó macroscópicamente. Esta especie tiene una época de desove de mayo a agosto con un desarrollo sincrónico en dos lotes. La fecundidad media fue de 37 ovocitos maduros. La baja fecundidad se debe a que esta especie presenta cuidado parental con incubación oral por parte de los machos, lo cual reduce su mortalidad natural en las primeras etapas de desarrollo. La talla de primera madurez fue de 37,6 cm y la longitud estimada de primera captura de la pesquería artesanal con redes de enmalle fue de 23,4 cm, lo que indica la captura de organismos que aún no alcanzan su talla reproductiva. La mayoría de los organismos capturados fueron machos incubando, por lo tanto, podría ser alta la mortalidad por pesca de juveniles.The cominate sea catfish from the southeastern Gulf of California is an important species that is commercially exploited. However, studies on biology of this species are scarce; therefore, harvest regulations do not exist for this species in Mexico. The aim of this work was to describe reproductive biology of Occidentarius platypogon. Gillnet samples were carried out from October 2008 to December 2009. In total, 480 fish were dissected; gender sex and gonad maturity stage were determined macroscopically. Results indicated that the spawning season runs from May to August and generally with synchronic gonad development. Fecundity of the chihuil sea catfish was 37, which is low because this species shows parental care via oral incubation of fry, reducing mortality. Estimated length at first maturity is 37

  14. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  15. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004 Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004

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    Felipe Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg We analyzed the heavy metal content in the muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulf of México between 2001 and 2004. The research was done in order to establish an environmental frame of reference for this organism. The metal concentration was as follows: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Cobalt and vanadium contents were found to decrease and those of nickel, mercury, and chromium to ulerease; however, neither of these trends was observed for the lead content. One-way analyses of variance con-firm significant temporal variation only for cobalt, mercury, lead, and vanadium. Significant linear correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05 were found for Co-V, Cr-Ni, Cr-Pb, Co-Hg, Ni-V, and V-Pb. The first three associa-tions showed positive correlations, whereas the remaining ones had negative correlations. A factor analysis grouped the studied metals depending on their origins. The metal levels found in the muscular tissue of A. felis from the southern Gulf of México were lower than those set by national and international regulations.

  16. Avaliação dos estoques pesqueiros de quatro espécies de grandes bagres (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae na bacia do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal norte, Brasil, utilizando alguns Pontos de Referência Biológicos Fisheries stock assessment of four large catfish (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae in the Cuiaba River basin, north Pantanal, Brazil, using some Biological Reference Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia A. F. Mateus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros de crescimento e mortalidade estimados a partir da estrutura em comprimento foram utilizados para avaliar o estado de explotação dos estoques de quatro espécies de grandes bagres da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal norte. As espécies estudadas foram o barbado, o cachara, o jaú e o pintado. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio do modelo de rendimento por recruta, considerando os Pontos de Referência Biológicos Fmax, F0,1, F = M e F BDR. As análises indicam que os estoques do pintado e do jaú estão bem conservados. Os estoques do cachara e, menos fortemente, o do barbado estão em iminente ameaça de sobrepesca na bacia do rio Cuiabá.The growth and mortality parameters estimated from length structure were used to evaluate the state of explotation of the stocks of four large catfish species from Cuiabá River basin, north Pantanal. The species studied were the Flatwhiskered catfish, the Jaú, the Barred sorubim, and the Spotted sorubim. The assessment were conducted with the yield per recruit model, and the Biological Reference Points Fmax, F0.1, F = M, and F BDR. The analysis indicates that the stocks of the Spotted sorubim, and of the Jaú are not overexploited. However, the stocks of the Barred sorubim, and, in lower degree, of the Flatwhiskered catfish of the Cuiabá River basin are in imminent threat of overfishing.

  17. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

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    Bayona-Vásquez Natalia Juliana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae pertenece a los sciaenidae, ésta familia es ampliamente reconocida por ser un recurso
    pesquero importante a nivel mundial, principalmente de especies marinas o estuarinas. P. magdalenae es una
    especie de importancia económica, dada su frecuencia de captura y comestibilidad de su carne, que se encuentra
    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y

  18. The biological and reproductive parameters of the invasive armored catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus from Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán-Guerrero, Mexico Parámetros biológicos y reproductivos del bagre armado invasivo Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus del embalse Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán-Guerrero, México

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    Rebeca Aneli Rueda-Jasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 (synonymy: Liposarcus multiradiatus armored catfish were first reported in Mexico in 1995 and have spread successfully in several aquatic ecosystems. In Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán - Guerrero, the population of this armored catfish is growing substantially because natural predators are not present and exploitation by humans does not occur. Over a complete annual cycle, we studied the following population parameters: weight, total and standard length, the relationship of weight to total length, the hepatosomatic (HSI and gonadosomatic (GSI indices, total fecundity (TF and relative fecundity (RF. The average total (TL and standard lengths (SL were 248 ± 37.5 and 188 ± 30.7 mm, respectively, and the average weight (W was 135.3± 66.8 g. The largest fish reported was 520 mm in TL and weighed 1 280 g. The species showed an extended reproductive season from May to November, as indicated by the GSI, TF and RF. The strongest reproductive peak occurred from July through October. During the annual cycle, the highest monthly average fecundity was 2 447 eggs, and the average relative fecundity was 12.6 eggs per g of fish (August and September. This information will be crucial for calculating the current biomass and future growth of the population. The calculation of these results could provide a basis for the exploitation of this resource for human consumption and animal feeds.La especie invasiva "bagre armado" P. disjunctivus (Weber 1991 (sinonimia de Liposarcus multuradiatus fue registrada por primera vez en México en 1995; en diversos sistemas acuáticos se ha distribuido exitosamente. En la presa Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán - Guerrero, la población de peces armados se ha incrementado considerablemente debido a la ausencia de depredadores y la falta de aprovechamiento. Por ello, a lo largo de un ciclo anual evaluamos los siguientes par

  19. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

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    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  20. Probiotic supplementation in diet and vaccination of hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum♀ x P. corruscans♂)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella do Vale Pereira; Gabriel Fernandes Alves Jesus; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; Scheila Anelise Pereira; Thiago Tetsuo Ushizima; José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Maurício Laterça Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A supplementary diet with the probiotic bacteria Weissella cibaria on the efficacy of surubim hybrid immunization against a specific hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated on the following treatments: fish fed a supplemented probiotic diet, vaccinated fish and vaccinated fish fed a supplemented probiotic diet, and untreated fish (control). Fish from the probiotic treatments were fed a diet containing W. cibaria for 41 days. On the 15th day of the experim...

  1. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the bagre Rhamdia guatemalensis (Pisces) from cenotes in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Scholz, T; Vivas Rodríguez, C

    1995-01-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n., is described from the intestine of the freshwater pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) from cenotes (= sinkholes) in Yucatan, Mexico. It differs from other three related species parasitizing freshwater fishes mainly in possessing the spicule with a simple rim of its proximal end and a non-expanded distal end, in the length of the spicule (0.218-0.295 mm), and the size (0.050-0.060 x 0.025-0.030 mm), shape and structure of eggs, and also in the host types and geographical distribution. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis is the first known autochtonous species of Pseudocapillaria parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico. PMID:9599428

  2. Estudio preliminar de ictioplancton de la Amazonia peruana con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae

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    María Rojas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa y describen las larvas de peces presentes en la naciente del río Madre de Dios, con énfasis en la familia Pimelodidae. Las colectas se realizaron entre noviembre y diciembre de 2004, utilizando una red de ictioplancton (300 micras de malla, en 8 transectos que cubrieron un tramo aproximado de 2 km aguas arriba y aguas abajo de la ciudad de Puerto Maldonado. Un total de 83750 larvas fueron examinadas, la mayor abundancia la presentaron los Characiformes (81%, seguido por Siluriformes (18%. En la familia Pimelodidae, se identificaron 12 especies de consumo, destacando Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, P. fasciatum y Sorubim lima. Los principales órdenes encontrados en el ictioplancton siguen un patrón de abundancia relativa similar al estado adulto. La presencia de larvas de los grandes bagres migradores (familia Pimelodidae en la zona de muestreo sugiere que esta parte del río Madre de Dios es un área de reproducción, y por ende de importancia para la conservación de estas especies.

  3. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    pescado comercializado localmente é oriunda do rio Paraguai. Além disso, atualmente o pescado vem de regiões mais distantes da zona urbana. Constatou-se que a pesca incide basicamente sobre espécies migradoras. As principais espécies capturadas foram os pimelodídeos pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum e jaú -Paulicea luetkeni e os caraciformes pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus e dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Os grandes bagres (Pimelodidae foram os responsáveis por 70% do pescado desembarcado no período de estudo, dentre os quais o pintado foi a espécie mais capturada. Os dados indicam que as capturas atuais estão bem aquém daquelas registradas no início da década de 80. Além disso, apesar do número e composição de espécies capturadas serem similares àqueles da década de 80, a distribuição da abundância mudou. Atualmente a pesca captura mais espécies carnívoras do que espécies de níveis tróficos inferiores. Estes achados não podem ser creditados somente a sobrepesca, mas parecem resultar de uma complexa interação entre degradação ambiental, mudanças na preferência de mercado e medidas legais restritivas à pesca.

  4. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

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    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with the habitat conditions. In the analysis of 148 stomachs 45.3%o were found to be full and 54.7%> empty. The most representative preys (%>N were: Portunus spp. (27.3 %>; n = 44 and Squilla intermedia (10.6%>; n = 17, whereas the gravimetric analysis (%>P showed the heaviest preys to be Gastropoda (31.8%>; 51.74 g and Farfantepenaeus spp. (17.5%>; 28.52 g. The frequeney of oceurrence (%>FO showed that Portunus spp. (25.4%>; 17 stomachs and S. intermedia (10.5%>; 7 stomachs were the most frequent preys. According to the IRI (%>, Portunus spp. (43.01%> and Gastropoda (13.38%> were the most representative categories. The diet of L. synagris was found to consist of four types of main preys: Portunidae (837.06, Gastropod (260.29, Squillidae (234.66, and Penaeidae (218.05; and two types of secondary preys: Sicyoniidae (126.35 and Trichiuridae (75.64; with all others being incidental preys. The spatial distribution of the breadth of the trophic niche and the size of L. synagris allowed us to identify two zones. The first, between Riohacha and Dibulla, had the highest niche breadth valúes (0.64-1.00, denoting generalist predators, and the smallest specimens of L. synagris. The second zone, between Riohacha and Punta Gallinas, had the lowest niche breath values (0.00-0.23, indicating a high degree of dietary specialization, and the largest-sized individuals.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0199 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0199 ref|NP_115455.1| putative movement protein [Maize rayado fino vir...us] gb|AAK52839.1|AF265566_2 putative movement protein [maize rayado fino virus] NP_115455.1 0.086 27% ...

  6. Produção e caracterização de um marcador potencial de linfócitos T em surubim híbrido (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans X P. fasciatum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1636 Production and characterization of a putative T-cell marker in hybrid surubim catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz x Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Jerald Ainsworth

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a produção e caracterização de um anticorpo monoclonal (PST 33 reativo com os timócitos e linfócitos T de surubim híbrido. PST 33 foi produzido por meio de imunização de camundongos com timócitos de surubim e moléculas isoladas das membranas celulares destas células. PST 33 mostrou-se reativo com a maioria dos timócitos e com linfócitos T periféricos. Por citometria de fluxo foi possível quantificar os linfócitos T no sangue periférico (34,1%, baço (36,6%, rim (19,1% e timo (87,5%. Esse marcador reagiue com uma molécula de 215 kDa expressa na maioria dos linfócitos T. Seu uso em imunohistoquímica permitiu também a localização de linfócitos T no timo e baço, demonstrando assim o seu potencial para estudar a ontogenia do sistema imune dos surubins. Em imuno-electron microscopia PST 33 reagiu com células de aparência linfocítica. Morfologicamente essas células apresentaram-se como pequenos linfócitos de elevada relação núcleo/citoplasmaA monoclonal antibody against hybrid surubim thymocytes and circulating T-cells (PST 33 was produced and characterized. The mAb was obtained by immunizing mice with isolated membrane molecules of hybrid surubim thymocytes, and whole thymocytes. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mAb PST 33 reacted with 87.5% of the thymocytes, 34.1% of circulating, 19.1% of pronephros, and 36.6% of spleen lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that PST 33-immunoreactive cells are mostly present in the medullar region of the thymus, and in the vicinity of arterioles spread throughout the parenchyma of the spleen. PST 33 appeared as a suitable marker for immunohistochemistry, and should prove useful in studying the ontogeny of surubim immune system. Immunogold labeling revealed that PST 33+ cells were lymphoid-like cells. Morphologically they appeared as small lymphocytes with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Western blotting of non-reduced membrane lysates showed that PST 33 reacted with a 215 kDa molecule

  7. Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína e energia de alguns ingredientes utilizados em dietas para o pintado (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and energy of some ingredients used in diets for pintado, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829

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    Emílio Guedes Gonçalves

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia dos principais alimentos utilizados na formulação de dietas para alevinos de pintado. Foram utilizados 600 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 9,80 ± 1,48 g e comprimento total médio de 13,00 ± 1,00 cm. Na coleta de fezes, foi utilizado o sistema de Guelph modificado. As 12 dietas-teste foram constituídas por 69,50% de uma dieta de referência, 0,50% de óxido de cromo (marcador inerte e 30% do ingrediente estudado. Após receberem as dietas teste durante três dias, os peixes foram transferidos para os aquários de coleta (incubadoras de fibra de vidro de 80 litros de capacidade, onde as fezes foram coletadas em intervalos de meia hora. Com base nos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica, os alimentos que apresentaram maior aproveitamento para esse nutriente foram: farinha de peixe (84,14%, farelo de soja (67,10%, milho (64,18% e farinha de vísceras de aves (61,25%. Foram observados valores razoáveis somente para a digestibilidade do conteúdo energético em metade dos ingredientes estudados; para as farinhas de peixe, milho, soja integral tostada e os farelos de soja, de trigo e de arroz, os coeficientes médios foram: 72,80; 57,39; 64,95; 61,66; 53,20 e 51,84%, respectivamente. A farinha de peixe foi o melhor ingrediente para o pintado (45,38% PD e 2790,42 kcal ED/kg, seguido do farelo de soja (30,86% PD e 2708,45 kcal ED/kg, da soja integral tostada (18,34% PD e 3121,06 kcal ED/kg, do milho (5,86% PD e 2691,53 kcal ED/kg e do farelo de trigo (8,08% PD e 2265,13 kcal ED/kg.The present work was developed in order to determine the protein and energy apparent digestibility coefficients of the principal ingredients used in the pintado juvenile diets. Six hundred juveniles with initial weight and total length means of 9.80 ± 1.48 g and 13.00 ± 1.00 cm, respectively, were used. The modified Guelph system was appraised to collect feces. All the twelve test diets were constituted of 69.50% of the reference diet, 0.50% of chromium oxide used as inert marker, and 30% of the ingredient tested. After three days of feeding with the test diets, fish were transferred to the collect aquariums, where feces were collected in intervals of 30 minutes. Using digestibility of the protein, ingredients with best results in this nutrient were fish meal (84.14%, soybean meal (67.10%, corn (64.18% and chicken poultry by-product (61.25%. Was only observed reasonable values for energy digestibility in half of the ingredients tested; for fish meal, corn, soybean (whole, toasted and soybean meal of wheat and rice, the mean coefficients values were: 72.80, 57.39, 64.95, 61.66, 53.20, and 51.84%, respectively. Fish meal was the best ingredient available for pintado juveniles diet formulation (45.38%DP and 2790.42 kcal DE/kg, followed by soybean meal (30.86%DP and 2708.45 kcal DE/kg, soybean (whole, toasted (18.34%DP and 3121.06 kcal DE/kg, corn (5.86%DP and 2691.53 kcal DE/kg, and wheat meal (8.08%DP and 2265.13 kcal DE/kg.

  8. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es considerar distintos aspectos que surgen del análisis de las exportaciones pesqueras provenientes de la pesca comercial artesanal de la Cuenca del Plata, Argentina. Se trata de identificar aquellos impactos vinculados a las prácticas pesqueras sobre las poblaciones naturales involucradas y los compromisos relacionados con la conservación de la biodiversidad de la ictiofauna de la cuenca. Se analizan 17 años de datos de las pesquerías comerciales artesanales correspondientes al tramo argentino del río Paraná sobre registros oficiales de los productos pesqueros exportados para distintas especies durante el período 1994-2010. Los registros de los productos exportados expresados en toneladas en peso (ton se refieren particularmente a especies autóctonas de gran tamaño e interés comercial como el sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, la boga (Leporinus obtusidens, la tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, el surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., el dorado (Salminus brasiliensis y el patí (Luciopimelodus pati, además de varias especies acompañantes en las capturas como bagres, armados y pejerreyes (Odontesthes bonariensis. Las exportaciones pesqueras muestran un incremento sumamente importante con un total de 331.517 ton para el período 1994-2010. La especie blanco de la pesquería es el sábalo con 88,77 % de las exportaciones totales y le siguen en orden de importancia la tararira con el 4,16 %, la boga con el 3,70 %, el patí con un 1,35 % y otras especies de menor captura. Los países de destino de los productos pesqueros son Brasil, Colombia, Bolivia y Nigeria, entre otros. Sin embargo, desde el 2003, Colombia compra en promedio el 50 % del total de las exportaciones pesqueras de la Argentina. El análisis de los datos históricos de las exportaciones pesqueras (1994-2010 evidencia la necesidad de implementar medidas mas claras sobre el control y manejo de los recursos pesqueros y las posibles implicancias derivadas

  9. Distribuição, abundância relativa e movimentos sazonais de bagres marinhos (Siluriformes, Ariidae no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos (RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerson Araújo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Three ariid fish, Netuma barba, Netuma planifrons and Genidens genidens, use the estuary of the Patos Lagoon (32ºS, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as a nursery and feeding ground in various stages of their life history. A comparative study was made of the temporal and spatial distribution and relative abundance. Seasonal movements were interpreted on the basis of distribution and abundance of the young of these coexisting sea catfishe. Monthly otter trawl samples were made between November, 1979 and April, 1983. Temperature, salinities and dissolved oxygen contents were taken at each of the 674 sample stations. All three species were caught in ample temperature (12,1 to 26,3ºC, salinity (0,3 to 35,5‰ and dissolved oxygen (4,7 to 11,5 mg/l ranges. However, they were more abundant in stations of low temperature and in salinity with highly dissolved oxygen content. N. barba was the most abundant catfish caught in the estuary, it constituted 81,9% in number and 81,4% in weight of ali ariid trawl catches during the study. N. barba occurred throughout the estuary, from the adjacent coastal region to the upper reaches of the Patos Lagoon estuary near the liminetic zone. N. planifrons occurred from adjacent coastal regions to low saline parts of the Patos Lagoon estuary, whereas G. genidens were distributed mainly in low saline and freshwater parts of the lagoon. Young-of-the-year N. barba aggregated near of the entrance of the lagoon in fall and winter, then moved up to intermediary parts of the estuary in spring, and they went to the upper part of the estuary in summer. Yearlings N. barba moved into the estuary in common with young-of-the-year but did not reach the coastal adjacent area. Young-of-the-year and yearling N. planifrons moved in to the estuary as the same pattern as N. barba but they became scarce during the late summer and early fall. G. genidens were scarcely captured in the estuary throughout the year. The spatial and temporal segregations among Netuma and Genidens were evident. A hypothetical model for the life history of N. barba is suggested.

  10. Descripción de una nueva especie de bagre marino fósil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae del Mioceno de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina

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    Sergio Bogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen dos cráneos de la familia Ariidae procedentes del miembro Saladar de la Formación Gran Bajo del Gualicho, ubicados en las Salinas del Gualicho, provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. La edad de los depósitos del Miembro Saladar se remonta al Mioceno Temprano alto/Mioceno Medio bajo. Los materiales son asignados a una nueva especie extinta del género viviente Genidens. Este nuevo taxón se distingue de todas las especies actuales por presentar un proceso supraoccipital muy corto, ancho y redondeado, extraescapular subcircular y mesetmoides amplios con una conspicua escotadura mesial, frontales prácticamente planos en vista lateral y margen lateral de los huesos esfenóticos rectilíneo. Genidens sp. nov., representa el registro más antiguo para el género y constituiría una especie de aspecto similar a las formas actuales del género. sp. nov., representa el registro más antiguo para el género y constituiría una especie de aspecto similar a las formas actuales del género.

  11. Fontes não-convencionais de proteína na primeira alimentação do bagre sul americano (Rhamdia quelen Unconventional protein sources in the first feeding of South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    David Roque Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes fontes de proteína na primeira alimentação de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sob condições de laboratório. Foram testadas três rações balanceadas secas: ovo de peixe (TA, hidrolisado de carcaça do peixe (TB e fígado de frango cru (TC, na quais foram analisadas, pelo crescimento, a biomassa final produzida e a sobrevivência das larvas. O ensaio teve uma duração de 20 dias, e as rações foram fornecidas ad libitum. As larvas alimentadas com ovo de peixe apresentaram os melhores resultados com peso médio individual de 340mg, sobrevivência de 57% e biomassa final de 1.350mg, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação de rações balanceadas com ovos de peixes fornecida na primeira alimentação de larvas de jundiá pode tornar-se uma alternativa promissora na larvicultura dessa espécie.This study aimed to evaluate different proteins sources in first feeding of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen under laboratory conditions. Three balanced dry rations were tested, fish roe (TA, biological fish silage (TB and crude chicken liver (TC evaluating specific growth rate, final biomass produced and survival rate. The experiment was performed in 20 days, and all the rations were provided ad libitum. Larvae fed with fish roe presented better results, with 340mg of individual mean weight, 57% of survival rate and 1.350mg of final biomass, differing significantly with the other treatments. The results show that the inclusion of fish roe in balanced rations offered at the first feeding of jundiá larvae may become a promising alternative for the hatchering of the species.

  12. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

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    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  13. Efecto del rayado de ramas y la aplicación de auxinas de síntesis sobre el desarrollo del fruto y la maduración del níspero japonés (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)

    OpenAIRE

    CUTANDA TRIGO, ALEJANDRO JOSÉ

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), fruit thinning, both manual and chemical thinning with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and branch scoring increase fruit size and advances fruit colour change. However, little is known about the effect of the synthetic auxins in this respect. In this work we study the effect of the ethylhexyl ester of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy propionic acid (2,4-DP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-oxyacetic acid (3,5,6-TPA), applied at the onset of fru...

  14. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  15. Mercury in fishes of the J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 26 to 30,1990 spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and largemouth bass...

  16. Mercury in fishes of the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) were collected from...

  17. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae), en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae), in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez; José Luis Estrada Rodríguez; Fernando Alonzo Rojo; Carmen Leticia Mar Tovar; Frances Gelwick

    2011-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818), colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así c...

  18. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae, en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae, in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818, colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así como algas verdes del orden Charales. Además, se encontraron otros siete órdenes de invertebrados: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera y Scorpionida, además de dos órdenes de plantas: Poales y Fabales. El orden Perciforme constituyó casi la mitad del total del peso del contenido estomacal, seguido por los órdenes Atheriniforme y Charales. En las estaciones de verano e invierno se presentó el mayor número de estómagos vacíos, mientras que en primavera se encontró el mayor número de estómagos llenos. La cantidad de alimento ingerida en la estación de invierno fue significativamente menor que en las demás estaciones. El principal alimento en primavera, verano y otoño, fueron los peces, mientras que en invierno hubo mayor preferencia por las algas.Having the objective of determining their trophic spectrum and their variations within a year, the contents of 240 stomachs of Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 were analyzed from 2006 to 2007. The items of the stomach contents were determined to the order level. The data was analyzed by different quantitative and qualitative methods. The most frequent orders were Perciforms and Atheriniforms corresponding to forage fish, along with green algae of the Charales order. Also, seven orders of invertebrates were found: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Scorpionida, and two orders of plants: Poales and Fabales. The Perciform order made up almost half of the total weight of the stomach contents, followed by the Atheriniform and the Charales orders. The greatest number of empty stomachs showed up during summer and winter, while the greatest number of filled-up stomachs was found during the spring season. The quantity of food consumed during winter time was significantly lower than the amount consumed during all other seasons. The kind of food consumed during the spring, summer and autumn was mainly fish, while algae were preferred during the winter season.

  19. Manual de métodos parasitológicos e histopatológicos en piscicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Recientes problemas provocados por epiemias de infecciones de Ichthyophthirius multifiliie en la cría de bagre negro (Rhandia sapo) cultivado por el Departamento de Acuicultura del INAPE de Uruguay, y el conocimiento de que todos los piscicultores tienen problemas con los parásitos, constituyeron la base y antecedente para el inicio de un programa de investigaciones parasitológicas. Este programa incluyó. 1) Disección de bagres capturados en Laguna de Sauce y colecta de parásitos. 2) Disecció...

  20. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  1. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en el Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez; Jesús Ricardo Sánchez Pale; Antonio Laguna Cerda; José Francisco Ramírez Dávila; Artemio Balbuena Melgarejo; Omar Guadalupe Alvarado Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  2. Detección de ca liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (solanum tuberosum l.) en el valle de toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Ana Tarin; Jesús Ricardo SÁNCHEZ PALE; Laguna Cerda, Antonio; Ramírez Dávila, José Francisco; Balbuena Melgarejo, Artemio; ALVARADO GÓMEZ, OMAR GUADALUPE

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  3. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  4. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Sylvain; Ismino, R.; Sanchez, H.; David, F.; Nunez Rodriguez, Jesus; Dugué, Rémi; Darias, Maria Jose; Römer, U.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplan...

  5. Avaliação do jundiá (Rhamdia quelen em diferentes sistemas de cultivo para a região do litoral centro norte de Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El bagre (Rhamdia quelen, un pez nativo habitante de la mayoría de los ríos, lagos y lagunas de Santa Catarina, y que pertenecen a la orden Siluriformes, familia Pimelodidae, género Rhandia. El estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeño de este pez nativo en los sistemas más utilizados en Santa Catarina. El experimento se llevó a cabo en el ámbito del Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú CEPC-EPAGRI, cuando 11 tanques excavados fueron utilizados, tres en representación de un monocultivo de bagre con una densidad de 1,5 p/m2, tres en representación de un bicultivo de bagre y tilapia con una densidad de 3p/m2, tres en representación de un policultivo de la carpa, tilapia y "jundiás" con una densidad de 3p/m2, y en dos tanques excavados fueron instalados seis tanques redes, en representación de las culturas de alta densidad de 50 y 100 p/m3.

  6. Trostky e Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keynes John Maynard

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En una reciente reseña del libro de León Trotsky ¿A dónde va Gran Bretaña? se dice que: 2El autor repite perogrulladas como un disco rayado". Podría imaginar que Trotsky, dictó esa frase. En su ropaje inglés, este libro refleja oscuramente el tono insolente propio de los actuales escritos revolucionarios rusos. El tono dogmático con que se refiere a nuestra situación, en el que incluso los destellos de lucidez se ven opacados por su ignorancia acerca de lo que está hablando, no permite recomendarlo al lector inglés. Sin embargo, Trotsky tiene cierto estilo. Detrás de su lenguaje distorsionante se percibe su personalidad. Y no todo son pergulladas.

  7. Influencia de la degradación hidrotérmica en la resistencia mecánica y en el comportamiento al desgaste de 3Y-TZP

    OpenAIRE

    Mestra Rodríguez, Álvaro Miguel; García Marro, Fernando; Kiran Chitapalli, Ravi; Armas Sancho, Zamir de; Anglada Gomila, Marcos Juan

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio comparativo de la influencia de la degradación hidrotérmica a baja temperatura de circona tetragonal estabilizada con el 3% molar de Itria (3Y-TZP) en la resistencia mecánica a flexión y en el comportamiento bajo cargas de indentación esférica. Se presentan resultados de resistencia mecánica a flexión y de indentación esférica monotónica así como de ensayos de rayado en probetas artificialmente degradadas durante diferentes períodos de tiempo. Se pone ...

  8. Parasitofauna de cachara cultivado em tanque-rede no rio Paraguai

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora), Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa), Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscis...

  9. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

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    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  10. Influencia de la electroerosión sobre las características tribológicas de materiales compuestos WC-Co

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    Casas, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electrical discharge machining (EDM on the abrasive wear resistance of two WC-10wt Co cemented carbides with different carbide grain size has been studied. Different surface finish conditions were evaluated corresponding to sequential EDM as well as grinding and polishing with diamond. The abrasive wear resistance was determined through microscratch measurements using a nanoindentation system. Contrary to the results obtained from hardness measurements, this technique allows to discern tribological differences among the distinct surface finish conditions studied. Finally, the abrasive wear resistance degradation associated with sequential EDM is discussed as a function of microstructure in terms of a damage parameter.

    En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de la electroerosión sobre la resistencia a la abrasión mediante rayado, en términos de volumen de material removido, de dos carburos cementados WC-10 % en peso de Co con diferente tamaño de carburo medio. Se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de acabado superficial correspondientes a distintos procesos de mecanizado: electroerosión y desbaste y pulido con diamante. La resistencia a la abrasión mediante rayado fue determinada utilizando un sistema de nanoindentación. A diferencia de los resultados obtenidos para mediciones de dureza, esta técnica permite discernir diferencias tribológicas significativas entre los distintos acabados evaluados. Finalmente, la degradación de la resistencia a la abrasión por efecto de la electroerosión es discutida en función de la microestructura, en términos de un parámetro de daño.

  11. Simulación de un sistema tribológico formado por sustrato recubrimiento rugoso usando métodos numéricos//Simulation tribological system formed by substrate roughness coating using numeric methods

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    Eduardo A. Pérez‐Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en simular y analizar usando el Método de los Elementos Finitos, los esfuerzos obtenidos en un sistema sustrato+recubrimiento como consecuencia del contacto con una partícula rígida, sometida a carga normal y deslizamiento a lo largo de la superficie del sistema, la cual cuenta con una rugosidad Ra de 0,36μm. Los resultados evidencian la importancia de considerar larugosidad del sistema recubierto durante la simulación del ensayo de rayado, contrario a las simulaciones que reporta la literatura, ya que esta afecta el comportamiento de esfuerzos y deformaciones durante el contacto y deslizamiento. Además los resultados sugieren que al considerar la rugosidad del sistema, aumenta la posibilidad de surgimiento prematuro de grietas durante el ensayo de rayado.Palabras claves: método de los elementos finitos, sistemas recubiertos, rugosidad, esfuerzos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis research focuses on simulate and to analyze using Finite Element Method, the stresses behavior obtained in a system (substrate+coating as a result of the contact with a rigid particle under normal load and sliding along the surface of the system, which has roughness Ra of 0,36μm. The results show that in the scratch test simulation, the roughness of coated system must be considered contrary to the literature simulations of this field, since this affects the stresses and deformations behavior during contact and sliding. Thus, to increase surface roughness peaks greater possibility of inducing stress cracking.Key words: finite element method, coated systems, roughness, stresses.

  12. Gestión de nuevos cultivares de frijol común en las condiciones de la UBPC “Santa Maria 4”

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    Juan Miguel Avila Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se real izó en la UBPC Santa Maria 4 perteneciente a la UEB Antonio Guiteras del municipio Puerto padre, provincia Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 28 de noviembre de 2012 hasta el 16 de febrero de 2013, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de siete cultivares de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. , en un suelo Pardo sialítico mullido carbonatado con vista a incrementar la biodiversidad y elevar el rendimiento agrícola de este cultivo. Los cultivares evaluados fueron (Velazco Largo, Colorado E-120, frijol Rayado, Rojo E-114, Frijol Crema Japones, Rojo E-130, frijol Blanco Español, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas, la fitotecnia aplicada fue la tradicional establecida para este cultivo, los aspectos evaluados fueron los siguientes, altura de las plantas, número de hojas, grosor del tallo, altura de la primera vaina, granos por vainas, peso de 100 granos, rendimiento agrícola, incidencia de las principales plagas y valoración económica de la producción. El cultivar que obtuvo mayor rendimiento fue el Velazco Largo y los de menor el Rojo E-114 y el Rayado, los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar que desde el punto de vista económico es factible la realización de estas siembras, pues se pueden obtener incrementos en el ingreso por ventas de $ 6242.90 – 20108.85 pesos por hectárea. En el experimento las condiciones edafoclimáticas fueron favorables en todo el ciclo del cultivo, no se registraron altos niveles de infestación de plagas y enfermedades.

  13. MAST CELLS, MAST/STEM CELL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (C-KIT/CD117 AND IGE MAY BE INTEGRAL TO THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENDEMIC PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS

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    Ana Maria Roselino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pemphigus foliaceus (PF is endemic in some South American countries, especially in Colombia and Brazil; in Brazil, it is also known as fogo selvagem (FS. We aimed to study the presence of mast cells and the expression of the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit/CD117 in PF skin biopsies, as well as the role of IgE in the disease pathogenesis. Methods: Forty-four skin biopsies from patients affected by endemic PF (EPF (30 patients from El Bagre, Colombia, and 14 from the northeastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 48 control biopsies from Colombian and Brazilian endemic areas, and additional control biopsies from none endemic areas in Colombia and the USA non were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to evaluate skin biopsies with anti-mast cell tryptase (MCT, anti-c-kit and anti-IgE antibodies. We also searched for serum IgE in 30 EPF and 30 non-atopic controls from the El Bagre region via ELISA. In our El Bagre patients and controls, we also searched for IgE in skin samples by direct immunofluorescence. Results: In 100% of the EPF biopsies, MCT, c-kit and IgE were identified with stronger expression relative to control biopsies, especially in the inflammatory infiltrates around upper dermal blood vessels and dermal eccrine glands. IgE staining was positive along the BMZ in some EPF skin samples. The DIF results confirmed a linear deposition of IgE at the BMZ. Increased IgE serum levels were also noted in PF patients relative to controls.. Conclusions: In patients with EPF, the observed increased expression of MCT, c-kit and IgE in lesional skin, associated with higher serum IgE levels may indicate possible IgE participation in the antigenic response.

  14. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

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    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  15. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion : A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  16. Thermal properties of natural nanostructured hydroxyapatite extracted from fish bone waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2007-04-01

    In a previous study, natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) from the bones of Brazilian river fish was calcined at 900 °C (4-12 h), and optical characterization using the near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy technique enabled the establishment of 8 h as the best calcination time for nanostructure stabilization when milled in a high-energy milling device [T. M. Coelho, E. S. Nogueira, W. R. Weinand, W. M. Lima, A. Steimacher, A. N. Medina, M. L. Baesso, and A. C. Bento, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094312 (2006)]. The fish wastes used were from species such as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans), jaú (Paulicea lutkeni), and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). In this study, the characterization of the thermal properties of the same natural HAp is discussed for samples milled from 0 to 32 h, with nanostructures from 80 to 24 nm. The powders were pressed into disks at 350 MPa and sintered for 4 h at 1000 °C. Thermophysical parameters were obtained by thermal wave interferometry and nonadiabatic relaxation calorimetry. Results for thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity showed that the parameters increase with milling time, although they present a transition (a plateau) in the interval from 8 to 16 h. Two different slopes were observed and this was interpreted as being due to the size of the crystallites, which fall rapidly, dropping from 80 nm to near 22 nm when milling time is increased from 0 to 16 h, and forming agglomerates up to 32 h.

  17. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

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    Jian-Guo Huang

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA, the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH, and density (N for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR, were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2>0.67 to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  18. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Guo; Stadt, Kenneth J; Dawson, Andria; Comeau, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA), the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH), and density (N) for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR), were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2)>0.67) to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  19. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  20. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

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    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  1. Malaria in the colombian regions of Uraba and Bajo Cauca, province of Antioquia: an overwiew to interpret the antimalarial therapeutic failure La malaria en Colombia, Antioquia y las zonas de Urabá y Bajo Cauca: panorama para interpretar la falla terapéutica antimalárica. Parte 2

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    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: in the past 5 years we have studied the treatment response to antimalarials and their combinations in the Antioquia region (Turbo, Zaragoza and El Bagre municipalities. The interpretation and better understanding of the treatment outcome (adequate clinical response, early treatment failure or late treatment failure require further information since this response depends on host’s and parasite’s factors, independently of the characteristics of the antimalarial administered. Objectives: to define an adequate reference frame which allows for interpretation of results obtained during antimalarials treatment assessment studies. This would include demography, epidemiology, climatic and social-economic information about Colombia, Antioquia, the regions of Uraba, Bajo Cauca and the municipalities of Turbo and El Bagre. Methodology: research of secondary information (publications reports and internet resources, and some primary information (taken from Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Antioquia (Sivigila of Dirección Seccional de Salud de Antioquia DSSA. Data about treatment response were primary information (produced by Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, or obtained from other authors. With the gathered data, tables and graphs were produced and calculations were carried out using other variables. Results: the frequency of malaria is presented for Colombia during the period 1960-2002 and the results of the malaria eradication and control programs, and their failure, are described. Similarly, the frequency of malaria in Antioquia during 1959-2003 is discussed and presented in terms of incidence rates and parasite annual indexes (PAI. Non adjusted and adjusted rates and PAI were obtained, therefore adjusted rates are presented by exposed population, which is less of 20%. Adjusted results are 5-6 fold higher that non-adjusted values in Antioquia. However this is not true for the Uraba and Bajo Cauca regions, where 100% of the

  2. Parasitofauna de cachara cultivado em tanque-rede no rio Paraguai

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    Gabriela Tomas Jeronimo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa, Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscissus e Nominoscolex sudobim (Cestoda, Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea e Digenea. O protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi o parasito com maior prevalência.

  3. Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agindotan, Bright O; Ahonsi, Monday O; Domier, Leslie L; Gray, Michael E; Bradley, Carl A

    2010-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus, energycane, and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) are three potential biomass crops being evaluated for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to these crops. Therefore, identification of viruses infecting these bioenergy crops is important for quarantine purposes, virus resistance breeding, and production of virus-free planting materials. The application is described of sequence-independent amplification, for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops. The method involves virus partial purification from a small amount of infected leaf tissue (miniprep), extraction of viral RNA, amplification of randomly primed cDNAs, cloning, sequencing, and BLAST searches for sequence homology in the GenBank. This method has distinct advantage over other virus characterization techniques in that it does not require reagent specific to target viruses. Using this method, a possible new species was identified in the genus Marafivirus in switchgrass related to Maize rayado fino virus, its closest relative currently in GenBank. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), genus Potyvirus, was identified in M.xgiganteus, energycane, corn (Zea mays), and switchgrass. Other viruses identified were: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), genus Potyvirus, in johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense); Soil borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), genus Furovirus, in wheat (Triticum aestivum); and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), genus Comovirus, in soybean (Glycine max). The method was as sensitive as conventional RT-PCR. This is the first report of a Marafivirus infecting switchgrass, and SCMV infecting both energycane and M. x giganteus.

  4. IN SITU IMMUNE RESPONSE EVALUATION VIA IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response in skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD is not well characterized. Aim: Our investigation attempts to immunophenotype cells in lesional skin in several ABD, utilizing immunohistochemistry (ICH. Methods: We tested by IHC for CD4, CD8, CD19, CD20, CD45, CD56/NCAM, PAX-5, granzyme B, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, LAT and ZAP-70 in patients affected by ABD. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: We found a predominantly CD8 positive/CD45 positive T cell infiltrate in all ABD. Our skin biopsies demonstrated consistently positive staining for myeloperoxidase, but negative staining for neutrophil elastase. Most ABD biopsies displayed negative staining for CD4 and B cell markers; natural killer cell markers were also rarely seen. ZAP-70 and LAT were frequently detected. In El Bagre-EPF, a significant fragmentation of T cells in lesional skin was noted, as well as autoreactivity to lymph nodes. Conclusions: The documented T cell and myeloperoxidase staining are indicative of the role of T lymphocytes and neutrophils in lesional biopsies in patients with ABD, in addition to previously documented deposition of B cells, immunoglobulins and complement in situ. In El Bagre-EPF, T cells could also target lymph nodes; however, further studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  5. Malaria, desnutrición y parasitosis intestinal en los niños colombianos: interrelaciones interrrelations between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal parasitism in colombian children

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    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo resume datos colombianos y los hallazgos del Grupo Malaria (Universidad de Antioquia sobre las relaciones entre malaria, desnutrición y funcionamiento inmunitario, trabajos realizados en niños (4-11 años de las poblaciones antioqueñas de Turbo, El Bagre y Zaragoza. Se hace énfasis en las relaciones malaria, parásitos intestinales y desnutrición (desnutrición crónica, hipovitaminosis A, las cuales se exploran a través de su articulación en el sistema inmunitario. Se formulan recomendaciones para la aplicación clínica (individual y epidemiológica (colectiva con respecto a la formulación de suplemento de vitamina A y antihelmínticos de amplio espectro. En Turbo y en El Bagre y Zaragoza: 1 la frecuencia de malaria registra índices parasitarios anuales de 39 (Turbo y 156 casos por cada mil sujetos expuestos (El Bagre-Zaragoza en 1996-2000; 2 el riesgo de desnutrición crónica (índice talla/ edad es de 63% en los niños de 3-11 años; 3 se encontró anemia en el 26% de los palúdicos y 17% de los no palúdicos; 4 el 65% de los niños con malaria y el 35% de aquellos sin malaria mostraron valores de retinol bajos (<0,3 µg/mL; 5 se hallaron niveles anormalmente bajos de apoproteína A-1, tanto en los niños sin malaria como, sobre todo, en los que sí la tenían; 6 el 96% de los niños (4-9 años con malaria mostraron títulos de interleuquina 10 (IL10 muy altos con relación a lo normal y estadísticamente superiores a los exhibidos por los niños sin malaria; 7 los títulos de IgE total y específica anti-Plasmodium estuvieron anormalmente altos en los niños de ambos municipios e igual sucedió con los niveles de FNT-; 8 en estudiantes y docentes de enfermería, aparentemente sanos, con edades de 18-44 años, hallamos parásitos intestinales en el 97% y parásitos intestinales patógenos en el 42%. En menores de 5 años de Turbo hay parásitos intestinales patógenos en un 30-35% de los niños, con predominio de G

  6. Flor de Mayo Eugenia, nueva variedad de frijol para riego y temporal en el centro de México Flor de Mayo Eugenia, new bean cultivar for irrigated and rainfall conditions in Central Mexico

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    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del frijol tipo Flor de Mayo, el subtipo 'media oreja' esta cobrando importancia en el norte-centro de México, éste es de tamaño mediano, forma alargada y color rosa atractivo. Se describe una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME se derivó de una cruza interracial entre Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (raza Jalisco y Rayado Rojo (raza Nueva Granada. El rendimiento promedio de FME en temporal varia de 0.8 a 2.0 t ha-1 y bajo riego el máximo rendimiento ha sido de 3.8 t ha-1. El peso de 100 semillas promedio de diferentes localidades de FME es significativamente superior al de FMA en condiciones de temporal, 32 vs 26 g 100 semillas, y riego 35 vs 31 g 100 semillas. En cuanto la calidad del grano, el tiempo promedio de cocción de FME en cocedor tipo Mattson es 97 min, mientras que el de FMA es de 109 min; el contenido promedio de proteína del grano de FME es 19% en base a peso seco, similar al de FMA, mientras que el contenido de hierro de FME resultó superior al de FMA con 6.1 vs 5 mg 100 g. FME es tolerante a las razas de roya presentes en el Altiplano de México, a la raza 292 de antracnosis y tolerante a los tizones común y de halo.Within 'Flor de Mayo' bean type, the 'media oreja' subtype is becoming important in North-Central México; this last type has a mid-size elongated seed with showy pink color. A new bean cv. of 'media oreja' subtype is described: Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME was derived from an interracial cross between Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (Jalisco breed and Rayado Rojo (Nueva Granada breed. The seed yield of FME under rainfall conditions varied from 0.8 to 2.0 t ha-1 and under irrigation the highest yield recorded was 3.8 t ha-1. The 100-seed weight of FME across different locations was significantly superior to the weight of FMA, 32 vs 26 g per 100 seeds under rainfall conditions and 35 vs 31 g per 100 seeds under irrigation conditions. In regard to seed quality, cooking time average of

  7. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO Y. FUJIMOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings.A vitamina C é essencial para dietas de peixe porque muitas espécies não conseguem sintetizá-la. Esta vitamina é necessária par a formação de cartilagem e matriz óssea. Além disso, age como antioxidante e melhora as resposta do sistema imunológico. O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans pela incidência de deformidades na estrutura óssea e cartilaginosa. O ascorbil polifosfato (AP foi utilizado como fonte de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado durante o período de três meses. Seis dietas foram formuladas: uma dieta controle (0 mg de vitamina C / kg e cinco dietas 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 e 2.500 mg de AP / kg. Os peixes alimentados sem suplementação de vitamina C apresentaram deformidades óssea na cabeça e mandíbula e fragilidade de nadadeiras. Assim, a dieta de 500 mg de AP/kg foi suficiente para prevenir a ocorrência de deformidades, e a ausência desta vitamina prejudica o desenvolvimento ósseo de juvenis de pintados.

  8. Resistência ao estresse e crescimento de larvas de peixes neotropicais alimentadas com diferentes dietas Stress resistance and growth of larvae of neotropical fish feed with different diets

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da alimentação na resistência ao estresse e no crescimento de larvas das espécies de peixes neotropicais: Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar, Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu e Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (pintado. As larvas receberam diferentes tipos de alimentos (Artemia sp., larvas de Colossoma macropomum e dieta artificial Fry Feed Kyowa. Foram realizados testes de exposição ao ar e a taxa de sobrevivência, determinada 24 horas depois. A fim de avaliar o crescimento, medidas de peso foram realizadas em larvas dos diferentes tratamentos. Larvas de A. ocellatus alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. apresentaram tendência de maior peso e resistência ao estresse, quando comparadas com o uso de dieta artificial. Larvas de P. mesopotamicus apresentaram melhores valores de peso e taxas de resistência ao estresse, quando alimentadas com Artemia sp. ou alimentação mista (Artemia sp. + dieta artificial. Em P. coruscans, o uso de larvas forrageiras resultou em indivíduos mais resistentes aos testes de exposição ao ar do que os que receberam apenas Artemia sp. Valores de peso, nos dois manejos alimentares, foram semelhantes entre si. O alimento vivo desempenha importante atuação no crescimento em peso e na melhora da resistência ao estresse das espécies estudadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding on stress resistance and growth in larvae of neotropical fish of the species: Astronotus ocellatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, and Pseudoplatystoma coruscans. Larvae received different types of food (Artemia sp., Colossoma macropomum larvae and artificial microdiet Fry Feed Kyowa. Resistance tests to air exposure were applied, and larvae survival was determined after 24 hours. To evaluate the growth, weight measures were performed during the different treatments. A. ocellatus larvae fed on Artemia sp. nauplii tended to better resistant and weight than others that received

  9. Incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimativa de perdas causadas por molicutes em milho no Paraná

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    Oliveira Elizabeth de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimar as perdas causadas por enfezamentos na cultura do milho safrinha. Os diagnósticos baseados em sintomas foram confirmados por PCR ou RTPCR. Em todas as lavouras, foram identificadas plantas com sintomas de enfezamentos, em incidência de 6,2% a 49,9% (média de 20,7%. Na identificação de insetos vetores desses patógenos, a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis foi detectada em 20 lavouras das 24 amostradas, constituindo 66,6% do total de espécimens de cigarrinhas coletadas. A perda potencial causada pelos enfezamentos no período foi estimada em cerca de 16,5 milhões de dólares. A ocorrência de plantas com sintomas de "Maize rayado fino virus" e "Maize dwarf mosaic virus" foi baixa e o diagnóstico confirmado por RTPCR. A análise de 441 amostras suspeitas de infecção por "Mal de Río Cuarto virus", por DASELISA, mostrou ausência desse vírus. Resultados de PCR indicaram a presença de um possível fitoplasma distinto de "Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma" em duas plantas apresentando nanismo acentuado, folhas estreitas, enrijecidas, com deformações, e grãos na inflorescência, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para a confirmação da identidade desse possível novo fitoplasma.

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY VERSUS IMMUNOFLUORESENCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs, the diagnostic gold standard has classically been direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF, despite inherent technical problems of autofluorescence. Aim: We sought to overcome autofluorescence issues and compare the reliability of immunofluorescence versus immunohistochemistry (IHC staining in the diagnoses of these diseases. Methods: We tested via IHC for anti-human IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE, Kappa light chains, Lambda light chains, Complement/C3c, Complement/C1q, Complement/C3d, albumin and fibrinogen in 30 patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF, and 30 control biopsies from the endemic area. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with ABDs whose diagnoses were made clinically, histopathologically and by DIF/IIF studies from 2 independent dermatopathology laboratories in the USA. Specifically, we tested 34 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 18 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 30 control skin samples from plastic esthetic surgery reduction surgeries. Results: The diagnostic correlation between IHC and DIF-IIF was almost 98% in most cases. IHC revealed evidence of autofluorescence around dermal blood vessels, dermal eccrine glands and neurovascular packages feeding skin appendices in ABDs; this autofluorescence may represent a non-specific immune response. Strong patterns of positivity were seen also in endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, as well as between dermal fibrohistiocytic cells. In PV, we noted strong reactivity to neurovascular packages supplying sebaceous glands, as well as apocrine glands with edematous changes. Conclusions: We suggest that IHC is as reliable as DIF or IIF for the diagnosis of ABDs; our findings further suggest that what has previously been considered DIF/IIF autofluorescence

  11. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

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    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  12. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  13. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  14. Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplastystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Cuiabá River, Brazil

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    Talitha M. Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae (males and females were estimated through the analysis of growth rings in spines of pectoral fins. Fish were collected from January to December 2007, in the area directly influenced by the Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso (APM Manso and in the Cuiabá River (upper parts of the Pantanal. The maximum number of growth rings was seven for males, and eight, for females. The analysis of temporal variations in mean marginal increment showed that rings found in the spines were formed annually, in December. Growth rings were associated to spawning (in the study region from November to March of the species. The growth curve in length was obtained by the von Bertalanffy model adjusted by the Ford-Walford transformation. The equations are: Ls = 72.7*[1-e-0.44(t+1.5974] for males, and Ls = 84.5*[1-e-0.33(t+2.0943] for females. The equations that describe the growth curve in weight are: Wt = 4991.61*[1-e-0.44 (t+1.5974] 2.70 for males and Wt = 7503.17*[1-e-0.33 (t+2.0943] 2.99 for females.

  15. Spatial and seasonal mercury distribution in the Ayapel Marsh, Mojana region, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Benítez, Luís Norberto; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Lans, Edineldo; Vazquez Gutierrez, Felipe

    2010-12-01

    Geographical and temporal changes of total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in sediments, macrophytes and fish were evaluated in the Ayapel Marsh, Mojana, Colombia. Sampling was conducted during 2006-2007, including both rainy and dry seasons, and T-Hg was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Distribution of T-Hg in sediments and the macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes showed that higher concentrations were found along the flooding pathway of the Cauca River. Hg has also polluted the food chain. Highest T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected for the carnivorous Pseudoplatystoma fasciatun (0.432 ± 0.107 μg/g, fresh weight [fw]), and lowest in the non-carnivorous Prochilodus magdalenae (0.143 ± 0.053 μg/g, fw), with differences between trophic levels. T-Hg for fish samples (0.298 ± 0.148 μg/g, fw) did not exceed the limit consumption level (0.50 μg/g, fw). It is concluded that mercury-polluted sediments from the Cauca River, contribute to Hg deposition into the Ayapel Marsh. Accordingly, interventions must be conducted to decrease Hg accumulation in fish. PMID:21161806

  16. Genetic variability of broodstocks of restocking programs in Brazil

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    Nelson Lopera-Barrero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was evaluate the genetic diversity of the following broodstocks: piapara (Leporinus elongatus, dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum already useful for restocking programs in the Paranapanema, Iguaçu and Paraná Brazilian Rivers. Materials and methods. Samples from the caudal fin of 122 fish were analyzed. DNA was extracted by NaCl protocol. PCR products were separated by a horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis. The fragments were visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Results. The amplification of 25 primers generated different fragments in studied species that allowed characterizing 440 fragments of 100-2900 bp. High percentage of polymorphic fragments (66.67 to 86.29, Shannon index (0.365 to 0.486 and genetic diversity of Nei (0.248 to 0.331 were detected. Conclusions. The level of genetic variability in the broodstocks was adequate for allowing their use in restocking programs in the studied Rivers. However, periodical monitoring studies of genetic variability in these stocks, the mating system, reproductive system and general management must be made to guarantee the preservation of wild populations.

  17. Ethnoichthyological contribution to the official fisheries document concerning fisheries closure of some commercial fish categories in the western Brazilian Amazon, Guaporé River, Rondônia, Brazil

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    Suelen Taciane Brasil de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicts among fishermen and local environmental protection agencies that regulate fishing in the area, concerning the official closure periods of the fisheries. The fishermen affirm that the dates established for protection of spawning do not correspond to the spawning season of the primary commercialized species, and that this could be hindering the local fish markets. This report compares the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK with information obtained from experimental fishery and scientific data covering the reproduction periods of the primary categories of fish market in the region. Of the 28 fish categories analyzed, 14 (50% were captured in experimental fishing and were evaluated. The TEK confirmed the experimental information for 10 categories of fish (72%. The results suggest the necessity of adjusting the official protection dates stipulated for the following fish categories: caparari (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinun, Sorubim (P. fasciatum, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, pescada (Plagioscion squamosissimus and tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. The discussion deals with a possibly inadequate period of protection based on the information obtained from different basins applied to larger and more diverse areas of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. This study confirms the refined biological knowledge that the fishermen have of the species they exploit and suggests that the traditional ecological knowledge can be useful to adjust political issues dealing with the regional protection agency of fishing.

  18. Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Gröhn, Janina; Tropp, Magdalena; Vikström, Anna; Wolpher, Henriette; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Meili, Markus; Oliveira, Lázaro J

    2006-10-01

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  19. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  20. A new species of Xyliphius, a rarely sampled banjo catfish (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia system

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    Carlos A Figueiredo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Xyliphius anachoretes, a new species of aspredinid catfish is described from the Tocantins-Araguaia River system. Xyliphius anachoretes is diagnosed by the presence of six developed retrorse serrae on posterior border of pectoral-fin spine, presence of papillae on the lower lip bearing minute branches, and only two dorsal procurrent rays. Comments about the informativeness of character-state variation among Xyliphius species and aspredinid related genera are furnished. Also, a brief discussion about conservation status of the new taxon is made.Xyliphius anachoretes, uma nova espécie de bagre aspredinídeo é descrita para o sistema Tocantins-Araguaia. Xyliphius anachoretes é diagnosticado pela presença de seis serras retrorsas desenvolvidas na borda posterior do espinho da nadadeira peitoral, presença de papilas no lábio inferior apresentando minúsculas ramificações, e somente dois raios pró-correntes dorsais. Comentários sobre a informação contida na variação de estados de caráter entre as espécies de Xyliphius são fornecidos. Além disso, uma breve discussão sobre o estado de conservação do novo táxon é feita.

  1. [Impact of water resource installations on the distribution of schistosomiasis and its intermediary hosts in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Jean-Noël; Sondo, Blaise; Parent, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Dams generally are a favourable biotope for the molluscs acting as intermediary hosts to schistosomiasis. The importance of the schistosomiasis endemic which follows depends on the interactions taking place between the parasites and their definitive (humans) and intermediary hosts. A preliminary sound knowledge of the prevailing epidemiological situations is therefore necessary to define an efficient programme to fight these infections. The extension of schistosomiasis following the installation of water resource facilities is significative of the part played by these hosts. In the hydroagricultural complex of Sourou, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis increased from 19% in 1954 to more than 70% in 1998-1999 in Guiédougou, the most ancient site. As to digestive schistosomiasis, almost unheard of until 1987, its prevalence ranged from 8% to 69% in 1998 in the villages located alongside the areas thus equipped. In the Kou Valley, the prevalence went up from 14% in 1957 to 80% in 1974 for urinary schistosomiasis and from 1.3% to 45% for intestinal schistosomiasis. The same tendencies are likely to appear in the hydraulic installations of Bagré, Ziga, and Kompienga. Dams thus constitute amplifying factors for the proliferation of species and for parasite-host interactions. All the actors (developers, populations and scientists) are faced with the challenge of finding a mean to control the development of schistosomiasis infections which are likely to seriously lessen the benefits expected from these hydraulic installations.

  2. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  3. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  4. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  5. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

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    Angélica Castellanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001; for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  6. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p Colombia.

  7. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  8. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

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    Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  9. Rendimentos do processamento e composição química de filés de surubim cultivado em tanques-rede Processing yield and chemical composition of fillets of surubim reared in net cages

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    Denilson Burkert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito da utilização de três rações comerciais indicadas para alimentação de peixes carnívoros sobre os rendimentos do processamento e a composição de filés de surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp cultivados em tanques-rede. Os surubins foram cultivados em tanques-rede durante um ano, período em que foram alimentados com três rações contendo 43,5; 42,6 e 42,1% de proteína bruta; 6,3; 8,7 e 4,5% de extrato etéreo e 5.078; 4.931 e 4.994 kcal de energia bruta, respectivamente, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e três repetições. Em cada tanque, foram selecionados cinco peixes com pesos entre 1.280 e 1.340 g, que foram insensibilizados e sacrificados para determinação dos rendimentos de carcaça com e sem pele, cabeça, filé total, lateral e abdominal, fígado, pele e esqueleto. Amostras de filés laterais e abdominais foram tomadas para análises bromatológicas. Foram avaliados 22 fêmeas e 23 machos, no entanto, não foi observada diferença entre os sexos quanto aos principais rendimentos de processamento. Os rendimentos de filé abdominal e de resíduos com e sem pele diferiram entre as rações. A composição bromatológica dos filés (lateral e abdominal não foi influenciada pelas rações e não diferiu entre os cortes. A utilização de rações comerciais no cultivo não acarretou mudanças na quantidade e na qualidade dos principais cortes do surubim.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three commercial feeds recommended for carnivorous fish on processing yield and fillet composition of surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp raised in net cages. The surubim fishes were raised in net cages during one year, when were fed three diets with 43.5, 42.6, and 42.1% crude protein; 6.3, 8.7, and 4.5% ether extract and 5,078, 4,931, and 4,994 kcal of gross energy, respectively. Fishes were allotted to a completely randomized design, with three treatments and

  10. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

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    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.Neste estudo verificaram-se dados de temperaturas de água coletados pela CORSAN-RS de 1996 a 2004, em várias cidades do estado do Rio Grande Sul, sul do Brasil, e analisou-se a possibilidade de criação das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Brasil. A temperatura da água de 1996 a 2004 foi de 16 a 28ºC no verão, de 17 a 25ºC no outono, 14 a 17ºC (chegando a 9ºC nos meses mais frios no inverno e 14 a 21ºC na primavera. Espécies nativas deste estado, como o jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dourado

  11. Preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to evaluate movements of fish in the Lateral canal at Itaipu Dam, Brazil

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    Lisiane Hahn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to describe the movements of fish in a bypass channel at Itaipu Dam (Paraná River, known as "Canal da Piracema," was carried out between January and February of 2004. Fourteen individuals of six species (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus and Cichla kelberi were intragastrically and surgically radiotagged and monitored by three experimental fixed radio-telemetry stations installed in the upper portion of the Canal. The surgical implantation of transmitters and the anesthesia using clove oil proved to be more efficient and allowed easier handling in comparison to intragastric implantation and electronarcosis immobilization. The use of fixed stations to obtain data was found to be very suitable for tracking movements of several different fish species in the Itaipu lateral channel. Three species (P. granulosus, S. borellii and C. kelberi moved downstream after release. Two individuals of P. fasciatum and two of P. lineatus migrated upstream, leaving the channel 7 and 10 days and 2 and 24 days after release, respectively. Leporinus friderici was the only species that did not leave the release site until the end of the study period.Um estudo preliminar sobre a aplicação de técnicas de radiotelemetria para descrever os movimentos de peixes no canal de transposição da UHE Itaipu (Rio Paraná, conhecido como "Canal da Piracema", foi realizado entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2004. Seis espécies (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus e Cichla kelberi totalizando 14 indivíduos foram marcadas com radiotransmissores via cirúrgica e esofágica e rastreados através de três estações fixas experimentais de radiotelemetria instaladas na porção superior do Canal. A implantação de transmissores através de cirurgia e a anestesia por

  12. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

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    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  13. The effect of two cryoprotectant mixtures on frozen surubí surimi

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    J.R. Medina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Surimi" itself is not a food; it is an intermediate phase of the production of "kamaboko"(a gel formed by the addition of salt to the surimi and direct heating to 80-90ºC and a series of high-priced shellfish analogs. The protective effect that two cryoprotectant mixtures exerted during freezing and frozen storage of frozen surimi of surubí (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans on the functional quality of the gels prepared was studied. The selected washing conditions selected to obtain an acceptable functional quality of gels prepared from frozen surimi (25% extracted proteins and of final moisture using the response surface methodology were wash temperature, 18ºC; washing time for each of the three washing cycles, 4.62 min. and water-mince ratio, 3.5:1. Cryoprotectant mixtures used were sucrose/sorbitol (1:1 and maltodextrin/sorbitol (1:1 and they were added (8% to the washed and drained minced fish before freezing. To evaluate the functionality of the frozen surimi during six months of storage, the penetration test to measure the gel strength was chosen; samples were assessed at 4, 45, 90 and 180 days of frozen storage. Results showed that even with the cryoprotectants freezing decreased gel strength, since it produced a decrease of almost 32% in the strength of the gel prepared with fresh surimi. However, the two cryoprotectant mixtures tested showed very good behaviour throughout frozen storage; specially at 45 and 90 days of storage the surimi gels with the sucrose/sorbitol mixture had a greater resistance than those with maltodextrin/sorbitol.

  14. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities. PMID:25354433

  15. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein. PMID:18589578

  16. Fauna parasitária dos híbridos siluriformes cachapinta e jundiara nos primeiros estágios de desenvolvimento

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    Arlene Sobrinho Ventura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fauna parasitária dos peixes híbridos cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans macho x P. reticulatum fêmea e jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus macho x P. reticulatum fêmea no período de larvicultura. Um total de 315 animais, 126 híbridos jundiara e 189 híbridos cachapinta, foram examinados de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento: larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos. Larvas e pós-larvas foram prensadas entre lâmina e lamínula e observadas sob microscopia óptica. Os alevinos foram observados externamente em estereomicroscópio e necropsiados para avaliação interna dos órgãos. Foram aferidos os parâmetros de qualidade de água em todas as fases de cultivo. O exame parasitológico revelou a presença dos protozoários Epistylis sp. e Trichodina sp., no tegumento e nas brânquias, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis no tegumento, dos helmintos Monogenea nas brânquias, e das metacercárias de digenéticos em brânquias, baço, rins, fígado e intestino, em ambos os híbridos analisados. Os parasitos Epystilis sp., Trichodina sp. e metacercária de digenéticos ocorrem com maior frequência nos dois híbridos, nas fases de pós-larvas e alevinos. Há maior prevalência e diversidade de parasitos na fase de alevinagem dos híbridos estudados.

  17. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, S; Ismiño, R; Sánchez, H; David, F; Núñez, J; Dugué, R; Darias, M J; Römer, U

    2014-08-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses. PMID:24849417

  18. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 50. Oviparous gyrodactylids from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes in Brazil, with the proposal of Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. (Polyonchoinea: Gyrodactylidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Vianna, Rogério T; Boeger, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of Phanerothecium Kritsky & Thatcher, 1977 is amended, and Phanerothecioides n. g., Onychogyrodactylus n. g. and Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g., all comprised of oviparous gyrodactylids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea), are proposed to accommodate 11 of the 15 species (14 new to science) herein described and/or reported from loricariid and pimelodid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in Brazil: Phanerothecium harrisi Kritsky & Boeger, 1991, P. spinatoides n. sp. and P. deiropedeum n. sp. all from Hypostomus spp.; P. spinulatum n. sp. from Hypostomus cf. regani; Phanerothecioides agostinhoi n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Hypostomus spp. and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum; Onychogyrodactylus sudis n. g., n. sp. (type-species) and O. hydaticus n. sp. both from Ancistrus multispinus; Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Kronichthys lacerta; A. pedunculatus n. sp. from Hisonotus sp.; A. guttus n. sp. from Pseudotothyris obtusa; A. salebrosus n. sp., A. conei n. sp. and A. ctenistus n. sp. all from Pareiorhaphis parmula; and A. calamus n. sp. and A. forficuloides n. sp. both from Schizolecis guntheri. Phanerothecioides n. g. is characterised by oviparous forms lacking superficial and deep haptoral bars and pregermarial vitelline follicles, and by having a conspicuous testis in adult specimens, a syncytial prostatic gland, a reduced copulatory sac and vitelline ducts in the form of an inverted 'U'. Onychogyrodactylus n. g. is differentiated from all other oviparous gyrodactylid genera by its members having a spine-like accessory sclerite enclosed in a separate pouch associated with the terminal male genitalia. Species of Aglaiogyrodactylus n. g. possess H-shaped vitelline ducts and a complex accessory piece and sclerotised or non-sclerotised male copulatory organ enclosed within the copulatory sac. PMID:16972154

  19. Fish farming characterization of space in Basin River Cuiabá/MT

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    Neli Assunção Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to know the spatial distribution of the fish culture, size, water sheet area, cultivated species and the estimated production of fish culture business, defined into Cuiabá river basin. The fish farming secondary data were provided by the Environment State Secretary and systematizated in terms of the spatial distribution using techniques like geoprocessing. Data showed that from 490 registered fish culture, 26.1% didn’t say the geographical coordinates. About 74.3% of the fish culture defined into are micro business, 16.6% are little size, 3.9% are medium size, 0.8% are big size and 4,4% didn’t say the area in the in the register. The basin represents 1,395 ha of water sheet area, with estimated production of 9,128.87 ton year-1. Várzea Grande has the major water sheet area (60.4%, followed by Cuiabá (12.7%, and Nossa Senhora do Livramento (10%, totalizing more than 83%, compared to other cities into the basin. Piaractus mesopotamicus is the favorite specie for the cultive (36.7% as first category, followed by other species like Colossoma macropomum (female + Piaractus mesopotamicus (male, 20.9%; Brycon microleps, second category (10%; tambaqui (allochthonous specie and other categories (12.3%. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans represents 2.5% and Salminus maxillosus, 0.4%. The other species, with 5.6% and 5.2% (NI, didn’t reported. Várzea Grande has the higher percentage in the estimative of fish production, with 53.9%, followed by Cuiabá, with 20.1%.

  20. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  1. Atividade de lipase em quimo de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade de lipase no quimo dos intestinos médio e posterior de três espécies de peixes Teleostei, com hábitos alimentares diferentes, piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoros, e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma curuscans, preferencialmente carnívoro, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial. Foram determinadas as atividades de lipase, utilizando-se kit BIOCLIN. Os resultados demonstraram atividade específica média de lipase de 99,86%, sendo menor para a piracanjuba (1,89 UI/mg em relação ao piau (1347,82 UI/mg, ambos de hábito alimentar onívoro. A diferença de atividade específica de lipase entre piracanjuba e surubim (793,76 UI/mg também apresentou média de 99,76%. O surubim apresentou atividade específica de lipase 41,11% menor que o piau. Estes dados sugerem que o piau apresenta atividade específica de lipase mais próxima à de um peixe carnívoro que onívoro. Estudos adicionais com testes de alimentação são necessários para a avaliação do comportamento destas espécies a novos sistemas de alimentação.

  2. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  3. Phylogeography of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus albicans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from río de la Plata basin, South America, and conservation remarks

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    Julia Vergara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 (common name "moncholo" or "bagre blanco" is an endemic species of the family Pimelodidae in the río de la Plata basin. Phylogenetic approach based on cytochrome b sequences was performed to test the existence of a unique evolutionary lineage in P. albicans and to discriminate populations units or subpopulations related to a migration behavior of this taxon in the río de la Plata basin. This study included 34 samples of P. albicans of different collecting sites in the río de la Plata estuary and in the río Arrecifes belonging to the río Paraná basin. Among 614 base pairs in the cytochrome b sequence data set, 203 were variable and 120 were phylogenetically informative sites in P. albicans. A total of twenty haplotypes, nucleotide diversity (p = 0.032 and haplotype diversity = 0.941 were found. Tajima's test showed significant value D= -1.88 (pPimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 (popularmente conhecida como moncholo ou bagre branco é uma espécie endêmica da família Pimelodidae na bacia do rio da Prata. Estudos filogeográficos baseados nas seqüências do citocromo b mitocondrial foram realizados para testar a existência de uma única linhagem evolutiva in P. albicans e para discriminar unidades populacionais relacionadas ao comportamento migratório desse táxon na bacia do rio da Prata. Um total de 34 amostras de P. albicans provenientes de diferentes lugares de coleta no estuário do rio da Prata e rio Arrecifes na bacia do rio Paraná foram analisados. Entre as 614 pares de bases do citocromo b no conjunto de dados, 203 deles variaram e 120 foram sítios filogeneticamente informativos para P. albicans. No presente estudo foi encontrado um total de vinte haplótipos, diversidade de nucleotídeos (p = 0,032 e diversidade de haplótipos = 0,941. O teste de Tajima mostrou valores significativos D= -1,88 (p<0,05 rejeitando a hipótese de mutação neutra para os dados de P. albicans. Todas as an

  4. Ciclo reprodutivo de Parauchenipterus striatulus (Pisces - Auchenipteridae na represa de Ribeirão das Lajes - RJ

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    Araújo F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo reprodutivo do bagre de água doce Parauchenipterus striatulus, na represa de Ribeirão das Lajes, Rio de Janeiro. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos dos estádios de maturação gonadal bem como variações no índice gonadossomático, relação peso:comprimento, fator de condição e condição gonadal. A amostragem dos peixes foi feita bimestralmente entre abril de 1996 e maio de 1997 com o uso de redes de espera de 100m de comprimento, 4m de altura e com malha entre 25 e 65mm de distância entrenós. Os 339 indivíduos capturados ao longo do período de amostragem corresponderam a 40% do total de peixes. Cinco estádios de maturação gonadal foram determinados por meio de análise macroscópica para ambos os sexos: imaturo, maturação I, maturação II, maduro, desovado (fêmeas e esvaziado (machos. O índice gonadossomático foi mais elevado entre outubro e março para ambos os sexos, sugerindo amplo período de desova enquanto o fator de condição atingiu seu máximo entre fevereiro e junho, mostrando uma relação inversa entre essas duas características. A relação peso-comprimento para machos foi de W= 0,0095L3,0862 e fêmeas de W= 0,0116L3,0126, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas entre os coeficientes de alometria para ambos os sexos.

  5. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes

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    Rupert Collins

    2015-04-01

    O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes. Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados, nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informações essas que serão de valor inestimável para futuros estudos que abordem grupos taxonômicos difíceis.

  6. Otocinclus cocama, a new uniquely colored loricariid catfish from Peru (Teleostei: Siluriformes, with comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions to the discovery of new taxa

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    Roberto E. Reis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus, O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is apparently more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae, and O. mura. Comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions for the discovery and description of previously undetected biodiversity are also presented.Uma nova espécie de bagre loricariídeo de coloração única do gênero Otocinclus, O. cocama, é descrita de um afluente do baixo río Ucayali no norte do Peru. A nova espécie se distingue das demais espécies de Otocinclus por dois caracteres supostamente autopomórficos, o padrão de coloração diferenciado, que consiste em marcas alongadas verticalmente desde a linha média dorsal até a porção ventral dos flancos, e por uma linha lateral completa. As relações filogenéticas da nova espécie são investigadas e ela é aparentemente mais proximamente relacionada ao clado formado por O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae e O. mura. Ao final, são apresentados comentários sobre o impacto de revisões taxonômicas no descobrimento e descrição de biodiversidade previamente não detectada.

  7. Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Cooke, Richard G; Barros, Tito; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2016-08-01

    Transitions between the marine and freshwater macrohabitat have occurred repeatedly in the evolution of teleost fishes. For example, ariid catfishes have moved from freshwater to marine environments, and vice versa. Opercles, a skeletal feature that has been shown to change during such transitions, were subjected to 2D geometric morphometric analyses in order to investigate evolutionary shape changes during habitat transition in ariid catfishes and to test the influence of habitat on shape changes. A mtDNA marker, which proved useful in previous studies, was used to verify species identities. It greatly improved the assignment of specimens to a species, which are difficult to assign by morphology alone. The application of a mtDNA marker confirmed the occurrence of Notarius biffi in Central America, South of El Salvador. Molecular identification together with principal component analysis (PCA) and further morphological inspection of neurocrania indicated the existence of a cryptic species within Bagre pinnimaculatus. Principal component (PC) scores of individual specimens clustered in morphospace by genus rather than by habitat. Strong phylogenetic structure was detected using a permutation test of PC scores of species means on a phylogenetic tree. Calculation of Pagel's λ suggested that opercle shape evolved according to a Brownian model of evolution. Yet canonical variate analysis (CVA) conducted on the habitat groups showed significant differences in opercle shapes among freshwater and marine species. Overall, opercle shape in tropical American Ariidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained. This verifies the application of opercle shape as a taxonomic tool for species identification in fossil ariid catfishes. At the same time, adaptation to freshwater habitats shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories in ariid catfishes, which might be used to detect habitat preferences in fossils. PMID:27547357

  8. Broad histopathologic patterns of non-glabrous skin and glabrous skin from patients with a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus-part 1.

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    Howard, Michael S; Yepes, Maria M; Maldonado-Estrada, Juan G; Villa-Robles, Edinson; Jaramillo, Andrés; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Pablo J; Hashimoto, Takashi; Abreu-Velez, Ana M

    2010-02-01

    A prospective, controlled epidemiologic survey performed in El Bagre, Colombia revealed a new variant of endemic pemphigus disease, occurring in a gold mining region. The disease resembled Senear-Usher syndrome, and occurred in an endemic fashion. The aim of this study is to describe the most frequent histopathologic patterns in non-glabrous skin and in glabrous skin observed in these patients, and their clinical correlation. The study was performed on non-glabrous skin biopsies of 30 patients from the dominantly clinical affected areas (either on the chest, arms or face). Simultaneously, biopsies from the palms were obtained in 10 randomly chosen patients of the 30 total patients. The specimens were examined following hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The most common blisters observed were subcorneal, although in some cases intraspinous and subepidermal blisters were visualized. Our results showed a very heterogeneous pattern of histopathologic patterns in non-glabrous skin, which seemed to correlate with the clinical features. The most common pattern was typical pemphigus foliaceus-like, with some lupus erythematosus-like features. A non-specific, chronic dermatitis pattern prevailed in the clinically controlled patients taking daily corticosteroids. In the patients who have had the most severe and relapsing pemphigus, early sclerodermatous changes and scleredermoid alterations prevailed in their reticular dermis. In addition to the scleredermoid alterations, the reticular dermis showed a paucity of appendageal structures. On the contrary, in the palms, a similar pattern was seen in all cases, including thickening of the stratum corneum, hypergranulosis, edema in the papillary and reticular dermis and a dermal perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. The direct immunofluorescence of the glabrous vs. the non-glabrous skin also showed some differences. We conclude that the histopathologic features of this new variant of endemic pemphigus are complex, therefore

  9. Detection of mercury and other undetermined materials in skin biopsies of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

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    Abréu Vélez, Ana María; Warfvinge, Gunnar; Herrera, Walter Leon; Abréu Vélez, Clara Eugenia; Montoya M, Fernando; Hardy, David M; Bollag, Wendy B; Hashimoto, Ken

    2003-10-01

    A novel variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) was described among individuals in an area surrounding El Bagre, Colombia, South America. The population in this rural mining community is exposed to high environmental levels of mercury, used for gold extraction, as well as other minerals, metalloids, and trace elements (e.g., quartz, rutile, granite, magnetite, and almenite) and ultraviolet radiation. Fifty control subjects and fifty EPF patients in the endemic area were examined for the presence of mercury in skin biopsies and hair, using autometallographic and mass spectroscopic analyses, respectively. Simultaneously, serum levels of IgE were measured, and cutaneous tests for hypersensitivity reactions were performed. Using autometallography, mercuric sulfides/selenides were detected in 14 of 51 skin biopsies distributed similarly in the control and patient groups. However, significantly higher serum IgE levels and mercury concentrations in hair, urine, and nails were found in patients compared with controls. Microscopic analysis revealed mercuric sulfides/selenides concentrated within and around the sweat gland epithelium, as well as in dendritic cells. Five skin biopsies from EPF patients and five from controls that tested positive for the presence of mercuric sulfides/selenides by autometallography were randomly selected for electron microscopic analysis. This analysis revealed a mixed electron-dense and electron-light material closely associated with desmosomes in patients. However, there were intracellular vesicles containing an amalgam of electron-dense and electron-light materials only in the EPF patients. Thus, EPF-affected individuals are exposed to high levels of environmental mercuric sulfides/selenides and other elements. This is the first study reporting mercuric sulfides/selenides in skin biopsies from people living in a focus of EPF, and these compounds may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:14501287

  10. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

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    Álvarez Tania

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region, El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region, applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO. Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ, amodiaquine (AQ, mefloquine (MQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP, amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP, mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP, were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up.

  11. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

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    Francisco Provenzano R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.Harttia merevari, uma espécie nova de bagre loricarideo é descrita com base em oito exemplares capturados no alto rio Caura, bacia do rio Orinoco, Venezuela. A espécie nova se distingue pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: abdome nu; duas ou três placas preanais; presença de uma placa óssea anterior a cada abertura branquial; sete placas laterais entre as nadadeiras peitorais e pélvicas; barbilhão maxilar curto e unido ao disco oral por uma dobra carnosa; superfície dorsal da cabeça e região anterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com numerosos pontos negros arredondados, região dorsal e posterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com cinco bandas transversais negras, as duas bandas anteriores com a parte dorsocentral difusa. A descoberta desta espécie nova estende a distribuição do gênero ao noroeste incluindo a bacia do rio Orinoco na vertente norte do Escudo das Guianas.

  12. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  13. Nuevas representaciones de antropomorfos en el Magdaleniense Medio Cantábrico

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    Soledad CORCHÓN RODRIGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian nuevas representaciones de antropomordos, grabados en plaquitas de arenisca procedentes del Magdaleniense medio antiguo de Las Caldas. En dos de ellas (plaquitas 1595, 6080 son visibles huellas de impacto o rayados, posteriores a la ejecución de los grabados. Una de estas plaquitas (1595 muestra el grabado de un Coelodonta antiquitatis, reiterando un tema conocido anteriormente (plaquita 1040 y la presencia de fauna fría de carácter estépico en el Arte mueble de Las Caldas. Las representaciones grabadas de esta fauna (mamut, reno y rinoceronte lanudo corresponden al Magdaleniense medio antiguo, circa 14 000 / 13 650 BP (niveles IX a VII de la Sala II. Por otra parte, la serie de antropomorfos de Las Caldas reúne personajes tratados con naturalismo junto a otros semihumanos o mixtos (plaquitas 6080, 3201, 680, con máscaras o cabezas bestializadas, además de un acéfalo provisto de cola. En algún caso se han representado en actitud dinámica: con los brazos extendidos hacia delante, en cuclillas o portando un bulto a la espalda. Finalmentre, el estilo de los antropomorfos es tosco, si bien puede traslucir posibles actividades sociales. Ello contrasta, vivamente, con el naturalismo, el carácter estático y los elaborados convencionalismos de representación (pelajes, crineras, despieces y modelados que presentan los sujetos animales en los mismos niveles del yacimiento.ABSTRACT: A study was made of new representations of anthropomorphs, carved in sandstone plaquettes from the ancien Middle Magdalenian period of Las Caldas Cave. On two of them (plaquettes 1595, 6080 there are visible signs of impact or scratches, subsequent to the carvings. One of these plaquettes (1595 shows the carving of a Coelodonta antiquitatis, repeating a previously known theme (plaque 1040 and the presence of cold steppe fauna in the portable art of Las Caldas. The carved representations of this fauna (mammoth, reindeer and tichorrhine

  14. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

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    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    y 7,1% otros teleósteos. Entre los tiburones, la especie más relevante fue el tiburón azulejo (Prionace glauca, 16,5%o, seguido por el tiburón jaquetón (Carcharhinus spp., 6,9%. Entre los atunes e istiofóridos, el marlín rayado (Tetrapturus audax, 8,0% y el atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, 4,9% fueron también importantes (≥ 4% en número. Se reporta el número de ejemplares por especie, su rendimiento nominal en número y peso, y el peso promedio eviscerado, además de los estadísticos descriptivos de talla. La estructura poblacional de pez espada estuvo dominada por machos y no se registraron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos. Se observaron ejemplares con altos valores de IG durante todos los cruceros, principalmente durante diciembre-febrero, lo que sugiere un area reproductiva para esta especie. El tiburón azulejo mostró una predominancia de machos, y se observaron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos, posiblemente debido a una segregación espacial y temporal.

  15. Tocopherols and phytosterols in sunflower seeds for the human food market

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    Fernández-Cuesta, A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seeds for the human food market are derived from both oilseed-type cultivars, with black achenes and low hull proportion, and confectionery-type cultivars, with striped achenes and high hull proportion. The objective of this research was to evaluate tocopherol and phytosterol contents in the seeds of both types of cultivars. Five oilseed-type and seven confectionery-type cultivars were evaluated in replicated field trials in two locations of Morocco and Spain. Large variations were found in hundred-kernel weight (2.6 to 5.5 g, kernel oil content (42.7 to 67.5%, tocopherol content (203 to 397 mg kg–1 kernel, and phytosterol content (2179 to 3555 mg kg–1 kernel. Both types of cultivars did not differ for kernel weight, kernel oil content, or tocopherol and phytosterol profiles. However, oilseed-type cultivars had significantly greater average tocopherol and phytosterol contents, though confectionery-type cultivars with levels of tocopherols and phytosterols similar to the best oilseed-type cultivars were identified. The large variations in kernel tocopherol and phytosterol contents found in this research suggest that there is room for breeding for increased levels of these compounds in order to develop healthier sunflower cultivars for the human food market.

    Las semillas de girasol para consumo directo proceden tanto de cultivares oleaginosos, con aquenios negros y baja proporción de cáscara, como de cultivares de consumo directo, con aquenios de colores claros o rayados y elevada proporción de cáscara. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido en tocoferoles y fitoesteroles en semillas de ambos tipos de cultivares. Se evaluaron cinco cultivares oleaginosos y siete cultivares de consumo directo en ensayos de campo replicados en dos localidades de Marruecos y España. Se identificó gran variación para peso de 100 semillas (aquenios descascarillados; 2.6 a 5.5 g, contenido en aceite en la

  16. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el Valle de Toluca

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    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP o enfermedad del “amarillamiento por psilidos” la cual es asociada con la presencia de “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”. El objetivo de esta investigación fue detectar la presencia de esta bacteria y de fitoplasmas en plantas de papa que presentaban la coloración purpura de los foliolos. Durante el ciclo primavera – verano 2011 y 2012 se hizo un muestreo en los municipios de Tenango del Valle, Zinacantepec, Villa de Allende y San José del Rincón, del Estado de México. La detección de ambos patógenos se realizó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con los iniciadores específicos para fitoplasmas: P1/P7, R16mF2/R16mR1 y para Ca Liberibacter solanacearum: OA2/Oi2c, resultando el 35,8% de las plantas positivas para fitoplasmas y el 11,6% para la bacteria. Los resultados indican  que en algunas regiones productoras de papa del Estado de México,  los dos presuntos agentes causales del síndrome de  PMP, fitoplasmas y Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, pueden estar asociados. Palabras clave: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum; Fitoplasma; punta morada. Abstract In Mexico and Central America have been detected stained potato tubers with internal browning; recently in Texas, USA, this disease has been called "Zebra Chip" (ZC or striped potato, foliar symptoms resemble the syndrome called "Potato Purple Top" (PPT or "psyllid yellows" disease which is associated with the presence of "Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum

  17. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

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    Aurélio Ferreira Borges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. Aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia presents two fish production systems: extensive and semi-intensive. In the semi-intensive system, stocking rate was one fish per m3, on average; tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, tilapias (Oreochromis spp., pirarucu (Arapaima gigas and pintado (Pseudoplatystoma spp. were the species farmed at the largest number. The rate of water renewal was due to the greater availability of natural food in this system. Water renewal was constant in the ponds (1,500 liters per minute. In the semi-intensive system using dug ponds, alevins were stocked and fed during the entire rearing time with natural and exogenous food. The extensive system relied on the natural production of the pond, with stocking density limited by the production of natural food. The little renewal of water made the cultivation tank itself acted as a decantation lake, with the occurrence of oxidation and sedimentation of residual organic matter, consisting of feces, debris and organic fertilizer. Production of reduced effluent volume took place in the extensive system, compared to the cultivation area. In addition, there was high water turbidity, caused by high concentration of planktonic organisms, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water

  18. Metals and metalloid in eight fish species consumed by citizens of Bogota D.C., Colombia, and potential risk to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrera, Ellie Anne; Barragán-Gonzalez, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    The risk imposed upon society by consumption of foods contaminated with metals and metalloids is an environmental problem attributed to the increasing number of mining extraction activities currently underway in Colombia. The aim of the current study was to determine concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and a metalloid arsenic (As) found in the species of most consumed fish species by citizens of Bogota D.C. (Colombia), and the consequent potential risk to human health was also calculated. Muscle samples of 8 fish species were obtained from 203 individuals collected through 2014. The highest metal concentrations detected were as follows: Pb in Oncorhynchus sp. (0.0595 mg/kg), Cd and Hg in Pimelodus sp. (0.0072 and 0.0579 mg/kg, respectively), and As in Scomberomorus sp (0.0471 mg/kg). Further, the levels of metal accumulation from consumption of fish were calculated utilizing the metal pollution index (MPI), with elevated values noted in Pseudoplatystoma sp (0.06 mg/kg), followed by Scomberomorus sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively). The multiple species exposure index (Em.j) denotes the level of exposure associated with consumption of various contaminated fish species, and this level occurred in decreasing order as follows: As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The multiple chemical exposure index (Ej.m), which accounts for exposure to multiple metals, identified Prochilodus sp. as the species displaying the highest level of exposure per consumption (8 × 10(-6) mg/kg-d). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for human health indicated high levels for Hg and Cd in Prochilodus sp. (0.026 and 0.005, respectively), Pb in Oncorhynchus sp (0.025), and As in Pseudoplatistoma sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.023). Data emphasize the need for adequate nationwide public policies that promote assessment of exposure levels and potential adverse health risks associated with dietary consumption of different fish species in Colombia.

  19. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  20. Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil Reprodução do surubim (Pisces, Pimelodidae do Rio São Francisco, Região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais

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    M.F.G. Brito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the surubim, P. coruscans of the São Francisco River, in the Pirapora region was studied from December/98 to November/99. Reproduction occurred between October and January with high frequency of fishes in the advanced ripening/mature and spawned/spent stages along with higher values of the gonadosomatic index. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses indicated that P. coruscans presents total spawning. The reproductive period coincided with highest rainfall and water turbidity values in the region. The smallest male captured had a total length of 63.3cm and the smallest female 92.0cm in total length. The largest male in the maturation stage was recorded to be 97.0cm and the largest female 144.1cm in total length. Surubim were more frequently captured than females, at a proportion of approximately one female to three males. The gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic, stomach repletion, and coelomic fat indexes, as well as the condition factor were related to stages of the reproductive cycle.Estudou-se a biologia reprodutiva do surubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans do Rio São Francisco, na região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais no período de dezembro/98 a novembro/99. A reprodução ocorreu entre outubro e janeiro, com alta freqüência de peixes em maturação avançada/maduros e desovados/espermiados, e os maiores valores do índice gonadossomático nesse período. Análises macro e microscópicas indicaram que P. coruscans apresenta desova total. A época reprodutiva coincidiu com maior turbidez da água e maior incidência de chuva na região. O menor e maior macho capturado em maturação apresentou 63,3cm e 97,0cm e a menor e maior fêmea neste estádio 92,0cm e 144,1cm de comprimento total, respectivamente. Registraram três machos para cada fêmea e somente as fêmeas apresentaram comprimento acima de 100cm. Os índices biológicos gonadossomático, hepatossomático, repleção estomacal, gordura celômica e fator de condi

  1. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Villa-Verde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Listrura, Glanapteryginae, currently comprises six valid species of small and elongated trichomycterid catfishes that inhabit coastal plains of Southern and Southeastern Brazil. As primarily fossorial dwellers, species of the genus display unusual morphological adaptations and restricted habitats, which make these fishes particularly susceptible to environmental disturbance. Listrura camposi is poorly known and ranked as a Critically Endangered catfish species, according to current Brazilian list of threatened species. Description of the species was based on a single specimen collected in 1940, and for seven decades no additional specimens were reported. As a consequence, basic information about the species is unavailable. Recently, a population of L. camposi was found inhabiting a small stream tributary to rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, São Paulo State, relatively close to the type locality. On the basis of newly collected material, the species is redescribed and the first data on its habitat and ecology are presented. Conservation status is also discussed.O gênero Listrura, Glanapteryginae, compreende atualmente seis espécies válidas de bagres pequenos e alongados que habitam as baixadas costeiras do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Principalmente de hábitos fossoriais, as espécies do gênero apresentam adaptações morfológicas incomuns e habitat restrito, o que torna estes peixes particularmente suscetíveis a distúrbios ambientais. Listrura camposi é pouco conhecida e considerada uma espécie Criticamente em Perigo, segundo as mais recentes listas brasileiras de espécies ameaçadas. A descrição da espécie foi baseada em um único exemplar coletado em 1940 e por sete décadas nenhum espécime adicional foi relatado. Como consequência, informações básicas sobre a espécie estão indisponíveis. Recentemente, uma população de L. camposi foi encontrada habitando um pequeno córrego tributário da bacia rio Ribeira de Iguape

  2. Sciades herzbergii oxidative stress biomarkers: an in situ study of an estuarine ecosystem (São Marcos' Bay, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho-Neta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of environmental contamination on wild fish, sites were sampled in São Marcos' Bay. The first is located near the ALUMAR/ALCOA port, a potentially contaminated area. The second, located near the Coqueiro beach, was used as a reference area. The activity of antioxidant defence catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST in S. herzbergii was compared with the biometric data and gonadosomatic index (GSI. The result showed that GSI decreased significantly in females (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da contaminação ambiental em peixes amostrados em dois locais da Baía de São Marcos. O primeiro ponto está localizado próximo ao porto da ALUMAR/ALCOA, considerado como uma área potencialmente contaminada. O segundo ponto, situado na praia do Coqueiro, foi usado como uma área de referência. Dados da atividade da enzima de defesa antioxidante catalase (CAT e da glutationa S-transferase (GST em S. herzbergii foram comparados com os dados biométricos e o índice gonadossomático (GSI. Resultados mostraram que o GSI diminuiu significativamente em fêmeas (p <0.05 no local contaminado. A atividade da CAT foi mais alta nos peixes do local contaminado. Uma diferença significativa foi observada na atividade de GST de S. herzbergii no local contaminado e no local de referência (p <0.05. GSI possibilitou uma nova abordagem quanto à natureza da resposta de destoxificação nessa espécie de bagre porque este índice não apresentou correlação com as enzimas no local potencialmente contaminado, mas apresentou no local de referência. Assim, sugere-se que a boa correlação da GST/CAT e GSI poderia estar relacionada à reprodução dos animais no local de referência, mas não no local potencialmente contaminado. Se esse for o caso, pode-se concluir que GST/CAT e GSI podem ser utilizados como bons biomarcadores para avaliar contaminação aquática.

  3. Otocinclus batmani, a new species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Colombia and Peru

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    Pablo Lehmann A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hypoptopomatine catfish genus Otocinclus is described from two localities in the upper Río Amazonas basin: a tributary of the Río Puré in Colombia and two tributaries to the Río Amazonas near Iquitos in Peru. The new taxon can be easily distinguished from all congeners, except Otocinclus cocama, by having a single, intensely pigmented, vertical W-shaped caudal fin spot and by having three discrete dark bands on dorsum, between the dorsal-fin base and the caudal fin. Otocinclus batmani differs from O. cocama by the absence of vertically elongated blotches from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by lacking a posterior extension of black pigmentation on the base of two central caudal-fin rays. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is possibly more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. mariae, O. bororo, O. mura, and O. cocama.Uma nova espécie de bagre hypoptopomatineo do gênero Otocinclus é descrita de duas localidades na bacia do alto rio Amazonas: um tributário do rio Puré na Colômbia e dois igarapés tributários do rio Amazonas próximo a Iquitos no Peru. O novo táxon pode ser facilmente distinguido dos demais congêneres, exceto Otocinclus cocama, por uma mancha vertical em forma de W, densamente pigmentada localizada na porção posterior da nadadeira caudal, e pela presença de três bandas discretas escuras no dorso, entre a base da nadadeira dorsal e a nadadeira caudal. De Otocinclus cocama ela é diferenciada pelo padrão de colorido composto de uma grande faixa escura lateral (vs. faixas verticais alongadas nos flancos e pela ausência de pigmentação negra prolongada na base dos dois raios centrais da nadadeira caudal. As relações filogenéticas da nova espécie são investigadas e ela é possivelmente mais proximamente relacionada a um clado formado por O. huaorani, O. mariae, O. bororo, O. mura e O. cocama.

  4. Environmental characterization of the reproductive season of migratory fish of the Sinú river (Córdoba, Colombia

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    Eduardo Kerguelén-Durango

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize some abiotic factors during the reproductive season of migratory fish (bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae, dorada Brycon sinuensis, bagre blanco Sorubim cuspicaudus and barbul Pimelodus blochii in the Sinú River. Materials and methods. From April to October, 2008, in Carrizola (Tierralta, 36.31 km from the Urrá hydroelectric plant factors such as flow=Qriver, daily flow difference =ΔQriver, velocity=Vriver, temperature=Triver, electrical conductivity=CE, total dissolved solids=STD, turbidity=Turb, cloudiness=Nub, rainfall=Pluv and solar brightness=Bs were measured daily three times/day (07:00 h, 12:00 h, 17:00 h. Also, on the same schedule, ichthyoplankton was collected as an indicator of reproductive activity, assessed by reproductive frequency (Fr=number of days with presence of ichthyoplankton/number of days in the period evaluated X 100 and larval density (Dl=larval/m3. Results. The daily values of Qriver ranged between 278.7 and 838.5 m3/s, ΔQriver between 0.0 and 100.7 m3/s, Vriver between 1.40 and 1.53 m/s, Pluv between 0.0 and 88.2 mm, Triver between 27.0 and 28.7°C, STD between 73.0 and 302.3 mg/L, Turb between 9.7 and 679.7 NTU, CE between 81.0 and 361.7 mS/cm, Bs between 0.0 and 11.2 hours, Nub between 2.0 and 7.3 octaves. The Fr was 30.4%, with April (40.0% and May (74.2% as the higher activity reproductive months, while the Dl in the season was 4.9 larvae/m3, with the larvae group other species (2.9 larvae/m3 and bocachico (1.8 larvae/m3 as the most abundant. Conclusions. Most reproductive activity was recorded early in the season (April and May and parameters such as Qriver, Triver, Vriver, Pluv, STD and Nub may be considered final factors associated with migratory fish reproduction.

  5. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  6. Induced spawning of the endangered Neotropical species Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

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    Danilo Caneppele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "surubim do Paraíba" (Steindachneridion parahybae is a freshwater catfish endemic to the Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. This species has been seriously threatened by environmental disturbances in the last several decades. Wild Steindachneridion parahybae males and females were collected in 2003 and taken to the hatchery of a power plant of the Companhia Energética de São Paulo (CESP. Steindachneridion parahybae broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduce in December 2003 using a combination of carp pituitary extract (CPE and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Oocytes and milt were stripped; the fertilized eggs were transferred to 60-liter conical incubators and hatched larvae distributed in nine horizontal trays. Exogenous feed was started just after yolk sac absorption. A high rate of cannibalism and photophobia were observed during the larval period, resulting in a 26% survival rate from larvae to fingerlings.O "surubim do Paraíba" (Steindachneridion parahybae é um bagre de água doce, endêmico da bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil. Esta espécie foi seriamente ameaçada por distúrbios ambientais nas últimas décadas. Machos e fêmeas selvagens de Steindachneridion parahybae foram coletados em 2003 e transferidos para a piscicultura da CESP (Companhia Energética de São Paulo. Reprodutores de S. parahybae foram induzidos à reprodução artificial em dezembro de 2003 usando uma combinação de extrato hipofisário de carpa (CPE e gonadotropina coriônica humana (hCG. Após a extrusão dos óvulos e do sêmen, os ovos fertilizados foram transferidos para incubadoras cônicas de 60 litros e, em seguida, as larvas eclodidas distribuídas em nove incubadoras horizontais. Após a absorção do saco vitelino, a alimentação exógena foi iniciada. Uma alta taxa de canibalismo e fotofobia foram observados durante o período larval, resultando em uma taxa de sobrevivência de 26% de larvas para os alevinos

  7. Tissue-specific mercury concentrations in two catfish species from the Brazilian coast

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    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some regions of Brazil have particularly high levels of mercury (Hg emissions due to industrial activities, and their fish species may therefore suffer high levels of contamination through bioaccumulation. In this paper we assess Hg contamination in the muscle, liver, gills and blood of two different species of catfish collected from the Cananéia and Santos-São Vicente estuaries, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish from the most polluted site (Santos-São Vicente showed higher median Hg concentrations in both species (Cathorops spixii - liver: 1530 µg Kg-1, muscle: 327 µg Kg-1 and gill: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - liver: 2617 µg Kg-1, muscle: 393 µg Kg-1 and gill: 118 µg Kg-1. Multivariate analysis revealed the importance and influence of key biological variables (size, condition, etc. in determining the overall level of Hg and its distribution within different tissues.Algumas regiões do Brasil apresentam, altos níveis de emissões de mercúrio (Hg devido às atividades industriais, e suas espécies de peixes podem, portanto, estar expostos a elevados níveis de contaminação por meio da bioacumulação. Neste trabalho avaliamos a contaminação por Hg no músculo, fígado, brânquias e sangue de duas espécies de bagres coletados nos estuários de Cananéia e Santos-São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil. Peixes amostrados no local mais poluído (Santos-São Vicente mostraram maiores concentrações de Hg em ambas as espécies (Cathorops spixii - fígado: 1530 µg Kg-1, músculo: 327 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 101 µg Kg-1; Genidens genidens - fígado: 2617 µg Kg-1, músculo: 393 µg Kg-1 e brânquias: 118 µg Kg-1. Análises multivariadas revelaram a importância e influência das principais variáveis biológicas (tamanho, condição, etc. no teor geral de Hg e sua distribuição nos diferentes tecidos.

  8. Flujos de energía en el sistema de surgencia tropical de la península de la Guajira , Caribe colombiano

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    García Camilo Bernardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Guajira es un sistema de surgencia explotado en el Caribe colombiano. Con el propósito de integrar la información disponible sobre el sistema se construyó un modelo trófico de 27 grupos funcionales usando el programa ECOPATH 5.0 Beta. Se obtuvo una base cuantitativa a través de la construcción del modelo, para compararlo con otros sistemas de surgencia. La Guajira presenta una biomasa total de 68 t/km2/año, la producción primaria neta del sistema es de 1248,51 t/km2/año y las transferencias totales del sistema son de 3.275 t/km2/año, lo que
    indica un ecosistema con una surgencia moderada comparada con otros sitios. Las mayores transferencias de energía se dan del nivel trófico I-II (68,93%, aunque existe una importante proporción de flujos al detritus (32%. Las flotas pesqueras afectan principalmente los recursos
    de las fracciones del nivel trófico III, la flota artesanal esta ejerciendo mayor presión sobre el pámpano, bonito y jurel, la flota parguera sobre pargos y meros y la flota industrial sobre las corvinas. Los resultados en los atributos de madurez del sistema sugieren que La Guajira es un
    ecosistema inmaduro debido a que la relación P/R excede a uno y está en desarrollo debido a la baja ascendencia (33,7% y alta capacidad de desarrollo (66,3% como ocurre con otras surgencias donde se presentan valores de ascendencia entre 20% y 35%. Aunque los datos básicos de entrada en el modelo fueron buenos, debido a las investigaciones que se han elaborado entre 1995 y 2000, existen algunos grupos donde no se encuentra aun información disponible. Especialmente en los valores de biomasa del fitoplancton, invertebrados, bagres, peces depredadores
    pelágicos, así como estimaciones de producción en invertebrados, peces  depredadores pelágicos y peces pequeños pelágicos. No existe una cuantificación de las poblaciones de mamíferos y aves en el área de estudio, los cuales constituyen depredadores

  9. Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes and morphometric indexes in the catfish Cathorops spixii (Ariidae from different sites on the southeastern Brazilian coast

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    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes (NAE were taken as biomarkers in the catfish Cathorops spixii (Ariidae sampled in an estuary little affected by human activity (Cananéia and in three regions (Santos Channel: SC, Santos Bay: SB and São Vicente Channel: SVC of the Santos-São Vicente estuary impacted by various anthropogenic activities. Increases in NAE were observed in fish from SC and SVC sampled in the summer period as compared with specimens from the Cananéia estuary. These results suggest the presence of genotoxic compounds in these regions. However, the absence of significant differences in micronuclei frequency reflects slight mutagenic effects in these individuals. It is possible that the lower NAE frequency in specimens from SB might be associated with the greater remobilization and dilution of chemicals in this region. The low frequency of NAE in C. spixii from the Cananéia estuary is in accordance with the slight anthropogenic influence in this system, and may be suggestive of the absence of genotoxic and mutagenic effects in these organisms.Alterações nucleares eritrocitárias (ANE foram consideradas como biomarcadores nos bagres Cathorops spixii (Ariidae amostrados em um estuário com baixa influência humana (Cananéia e em três regiões (Canal de Santos: CS, Baía de Santos: BS e Canal de São Vicente: CSV no estuário de Santos-São Vicente, impactado por diversas atividades antropogênicas. Aumentos nas ANE foram observados nos peixes amostrados no CS e CSV durante o período de verão, quando comparados com os espécimes do estuário de Cananéia. Estes resultados sugerem a presença de compostos genotóxicos nessas regiões. Entretanto, ausência de diferenças significativas na freqüência de micronúcleos refletem baixos efeitos mutagênicos nesses indivíduos. As menores freqüências de ANE nos espécimes amostrados na BS podem estar associado à maior remobilização e diluição dos compostos químicos na regi

  10. The late Miocene Phractocephalus catfish (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from Urumaco, Venezuela: additional specimens and reinterpretation as a distinct species

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    John G. Lundberg

    2003-12-01

    . However, the genus does not occur west or north of the Andes or Venezuelan coastal ranges. Recognizing the Urumaco Phractocephalus as a distinct species does not alter the obvious conclusion that this catfish marks a large river connection between the Caribbean coastal region and the Orinoco system during at least part of the Neogene. Other Urumaco fossils show this same biogeographic relationship.É descrita uma nova espécie fóssil de bagre pimelodídeo proveniente da Formação Urumaco do Mioceno superior no estado Falcón, Venezuela. O exemplar fóssil foi originalmente atribuído a espécie recente Phractocephalus hemioliopterus. Porém, com base em exemplares fósseis adicionais provenientes da Formação Urumaco, essa espécie extinta é descrita como uma nova espécie. As características diagnósticas da nova espécie †Phractocephalus nassi são as seguintes: 1 a metade posterior do frontal e a metade anterior do supraocciptal apresentam uma ornamentação caracterizada por altos relevos e sulcos alongados, assim como reticulações e algumas depressões subcirculares; 2 o mesetmóide é muito largo e está ornamentado; 3 a margem do etmóide lateral é convexa, não apresenta o entalhe orbital e não se projeta anteriormente sobre o côndilo palatino; 4 a fontanela cranial anterior está fechada e forma uma pequena depressão; 5 a margem do processo supraoccipital é redonda lateral e posteriormente, e cobre completamente o complexo de Weber quando visto dorsalmente; 6 o opérculo está ornamentado com reticulações e depressões; 7 o cleitro encontra-se densamente ornamentado ao longo da margem ventral da área de articulação do espinho peitoral; 8 o espinho peitoral encontra-se ornamentado com estrias e sulcos. †Phractocephalus nassi é comparada com a espécie recente P. hemioliopterus e com outra especie fóssil da Formação Solimões do Mioceno superior do Acre no Brasil, a qual ainda não foi descrita. Apresentam-se novas características diagn

  11. La malaria en Colombia, Antioquia y las zonas de Urabá y Bajo Cauca: panorama para interpretar la falla terapéutica antimalárica. Parte 1

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    Jaime Cardona Fonseca

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Problema: en 1998-2002 se investigó en Antioquia (Turbo, Zaragoza y El Bagre, la eficacia terapéutica de medicamentos y combinaciones antimaláricos. La interpretación de la respuesta terapéutica (adecuada, fallas precoz y tardía requiere información adicional para una mejor comprensión. Objetivo: definir un marco de referencia para interpretar los resultados de las evaluaciones de respuesta terapéutica antimalárica, constituido por información sobre el comportamiento de los programas antimaláricos en Colombia y por información demográfica, epidemiológica, climatológica y socioeconómica sobre el departamento de Antioquia, las regiones de Urabá y Bajo Cauca y los municipios de Turbo y El Bagre. Metodología: se usó información oficial secundaria y en menor cantidad, información primaria. Con los datos recogidos se construyeron cuadros y gráficos, y se hicieron cálculos sobre otras variables. Resultados: se describe la malaria (paludismo en Colombia en 1960-2002. En 2002, de los 43,707 millones de habitantes, 22,403 millones (51,17% están expuestos (41,88% con bajo riesgo. El P. vivax es la especie predominante (66% de los casos, excepto en la región del Pacífico, donde el P. falciparum causa el 75% de los casos. Hay brotes de malaria cada 2 a 7 años; la más intensa epidemia en la historia conocida ocurrió en 1998. La mortalidad ha pasado de 25 por cien mil en 1983 a 3 por cien mil en 2000. El índice parasitario anual (IPA ha estado alrededor de 8 por mil expuestos después de 1990, valor que es el cuádruple del existente en 1960-1970. La ineficacia del programa ha sido evidente casi desde su inicio en 1958 y la tendencia de la enfermedad siempre ha sido creciente. El fracaso de los programas gubernamentales antimalaria no tiene origen en fenómenos principalmente biológicos (resistencias del plasmodio a los medicamentos y del anofeles a los insecticidas, ni tampoco en las “condiciones de orden p

  12. Infecção por Trofozoítos de Ichthyophthirius multifiliis em Atividade Piscícola da Região de Eugenópolis‚ MG‚ Brasil -resumen-

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    R De-Oliveira-Botelho

    2014-12-01

    parasito pode causar danos significativos‚ especialmente nas brânquias onde provoca hiperplasia‚ fusão das lamelas secundárias‚ edemas e‚ até‚ necroses (FERRAZ DE LIMA et al.‚ 1991. O fato do parasito normalmente se instalar nas brânquias acaba dificultando também a respiração‚ a excreção nitrogenada e a osmorregulação dos peixes. Na piscicultura da Prata‚ em 2010‚ a Ictiophitiríase levou a uma perda de 40% da produção de alevinos‚ devido ao manejo incorreto nos cultivo‚ sendo o Bagre Americano (Ictalurus punctatus o principal afetado. Conclui-se que o Ichthyophthirius multifiliis é um parasito que causa prejuízos econômicos aos produtores. Entretanto‚ o segredo para evitá-lo está no manejo‚ estudos realizados na Piscicultura da Prata revelam que um forte trabalho de acompanhamento e manejo sanitário em cultivos‚ é capaz de prevenir o surgimento de doenças e evitar potenciais prejuízos.

  13. Primeiro registro da utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros na cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328 First account on the use of fishing resources as medicines in the city of São Félix, Bahia State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328

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    Juliana Nascimento Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros pelos moradores da cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre maio de 2004 a março de 2005, entrevistando-se 29 indivíduos de ambos os sexos com idades que variaram de 11 a 79 anos. As informações foram obtidas junto a pescadores e a suas famílias por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas. A maior parte das entrevistas foi gravada, usando-se micro-gravador, sempre com o consentimento dos informantes. As transcrições feitas em caderno de campo encontram-se mantidas no Laboratório de Etnobiologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Estado da Bahia. Espécimes de peixes foram coletados, identificados e depositados no Laboratório de Ictiologia da UEFS. Os resultados mostram que, no sistema de classificação etnoictiológico dos pescadores de São Félix, diferentes organismos não sistematicamente relacionados são incluídos no domínio etnozoológico “Peixe”. Por essa razão, sete etnoespécies de peixes foram citadas como recursos medicinais: bagre (Genidens genidens, camarão (Macrobrachium sp., cambotá (Callichthys sp., piau (Leporinus sp., piranha (Serrasalmus branditi, peixe-boi (Trichechus sp. e traíra (Hoplias malabaricus. Esses animais fornecem matérias-primas que são utilizadas na elaboração de medicamentos que visam tratar e/ou curar enfermidades diagnosticadas localmente. O registro escrito da medicina tradicional implica conservação da cultural local, além de permitir que os recursos zooterapêuticos possam ser avaliados quanto à provável existência de compostos biologicamente ativosThis article deals with the medicinal use of fishing resources by the inhabitants of São Félix, Bahia State. Fieldwork was carried out from May 2004 to March 2005 by interviewing 29 individuals of both sexes, whose ages ranged from 11 to 79 years old. Data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews

  14. Reproduction of duckbill catfish Sorubim lima in captivity (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae by means of hormonal induction/ Reprodução em cativeiro do jurupecê Sorubim lima (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae por meio de indução hormonal

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    Sandro Geraldo de Castro Britto

    Full Text Available Sorubim lima is a migratory catfish that do not reproduce in lenthic environments such as those formed after construction of hydroelectric power plants. An alternative for conservation of the species in these environments is the stocking with fingerlings produced in captivity. The technique used to reproduce it in captivity was the induction by carp pituitary hormone, with dosage of 5 mg.kg-1 for females (1 mg.kg-1 in the first dose and 4 mg.kg-1 in the second and 3 mg.kg-1 for males (1 mg.kg-1 in the first dose and 2 mg.kg-1 in the second, with an interval of 14 hours. The determination of extrusion moment of oocytes was made by monitoring the migration of nucleus from central to peripheral position. After UTA 264.5 (accumulated thermal units the oocytes were obtained by compression of the ventral region of the female, but males were sacrificed for extraction of sperm. The eggs were kept in an incubator and the time of hatching of larvae was 370 UTA. The larvae were initially fed with plankton and showed no cannibalism. Moreover, they were not demanding about the food, accepting prepared rations after fifteenth day of life. The weight gain of larvae was very low, even close to 20 mm in length (14 days, not exceeding 0.05 mg per day. After that both weight and length increased rapidly.Sorubim lima é um bagre migratório que não se reproduz em ambientes lênticos como os que são formados após a construção de usinas hidrelétricas. Uma das alternativas para conservação da espécie nesses ambientes é a estocagem com alevinos produzidos em cativeiro. A técnica utilizada para a sua reprodução em cativeiro foi a da indução por hormônio hipofisário de carpa, com dosagem de 5 mg.kg-1 para fêmeas (1 mg.kg-1 na primeira dose e 4 mg.kg-1 na segunda e 3 mg.kg-1 para machos (1 mg.kg-1 na primeira dose e 2 mg.kg-1 na segunda, com intervalo de 14 horas. A determinação do momento da extrusão dos óvulos foi feita pelo acompanhamento da migra

  15. Ultra-structural and histochemical analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus liver treated with fumonisin B1

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    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1 injected intraperitoneally (IP, was evaluated in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Fishes were divided into four Groups. Groups II, III and IV were treated IP with FB1 injections of 1; 5 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, during 21 days. At the 7th, 14th and 21st day, fishes were sacrificed. The livers were hystologicaly analysed by the light and transmission electronic microscopy. Livers from the 7th day showed organelles alterations, particularly in the granular endoplasmatic reticle, mitochondria, nucleus and nucleolus mediated by FB1 doses. The occurrence of processes involved in the necrosis and apoptosis was detected. At the highest FB1 dose,the livers presented an intense response with an accentuate tissue disorganization, absence of cell limits and intense cytoplasm vacuolization. The image analysis showed the occurrence of necrosis in some areas, characterized by fully broken or swollen cells. The apoptosis was observed as the cytoplasm contraction and the chromatin formed masses concentrated in the edge of the nucleus. There was strong evidence that the numerous hepatocytes in the liver from the fishes under the toxic dose of FBs were selectively removed by the apoptosis process.Os efeitos histopatológicos da fumonisina B1 (FB1 foram avaliados quando a toxina foi aplicada intraperitoneal (IP em bagre (Ictalurus punctatus. Os peixes foram divididos em 4 Grupos, sendo que os Grupos II, III e IV foram tratados com FB1 em injeções IP nas concentrações de 1; 5 e 10 mg/kg p.c./dia, respectivamente, durante 21 dias. No 7º, 14ºe 21º dia de tratamento, amostras de peixe de cada Grupo foram sacrificadas. Os figados foram analisados histopatologicamente por microscopia de luz e de transmissão eletrônica. Desde o dia 7 de coleta, os fígados apresentaram alterações em diversas organelas, principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, citoplasma, núcleo e nucléolo mediadas pelas doses de FB

  16. A new species of sand-dwelling catfish, with a phylogenetic diagnosis of Pygidianops Myers (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae: Glanapteryginae

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    Mário C. C. de Pinna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand-dwelling catfish genus Pygidianops, P. amphioxus, is described from the Negro and lower Amazon basins. The new species differs from its three congeners in the elongate eel-like body, the short barbels, and the small caudal fin, continuous with the body, among other traits of internal anatomy. The absence of anal fin further distinguishes P. amphioxus from all other Pygidianops species except P. magoi and the presence of eyes from all except P. cuao. The new Pygidianops seems to be the sister species to P. magoi, the two species sharing a unique mesethmoid with a dorsally-bent tip lacking cornua, and a produced articular process in the palatine for the articulation with the neurocranium. Pygidianops amphioxus is a permanent and highly-specialized inhabitant of psammic environments. Additional characters are proposed as synapomorphies of Pygidianops, including a hypertrophied symphyseal joint and associated ligament in the lower jaw; an elongate, laterally-directed, process on the dorsal surface of the premaxilla; and a rotated lower jaw, where the surface normally facing laterally in other glanapterygines is instead directed ventrally. These and other characters are incorporated into a revised phylogenetic diagnosis of Pygidianops.Uma nova espécie do gênero de bagre arenícola Pygidianops, P. amphioxus, é descrita de diferentes localidades na Amazônia brasileira. A nova espécie difere de seus três congêneres pelo corpo alongado e anguiliforme, pelos barbilhões curtos e pela pequena nadadeira caudal, contínua com o corpo, além de outras características da anatomia interna. A ausência de nadadeira anal distingue P. amphioxus de todos os outros Pygidianops exceto P. magoi e a presença de olhos de todos exceto P. cuao. O novo Pygidianops parece ser o grupo-irmão de P. magoi, as duas espécies compartilhando um mesetmóide com a extremidade dobrada dorsalmente, sem cornua, e um processo articular prolongado no

  17. Larvae occurrences of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae in an area under dam influence in the upper Paraná River region, Brazil

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    Evelyn B. da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (Jundiá is a catfish species of great interest to fish producers and researchers due to several favorable characteristics for inclusion in the Brazilian list of commercially raised fish. It has a wide geographical distribution, with occurrences reported from Central Argentina to South Mexico. Studies on the biological aspects of this species have been limited to captive adult fishes that were researched for farming purposes. Research related to ichthyoplankton has provided valuable information on spawning periods and sites and other aspects of breeding for numerous species of fish. This information is crucial for implementing management and protection strategies for these species. The studied floodplain is located in a lotic remnant between the Reservoirs of Itaipu and Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. This area is located inside a protected area (Ilha Grande National Park in the last portion of dam-free land along the Paraná River in the Brazilian territory; however, it is still threatened by the negative effects of the dams. We conducted monthly nocturnal collections during four periods from October to March, 2003 to 2007, in 22 locations along the main channel, secondary lakes and main tributaries of the Paraná River. After collection, the individuals were classified according to the degree of development and the notochord flexion and caudal fin support elements. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA, ANOVA and Pearson correlation to relate abiotic and larval density data. The increase of capture abundances in the four studied stages suggests that R. quelen is finding conditions that are favorable to its reproduction. The increase in captures can generate questions regarding R. quelen reproductive activity, for instance, whether the species is adapting or is influenced by environmental changes created by the Paraná River dams.Rhamdia quelen (jundiá é uma espécie de bagre que tem despertado grande interesse

  18. Evaluation of Ethylene Glycol as a Cryoprotectant in the Sperm Cryopreservation of Trans-andean Shovelnose Catfish (Sorubim Cuspicaudus, Pimelodidae

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    Victor Julio Atencio García

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus cryopreservation semen was evaluated using three levels (5, 10, 15% of ethylene glycol (ETG. Males (n = 13 undergoing spermiation and in final maturation females (n = 6 were induced with 0.4 ml Ovaprim®/Kg, after 12 and 14 post-induction the semen was collected in 2 ml Eppendorf vials. The different cryoprotectants solutions were prepared with glucose 6% (w/v skimmed milk powder 5% (w/v and distilled water. The semen was diluted in ratio 1:3 (semen:extender, packed in macrotubes of 2.5 ml and frozen in liquid nitrogen (NL vapor for 30 minutes, then the macrotubes were stored in cryogenic tanks submerged directly in NL. The sperm were thawed in serological bath to 35 °C for 90 seconds. The total motility, total progressivity and velocities in fresh and thawed semen were analyzed with the Sperm Class Analyzer software (SCA Microptic SL, Spain. Fertility and hatching rates were assessed with 1.0-1.5 g of oocytes in experimental up flow incubators 2 L, a completely randomized design was used. The hatching rate of fresh semen was 51.8 ± 21.0%, with no significant differences with semen cryopreserved with ETG 5% (38.6±13.9% (p>0.05, while ETG 15% (9.6±2.9%, recorded the lower hatching rate (p<0.05. The results suggest that the cryoprotectant solution composed of ETG 5%, glucose 6% and powdered milk 5% is a viable alternative for semen cryopreservation of the catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus. EVALUACIÓN DE ETILENGLICOL COMO CRIOPROTECTOR EN LA CRIOCONSERVACIÓN DE SEMEN DE BAGRE BLANCO (Sorubim cuspicaudus, PimelodidaeSe evaluó el semen crioconservado de Sorubim cuspicaudus utilizando etilenglicol (ETG a tres niveles de inclusión (5, 10, 15%. Machos (n=13 en fase de espermiación y hembras (n=6 en maduración final se indujeron con 0.4 ml de Ovaprim®/Kg, después de 12 a 14 horas post-inducción se colectó el semen en viales Eppendorf de 2 ml de capacidad. Las diferentes soluciones crioprotectoras se prepararon con

  19. Embryonic development and larval stages of Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: implications for the conservation and rearing of this endangered Neotropical species

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    Renato M. Honji

    2012-01-01

    was observed during the first two days of larval development. The first feeding occurred at the end of the second day. During the larval phase, cannibalism, heterogeneous larval growth and photophobia were also observed. This information will be important in improving the artificial reproduction protocols of S. parahybae in controlled breeding programs.Steindachneridion parahybae é um bagre de água doce, endêmico do rio Paraíba do Sul e é classificado como espécie neotropical ameaçada. Um número crescente de biólogos conservacionistas estão incorporando dados de pesquisas morfológicas e fisiológicas para ajudar os gestores de conservação no resgate destas espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Este estudo investigou o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval de S. parahybae em cativeiro, com ênfase nos principais eventos durante a ontogenia de S. parahybae. Reprodutores foram artificialmente induzidos à reprodução e a extrusão ocorreu com 200-255 horas-graus após a indução hormonal a 24°C. A ontogenia larval foi avaliada a cada 10 minutos sob microscópio/ estereomicroscópio, utilizando-se amostras de ovos recém coletados. Os principais estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário foram identificados: zigoto, clivagem, incluindo as fases, mórula, blástula e gástrula, organogênese e eclosão. Os ovócitos extrusados apresentaram uma média de diâmetro de 1,10 ± 0,10 mm e depois da fertilização e hidratação dos ovos, a média de diâmetro dos ovos aumentou para 1,90 ± 0,60 mm, caracterizado pelo grande espaço vitelínico que persistiu até o desenvolvimento do embrião, duplo córion e os polos (animal e vegetal. A divisão celular iniciou-se aproximadamente dois minutos após a fertilização (AF, resultando em 2, 4, 8 (4 x 2 arranjo das células, 16 (4 x 4, 32 (4 x 8 e 64 (2 x 4 x 8 células. Adicionalmente, seguiram as fases de blástula e gástrula depois das divisões celulares. O fechamento do blastóporo ocorreu às 11 h 20 min AF

  20. The fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, during 40 years of impoundment

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    Jan H. Mol

    2007-09-01

    had a lower biomass in Brokopondo Reservoir than in Suriname River. Serrasalmus rhombeus showed reduced body length in Brokopondo Reservoir as compared to riverine populations.Foram pesquisadas as modificações a longo prazo na ictiofauna do reservatório de Brokopondo, o primeiro de grande porte (1560 km² construído em floresta tropical úmida. Antes do fechamento da barragem em 1964, a ictiofauna do rio Suriname possuía 172 espécies, com diversidade e equitabilidade altas. A fauna do rio era dominada por espécies de pequeno porte, mas nenhuma delas dominava em número de indivíduos. Em termos de biomassa, os grandes bagres eram dominantes. As espécies estavam homogeneamente distribuídas nos diferentes hábitats: corredeiras, afluentes e canal principal. Quatro anos depois do fechamento da barragem, somente 62 espécies de peixes foram coletadas no reservatório de Brokopondo, mas a composição da ictiofauna ainda estava mudando. Em 1978, a ictiofauna do reservatório era semelhante à de 2005, indicando que um equilíbrio estável foi atingindo 14 anos depois do fechamento da barragem. A ictiofauna do reservatório tinha 41 espécies, diversidade e equitabilitade baixas. A maioria das espécies do rio Suriname que tinham exigências estreitas de hábitat não sobreviveram no reservatório. A estrutura das comunidades de peixes foi diferente nos quatro hábitats do reservatório de Brokopondo. O hábitat das águas abertas (10 espécies foi dominado pelos piscívoros Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis e Cichla ocellaris e suas presas Bryconops melanurus e duas espécies de Hemiodus. Bryconops alimentou se de zooplâncton, pupas de Culicidae e invertebrados terrestres. Hemiodus alimentou se de detritos floculentos, demostrando que a cadeia alimentar baseada em detritos ainda era importante em estágios avançados de desenvolvimento dos reservatórios. Serrasalmus rhombeus também come queixadas que se afogam quando tentam atravessar nadando o

  1. Study of sodium arsenite induced biochemical changes on certain biomolecules of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus

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    Randhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic impact of sublethal concentration (1 mg/L; 5% of 96h LC50 value of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 on certain biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and glycogen of five tissue components (muscles, liver, brain, skin, and gills of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus was analysed. The important toxic manifestations include marked decrease in the concentration of proteins (21.72-45.42% in muscles; 3.42-53.94% in liver; 15.39-45.42% in brain; 15.40-4.00% in skin and 11.35-64.13% in gills, DNA (0.55-22.95% in muscles; 8.33-14.06% in liver; 5.30-18.40% in brain; 13.57-52.80% in skin; and 12.38-31.01% in gills, RNA (42.68-76.16% in muscles; 10.68-39.75% in liver; 5.66-29.05% in brain; 7.72-27.93% in skin and 21.47-44.38% in gills and glycogen (24.00-51.72% in muscles; 49.11-72.45% in liver; 11.49-26.03% in brain; 26.13-38.05% in skin and 17.80-37.97% in gills. Excepting liver where the lipid content increases (15.82-24.13%, the fat content also showed depletion in their concentration (10.40-29.83% in muscles; 8.30-34.45% in brain; 8.94-31.47% in skin and 12.75-28.86% in gills, in the rest of the organ systems.Foi analisado o impacto tóxico da concentração subletal (1 mg/L; 5% do valor de LC50 de 96h do arsenito de sódio (NaAsO2 sobre certas biomoléculas (proteinas, ácidos nucleicos, lipídios e glicogênio de cinco tecidos (músculos, fígado, cérebro, pele e brânquias do bagre Clarias batrachus. As manifestações tóxicas importantes incluiram o decréscimo acentuado na concentração de proteinas (21,72-45,42% nos músculos; 3,42-53,94% no fígado; 15,39-45,42% no cérebro; 15,40-4,00% na pele e 11,35-64,13% nas brânquias, DNA (0,55-22,95% nos músculos; 8,33-14,06% no fígado; 5,30-18,40% no cérebro; 13,57-52,80% na pele e 12,38-31,01% nas brânquias, RNA (42,68-76,16% nos músculos; 10,68-39,75% no fígado; 5,66-29,05% no cérebro; 7,72-27,93% na pele e 21,47-44,38% nas brânquias e glicogênio (24,00-51,72% nos músculos; 49

  2. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae, a revisionary study

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    Richard P. Vari

    2005-06-01

    . Denticetopsis includes seven species: D. epa, new species, rio Tocantins; D. iwokrama, new species, Siparuni River; D. macilenta, Potaro River; D. praecox, río Baria; D. royeroi, upper río Negro; D. sauli, upper río Negro; and D. seducta, new species, western portions of rio Amazonas and río Orinoco. Paracetopsis consists of three species: P. atahualpa, new species, río Tumbes, northwestern Peru, and río Zarumilla, southwestern Ecuador; P. bleekeri, río Guayas and río Santa Rosa, south-western Ecuador; and P. esmeraldas, new species, rivers of northwestern Ecuador. Cetopsis ventralis and C. occidentalis are synonyms of Paracetopsis bleekeri. A neotype is designated for Paracetopsis bleekeri. Lectotypes are designated for Cetopsis candiru, Cetopsis chalmersi, and Cetopsis plumbeus.Os bagres da subfamília Cetopsinae, da família neotropical Cetopsidae, são revisados. Quatro gêneros, Cetopsidium novo gênero, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis,e Paracetopsis Bleeker são reconhecidos como válidos. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, e Pseudocetopsis são considerados sinônimos de Cetopsis, enquanto que Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean e Cetopsogiton sinônimos de Paracetopsis. Trinta e sete espécies são reconhecidas em Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium inclui seis espécies: C. ferreirai, nova espécie, rio Trombetas; C. minutum, rio Essequibo; C. morenoi, partes central e ocidental do río Orinoco; C. orientale, rios costeiros do Suriname e Guiana Francesa, e tentativamente rio Tocantins e rio Xingu; C. pemon, nova espécie, río Caura, río Caroni, río Meta, e rio Branco; e C. roae, nova espécie, rio Rupununi. Cetopsis inclui 21 espécies: C. amphiloxa, río San Juan, río Atrato, e río Patia, Colombia ocidental, e rios do noroeste do Equador; C. arcana, nova espécie, rio Tocantins; C. baudoensis, río Baudo; C. caiapo, nova espécie, rio Tocantins; C. candiru, bacia Amazônica; C. fimbriata, nova espécie, río Truando; C. coecutiens, rio Amazonas, rio Tocantins, e río Orinoco; C

  3. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-12-01

    . itajara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process.O mero Epinephelus itajara é uma espécie de peixe marinho de grandes proporções (>400 kg e criticamente ameaçado, protegido em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Através da aplicação de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, investigamos o conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática, especialistas na captura de E. itajara na baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A pescaria de espinhel direcionada à E. itajara parece ser uma tradição em desaparecimento, com um detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local que está também sendo perdido com o tempo. Nosso estudo mostra que pescadores envolvidos em pescarias recentes, como a pesca subaquática, podem também possuir detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local. Através da análise e integração do conhecimento ecológico local dos informantes, diversos aspectos da história de vida de E. itajara foram registrados. Esta espécie é encontrada na porção interna e externa da baía Babitonga, em águas salinas e em água com grande aporte de água doce, habitando resquícios de troncos submersos e recifes artificiais como naufrágios, píers e containeres de carga. Epinephelus itajara é conhecido por reproduzir-se em dezembro e meses subseqüentes de verão na área de estudo. Agregações reprodutivas são usualmente observadas em dezembro (lua cheia, e eventualmente em janeiro e fevereiro. Enquanto lagostas, enxadas e polvos parecem constituir os itens alimentares mais importantes de E. itajara habitando o interior da baía, indivíduos de fora da baía Babitonga parecem alimentar-se de bagres, crustáceos e outras espécies de peixe. Os meros são considerados peixes curiosos e pacíficos, mas freqüentemente demonstram comportamento agonístico na presença de mergulhadores. Nós propomos a hipótese de que E. itajara realiza migrações sazonais

  4. Testing the ecomorphological hypothesis in a headwater riffles fish assemblage of the rio São Francisco, southeastern Brazil

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    Lilian Casatti

    2006-06-01

    ecological data about the analyzed fish species in their natural environment seems to be strong evidence in favor of the proposed predictive capabilities of the ecomorphological hypothesis.A ecomorfologia de 14 espécies de peixes residentes em um trecho de corredeiras do curso superior do rio São Francisco, sudeste do Brasil, foi analisada e combinada com dados de comportamento alimentar e dieta, previamente obtidos por nós. Os três principais agrupamentos ecomorfológicos de espécies identificados refletem a ocupação espacial de micro-hábitats da seguinte forma: a caracídeos nectônicos com corpos comprimidos, olhos laterais e nadadeiras peitorais laterais, com hábitos noturnos e oportunistas alimentares (Astyanax rivularis, Bryconamericus stramineus e Bryconamericus sp.; b nectobentônicos com corpos fusiformes e nadadeiras peitorais expandidas, que incluem os caracidiíneos predadores de espreita que se alimentam principalmente de larvas aquáticas bentônicas de insetos (Characidium fasciatum e Characidium zebra, parodontídeos pastadores de epilíton (Apareiodon ibitiensis e Parodon hilarii e bagres especuladores de substratos que se alimentam principalmente de larvas aquáticas de insetos (Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Imparfinis minutus, Rhamdia quelen e Trichomycterus sp.; c bentônicos com corpos deprimidos, lábios modificados em discos orais suctorias, olhos dorsais e nadadeiras peitorais amplas, representados pelos cascudos perifitívoros (Hisonotus sp., Harttia sp. e Hypostomus garmani. Correlação entre dieta e morfologia geral não foi significative em nossa análise, a não ser quando o conjunto analisado incluiu apenas as espécies nectônicas e bentônicas, indicando que a ausência de correlação entre esses fatores é mais pronunciada no grupo de espécies nectobentônicas. A constatação do caso ineqüívoco de convergência morfológica entre os Characidiinae e Parodontidae nectobentônicos é um claro exemplo de como a integração da informa

  5. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces en la costa de Campeche, México Spatial and temporal variability of fish community abundance and diversity off the coast of Campeche, Mexico

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    Luis Amado Ayala-Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad de peces en el sur del golfo de México es abundante y diversa y sus componentes se encuentran afectados por la captura incidental de la pesquería del camarón siete barbas. El presente trabajo describe y analiza los patrones de variación espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces, identificando las especies con dominio ecológico. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero 2006 y enero 2007 en 37 sitios localizados desde la desembocadura del sistema Grijalva-Usumacinta hasta la desembocadura del sistema Chumpam-Balchacah al interior de la Laguna de Términos, en el estado de Campeche al sur del golfo de México. Se realizaron 444 arrastres experimentales con una red de prueba camaronera y se capturaron 26.386 peces con un peso conjunto de 407,1 kg. Se identificaron 94 especies agrupadas en 65 géneros y 38 familias. La abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces se analizó en escalas espacial y temporal en términos de densidad (ind m-2, biomasa (g m-2, peso promedio (g ind-1, índice de diversidad (H'n, riqueza de especies (DMg e índice de equidad (J'. En cuanto a abundancia se distinguieron los altos valores registrados en agosto y septiembre, en sitios cercanos a las desembocaduras de los sistemas Grijalva-Usumacinta y Palizada-Del Este. La especie más importante en términos de abundancia fue el bagre Cathorops melanopus. Los intervalos de variación de los índices de diversidad en escala espacial fueron: H'n = 0,5-2,8 bits; Dmg = 2,6-5,3 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,1-0,8 bits. En escala temporal los intervalos fueron H'n = 1,8-2,6 bits; Dmg = 5,1-6,7 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,4-0,6 bits. Se identificaron nueve especies dominantes con 16.840 individuos y un peso conjunto de 278,5 kg, equivalente al 63,8% de la captura total.The fish community of the southern Gulf of Mexico is abundant and diverse, and its components are affected by the bycatch of the seabob shrimp fishery. The spatial and

  6. Aquatic food webs in mangrove and seagrass habitats of Centla Wetland, a Biosphere Reserve in Southeastern Mexico

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    Manuel Mendoza-Carranza

    2010-03-01

    objetivo identificar a importância do carbono derivado desses produtores para a produção aquática secundária nessa unidade de conservação tão pouco estudada. As razões isotópicas de carbono e nitrogênio das fontes basais e dos consumidores aquáticos indicam que as teias alimentares, ricas em espécies, de ambos os habitats, são dependentes da produção ripária. O abundante mangue-vermelho Rhizophora mangle parece ser a fonte primária de carbono no habitat dominado por manguezais. Em contraste, muito embora as pradarias de gramíneas sejam conspícuas no ambiente lagunar estudado, muitos dos consumidores da teia alimentar nessa região parecem depender do carbono oriundo da vegetação ripária (e.g. Phragmites australis.A espécie de bagre exótica Pterygoplichthys pardalis possui assinaturas isotópicas que se sobrepõem a das espécies nativas (incluindo algumas de elevado valor comercial na pesca, sugerindo competição potencial por recursos. Novas investigações deveriam avaliar o papel dos insetos terrestres como elo de conexão entre as teias alimentares da mata ripária e do ambiente aquático, bem como os impactos da expansão da população de P. pardalis sobre o funcionamento do ecossistema e das pescarias no ''Pântano de Centla''. Considerando os múltiplos impactos antrópicos na região, os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho podem ser utilizados como uma base de referência em programas de gerenciamento e conservação da diversidade nessa importante Reserva da Biosfera.