WorldWideScience

Sample records for baggage screening

  1. A review of automated image understanding within 3D baggage computed tomography security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Andre; Breckon, Toby P

    2015-01-01

    Baggage inspection is the principal safeguard against the transportation of prohibited and potentially dangerous materials at airport security checkpoints. Although traditionally performed by 2D X-ray based scanning, increasingly stringent security regulations have led to a growing demand for more advanced imaging technologies. The role of X-ray Computed Tomography is thus rapidly expanding beyond the traditional materials-based detection of explosives. The development of computer vision and image processing techniques for the automated understanding of 3D baggage-CT imagery is however, complicated by poor image resolutions, image clutter and high levels of noise and artefacts. We discuss the recent and most pertinent advancements and identify topics for future research within the challenging domain of automated image understanding for baggage security screening CT.

  2. A system for supporting the selection of hold baggage screening organization option at the airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek SKORUPSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Checked baggage, placed in the hold of an aircraft, screening is one of the most important elements of the airport security system, affecting the safety of entire air transport. In various airports, technical equipment but also the organization of checked baggage screening process vary widely. The paper presents an analysis aimed at creating a model of the organization of the screening process. Using this model can help airport managers in selection of the variant of screening organization depending on the current situation in the terminal. The essence of the method is to determine the relationship between factors such as: technical equipment, staff training and the number of staff errors, and also a variant of the organization of screening process and the effectiveness of the screening. This relationship cannot be defined in a precise and accurate manner, so it is necessary to use methods appropriate for the case when we have the information imprecise, uncertain and subjective. The obtained results allow to assess how effective is the checked baggage screening process at each of the possible variants of the organization. This allows the selection of a variant according to the technical equipment we have and also what passengers stream must be serviced.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Reinforcement Function of Signal Detections in Simulated Baggage Screening: Further Support for the Vigilance Reinforcement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Lindsey C.; Bell, Matthew; Olson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The vigilance reinforcement hypothesis (VRH) asserts that errors in signal detection tasks are partially explained by operant reinforcement and extinction processes. VRH predictions were tested with a computerized baggage screening task. Our experiment evaluated the effects of signal schedule (extinction vs. variable interval 6 min) and visual…

  4. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of hold baggage for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokytha, S.; Speller, R.; Robson, S.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes a cost-effective check-in baggage screening system, based on "on-belt tomosynthesis" (ObT) and close-range photogrammetry, that is designed to address the limitations of the most common system used, conventional projection radiography. The latter's limitations can lead to loss of information and an increase in baggage handling time, as baggage is manually searched or screened with more advanced systems. This project proposes a system that overcomes such limitations creating a cost-effective automated pseudo-3D imaging system, by combining x-ray and optical imaging to form digital tomograms. Tomographic reconstruction requires a knowledge of the change in geometry between multiple x-ray views of a common object. This is uniquely achieved using a close range photogrammetric system based on a small network of web-cameras. This paper presents the recent developments of the ObT system and describes recent findings of the photogrammetric system implementation. Based on these positive results, future work on the advancement of the ObT system as a cost-effective pseudo-3D imaging of hold baggage for airport security is proposed.

  6. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg;

    2013-01-01

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated wi...... with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload....

  7. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.62 Baggage in possession of traveler. For baggage arriving in the actual possession of a traveler, his declaration shall be accepted...

  8. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  9. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  10. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  11. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...... that arrive continuously during the day. We present an IP model of the problem and describe the problem as a case study from a real life setting. We present a weighted greedy algorithm for dispatching vehicles that works in an dynamic context, meaning that it only considers bags available at the time...... of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...

  12. A model for transfer baggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Timler Holm, Janus; Lindorff Larsen, Jakob

    This work deals with the handling of baggage from passengers changing aircraft at an airport. The transfer baggage problem is to assign the bags from each arriving aircraft to an infeed area into the airport infrastructure. The infrastructure will then distribute the bags to the handling facilities...

  13. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers...

  14. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur du...... and in general is a substantial support in decision making....... during operations. We introduce a basic static model that can be adapted to the layout of different airports. Afterwards we show how a decision support system based on a MIP-model can be designed in a dynamic real world environment. The system supports the decisions of the dispatcher during daily...

  15. Mining Risk Factors in RFID Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Calders, Toon; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    techniques. The paper presents detailed steps for pre-processing the unprocessed raw tracking data for higher-level analysis and handling the imbalance problem. We fragment the data set based on a number of relevant factors and find the best classifier for each of them. The paper reports on a comprehensive...... and frustration to the passengers. To remedy these problems we propose a detailed methodology for mining risk factors from Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. The factors should identify potential issues in the baggage management. However, the baggage tracking data are low level...... and not directly accessible for finding such factors. Moreover, baggage tracking data are highly imbalanced, for example, our experimental data, which is a large real-world data set from the Scandinavian countries, contains only 0.8% mishandled bags. This imbalance presents difficulties to most data mining...

  16. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  17. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  18. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  19. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain......, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort...... hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler...

  20. REASONS FOR LOSSES AND MISBIRTH BAGGAGES AT THE AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELSO ABRÃO LIMA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out the reasons for losses and misbirth of baggage carried by the air companies providing service to passengers. Uses literature and documents for the survey data collected from sources such as government agencies and experts from the airline industry. The great damage caused by these losses and perplexity bring discomfort to passengers and scratch the image of the companies within the air transportation market. Highlights losses that are reported on quotes from experts and authors figures with the statistics. After discussing the data collected, it is proposed to change the system of bar code system for smart label RFID (Radio Frequency Identification in the transport of baggage as an important solution to minimize misbirth and baggage loss.

  1. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  2. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  3. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;

    2016-01-01

    of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  4. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  5. A Data Warehouse Solution for Analyzing RFID-Based Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    spatio-temporal Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. Analysis of this data can yield interesting results on baggage flow, the causes of baggage mishandling, and the parties responsible for the mishandling(airline, airport, handler,...), which can ultimately lead to improved...... with the appropriate tracking data from the data sources. The presented concepts are generalizable to other types of multi-site indoor tracking systems based on Bluetooth and RFID. The system has been tested with large amount of real-world RFID-based baggage tracking data from a major industry initiative...

  6. Decentralized Scheduling of Baggage Handling Using Multi-agent Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenborg, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    Is this chaper we have presented novel research contributions from an application project under the DECIDE project that deals with multi-agent based control in production systems. In this case a baggage handling system (BHS) in a major airport hub in Asia. Agents were intended to substitute existing control logic, but not change the layout of the BHS. Interoperability of the agents have been secured through the use of FIPA specifications, which generalized the design of the agents to be appli...

  7. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased considerably. In order to be able to handle the large volumes of mail, state-of-the-art post sorting centers are equipped with dedicated mail sorting machines. The throughput of a post sorting machine is def...

  8. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  9. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a) Procedure. Baggage in transit from point to point in Canada or Mexico through the United...

  10. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States. 123.65 Section 123.65 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage...

  11. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport? 303-70.301 Section 303-70.301 Public Contracts and Property... on the baggage we may transport? Yes. You may only transport government property and the...

  12. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs

  13. Hong Kong Airport Says It Now Uses Only RFID Baggage Tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claire; Swedberg

    2009-01-01

    By using baggage tags with embedded EPC Gen 2 tags,the airport has increased the number of bags it can process by 5 percent. May 12,2009—Hong Kong International Airport(HKIA), which serves approximately 48 million passengers per year on flights to 150 locations,is now using RFID baggage tags for 100 percent of the 40,000 bags that leave the airport every day.HKIA has upgraded its former bar-code-based system with radio frequency identification, at a cost of HK$50 million(US$6.5 million).

  14. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  15. A review of X-ray explosives detection techniques for checked baggage

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, K.; Bradley, DA

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, the security focus for civil aviation has shifted from hijacking in the 1980s, towards deliberate sabotage. X-ray imaging provides a major tool in checked baggage inspection, with various sensitive techniques being brought to bear in determining the form, and density of items within luggage as well as other material dependent parameters. This review first examines the various challenges to X-ray technology in securing a safe system of passenger transportation. An overview is ...

  16. A New Generation of X-ray Baggage Scanners Based on a Different Physical Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Speller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray baggage scanners play a basic role in the protection of airports, customs, and other strategically important buildings and infrastructures. The current technology of baggage scanners is based on x-ray attenuation, meaning that the detection of threat objects relies on how various objects differently attenuate the x-ray beams going through them. This capability is enhanced by the use of dual-energy x-ray scanners, which make the determination of the x-ray attenuation characteristics of a material more precise by taking images with different x-ray spectra, and combining the information appropriately. However, this still has limitations whenever objects with similar attenuation characteristics have to be distinguished. We describe an alternative approach based on a different x-ray interaction phenomenon, x-ray refraction. Refraction is a familiar phenomenon in visible light (e.g., what makes a straw half immersed in a glass of water appear bent, which also takes place in the x-ray regime, only causing deviations at much smaller angles. Typically, these deviations occur at the boundaries of all objects. We have developed a system that, like other “phase contrast” based instruments, is capable of detecting such deviations, and therefore of creating precise images of the contours of all objects. This complements the material-related information provided by x-ray attenuation, and helps contextualizing the nature of the individual objects, therefore resulting in an increase of both sensitivity (increased detection rate and specificity (reduced rate of false positives of baggage scanners.

  17. A CdZnTe array for the detection of explosives in baggage by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction signatures at multiple scatter angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malden, Catharine H.; Speller, Robert. D.

    2000-07-01

    CdZnTe detectors were used to collect energy-dispersive diffraction spectra at a range of scatter angles, from sheets of explosives hidden in baggage. It is shown that the combined information from these `signatures' can be used to determine whether an explosive sample is present or not. The geometrical configuration of the collimation and the position of the baggage within the scanner must be taken into careful consideration when optimising the capabilities of such a system. The CdZnTe array lends itself well to the detection of explosives in baggage since multiple signals may be collected simultaneously providing more rapid detection than achieved using a single detector.

  18. A CdZnTe array for the detection of explosives in baggage by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction signatures at multiple scatter angles

    CERN Document Server

    Malden, C H

    2000-01-01

    CdZnTe detectors were used to collect energy-dispersive diffraction spectra at a range of scatter angles, from sheets of explosives hidden in baggage. It is shown that the combined information from these 'signatures' can be used to determine whether an explosive sample is present or not. The geometrical configuration of the collimation and the position of the baggage within the scanner must be taken into careful consideration when optimising the capabilities of such a system. The CdZnTe array lends itself well to the detection of explosives in baggage since multiple signals may be collected simultaneously providing more rapid detection than achieved using a single detector.

  19. A review of X-ray explosives detection techniques for checked baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, K; Bradley, D A

    2012-08-01

    In recent times, the security focus for civil aviation has shifted from hijacking in the 1980s, towards deliberate sabotage. X-ray imaging provides a major tool in checked baggage inspection, with various sensitive techniques being brought to bear in determining the form, and density of items within luggage as well as other material dependent parameters. This review first examines the various challenges to X-ray technology in securing a safe system of passenger transportation. An overview is then presented of the various conventional and less conventional approaches that are available to the airline industry, leading to developments in state-of-the-art imaging technology supported by enhanced machine and observer-based decision making principles. PMID:22608981

  20. HOW TO FACILITATE THE MOVEMENT OF PASSENGERS BY INTRODUCING BAGGAGE COLLECTION SYSTEMS FOR TRAVEL FROM NORTH SHIELDS TO NEWCASTLE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Connor REECE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current systems that either transport baggage or have the potential to transport baggage, as well as proposed systems, before modelling some of them in a modal choice model to examine how effective they would be if implemented. It was hoped that the introduction of a baggage collection system would increase the number of passengers using public transport which would be good for the environment. The specific location of the study was Tyne and Wear and a journey from North Shields to Newcastle International Airport was chosen for the analysis. The system proposed is compared to an existing systems known as InPost and Virgin Bag Magic. It was found that for the average passenger in North Shields, a system based on the way InPost operates would offer the greatest utility. However, with the introduction of a new utility equation that could analyse mixed-mode travel, a baggage collection hub based in Newcastle upon Tyne city centre offered a more significant number of users provided that the cost of the system was either covered in the travel ticket or provided by the airport or airline free of charge. This dedicated baggage collection system would be much more expensive to introduce compared to the InPost system as the infrastructure to run the InPost system is already in place, however, the ridership of the newly proposed system would be much larger therefore it could potentially recoup the development costs.

  1. Profile of international air passengers intercepted with illegal animal products in baggage at Guarulhos and Galeão airports in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Pinheiro de Sá, Marcos Eielson; Alves, Flaviane Faria; McManus, Concepta; Aragão, Lucas Fernandes; Belo, Bruno Benin; Campani, Paulo Ricardo; da Matta Ribeiro, Antonio Cavalcanti; Seabra, Christina Isoldi; Seixas, Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Protection against biological material entering a country or region through airports is important because, through them, infectious agents can quickly reach exotic destinations and be disseminated. Illegal products of animal origin may contain hazardous infectious agents that can compromise animal and public health. The aim of this study was to identify associations between possession of illegal animal products in baggage and demographic characteristics of the passengers, as well as characteristics of their travel plans in the two main Brazilian international airports. A total of 457 passengers were divided into two groups: passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products and control. Passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products not stated on the accompanied baggage declaration completed a questionnaire, to aid in profiling. Nationality, origin, age and residency of passengers were analyzed using chi square, logistic regression and odds ratios. Passengers from Eastern Europe were the most likely to enter with animal products as were those aged between 35 and 55 years. When evaluating the departure point, the highest frequency was seen in those coming from Portugal. Passenger group, reasons for travel, amount and type of baggage were available only for passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products, noting that they prefer traveling alone, for leisure, bringing few bags. Such information can contribute to the early identification of passengers that have illegal animal products in baggage at Brazilian airports.

  2. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  3. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  4. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  5. 某机场X射线行李包检查系统的辐射防护情况%Radiation prevention of X-ray baggage inspection system in airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占江

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To master basic conditions of the X- ray baggage inspection system, radiation prevention and radiation dose exposure at Diwopu international airport. [ Methods ] Radiation dose of 44 X-ray baggage inspection systems were detected by using X,7-ray radiation inspection instruments, radiation prevention conditions and neighboring radiation dose were analyzed on various types of X-ray baggage inspection system according to national radiation sanitation standard. [Results]The maximum values were all less than 5 jjiGy/ h for 44 X- ray baggage inspection systems and the protection capacity of various X- ray baggage inspection systems were basically similar. The difference was weak in ionizing radiation level of instrument surface and circumjacent environment a-mong 44 instruments. [ Conclusion] Prevention capacity of X-ray baggage inspection systems are basically similar at Diwopu international airport and its radiation dosage accorded with national radiation sanitation standard. This monitoring provide reliable scientific references for further implementation of radiation protection at Diwopu Airport in the future.%目的 掌握地窝堡国际机场X射线行李包检查系统基本情况、辐射防护及辐射剂量照射状况.方法 采用X、γ辐射剂量率仪对该机场44台X射线行李包检查系统的辐射剂量进行检测,按照国家放射卫生标准,对各种型号的X射线行李包检查系统放射防护状况及周邻辐射剂量进行分析.结果 44台X射线行李包检查系统各测点的最大测定值均小于5 μGy/h,各种机型的X射线行李包检查系统防护性能基本相似,各设备外表及周邻环境的电离辐射水平的差异较小.结论 地窝堡国际机场各种机型的X射线行李包检查系统辐射剂量和卫生防护均符合国家放射卫生标准要求;该次监测可为地窝国际机场今后进一步开展辐射防护工作提供可靠的科学依据.

  6. Ecology: Insect thermal baggage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Strong positive selection on cold hardiness and relaxed selection on heat hardiness experienced by range-expanding populations may help to explain why ectothermic animals generally have broader thermal tolerance towards the poles, and shed new light on their climate vulnerabilities.

  7. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  8. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  9. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  10. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  11. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  12. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  13. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  14. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  15. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  16. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  17. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  18. Current screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of screen design, including LCD, LED and DLP projection, is analysed in terms of the political economy and their aesthetics and phenomenological impacts, in association with the use of codecs as constraining as well as enabling tools in the control and management of visual data transmission.

  19. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  20. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  1. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  2. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  5. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  7. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  8. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  9. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  10. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  11. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  12. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  13. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  14. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  18. For a better control of the greenhouse gases emissions of the international maritime and aerial baggage holds: evaluation and possible actions; Pour une maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre des soutes internationales aeriennes et maritimes: constat et actions possibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassi, O. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2003-07-01

    The greenhouse gases emissions resulting from the aerial and marine baggage holds, are not taken into account in the national objectives of greenhouse gases reduction, defined by the Kyoto protocol. Thus they have to be controlled separately by each country concerned by the Kyoto protocol and urgent actions to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions are necessary. This study brings in first parts information on the context (legislation, traffic), the emission inventories and the options of allocation. It proposes then control methods and analyzes the possible measures. (A.L.B.)

  19. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  20. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  1. Radiation Levels of X-Ray Baggage Inspection Systems in Shanghai Subway Stations%上海市地铁站X射线行李包检查系统辐射水平监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭红汕; 王桂敏; 姜永根; 郑懿; 王彦梅; 孙中兴; 蒋元强

    2013-01-01

    [目的]掌握上海市地铁站X射线行李包检查系统放射防护基本情况,以及公众和安检工作人员可能暴露的辐射剂量状况,为加强放射卫生防护管理工作提供基础资料. [方法]随机选取上海市6座地铁站共19台X射线行李包检查系统,监测系统外表面0.05m不同位置,以及系统入口和出口不同距离、不同角度(包括乘客和工作人员操作位置)空气比释动能率,对系统放射防护状况和周围辐射剂量进行分析与评价. [结果]工作人员操作位、乘客通道、系统上盖板、系统乘客通道侧监测值与环境本底值差别无统计学意义(P>0.05).系统入口和出口5个位置中,下方位置辐射强度最高,19台仪器中有3台监测结果超标;其次是中间位置空气比释动能率,有2台监测结果超标;系统入口和出口表面平均空气比释动能率最大,分别为1.585μGy/h和0.248 μGy/h,均显著高于环境本底值,差别有统计学意义(P<0.001),但均未超过5 μGy/h的限值要求.系统入口和出口随着距离和角度的不断增加,空气比释动能率不断降低,其中距离5m和角度90°处辐射强度接近环境本底值. [结论]系统工作时入口和出口存在一定的辐射泄漏,对公众和安检工作人员影响较小,但不符合放射豁免要求,应加强地铁站X射线行李包检查系统的放射卫生防护管理.%To evaluate the radiation prevention of X-ray baggage inspection system and possible exposure doses received by the public and the security officers in Shanghai subway stations,in order to provide basic data for radiological health protection and management.[Methods] Nineteen X-ray baggage inspection systems were randomly selected from 6 subway stations in Shanghai to detect the air kerma at 0.05 m from the external surface and at various distances and angles from the inlets and outlets of the inspection system (including spots where passengers and the staff could stand

  2. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  3. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  4. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  5. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  6. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  7. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  8. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  9. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  11. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  12. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  14. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  15. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  16. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  17. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  18. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  19. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E W;

    1997-01-01

    In spite of increasing number of elective resections of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) the mortality or ruptured AAA is increasing. The advantages of elective operations are obvious; the lethality is 2-6% while the lethality of ruptured AAA is 75-95%. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before...... rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...

  20. Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  1. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  2. Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficien

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  6. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  7. Chemical Screening in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Colleen A; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic small molecule screens in zebrafish have gained popularity as an unbiased approach to probe biological processes. In this chapter we outline basic methods for performing chemical screens with larval zebrafish including breeding large numbers of embryos, plating larval fish into multi-well dishes, and adding small molecules to these wells. We also highlight important considerations when designing and interpreting the results of a phenotypic screen and possible follow-up approaches, including popular methods used to identify the mechanism of action of a chemical compound. PMID:27464797

  8. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  9. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  10. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  12. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  13. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  14. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  15. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  16. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  17. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  19. Fragment screening: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Andrew R; Hann, Michael M; Burrows, Jeremy N; Griffen, Ed J

    2006-09-01

    There are clearly many different philosophies associated with adapting fragment screening into mainstream Drug Discovery Lead Generation strategies. Scientists at Astex, for instance, focus entirely on strategies involving use of X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, AstraZeneca uses a number of different fragment screening strategies. One approach is to screen a 2000 compound fragment set (with close to "lead-like" complexity) at 100 microM in parallel with every HTS such that the data are obtained on the entire screening collection at 10 microM plus the extra samples at 100 microM; this provides valuable compound potency data in a concentration range that is usually unexplored. The fragments are then screen-specific "privileged structures" that can be searched for in the rest of the HTS output and other databases as well as having synthesis follow-up. A typical workflow for a fragment screen within AstraZeneca is shown below (Figure 24) and highlights the desirability (particularly when screening >100 microM) for NMR and X-ray information to validate weak hits and give information on how to optimise them. In this chapter, we have provided an introduction to the theoretical and practical issues associated with the use of fragment methods and lead-likeness. Fragment-based approaches are still in an early stage of development and are just one of many interrelated techniques that are now used to identify novel lead compounds for drug development. Fragment based screening has some advantages, but like every other drug hunting strategy will not be universally applicable. There are in particular some practical challenges associated with fragment screening that relate to the generally lower level of potency that such compounds initially possess. Considerable synthetic effort has to be applied for post-fragment screening to build the sort of potency that would be expected to be found from a traditional HTS. However, if there are no low-hanging fruit in a screening

  20. Loan Sales and Screening Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Gehrig, Thomas; Stenbacka, Rune

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of loan sales on the intensity of costly screening. Loan sales strengthen screening incentives when screening primarily improves the bank’s ability to identify profitable loans and when banks retain most of those profitable loans. However, loan sales dampen screening incentives when the benefit of screening primarily helps to weed out unprofitable projects. Moreover, alternative institutions of information production and the institutional market framework affect the rela...

  1. Traveling Robots and Their Cultural Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    When social robots are imported from Asia to Europe they bring along with them a cultural luggage consisting of foreign sociotechnical imaginary. The effort to adopt the robot Silbot to Nordic social services exposed unfamiliar and cultural-dependent views of care, cognition, health and human...... nature. Studying Silbot in “the wild” highlighted these issues as well as the human-robot interaction and the adaptation of the robot to real life praxis. The importance of comprehending robots as parts of sociotechnical ensembles is emphasized as well as the observance of how robots are shaped...

  2. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., trucks, trailers, motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles, perambulators, and their containers. (4) Tools of... Import Certificate or a U.S. export license before allowing the import of a shotgun, you should determine the import requirements of your country of destination in advance. (2) A nonresident alien leaving...

  3. Dance on screen

    OpenAIRE

    Roichman, Limor

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores dance on screen from the artist's point of view following the making of the video GAIA - Mysterious Rhythms (20 min,Digital Betacam). The video and the thesis together form the PhD submission. The interaction of practice and theory, through a process of creative work, analysis and reflection resulted in the structuring of a model with which I claim the autonomy of dance on screen as a hybrid art form, a form which like other creative forms, such as painting, sculpture ...

  4. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  5. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  6. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  7. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  8. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...

  9. Screening and merger activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Banal-Estañol; P. Heidhues; R. Nitsche; J. Seldeslachts

    2010-01-01

    In our paper, the target of a proposed merger, by setting a reserve price, is able to screen prospective acquirers according to their (expected) ability to generate merger-specific synergies. Both empirical evidence and many merger models suggest that the difference between high and low-synergy merg

  10. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  11. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  12. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  13. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  14. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  15. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  16. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you bring your ... from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time they are born. ...

  17. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  18. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  19. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  20. Drug Screening in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan Givens

    2016-01-01

    Gestational substance exposure continues to be a significant problem. Neonates may be exposed to various substances including illicit drugs, prescription drugs, and other legal substances that are best not used during pregnancy because of their potential deleterious effects as possible teratogens or their potential to create dependence and thus withdrawal in the neonate. Screening the newborn for gestational substance exposure is important for both acute care and early intervention to promote the best possible long-term outcomes. This column provides insight into what is known about the extent of substance use by pregnant women, an overview of neonatal biologic matrices for drug testing, and a discussion of the legal implications of neonatal substance screening. PMID:27636697

  1. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  2. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...... trials underway in Europe and in the USA. Our purpose is to update the readers on recent progress in medical knowledge in this field....

  3. Blood Screening for Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Hourfar, Michael Kai; Themann, Anna; Eickmann, Markus; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Laue, Thomas; Seifried, Erhard; Schmidt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

  4. Screening for helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Thomas, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to assess whether a screening programme for Helicobacter pylori will be both successful and cost-effective. Method: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; MEDLINE; EMBASE; SilverPlatter, Biological Abstracts and Science Citation Index-Expanded. We used the search terms Helicobacter pylori and (diagnos$ or identif$ or find$) and (syst...

  5. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2011-01-01

    it as a “screening device”. It is a “device” in the sense that it distributes agency, and it “screens” in the word’s multiple meanings: “projecting” as in creating a viewer position;“sifting” and “systematizing” as in discriminating “knowledge” from mere “opinionings”; and “protecting” teachers from noise. Using...

  6. Screened Anode N2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, M. Montaser Foad

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of screening the discharge channel on the output energy is presented. It has been found that a screened anode nitrogen laser generates higher output energy than that of a screened cathode, and also higher than that when both cathode and anode are unshielded at higher pressures.

  7. What Screening Tests Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  8. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  9. Conservation science in a terrorist age: the impact of airport security screening on the viability and DNA integrity of frozen felid spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, Kayleen T; Winget, Doug; Swanson, William F

    2006-09-01

    In response to growing terrorism concerns, the Transportation Security Administration now requires that all checked baggage at U.S. airports be scanned through a cabinet x-ray system, which may increase risk of radiation damage to transported biologic samples and other sensitive genetic material. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of these new airport security regulations on the viability and DNA integrity of frozen felid spermatozoa. Semen was collected from two domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), cryopreserved in plastic freezing straws, and transferred into liquid nitrogen dry shippers for security screening. Treatment groups included frozen samples from each male scanned once or three times using a Transportation Security Administration-operated cabinet x-ray system, in addition to non-scanned samples (i.e., negative control) and samples previously scanned three times and exposed to five additional high-intensity x-ray bursts (i.e., positive control). Dosimeters placed in empty dry shippers were used to quantify radiation exposure. Following treatment, straws were thawed and spermatozoa analyzed for post-thaw motility (percentage motile and rate of progressive movement), acrosome status, and DNA integrity using single-cell gel electrophoresis (i.e., the comet assay). Dosimeter measurements determined that each airport screening procedure produced approximately 16 mrem of radiation exposure. Our results indicated that all levels of radiation exposure adversely affected (P 0.05) among treatment groups. Results also showed that the amount of double-stranded DNA damage was greater (P < 0.05) in sperm samples from both cat species scanned three times compared to samples scanned once or negative controls. Findings suggest that new airport security measures may cause radiation-induced damage to frozen spermatozoa and other valuable biologic samples transported on passenger aircraft and that

  10. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NEL

  11. Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography.......To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography....

  12. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  13. To screen or not to screen: What factors influence complex screening decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Catena, Andrés; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened. Young adults (N = 347) received information about a disease for which a screening test was available and numerical information about the benefits and harms from screening. Results showed that comprehension and perceptions of benefits are central to decisions; however, lay perceptions of harms along the screening cascade require further study. Numeracy, science literacy, and emotions can promote informed decision making by facilitating comprehension of the evidence. At the same time emotions and beliefs resulting from persuasive campaigns can have strong effects on screening intentions beyond the available evidence. To apply to screening procedures where informed decision making is recommended, theoretical models of screening decisions need to include comprehension of benefits and harms, and account for how cognitive skills, emotions, and beliefs influence comprehension and decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295468

  14. Excitons and Two-dimensional Screening: Critical Screening Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy, Christian

    2001-01-01

    A beautiful and intriguing relationship has recently been proposed to express the critical screening lengths associated with the apparition of new bound states for the two-dimensional statically screened Coulomb potential. Semiclassical quantum theory show that this relationship is unfortunately not strictly exact. These results are confirmed by a variational calculation, which provides upper bounds for the critical screening lengths in the case $l \\geq 1$.

  15. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  16. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: nigel.maybee@hfpacoustical.com; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email: Vincent.Chow@AltaLink.ca

    2011-07-01

    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  17. Celiac disease during pregnancy: to screen or not to screen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rachel; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-01-01

    Permanent intolerance to gluten, known as celiac disease, affects both fertility and pregnancy outcomes when left untreated. Recent research on celiac disease and reproduction urge increased screening for celiac disease. While this may be beneficial for couples facing idiopathic infertility or those from particular risk groups, screening involves its own risks and expenses, and has not been consistently proven effective for the general population while pregnant. The present editorial discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of screening during pregnancy and examines when screening may be helpful. PMID:18818937

  18. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2016-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem. PMID:27031395

  19. Ethics of dental health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  20. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...... during the TV viewing depends on a number of interwoven factors such as TV-genre, rhythm and number of messages, semantic correlation and user’s general media habits....

  1. Electromagnetic pollution. Screens accused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, J.

    1996-04-01

    A recent experiment carried out by M. Bastide (Montpellier University, France) has shown an important increase of mortality, immunosuppression and morphological changes for chicks embryos when submitted to the very low frequency electromagnetic field of a personal computer screen during incubation. Similar effects on pregnant women working in front of cathode ray tubes have never been demonstrated. The paper gives an overview of the epidemiological studies carried out so far to determine the possible noxious effects of electromagnetic fields on public health. In particular, EdF (Electricite de France) has started three different inquiries involving 400000 workmens from electric power industry in order to determine some possible correlation between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukemias, brain tumors and melanomas. William Dab, from EdF Medical Studies Service indicates that only a very small relation with the occurrence of brain tumors and acute myeloid leukemias have been shown so far. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 photos.

  2. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  3. Comments on Gaugino Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Wecht, Brian

    2012-02-15

    Gauge mediated models of supersymmetry breaking often exhibit 'gaugino screening,' where to leading order in F, gaugino masses are unaffected by higher dimensional Kahler potential interactions between the supersymmetry breaking spurion and the messengers. We provide a derivation of this phenomenon which utilizes the gaugino counterterm originally proposed in the context of anomaly mediation by Dine and Seiberg. We argue that this counterterm is present when there are non-zero messenger F-terms, and can cancel the leading order Feynman diagram contribution to the gaugino mass. We provide a nontrivial check of the regulator independence of our results by performing the computation using both dimensional reduction and Pauli-Villars. This analysis reconciles an apparent contradiction between diagrammatics and analytic continuation into superspace.

  4. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  5. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  6. Prohibited Items, Wait Time, Baggage and Baggage ASP, Passenger and Passenger ASP, Travel Document Check (TDC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — TSA operational data including: Airport wait time (hourly) data Airport throughput (hourly) data Prohibited item (hourly) data Monthly Objectives Report (MOR) data...

  7. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  8. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  9. Non-participation in screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bjerregaard, Beth;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history.......To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history....

  10. Congenital hypothyroidism missed on screening.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, G. A.; Carson, D. J.; Reid, M. M.(Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK); Hutchinson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with congenital hypothyroidism missed on routine screening due to normal low thyrotrophin concentrations in the neonatal period presented in later childhood. Clinicians should remain aware of hypothyroidism as a cause of morbidity in early childhood despite a national screening programme.

  11. Screening College Students for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigel, Harris C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes one college's mandatory mass cholesterol screening for new students. Each year, over 30 beginning students with unknown hypercholesterolemia were detected. The program suggests that mass screening efficiently and economically identifies students who would benefit from cholesterol reduction, a modifiable risk in coronary artery disease.…

  12. Singularities in Speckled Speckle: Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, David A

    2008-01-01

    We study screening of optical singularities in random optical fields with two widely different length scales. We call the speckle patterns generated by such fields speckled speckle, because the major speckle spots in the pattern are themselves highly speckled. We study combinations of fields whose components exhibit short- and long-range correlations, and find unusual forms of screening.

  13. Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam

  14. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics.

  15. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics. PMID:25203815

  16. Health economic analysis of screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauth, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified. Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects.

  17. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  18. Universal hearing screening vs targetted hearing screening: Make a choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Vishwakarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is mandatory in all developed country and is setting the trend in developing country too. Due to a large population, lack of education, less professionals, and limited access to such facilities in India few places targeted hearing screening (THS is coming up. However, the comparison between UNHS and THS is less investigated till date. Aim of the Study: This study aimed to investigate the comparison between two hearing screening program that is UNHS and THS in the Indian context. Methods: In UNHS all the infants were screened at Tertiary Centre and for THS only infant with high-risk factors were screened at Advanced Audiological Centre. Further, all referral, screening, and diagnostic data were included in data analysis of both hearing screening program. Result: UNHS was difficult due to some system failure and a lot of time was wasted doing the different procedure. However, THS was much easier and false-positive and negative were lesser. Conclusion: In a vast population country with lack of manpower for the fi eld, it is important to have an alternative approach to the system for better outcome of the program.

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  20. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  1. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  2. The evolution of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    Botany is usually considered to be the gentlest of sciences with botanists being regarded as people who study relatively safe specimens, compared with, for example, anthropologists or microbiologists. However, botanists have their moments, particularly when collecting new species. The great botanists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries risked their lives in collecting and bringing back species, which we now take for granted, and Robert Brown was one of these adventurers, a young Scot who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks to New Holland. It was not, however, for his adventurous lifestyle that Brown is remembered but for his startling observation of the movements of pollen grains on a microscope slide. He noted that the pollen grains were in perpetual agitated motion, without purpose or direction but full of energy. This motion, called Brownian motion, arises from the movement of molecules, and Brownian motion is the term that has been applied to much of healthcare, including many screening programmes, which have in the past been marked more by the amount of energy and activity than by a clear sense of direction or positive achievement.

  3. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  4. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  5. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...

  6. Data Quality Screening Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  7. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. To screen or nor to screen: the prostate cancer dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson N Stone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC has updated their previous seminal report on prostate cancer mortality comparing screened men to controls. Now with 13 years follow-up, the rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality was 0.79 favoring the screened population. The authors concluded that there was a "substantial reduction in prostate cancer mortality attributable to testing with prostate-specific antigen (PSA" but they also stated that a "quantification of harms" needed to be addressed. The issue of harms was not addressed by the ERSPC (at least not in this report and hence this additional statement most likely reflects the controversy currently surrounding the risks associated with over-diagnosis and treatment of indolent diseases inadvertently detected by a screening protocol. [1] In addition, the positive results from this trial conflict with those of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO [2] study and require further elaboration.

  9. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  10. Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Home For Patients Search ... Screening and Diagnosis FAQ171, February 2016 PDF Format Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Pregnancy What is cystic ...

  11. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to a ... be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he has ...

  12. What Should I Know about Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Should I Know About Screening? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... any treatment that may be needed. Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines The Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines chart [PDF- ...

  13. Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Screening A- A A+ Early Detection and Screening Brain aneurysms can be similar to heart attacks. ... aneurysm is about to rupture. Fortunately, through imaging screening techniques, individuals at high risk of harboring a ...

  14. Intensifying screens in transaxial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent claim by Agfa-Gevaert relates to a method for the production of transaxial tomographs, a combination of materials therefor and X-ray intensifying screens incorporating at least one reflecting element for use in transaxial tomography, wherein the exposure of a photographic silver halide emulsion material proceeds at an angle within the range of 20 to 100 in conjunction with an X-ray fluorescent intensifying screen including an ultra-violet and/or visible radiation reflective coating or sheet to increase the radiation output of the screen and to reduce the exposure time and radiation dose e.g. in medical X-ray applications. (author)

  15. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  16. Pennsylvania's experience in mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy statement issued in 1972 by the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recommended that community chest x-ray surveys should not be used as a screening procedure for the detection of cardiopulmonary disorders and that when chest x-ray screening programs are justified for selected population groups, the full size photograph, rather than the miniature film, is preferred. A survey conducted in 1974--75 revealed that chest x rays were required for prisoners, prison employees, school employees, food handlers, and students who wished to participate in sports. Meetings were held with medical associations in the hope of stopping the local mass-screening operations. Of 27 groups in Pennsylvania involved in tuberculosis screening, 12 groups refused or were unwilling to phase out their photofluorographic procedures. The problem will be resolved by regulation

  17. Recommended Screenings for Men 50+

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAA). AAA is a bulging in your abdominal aorta, your largest artery. An AAA may burst, which ... things. Learn more about depression and older adults. Diabetes Ask your doctor if you should be screened ...

  18. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... of MCAD and presymptomatic treatment can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence, clinical outcome, biochemical and molecular phenotype of MCAD cases detected in the first three years of newborn screening in British Columbia (BC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Medium chain...... is comparable to reports from other newborn screening programs. Persistence of elevated C8 levels and C8/C10 ratios in confirmed MCAD cases suggest that these are sensitive markers for newborn screening. Early detection and treatment have successfully prevented adverse health outcomes in patients with MCAD....

  19. Screening Effect in Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Ming; XIAO Xiao; GAO Yi-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of screening effect on quantum decoherence for charge qubit and the process of quantum information storage. When the flux produced by the circulating current in SQUID loop is considered, screening effect is formally characterized by a LC resonator. Using large-detuning condition and Fr(o)hlich transformation in the qubit-cavity-resonator system, we calculate the decoherence factor for charge qubit and the effective qubit-cavity Hamiltonian. The decoherence factor owns a factorized structure, it shows that screening effect is a resource of decoherence for charge qubit. The effective Hamiltonian shows that the screening effect results in a frequency shift for charge qubit and a modified qubit-cavity coupling constant induced by a LC resonator.

  20. Virtual screening of bioassay data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierz Amanda C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three main problems associated with the virtual screening of bioassay data. The first is access to freely-available curated data, the second is the number of false positives that occur in the physical primary screening process, and finally the data is highly-imbalanced with a low ratio of Active compounds to Inactive compounds. This paper first discusses these three problems and then a selection of Weka cost-sensitive classifiers (Naive Bayes, SVM, C4.5 and Random Forest are applied to a variety of bioassay datasets. Results Pharmaceutical bioassay data is not readily available to the academic community. The data held at PubChem is not curated and there is a lack of detailed cross-referencing between Primary and Confirmatory screening assays. With regard to the number of false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the analysis carried out has been shallow due to the lack of cross-referencing mentioned above. In six cases found, the average percentage of false positives from the High-Throughput Primary screen is quite high at 64%. For the cost-sensitive classification, Weka's implementations of the Support Vector Machine and C4.5 decision tree learner have performed relatively well. It was also found, that the setting of the Weka cost matrix is dependent on the base classifier used and not solely on the ratio of class imbalance. Conclusions Understandably, pharmaceutical data is hard to obtain. However, it would be beneficial to both the pharmaceutical industry and to academics for curated primary screening and corresponding confirmatory data to be provided. Two benefits could be gained by employing virtual screening techniques to bioassay data. First, by reducing the search space of compounds to be screened and secondly, by analysing the false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the technology may be improved. The number of false positives arising from primary screening leads to

  1. Variations in screening outcome among pairs of screening radiologists at non-blinded double reading of screening mammograms: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompenhouwer, E.G.; Duijm, L.E.M.; Voogd, A.C.; Heeten, GJ. den; Nederend, J.; Jansen, F.H.M.; Broeders, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Substantial inter-observer variability in screening mammography interpretation has been reported at single reading. However, screening results of pairs of screening radiologists have not yet been published. We determined variations in screening performances among pairs of screening radio

  2. Lectures on Screened Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The acceleration of the expansion of the Universe has led to the construction of Dark Energy models where a light scalar field may have a range reaching up to cosmological scales. Screening mechanisms allow these models to evade the tight gravitational tests in the solar system and the laboratory. I will briefly review some of the salient features of screened modified gravity models of the chameleon, dilaton or symmetron types using $f(R)$ gravity as a template.

  3. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest. Optimal guidelines should have high yield and low complexity. The goal is to fit procedures for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension optimally to a specific population. Methods. Simu...

  4. Disciplining and Screening Top Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Martinez, Silvia; Swank, Otto; Visser, Bauke

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations, mergers etc. We analyse the nature of (implicit) retention contracts boards use to discipline and screen executives. Consistent with empirical observation, we find that executives may become overly a...

  5. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  6. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  7. Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  8. Can radiographers read screening mammograms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the ability of radiographers to read screening mammograms in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two radiographers read a test set of 1000 screening mammograms previously reported by a consultant radiologist. Three radiographers then acted as a second reader for 54,000 screening mammograms, their recall results are presented. Four consultant radiologists and three film reading radiographers were timed while reading 2500 mammograms each. RESULTS: When reading the test mammograms the two radiographers recalled all the cancers previously detected by the radiologist at the original screen read. They also recalled 32/90 women who subsequently presented with interval cancers. As a second reader the radiographers had similar recall and cancer detection rates to the radiologists (P > 0.05). Double reading detected 9% more cancers. The radiographers take the same length of time to film read as radiologists (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Radiographers are able to read screening mammograms at least as well as radiologists and do not take longer to do so. Wivell, G., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 63--67

  9. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database

  10. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database.

  11. 45 CFR 400.107 - Medical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical screening. 400.107 Section 400.107 Public... Assistance Scope of Medical Services § 400.107 Medical screening. (a) As part of its refugee medical assistance program, a State may provide a medical screening to a refugee provided— (1) The screening is...

  12. 7 CFR 4284.911 - Evaluation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation screening. 4284.911 Section 4284.911... Evaluation screening. The Agency will conduct an initial screening of all proposals to determine whether the... evaluation criteria will disqualify the proposal. Submissions which do not pass the initial screening may...

  13. 20 CFR 654.408 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Screening. 654.408 Section 654.408 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.408 Screening. (a) All outside openings shall be protected with screening of not less than 16 mesh. (b) All screen doors shall...

  14. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  15. Eletrodos fabricados por "silk-screen" Screen-printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valberes B. Nascimento

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A review dealing with the use of screen-printing technology to manufacture disposable electrodes is presented, covering in details virtually all the publications in the area up to early 1997 and including 206 references. The elements and different strategies on constructing modified electrodes are highlighted. Commercial and Home-made ink recipes are discussed. Microelectrode arrays, built by the combination of photostructuring and screen-printing technologies to the mass production of advanced disposable sensors, are also discussed. Future research trends are predicted.

  16. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  17. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert A.; Maple, T. Grant; Sklensky, Alden F.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  18. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  19. Smart Screen Management on Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Falaki, Hossein; Govindan, Ramesh; Estrin, D

    2009-01-01

    Large and bright screens on today's mobile phones account for significant energy demand on phones' batteries. In this paper we propose an algorithm that, given the energy profile of the screen, finds the optimal schedule to minimize screen energy dissipation when the phone is idle. We profile the screen energy consumption of two popular smartphones, Nokia N95 and E71, through carefully designed micro-benchmarks. Our energy measurement results suggest that the default screen schedules on these...

  20. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  1. Next-generation phenotypic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Scott J; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Carragher, Neil O

    2016-07-01

    Phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) strategies are defined by screening and selection of hit or lead compounds based on quantifiable phenotypic endpoints without prior knowledge of the drug target. We outline the challenges associated with traditional phenotypic screening strategies and propose solutions and new opportunities to be gained by adopting modern PDD technologies. We highlight both historical and recent examples of approved drugs and new drug candidates discovered by modern phenotypic screening. Finally, we offer a prospective view of a new era of PDD underpinned by a wealth of technology advances in the areas of in vitro model development, high-content imaging and image informatics, mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution. PMID:27357617

  2. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  3. Microelectroporation device for genomic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Negrete, Oscar; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2014-09-09

    We have developed an microelectroporation device that combines microarrays of oligonucleotides, microfluidic channels, and electroporation for cell transfection and high-throughput screening applications (e.g. RNA interference screens). Microarrays allow the deposition of thousands of different oligonucleotides in microscopic spots. Microfluidic channels and microwells enable efficient loading of cells into the device and prevent cross-contamination between different oligonucleotides spots. Electroporation allows optimal transfection of nucleic acids into cells (especially hard-to-transfect cells such as primary cells) by minimizing cell death while maximizing transfection efficiency. This invention has the advantage of a higher throughput and lower cost, while preventing cross-contamination compared to conventional screening technologies. Moreover, this device does not require bulky robotic liquid handling equipment and is inherently safer given that it is a closed system.

  4. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.T.; Horeweg, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. METHODS: Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were re

  5. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  6. Screening for prostatakreft i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D. Fosså

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ENGLISH SUMMARYFosså SD, Høisæter PÅ. Screening for prostate cancer in Norway. Nor J Epidemiol 2001; 11 (2: 147-152.Background  Results  Conclusion  . Population-based PSA screening can not be recommended in Norway. PSA-based opportunisticscreening should be substantially reduced. If an asymptomatic man persistently requires PSAtesting, the responsible doctor has to inform him about the potential disadvantages as well as the potentialbenefits associated with opportunistic screening, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. PSAscreeningshould be considered as a public health care strategy, depending on the results of the ERPCS.. The rate of opportunistic screening in Norway in elderly men was about 7% in 1999 but isincreasing, with significant differences between the counties. The current health care strategy is to limitopportunistic screening to a minimum, as the effectiveness of this task is unproven. Reduction of mortalitycan only be achieved by the early diagnosis and treatment of “clinically important” prostatecancer. The identification of these cases remains problematic in clinical routine. Data from the CancerRegistry of Norway, and knowledge about prostate cancer tumour biology and epidemiology leavedoubt whether the aim of the ERPCS can be reached in 2008: The Norwegian Urological Cancer Grouphas therefore not recommended Norway's participation in the ERPCS.. PSA-based opportunistic screening for prostate cancer is increasing throughout theworld, and also in Norway. The mortality reducing effectiveness of population-based PSA screeninghas, however, so far not been proven and it is currently addressed by a European randomised trial(ERPCS. This trial aims to demonstrate a 20% reduction of the prostate cancer-related mortality rate inthe year 2008 in men who have had regular PSA analysis and, if possible, curatively intended treatmentof a newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

  7. Breast screening and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, T

    1996-09-01

    The concern for minority ethnic women is whether they are disadvantaged either in terms of the incidence of breast cancer or because of a lower uptake of screening. There are considerable worldwide variations in the incidence of breast cancer. The lowest rates are found in Chinese, Japanese and Arabic populations and women from the Indian subcontinent, and are 2-3 times lower than that of the UK. This may change in future generations. Although minority ethnic women are not a high risk group for the breast screening programme, in absolute terms breast cancer is a major health problem. Very few studies have measured ethnic differences in the uptake of screening, and they may be confounded by such factors as socio-economic group. When this is accounted for, uptake by Asian women may not necessarily be lower than by other women in the same area and can be higher for black than white women. One of the most important reasons for non-attendance is inaccurate screening registers, compounded for Asian women by their return, or extended visits, to the Indian subcontinent. A further organisational issue concerns poor awareness of minority ethnic naming systems, causing confusion over the receipt of invitations. Comprehension of the concept of screening may be difficult for minority ethnic women yet there has been little evaluation of strategies to promote understanding. However a randomised controlled trial of a linkworker intervention, designed to be feasible for implementation on a population basis, showed no increase in the uptake of breast screening by Asian women. This does not undermine linkworkers' role but suggests that their efforts should be used in other ways. It is essential to assess the relative importance of reasons for low uptake and evaluate measures to meet any unmet need, so that resources can be directed in the most effective way. PMID:8782797

  8. Nutritional Screening of Children: A Manual for Screening & Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This manual shows health providers how to perform precisely and expertly each step of several procedures used in screening children for nutritional problems. It is intended for all health providers who are involved in weighing and measuring children, recording and plotting measurements on growth charts, taking blood samples to test for iron…

  9. [Lung cancer screening - risk stratification : Who should undergo screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, L; Prosch, H

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in Europa and the USA. In approximately 75 % of lung cancer patients, bronchogenic carcinoma is detected at an advanced tumor stage; therefore, therapeutic options which aim at curing the disease in these patients are limited and treatment is mostly palliative. A relatively good prognosis is reserved for the minority of patients where the tumor is detected at an early stage and treatment is potentially curative. For this reason, early diagnosis of lung cancer could save lives. Retrospective analyses of the US national lung screening trial (NLST) showed that especially high-risk populations (e. g. higher age, positive smoking history, overweight and a positive family history for lung cancer) benefit most from lung cancer screening. Thus, the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) screening can be improved by focusing on high-risk populations. This review article summarizes the risk stratification models of the large European and American screening studies and discusses possible future biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:27495786

  10. Screening_mgmt: a Python module for managing screening data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Andreas; Tammela, Päivi

    2015-02-01

    High-throughput screening is an established technique in drug discovery and, as such, has also found its way into academia. High-throughput screening generates a considerable amount of data, which is why specific software is used for its analysis and management. The commercially available software packages are often beyond the financial limits of small-scale academic laboratories and, furthermore, lack the flexibility to fulfill certain user-specific requirements. We have developed a Python module, screening_mgmt, which is a lightweight tool for flexible data retrieval, analysis, and storage for different screening assays in one central database. The module reads custom-made analysis scripts and plotting instructions, and it offers a graphical user interface to import, modify, and display the data in a uniform manner. During the test phase, we used this module for the management of 10,000 data points of various origins. It has provided a practical, user-friendly tool for sharing and exchanging information between researchers. PMID:25381290

  11. Screening and Testing in Multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie; Evans, Shara M

    2016-06-01

    The choice of screening or invasive procedure in twin pregnancies is a personal choice of whether the patient wishes to take a small risk of having a baby with a serious disorder versus a small risk of having a complication because she wishes to avoid that. How to interpret such risks has profound effects on the perceived value of techniques, either leading to a decision to screening or going directly to chorionic villus sampling. There are profound issues surrounding the data and the interpretation of the data. No single short review can exhaustively examine all of the issues. PMID:27235913

  12. Wastewater washing screens out solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.G. [Hycor Corp., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

  13. Radiative screening of fifth forces

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Millington, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We describe a symmetron model in which the screening of fifth forces arises at the one-loop level through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that such a theory can avoid current constraints on the existence of fifth forces, but still has the potential to give rise to observable deviations from general relativity.

  14. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, S; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest.

  15. Shadows Cast on the Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    , human-computer interaction, and philosophy. However, a common thread of many studies appears to be the understanding that the relations of a person with his or her avatar(s) are representational: The avatar is seen as the virtual representation of the real in-front-of-the-screen person, like a shadow...

  16. Walkthrough screening evaluation field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a large inventory of existing facilities. Many of these facilities were not designed and constructed to current natural phenomena hazard (NPH) criteria. The NPH events include earthquakes, extreme winds and tornadoes, and floods. DOE Order 5480.28 establishes policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE facilities. DOE is conducting a multiyear project to develop evaluation guidelines for assessing the condition and determining the need for upgrades at DOE facilities. One element of the NPH evaluation guidelines' development involves the existing systems and components at DOE facilities. This effort is described in detail in a cited reference. In the interim period prior to availability of the final guidelines, DOE facilities are encouraged to implement an NPH walk through screening evaluation process by which systems and components that need attention can be rapidly identified. Guidelines for conducting the walk through screening evaluations are contained herein. The result of the NPH walk through screening evaluation should be a prioritized list of systems and components that need further action. Simple and inexpensive fixes for items identified in the walk through as marginal or inadequate should be implemented without further study. By implementing an NPH walk through screening evaluation, DOE facilities may realize significant reduction in risk from NPH in the short term

  17. Population screening in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G; Beutler, E

    2000-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive condition found in the homozygous state in 1/200-1/400 people of northern-, central-, and western-European origin. It causes increased iron storage, which may lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes in many but not all affected adults, with a higher frequency in males. The condition is easily treated by repeated venesections without side effects but is frequently overlooked. Population screening of adults using iron indices alone or combined with DNA testing has therefore been recommended, but a consensus conference in 1997 recommended that such screening be deferred, owing to uncertainty regarding the extent of clinical disease that may develop in individuals detected by such programs. There was also concern that DNA screening results might be used for discrimination in insurance and occupational settings. Screening family members of patients with evidence of definite iron loading, however, is accepted by all observers. Because serious complications may be overlooked, a more aggressive stance toward case detection in the adult population has been advocated by some observers, realizing that unnecessary treatment might occur. Because additional information regarding the spectrum of clinical disease in homozygotes in now accumulating, a consensus conference in the near future is suggested to consider appropriate policies.

  18. Fragment Descriptors in Virtual Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of fragment descriptors at different stages of virtual screening: filtering, similarity search, and direct activity assessment using QSAR/QSPR models. Several case studies are considered. It is demonstrated that the power of fragment descriptors stems from their universality, very high computational efficiency, simplicity of interpretation and versatility.

  19. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  20. SCREENING FOR DIABETES IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Manoj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: All pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy with timely intervention to reduce perinatal morbidity and obstetrics complication. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of diabetes in ANC mother attending ANC OPD at Bh arati Hospital, to evaluate the high risk factor causing abnormal GTT and to evaluate outcome of pregnant mother with GDM. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: The prospective study was conducted in 100 pregnant women attending antenatal checkup who had no previous histo ry of diabetes. ANC mothers were given 75gm glucose irrespective of last meal. A venous sample was collected at 2hr for estimating plasma glucose. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed if 2hrs . plasma glucose levels came >140mg/dl. RESULT AND CONCLUS ION : The screening of pregnant woman for diabetes on their first visit to antenatal clinic can be an effective method in detection of diabetes during pregnancy. Though the higher incidence is found in the risk group women in comparison to non - risk group, u niversal screening can be recommended instead of selective screening. Early screening does help in early detection of diabetes. Chances of gestational diabetes are increasing with increase in age & gravidity. Increasing maternal carbohydrate intolerance in pregnant women is associated with a graded increase in adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Women diagnosed to have GDM are at increased risk of future diabetes predominantly type 2 DM as are their children. Thus GDM offers an important opportunity for the development, testing and implementation of clinical strategies for diabetes prevention and reducing perinatal morbidity and obstetrics complications.

  1. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  2. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Junge, Jette;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  3. Lung cancer screening: promise and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine D; Aberle, Denise R; Wood, Douglas E

    2012-01-01

    The results of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) have provided the medical community and American public with considerable optimism about the potential to reduce lung cancer mortality with imaging-based screening. Designed as a randomized trial, the NLST has provided the first evidence of screening benefit by showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% reduction in all-cause mortality with low dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) screening relative to chest X-ray. The major harms of LDCT screening include the potential for radiation-induced carcinogenesis; high false-positivity rates in individuals without lung cancer, and overdiagnosis. Following the results of the NLST, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) published the first of multiple lung cancer screening guidelines under development by major medical organizations. These recommendations amalgamated screening cohorts, practices, interpretations, and diagnostic follow-up based on the NLST and other published studies to provide guidance for the implementation of LDCT screening. There are major areas of opportunity to optimize implementation. These include standardizing practices in the screening setting, optimizing risk profiles for screening and for managing diagnostic evaluation in individuals with indeterminate nodules, developing interdisciplinary screening programs in conjunction with smoking cessation, and approaching all stakeholders systematically to ensure the broadest education and dissemination of screening benefits relative to risks. The incorporation of validated biomarkers of risk and preclinical lung cancer can substantially enhance the effectiveness screening programs. PMID:24451779

  4. Solid form screening--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Allesø, Morten; Mirza, Sabiruddin; Koradia, Vishal; Gordon, Keith C; Rantanen, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Solid form screening, the activity of generating and analysing different solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), has become an essential part of drug development. The multi-step screening process needs to be designed, performed and evaluated carefully, since the decisions made based on the screening may have consequences on the whole lifecycle of a pharmaceutical product. The selection of the form for development is made after solid form screening. The selection criteria include not only pharmaceutically relevant properties, such as therapeutic efficacy and processing characteristics, but also intellectual property (IP) issues. In this paper, basic principles of solid form screening are reviewed, including the methods used in experimental screening (generation, characterisation and analysis of solid forms, data mining tools, and high-throughput screening technologies) as well as basics of computational methods. Differences between solid form screening strategies of branded and generic pharmaceutical manufacturers are also discussed. PMID:18715549

  5. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Print A A A ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without a co-payment. Top of Page Problem Doctors, nurses, and other health professionals should screen all adult ... conduct community activities that reduce drinking too much. Doctors, nurses, health plans, and insurers can Screen all adult ...

  7. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    . A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers......The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time...... the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over...

  8. Use of fluorescent screens for isotope radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Radiographic examination can be performed on items beyond the limitation of conventional isotope radiography without a great loss of resolution. With proper film and screen selection and scatter radiation control, fluorescent screens can be a valuable additional tool for radiography.

  9. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  10. Screening Sex: revelando e dissimulando o sexo Screening Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, procura-se contar a história da exibição do sexo em filmes majoritariamente produzidos nos Estados Unidos no período de quase um século. Ao se perguntar quando, porque e como os Estados Unidos se transformaram de uma cultura que não exibia o sexo em uma que o exibe, a autora insiste no duplo significado do verbo screen (tanto como uma revelação quanto uma dissimulação. Exibir é revelar em uma tela. Mas um segundo e igualmente importante significado, como diz o dicionário é "proteger ou esconder atrás de uma tela". Os filmes tanto revelam como escondem. O artigo analisa a forma como mudanças sociais ocorridas nos Estados Unidos, como, por exemplo, a Revolução sexual dos anos 60 e novas visões a respeito da sexualidade, possibilitaram novas maneiras de representação do sexo no cinema, reorganizando a relação entre o público e o privado. O artigo se pergunta também sobre como nossos corpos e sentidos reagem ao encontro com o sexo na tela, introduzindo a ideia de "saber carnal" (carnal knowledge.In this paper, we try to tell the history of the exhibition of sex in movies mainly produced in the United States in almost a century. Asking when, why and how the United States became - from a culture that did not exhibit sex - into a culture that exhibits it, the author insists in the double sense of the verb to screen (as both a revelation and a dissimulation. To exhibit is to reveal in a screen. But another, and important, sense, as says the dictionary, is "to protect or hide behind a screen". Movies show as well as they reveal. The paper analyzes the way social change in the United States, for example the sexual revolution of the sixties and new views on sexuality allowed new ways of representing sex in the movies, creating a new relation between public and private. The paper also asks how our bodies and senses react to sex in the screen, introducing the idea of "carnal knowledge".

  11. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  12. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  13. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  14. Screening for anxiety disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Ellin; Bögels, Susan Maria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the children had self-reported scores on the screening questionnaire Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotio...

  15. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796]).

  16. Automation of antimicrobial activity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Samuel P; Madonna, Megan C; López-Pérez, Daneli; Lin, Nancy J; Pasco, Madeleine D

    2016-03-01

    Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several commonly reported toxicity/antimicrobial activity measures were evaluated: the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using automated methods, three halide salts of cetylpyridinium (CPC, CPB, CPI) were rapidly screened with no detectable effect of the counter ion on antimicrobial activity. PMID:26970766

  17. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  18. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    ) demonstrated that HPV testing provides better protection against cervical cancer than cytology, but it requires extra repeated testing. HPV vaccination RCTs, furthermore, have proved that HPV vaccination protects against vaccine-type high-grade CIN in women vaccinated prior to sexual activity, but less so...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...... in women vaccinated later. The challenge now is therefore to find an algorithm for screening of a heterogeneous population including non-vaccinated women; women vaccinated prior to start of sexual activity; and women vaccinated later....

  19. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796])

  20. Mental health screening in jails

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Nathalie C.

    2009-01-01

    More than seven million individuals were admitted to North American jails in 2007, many with a serious mental disorder. Mentally disordered inmates are at an increase risk for self-harm and suicide, victimization and institutional disruption. The large number of mentally disordered inmates and the limited resources available in correctional settings make the proper identification of mentally disordered inmates difficult but critical. Legal and professional standards require jails to screen ev...

  1. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  2. Screening of Retinopathy in Preterms

    OpenAIRE

    Perk, Yıldız; Oğuz, Velittin; Karaçorlu, Murat; Ilıkkan, Barbaros; Altınkaya, Nüvit; İlter, Özdemir

    1994-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity ROP is a leading cause of severe visual impairment and blindness in infancy We evaluated a prospective study for screening of ROP incidence in 60 premature infants born in Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between November 1991 and December 1992 and followed by Department of Pediatrics Neonatology Section and Department of Ophthalmology between 1991 1993 of whom 36 were males and 24 were females with gestational ages ranging between ...

  3. Prenatal screening in Jewish law.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although prenatal screening is routinely undertaken as part of a woman's antenatal care, the ethics surrounding it are complex. In this paper, the author examines the Jewish position on the permissibility of several tests, including those for Down's syndrome and Tay-Sachs disease, the latter being especially common in the Jewish community. Clearly, the status of the tests depends on whether termination of affected pregnancies is allowed, and contemporary rabbinical authorities are themselves ...

  4. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  5. Classification of findings in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pamilo, M; Lönnqvist, J; Halttunen, A;

    1991-01-01

    survey of mammography screening in Helsinki and surroundings in Finland. PATIENTS--21,417 women (aged 50-59 years) were invited to be screened, 18,012 (84.10%) participated. Of these 579 (3.21% of those screened) were recalled for further studies; 124 of these were referred for surgical biopsy and 82 had...

  6. Is the tide turning against breast screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Herein I argue that mammographic screening has not delivered on its fundamental premise: to reduce the incidence of advanced breast cancer. Indeed, achieving this goal is required if screening is to reduce breast cancer mortality or mastectomy use. Rather, screening has caused substantial...

  7. Screening for potential inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-linLIU; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Applying the assay method of neuraminidase(NA) activity established for high throughput screening to find novel inhibitors of influenza virus NA. METHODS: Firstly, a virtual screening strategy was applied to our compound database to select drug-like compounds, and then a high throughput screening model of NA inhibitor was applied to test these compounds. RESULTS:

  8. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  9. Colon Cancer Screening in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvin, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death both in North Carolina and in the United States. The goal of CRC screening is early detection and prevention. This commentary reviews the evidence for screening, discusses current screening options, and explores which options are best suited for use in North Carolina. PMID:27154885

  10. Intensifying screens in soft tissue radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain screen-film combinations were tested in the low voltage range (26 to 40 kV, tungsten target) and compared with an optimal non-screen industrial film. The dose reduction was of no consequence as compared with the loss in image quality. Some physical properties of the screens giving rise to the failure are discussed. (author)

  11. Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.

  12. 48 CFR 45.602-3 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic equivalent to GSA (see 41 CFR 102-36.215). (2) Twenty-first through forty-sixth day (21 days... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening. 45.602-3... GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.602-3 Screening. The screening period...

  13. 7 CFR 4284.511 - Evaluation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation screening. 4284.511 Section 4284.511 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND....511 Evaluation screening. The Agency will conduct an initial screening of all proposals to...

  14. 30 CFR 104.2 - Initial screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial screening. 104.2 Section 104.2 Mineral... VIOLATIONS § 104.2 Initial screening. At least once each year, MSHA shall review the compliance records of... considered as part of the initial screening: (1) Enforcement measures, other than section 104(e) of the...

  15. 7 CFR 4284.1011 - Evaluation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation screening. 4284.1011 Section 4284.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... § 4284.1011 Evaluation screening. The Agency will conduct an initial screening of all proposals...

  16. Does educational level determine screening participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    in 2000 outside organized screening were provided by radiology clinics. Included were all women eligible for at least three screens, and participation was classified into four mutually exclusive user groups. Organized mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen and Funen, Denmark were used as field...

  17. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  18. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  19. Population screening for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Si Houn

    2014-05-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in the gene encoding an ATPase, ATP7B. Early detection of Wilson's disease is critical because effective medical treatments such as chelating agents and zinc salts are available, which can prevent lifelong neurological disabilities and/or cirrhosis. It is unfortunate that most patients are brought to our attention after they have developed serious complications such as brain damage or cirrhosis, despite the availability of effective treatments. The diagnosis is usually made through copper measurement in the liver tissue, followed by confirmation with genetic testing of the ATP7B gene. Currently, there are no effective biomarkers or methods suitable for newborn screening for Wilson's disease. Ceruloplasmin has been tested for pediatric and newborn screening with limited outcome. Recently, liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) has emerged as a robust technology that may enable multiplex quantification of signature proteotypic peptides with low abundance. The application of this technology may help facilitate the research on Wilson's disease for protein expression, biomarker study, diagnosis, and, hopefully, screening.

  20. Information management for entomology screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jane; Huesing, Joseph; Simpson, Robert; Elands, Jack

    2004-02-01

    The successful introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has created a revolutionary transformation of the agricultural industry with GM crops currently planted on some 130 million acres. Historically, agricultural companies were involved in the discovery of conventional insecticide chemistries in processes that were very similar to those in the pharmaceutical industry. With the introduction of GM technologies, the process has radically changed. The new process is best described as the pharmaceutical equivalent of a very large-scale limited clinical trial conducted at the discovery stage. For example, unlike pharmaceutical screens, GM crop discovery screens frequently involve live insects challenged with complex protein containing soups. Furthermore, the nature of the potential avenues for discovery mandates that assay models also support protein engineering, proteomics, and genomics efforts. The range in sample demand ranges from ultra-low to high throughput. Finally, regulatory and good business stewardship demands that data integrity and tractability is in place, from discovery through varietal introduction, to manage the information generated in support of a commercialized GM plant variety. The authors describe their discovery workflow and detail how they have customized a commercially available database software package to achieve an optimum configuration for entomology screening. PMID:15006147

  1. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  2. Hyperaldosteronism: Screening and Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Chiara; Fallo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common secondary cause of hypertension, accounting for 10 % of hypertensives and 20 % of those with drug-resistant hypertension. Aldosterone excess is associated with the development of adverse cardiovascular, renal and metabolic effects that are partly independent of its effect on blood pressure. Guidelines recommended wider screening for PA in an effort to maximize detection of patients who may benefit from optimal, specific management. All patient groups with increased prevalence of PA, including hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those with obstructive sleep apnea, should be carefully screened for PA. Screening with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the most practical and informative initial test. Subsequent confirmatory tests are: (1) oral salt loading; (2) saline infusion; (3) captopril challenge and (4) fludrocortisone suppression test. Confirmation of PA can avoid that patients with a false positive ARR would inappropriately undergo costly and harmful lateralization procedures. If confirmatory testing is positive, further investigations are directed toward determining the subtype of PA, as the treatment differs for each subtype. PMID:26971505

  3. Improving diabetic retinopathy screening in Africa: Patient satisfaction with teleophthalmology versus ophthalmologist-based screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Kurji

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, diabetic patients preferred a teleophthalmology based screening over a traditional ophthalmologist-based screening. The use of teleophthalmology in Africa warrants further study and has the potential to become the screening model of choice. Cost effectiveness in comparison to an ophthalmologist-based screening also requires evaluation.

  4. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  5. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  6. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. PMID:25549659

  7. Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Newborn Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Sontag, Marci K; Ren, Clement L

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) has evolved over the past decade as newborn screening has become universal in the United States and elsewhere. The heterogeneity of phenotypes associated with CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction and mutations in the CFTR gene has become clearer, ranging from classic pancreatic-insufficient CF to manifestations in only 1 organ system to indeterminate diagnoses identified by newborn screening. The tools available for diagnosis have also expanded. This article reviews the newest diagnostic criteria for CF, newborn screening, prenatal screening and diagnosis, and indeterminate diagnoses in newborn-screened infants and symptomatic adults. PMID:27469178

  8. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luiz; Ronaldo; Alberti; Diego; Paim; Carvalho; Garcia; Debora; Lucciola; Coelho; David; Correa; Alves; De; Lima; Andy; Petroianu

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates.

  9. [Screening domestic violence. A German-language screening instrument for domestic violence against women

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, E.; Hartman, P; Stieglitz, R.; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2008-01-01

    Domestic violence is frequent. But up to now there is no screening instrument available in German which would allow a simple assessment. In this article a short screening interview is published that allows the identification of women who became victims of domestic violence. Such a screening interview has not been published in German speaking countries until now. A screening interview originally developed in English speaking countries called "Partner Violence Screen" (PVS) was translated, modi...

  10. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  12. Mathematical Models of the Sinusoidal Screen Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Koren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will define a family of sinusoidal screening elements and explore the possibilities of their application in graphic arts, securities printing and design solutions in photography and typography editing. For this purpose mathematical expressions of sinusoidal families were converted into a Postscript language. The introduction of a random variable results in a countless number of various mutations which cannot be repeated without knowing the programming code itself. The use of the family of screens in protection of securities is thus of great importance. Other possible application of modulated sinusoidal screens is related to the large format color printing. This paper will test the application of sinusoidal screens in vector graphics, pixel graphics and typography. The development of parameters in the sinusoidal screen element algorithms gives new forms defined within screening cells with strict requirements of coverage implementation. Individual solutions include stochastic algorithms, as well as the autonomy of screening forms in regard to multicolor printing channels.

  13. Model-based clustered-dot screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    I propose a halftone screen design method based on a human visual system model and the characteristics of the electro-photographic (EP) printer engine. Generally, screen design methods based on human visual models produce dispersed-dot type screens while design methods considering EP printer characteristics generate clustered-dot type screens. In this paper, I propose a cost function balancing the conflicting characteristics of the human visual system and the printer. By minimizing the obtained cost function, I design a model-based clustered-dot screen using a modified direct binary search algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior quality of the model-based clustered-dot screen compared to a conventional clustered-dot screen.

  14. Factors influencing participation in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lynne; Glackin, Marie; Hughes, Caroline; Rogers, Katherine Mary Ann

    Despite the efficacy of mammography and the widespread promotion of screening programmes, a significant number of eligible women still do not attend for regular breast screening. An integrative review methodology was considered the most appropriate means to critically analyse the available literature pertaining to factors which influence participation in breast cancer screening. From the extensive literature search, 12 selected core research papers met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the literature review. Four themes emerged from the literature which impact on participation in mammography screening: psychological and practical issues, ethnicity issues, influence of socioeconomic status and issues related to screening programmes. The recent Independent Review Panel on Breast Cancer Screening endorsed the importance of access to information which clearly communicates the harms and benefits of breast screening to enable women to make informed decisions about their health. The recommendations from the panel and others have been included in this review. PMID:24067312

  15. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  16. Screening for autism in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Bruno, Ruth; Tinoco, Cecilia Manero; Marquez, Christian Diaz

    2012-06-01

    In order to conduct the screening phase of the first epidemiological survey of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Mexico, we needed a screening tool to detect autistic symptomatology in a large sample of school-age children. We used the Spanish version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). We recruited a clinical sample of 200 children (81% males; mean age: 7.4 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of ASDs and a sample of 363 control children (59.5% males; mean age: 8.5 years) without ASDs. Three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) identified a main effect of clinical status (ASDs vs. controls) for both parent and teacher scales, but no gender or age effect. The mean total and subscale raw scores were significantly different between the clinical and control groups for the parent and for the teacher SRS (P < 0.001). The internal consistency of the SRS was excellent. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed excellent discriminant validity of the SRS in the Mexican sample (area under the curve: 0.962 for the parent, 0.960 for the teacher). ROC curves were also used to determine which cutoff would provide the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. Mexican SRS scores were significantly higher than in the U.S. and German population for typically developing children but comparable for clinically referred subjects. The SRS is an acceptable screening instrument for epidemiological studies of ASDs in Mexico. Its psychometric properties are excellent and comparable to those derived from North American and other samples. PMID:22581514

  17. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, William Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct screenings for new products. Past studies have demonstrated reductions in required screening resources (time, amount of herbicide active ingredient, and size of seedlings) can be achieved relative to field exclosure screenings. Rapid screening methods including, greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening were performed using triclopyr and 8 exp...

  18. Screening three-form fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Tiago; Nunes, Nelson J

    2016-01-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  19. Cushing's Syndrome: Screening and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease, and usually characterized by hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, facial rounding, dorsocervical fat pad, thin skin, purple striae, hirsutism, and mood disorders. Efficient diagnostic and screening strategies lead to the diagnosis of a significantly higher number of cases of CS. As a screening test for CS, the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend a single test with a high diagnostic accuracy, among the 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (1-mg DST), late night salivary cortisol (LNSC), and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). In normal subjects, administering a higher than physiological dose of glucocorticoids prompts the suppression of cortisol secretion. The 1-mg DST explores this normal feedback reaction from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). It is a simple dynamic test, usually performed in outpatients. A morning serum cortisol level <50 nmol/L suffices to exclude CS, unless there is a strong clinical suspicion to suggest otherwise. The HPA axis reaches a nadir just after a person has fallen asleep, but its circadian rhythm is impaired in CS patients, who feature higher cortisol values at night, which are easy to measure in saliva (the LNSC assay). Saliva collection is also suitable for outpatients since cortisol is stable at room temperature and the collection device can be mailed to the laboratory for analysis. UFC levels reflect the integrated tissue exposure to free cortisol over 24 h, and thus provide a particular picture of endogenous hypercortisolism. In most cases, high UFC levels coincide with severe hypercortisolism. UFC is used not only to diagnose CS, but also to monitor its response to medical treatment. All screening tests have procedural snares: some drugs can interfere with the DST; false-positive or false-negative LNSC results may be due to an inadequate soaking of the device or to cyclic CS; and in the case of UFC it is important to ensure that

  20. Cushing's Syndrome: Screening and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease, and usually characterized by hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, facial rounding, dorsocervical fat pad, thin skin, purple striae, hirsutism, and mood disorders. Efficient diagnostic and screening strategies lead to the diagnosis of a significantly higher number of cases of CS. As a screening test for CS, the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend a single test with a high diagnostic accuracy, among the 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (1-mg DST), late night salivary cortisol (LNSC), and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). In normal subjects, administering a higher than physiological dose of glucocorticoids prompts the suppression of cortisol secretion. The 1-mg DST explores this normal feedback reaction from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). It is a simple dynamic test, usually performed in outpatients. A morning serum cortisol level <50 nmol/L suffices to exclude CS, unless there is a strong clinical suspicion to suggest otherwise. The HPA axis reaches a nadir just after a person has fallen asleep, but its circadian rhythm is impaired in CS patients, who feature higher cortisol values at night, which are easy to measure in saliva (the LNSC assay). Saliva collection is also suitable for outpatients since cortisol is stable at room temperature and the collection device can be mailed to the laboratory for analysis. UFC levels reflect the integrated tissue exposure to free cortisol over 24 h, and thus provide a particular picture of endogenous hypercortisolism. In most cases, high UFC levels coincide with severe hypercortisolism. UFC is used not only to diagnose CS, but also to monitor its response to medical treatment. All screening tests have procedural snares: some drugs can interfere with the DST; false-positive or false-negative LNSC results may be due to an inadequate soaking of the device or to cyclic CS; and in the case of UFC it is important to ensure that

  1. Free running asthma screening test.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, J N; Milner, R D; Bannister, O M; Boon, A W

    1988-01-01

    The free running asthma screening test (FRAST) was evaluated in 503 Sheffield schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years and compared with responses to an asthma questionnaire. The FRAST measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after maximum voluntary running for at least 5 minutes in a standardised environment. A fall in PEFR of greater than 15% in at least two postexercise readings was defined as abnormal. Six (1%) children did not do the test and 69 (14%) failed ...

  2. Impurity screening in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergodic divertor (ED) experiments in helium plasmas with carbonized and boronized wall conditions have been performed in Tore Supra. The intrinsic impurity decontamination effect (as well as the screening of purposely injected nitrogen impurities), previously observed in deuterium plasmas, has been confirmed also for conditions where the electron density in the confined (unperturbed) bulk plasma remains practically constant. Inward displacements of the plasma 0.10-0.15 m away from the ED modules result in the magnetic perturbation having little or no effect on impurities. (orig.)

  3. Measuring the psychosocial consequences of screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doward Lynda C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last three decades have seen a dramatic rise in the implementation of screening programmes for cancer in industrialised countries. However, in contrast to screening for infectious diseases, most cancer screening programmes only have the potential to reduce mortality; they cannot lower the incidence of cancer in a population. In fact, most cancer screening programmes have been shown to increase the incidence of the disease as a consequence of over-diagnosis. A further dilemma of cancer screening programmes is that they do not distinguish between healthy people and those with disease. Rather, they identify a continuum of disease severity. Consequently, many healthy people who have abnormal screening tests are wrongly diagnosed. Indeed, studies have demonstrated that for each screening-prevented death from cancer, at least 200 false-positive results are given. Therefore, screening has the potential to be harmful as well as beneficial. The psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening results cannot be determined by diagnostic tests or by other technical means. Instead, patient reported outcome measures must be employed. To measure the outcomes of screening accurately and comprehensively patient reported outcome measures have to capture; the nature and extent of the psychosocial consequences and how these change over time. The outcome measures used must have high content validity and their psychometric properties should be determined prior to their use in the specific population. In particular it is important to establish unidimensionality, additivity and item ordering through the application of Item Response Theory.

  4. Measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Kuriyama, T; Kuriyama, F; Radebaugh, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental apparatus for the measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens as well as some experimental results taken with the apparatus. Screens are stacked in a fiberglass-epoxy cylinder, which is 24.4 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length. The cold end of the stacked screens is cooled by a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler at cryogenic temperature, and the hot end is maintained at room temperature. Heat conduction through the screens is determined from the temperature gradient in a calibrated heat flow sensor mounted between the cold end of the stacked screens and the GM cryocooler. The samples used for these experiments consisted of 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 400-mesh phosphor bronze screens, and two different porosities of 325-mesh stainless steel screens. The wire diameter of the 400-mesh stainless steel and phosphor bronze screens was 25.4 micrometers and the 325-mesh stainless steel screen wire diameters were 22.9 micrometers and 27.9 micrometers. Standard porosity values were used for the experimental data with additional porosity values used on selected experiments. The experimental results showed that the helium gas between each screen enhanced the heat conduction through the stacked screens by several orders of magnitude compared to that in vacuum. The conduction degradation factor is the ratio of actual heat conduction to the heat conduction where the regenerator material is assumed to be a solid rod of the same cross sectional area as the metal fraction of the screen. This factor was about 0.1 for the stainless steel and 0.022 for the phosphor bronze, and almost constant for the temperature range of 40 to 80 K at the cold end.

  5. Screening dynamics in doped titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time scale for carrier relaxation in semiconductors is on the same order of magnitude as the life time of shallow core hole states (a few femtoseconds). Resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) which involves (virtual) excitations of core levels consequently contains information about the time development of the electronic structure on this time scale. In many cases one can treat the scattering in an absorption (SXA) followed-by-emission (SXE) picture, where simply the rates for various processes can be compared with the intermediate core hole state decay rate as an internal open-quotes clockclose quotes. By variation of x (0 xSr1-xTiO3, the amount of Ti d electrons in the system can be controlled. SrTiO3 (x=0) is an insulator with an empty Ti d band. With increasing x, electrons are doped into the Ti d-band, and LaTiO3 (x=1) is a Mott Hubbard insulator with a Ti 3d1 configuration. In this work the authors demonstrate that the rate for Ti 2p core hole screening in LaxSr1-xTiO3 is doping dependent. The screening rate increases with the availability of Ti 3d electrons, and they estimate it to be 3.8 x 1013/sec in La0.05Sr0.95TiO3

  6. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital......BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  7. Elements of an anal dysplasia screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is highly elevated compared to the general population, as is the incidence of its precursor lesion, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN). MSM in general and other immunocompromised populations are also at higher risk. Treatment of HGAIN may prevent development of cancer, similar to the decrease in cervical cancers that has occurred since the advent of cervical cancer screening programs in women. Cervical cancer screening tools have been adapted and validated for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of anal HGAIN. Anal cancer screening programs have now been available for more than a decade, although they are not yet standards of care. Incorporating screening procedures into practice depends on the available resources in a particular community. This article discusses the procedures for anal cancer screening including cytology, digital anal rectal examinations, high-resolution anoscopy, and biopsy. PMID:22035526

  8. Reconciling interiors: The screen as installation

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, James

    2003-01-01

    In examining the failure of contemporary art to understand the relationship between the screen and the sculptural context in which it is seen,this paper critiques current notions of the screen and compares them to the spatial modalities of installation art. Firstly identifying the screen as a product of parts ? the apparatus,the image and the space ? the essay draws together arguments presented by artists and theorists and exposes the strategies and assumptions that enable the viewer to e...

  9. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  10. Vortex Ring Interaction with Multiple Permeable Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous experiments on the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on single thin permeable screen demonstrated the formation of secondary vortices and a transmitted vortex ring. The present work concerns experimental investigation of the interaction of a vortex ring with multiple permeable screens. Vortex rings are formed by piston-cylinder type vortex ring generator and impinge on an array of parallel, transparent screens. The screens have an open ratio of 84% and the spacing between screens is variable. The vortex rings were formed with an approximate jet Reynolds number of 1300 and a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio (L/D) of approximately 4. Dye visualization of the vortex rings shows that they break into multiple vortices after impinging on first screen The vortices subsequently disintegrate, but the total distance required for disintegration is relatively unaffected by the number of screens through with the vortices pass due to the regular structure of the screens. It is also observed that the location of the initial vortex ring axis relative to the screen rods has a significant effect on the vortex breakup and disintegration process.

  11. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  12. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  13. Health risks from computed tomographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Seth B; Meyers, Bryan F

    2015-05-01

    Results of the recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial show a significant survival benefit for annual screening with a low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scan in high-risk individuals. This result has led the US Preventive Services Task Force to recommend annual low-dose CT scans for this at-risk population. Less well characterized are the risks from screening. The primary risks from screening are radiation exposure, false-positive results and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and increased psychological distress. This article reviews these risks, which must be considered and weighed against the benefits when discussing enrollment with patients. PMID:25901559

  14. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... screen (any of current cough, fever, weight loss or night sweats). After feedback, patients with a positive WHO symptom screen were more likely to be suspected of tuberculosis (OR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.19-4.09) and referred for microscopy (OR 2.71; 95% CI: 1.25-5.86). CONCLUSIONS: A simple prospective audit...

  15. Screen captures to support switching attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der, T.

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with a mixture of partial- and full-screen captures. The findings show that participants in all conditions looked up from the manual to the screen on about 97% of the cases in which such a switch was ca...

  16. Screen-Camera Calibration Using Gray Codes

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCKEN, Yannick; Hermans, Chris; Bekaert, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for efficient calibration of a screen-camera setup, in which the camera is not directly facing the screen. A spherical mirror is used to make the screen visible to the camera. Using Gray code illumination patterns, we can uniquely identify the reflection of each screen pixel on the imaged spherical mirror. This allows us to compute a large set of 2D-3D correspondences, using only two sphere locations. Compared to previous work, this means we require less manu...

  17. The Future of Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Pergament

    2014-01-01

    The future of prenatal diagnosis and screening lies in developing clinical approaches and laboratory technologies applicable to genetic analyses and therapeutic interventions during embryonic development.

  18. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...... features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  19. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  20. The politics of prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F

    2014-05-01

    The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages. PMID:24725487

  1. Optimization in HIV screening problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors use both deterministic and stochastic approaches to the analysis of some optimization problems that arise in the group (“pool” HIV screening practice. Two kinds of testing policies are considered. For the first kind, group-individual testing, the optimal size of the group that should be selected for testing is found. For more general group-subgroup testing procedure the authors develop a numerical algorithm for finding the sequence of successively selected subgroups that minimizes the total cost of testing. Assuming that both arriving and testing processes have a random nature, the authors suggest a stochastic model in which the optimal size of the group in the group-individual testing procedure is found by using methods of queueing theory.

  2. Screening of Modified RNA duplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen;

    Because of sequence specific gene targeting activity siRNAs are regarded as promising active compounds in gene medicine. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNA duplexes. Cellular reactions towards double stranded...... RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...... protection against a fish pathogenic virus. This protection corresponded with an interferon response in the fish. Here we use this fish model to screen siRNAs containing various chemical modifications of the RNA backbone for their antiviral activity, the overall aim being identification of an siRNA form...

  3. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  4. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples m the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases m all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinanalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that m a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5x5 square and 5x5x5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: 1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, 2) the screening dose-rate requirements, 3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, 4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and 5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated. (author)

  5. Screening dynamics in doped titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubensson, J.E.; Luening, J.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The time scale for carrier relaxation in semiconductors is on the same order of magnitude as the life time of shallow core hole states (a few femtoseconds). Resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) which involves (virtual) excitations of core levels consequently contains information about the time development of the electronic structure on this time scale. In many cases one can treat the scattering in an absorption (SXA) followed-by-emission (SXE) picture, where simply the rates for various processes can be compared with the intermediate core hole state decay rate as an internal {open_quotes}clock{close_quotes}. By variation of x (0 < x < 1) in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3}, the amount of Ti d electrons in the system can be controlled. SrTiO{sub 3} (x=0) is an insulator with an empty Ti d band. With increasing x, electrons are doped into the Ti d-band, and LaTiO{sub 3} (x=1) is a Mott Hubbard insulator with a Ti 3d{sup 1} configuration. In this work the authors demonstrate that the rate for Ti 2p core hole screening in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} is doping dependent. The screening rate increases with the availability of Ti 3d electrons, and they estimate it to be 3.8 x 10{sup 13}/sec in La{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}TiO{sub 3}.

  6. What's in a Screen Name? Attractiveness of Different Types of Screen Names Used by Online Daters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Whitty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether different types of screen names offer advantages when it comes to attracting a partner on dating sites. In the pilot study, we conducted a content analysis of real screen names to develop a typology of screen names. In the main study, we explored whether the typology predicted online daters' ratings of names, and compared the types of names that appealed to men and to women. Men more than women were attracted to screen names that indicated physical attractiveness, and women more than men were attracted to screen names that indicated intelligence or were neutral. Similarly, men more than women were motivated to contact screen names which indicated physical attractiveness and women more than men were more motivated to contact screen names which indicated intellectual characteristics or were neutral. These findings indicate that different types of screen names may elicit different reactions.

  7. Screening for Iron Overload: Lessons from the HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Adams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study provided data on a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort of participants in North America screened from primary care populations.

  8. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  9. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  10. Structure-based Drug Screening and Ligand-Based Drug Screening Toward Protein-Compound Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

    2007-12-01

    We developed two new methods to improve the accuracy of molecular interaction data using a protein-compound affinity matrix calculated by a protein-compound docking software. One method is a structure-based in silico drug screening method and another method is a ligand-based in silico drug screening method. These methods were applied to enhance the database enrichment of in silico drug screening and in silico target protein screening.

  11. What's in a Screen Name? Attractiveness of Different Types of Screen Names Used by Online Daters

    OpenAIRE

    Monica T. Whitty; Tom Buchanan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether different types of screen names offer advantages when it comes to attracting a partner on dating sites. In the pilot study, we conducted a content analysis of real screen names to develop a typology of screen names. In the main study, we explored whether the typology predicted online daters' ratings of names, and compared the types of names that appealed to men and to women. Men more than women were attracted to screen names that indicated physical attractiveness, ...

  12. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    William Stanley; Shepard Zedaker; John Seiler; Patrick Burch

    2014-01-01

    Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896) were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected d...

  13. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  14. Screening for macular disorders: the optometrist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsner AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann E Elsner, Brett J King School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Abstract: Macular screening services can take many forms, offering a variety of roles for optometrists. The need for screening has been demonstrated in industrialized and developing nations alike. Populations of particular interest for macular screening services include individuals at high risk for diabetes, not just diagnosed diabetics, since a significant proportion of those with diabetes do not realize it. Individuals who know they have diabetes are frequently not examined at the recommended intervals. Related populations include patients with a high likelihood of retinal vascular disease and high blood pressure. A second population is older individuals, who are at risk for age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia, key causes of vision loss depending upon geographic location and ethnicity. Images showing the complexity of lesions from diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and degenerative myopia illustrate the challenges of screening and classification. A third population to be screened is the large pediatric one. While many children are at risk for developing myopia, which could lead to high myopia, the risk of myopia and retinal damage is far more common in individuals who had low birth weight or premature birth. A variety of types of screening instrumentation are discussed in terms of practicality of use and cost. The technical challenges in populations with dark eyes, small pupils, and poor anterior-segment media are discussed. We discuss the wealth of screening strategies, from permanent sites with trained staff and expert graders to planned campaigns that target specific populations. Successful screening systems include instrumentation that is used within its limits, feedback and supervision during screening and grading, and clear pathways for referral for a complete examination or treatment. Keywords: vision

  15. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Jong, Pim A.; Mali, Willem P.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. METHODS: In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust s

  16. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  18. Systematic Screening at the Elementary Level: Considerations for Exploring and Installing Universal Behavior Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study reports data from one elementary school whose leadership team explored and installed systematic behavior screening as part of their tiered model of prevention. The authors compared student performance on two school-selected screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and…

  19. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  20. A Barcode-Free Combinatorial Screening Platform for Matrix Metalloproteinase Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Tushar D.; Zec, Helena C.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Application of droplet microfluidics to combinatorial screening applications remains elusive because of the need for composition-identifying unique barcodes. Here we propose a barcode-free continuous flow droplet microfluidic platform to suit the requirements of combinatorial screening applications. We demonstrate robust and repeatable functioning of this platform with matrix metalloproteinase activity screening as a sample application.

  1. Early Screening for Risk of Reading Disabilities: Recommendations for a Four-Step Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) models incorporate a screening process to identify students who appear to be at risk for learning disabilities (LDs). The purpose of this position article is to incorporate what is known about screening into a flexible, yet comprehensive screening system to help school psychologists and other school administrators in…

  2. National Lung Screening Trial Results: Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 4, 2010, the NLST reported initial trial results, showing 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT (also known as spiral CT) compared to those who got screened with chest X-rays.

  3. The Gesell Screening Examination: Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard N.

    In an assessment of the adequacy of the Gesell screening examination as a test instrument, a Gesell Screening Evaluation was given to 400 children semi-annually from their 4th to 6th year. The sample, which was stratified by parent occupation, included 40 girls and 40 boys at 5 age levels. The test battery corresponded with the Gesell Preschool…

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  5. A Screen for Identifying Maladaptive Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Siu L.; Leung, G. M.; Ng, Cecilia; Yu, Effie

    2009-01-01

    A screening tool (in Chinese) for maladaptive internet use was developed in two stages. Thirty-five factors were first extracted from data obtained from 378 adolescents with a 179-item questionnaire. Nine higher-order factors were then obtained from 35 factors. A 26-item screen that measures both endogenous and exogenous factors was constructed on…

  6. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  7. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  8. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.``

  9. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.

  10. A population screening programme for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Mairesse, Georges H; Goethals, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    general population using an ECG handheld machine and its feasibility to identify new AF cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data obtained from 5 years of the 'Belgian Heart Rhythm Week' screening programme. All subjects were screened using a one-lead ECG handheld machine. Among 65 747 subjects...

  11. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  12. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actuall...

  13. Designing Online Courses for Screen Reader Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; McMorland, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    A review of multiple online courses at one institution was conducted by a skilled screen reader user for the purpose of assessing the extent to which the courses were navigable and understandable to online students using assistive technologies. This paper identifies features of online courses that may present problems for screen reader users and…

  14. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to determ

  15. Screen Printed Metallization of Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Govaerts, R.; Van Overstraeten, R.; Mertens, R.; Ph. Lauwers; Frisson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a screen printing process for the metallization of silicon solar cells. The physics and construction of a classical solar cell are reviewed. The results obtained with a screen printing process are comparable with other, more expensive technologies. This technology does not introduce an additional contact resistance on silicon. The process optimization and the influence of different parameters are discussed.

  16. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  17. Color screening in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the color screening length in a non-equilibrated gluon gas formed by interacting minijets in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We show that the screening length is too short at CERN LHC collider energy to permit the formation of independent flux-tubes or strings. The prediction for RHIC energies is somewhat ambiguous. (orig.)

  18. Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Verkerk, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    The success rates of screening programmes for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) vary widely. Studies on screening programmes for DDH based on a Medline search for the years 1966–1997 are reviewed. The percentage treated in most studies, especially those using ultrasound, are high and suggest

  19. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  20. Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this book on screen media, space, and mobility I compare synchronically, as well as diachronically, diverse and variegated screen media - their technologies and practices – as sites for virtual mobility and navigation. Mobility as a central trope can be found on the multiple levels that are inves

  1. Screening Children's Entry Characteristics in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2000-01-01

    A pilot study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a screening instrument for Dutch kindergartners. Findings indicated acceptable reliability and predictive validity. Parents could accurately screen their child's language proficiency level, pre-arithmetic level, and degree of extraversion at school entry. Teachers could predict…

  2. 24 CFR 983.255 - Tenant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... suitability for tenancy. However, the PHA may opt to screen applicants for family behavior or suitability for... in 25 CFR part 5, subpart L, apply to tenant screening....

  3. Screening for human papillomavirus: is urine useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, bec

  4. 46 CFR 168.15-55 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening. 168.15-55 Section 168.15-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-55 Screening. Provision must be made to protect the quarters against the admission...

  5. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  6. Overview of guidelines on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Kalager, Mette; Barratt, Alexandra;

    2016-01-01

    Updated guidelines on breast cancer screening have been published by several major organisations over the past five years. Recommendations vary regarding both age range, screening interval, and even on whether breast screening should be offered at all. The variation between recommendations reflects...... substantial differences in estimates of the major benefit (breast cancer mortality reduction) and the major harm (overdiagnosis). Estimates vary considerably among randomised trials, as well as observational studies: from no benefit to large reductions, and from no overdiagnosis to substantial levels......, such as small effects in absolute terms. There is a need for agreement on a hierarchy of observational study designs to quantify the major benefit and harm of cancer screening. This review provides a summary of recent guidelines on breast cancer screening and their major strengths and weaknesses, as well...

  7. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  8. Drug screening for influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ailin; CAO; Hongpeng; DU; Guanhua

    2005-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the most important targets to screen the drugs of anti-influenza virus A and B. After virtual screening approaches were applied to a compound database which possesses more than 10000 compound structures, 160 compounds were selected for bioactivity assay, then a High Throughput Screening (HTS) model established for influenza virus NA inhibitors was applied to detect these compounds. Finally, three compounds among them displayed higher inhibitory activities, the range of their IC50 was from 0.1 μmol/L to 3μmol/L. Their structural scaffolds are novel and different from those of NA inhibitors approved for influenza treatment, and will be useful for the design and research of new NA inhibitors. The resuit indicated that the combination of virtual screening with HTS was very significant to drug screening and drug discovery.

  9. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  10. The Danish Cardiovascular Screening Trial (DANCAVAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Søgaard, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    to cardiovascular seven-faceted screening examinations at one of four locations. The screening will include: (1) low-dose non-contrast CT scan to detect coronary artery calcification and aortic/iliac aneurysms, (2) brachial and ankle blood pressure index to detect peripheral arterial disease and hypertension, (3...... numbered 67+ will be offered screening; the others will act as a control group. BLINDING: Only those randomized to the screening will be invited to the examination;the remaining participants will not. Numbers randomized: A total of 45,000 men will be randomized 1:2. Recruitment: Enrollment started October....../iliac aneurysms) and measurements of the ankle brachial blood pressure index (ABI) as part of a multifocal screening and intervention program for CVD in men aged 65-74. Attendance rate and compliance to initiated preventive actions must be expected to become of major importance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current...

  11. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  12. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies.

  13. Anti-screening ferromagnetic superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Olesen, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Ginzburg-Landau mean field theory of ferromagnetic superconductors with complex order parameter $\\psi_i, i=1,2,3$. Below the critical temperature superconductivity is generated by means of a tachyonic term in the free energy $-\\alpha |\\psi_i|^2$ $(\\alpha>0)$, stabilized by a $\\psi^4$-term. However, we show that when $\\alpha$ becomes negative superconductivity can also be generated spontaneously by the magnetic field through the Zeeman like coupling between the field and the spin of the order parameter, in analogy with what happens in W-meson condensation. We also show that this mechanism leads to a vortex lattice which has anti-screening currents, enhancing the magnetic field instead of counteracting it. The lattice of vortices is a collective phenomenon where the individual elements do not exist in isolated form. If the parameter $\\alpha$ vanishes it is possible to obtain an explicit form of the vortex lattice in terms of Weierstrass' p-function.

  14. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M;

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuable....... Different erythrocyte parameters were measured on a hematological analyzer serially throughout and during a 4 week wash-out period. By using RBCHb:RetHb ratio cut-off limits of 145.7 (1:100) ('suspicious') and 182.9 (1:1000) ('positive'), 35.4% (-80 T) and 19.6% (+4 T) of all samples obtained during a 4...... week wash-out period were identified as 'suspicious', and 18.8% (-80 T) and 4.3% (+4 T) as 'positive'. In total, 7 out of 16 (43.8%) subjects had at least one sample exceeding 182.9. Compared to the currently used indirect parameters, the RBCHb:RetHb ratio is the best indicator of autologous blood...

  15. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 – 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2; fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  16. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, R.; Marra, M.; Montagnese, C.; De Rosa, E.; Onufrio, M.; Amato, V.; Santarpia, L.; De Caprio, C.; Contaldo, F.; Pasanisi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 - 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2 fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  17. Whole-body MRI screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, Ralf [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Hosten, Norbert (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald (Germany). Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2014-07-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  18. Whole-body MRI screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  19. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  20. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  1. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  2. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-03-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  3. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  4. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method

  5. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  6. 77 FR 39986 - Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection, Health Screening Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be...: Title: Health Screening Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0164. Expiration Date of Approval: January...

  7. Energy on the big screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It was on the initiative of the Swiss Scientific Film Association that the first International Festival of Films on Energy Lausanne (FIFEL) was held in 1986. At the end of 1990, it was taken over by the Electricity Authority of the French-speaking Cantons (OFEL). A foundation was set up in 1991 by a group of the different participants in the event: the Swiss Confederation, the Vaud Canton, the Lausanne Municipality, the Federal Institute of Technology, and Eurelectric. These were joined by major energy bodies, such as the Swiss Association for Wood Energy, the French-Swiss Electricity Board, the Gas Industry and the Oil Union. From then on the festival elected for diversity, to become the only festival in the world where all energy forms are taken into account without discrimination. Organised at two yearly intervals, each festival has adopted a specific theme, and since 1994 has kicked off with an opening lecture dealing with energy in each speaker's own terms of reference. The next festival - henceforth Energy Film Festival Lausanne - will take place on 15th and 16th March 2001 at the Palais de Beaulieu in Lausanne during the Home and Garden Show. It will present two themes: 'Energy on Wide Screen' and 'Advertising spots on Energy'. These productions correspond to the widest possible scope of cinematographic expression, ranging from the documentary, with its varying degrees of technicality, through fiction, to cartoons for didactic purposes or fun. Whereas the 15th March will be devoted to the screening of films in competition, the 16th March will come to a climax with a programme organised jointly by Energy Film Festival Lausanne and the French-Swiss Federation of Communication and Publicity (FRP). On this day, a conference and debate will be given by renowned speakers such as Mr. Patrice Kreis, director of communication, Electricite de France (EDF), Mr. Patrick Magd, his counterpart at Gaz de France (GDF), and the head of the disaster unit of the

  8. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key

  9. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  10. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-01-01

    screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved......The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased...

  11. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  12. Education to increase sexual health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Andrew

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections among young people aged 16-24 years have soared in recent years. Opportunistic screening for chlamydia and other STIs identifies asymptomatic infection but encouraging this group to take up screening remains a major challenge. National guidance recommends structured one-to-one discussions with young people to achieve behavioural change. Although opportunities for this are rare, the sexual health outreach team in Nottingham has developed an interactive educational module for use with groups of young people and combined it with sexual health screening, with initial positive results.

  13. The field of a screened magnetic dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. M.; Miller, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to quantitatively study the asymptotic behavior of the dipole magnetic field in the tail region of a paraboloidal or cylindrical model of the magnetosphere, assuming the complete screening of the internal field by magnetopause currents. This screening assumption is equivalent to imposing the boundary condition that the normal component of the magnetic field is zero at the magnetopause. With this boundary condition, the screened dipole field falls off exponentially with distance down the tail, in sharp constrast to the bare dipole field. Analytic expressions for a cylindrical and paraboloidal magnetopause are given.

  14. Screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E J; Ross, R; Hurley, R

    1981-06-01

    The prevalence of antibody against Toxoplasma gondi in a population of 715 pregnant women has been evaluated by two methods: indirect haemagglutination antibody (IHA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and all positive sera were checked by the dye test. Five hundred of the study population were questioned on diet and on animal contact to elucidate a possible relation to the prevalence of antibody. Results are expressed in international units (IU) of antibody against T gondi. Of the 715 sera, 171 were positive by IHA and 173 by IFA. One hundred and sixty-seven sera were positive by both tests, ninety-eight (58%) correlating exactly, as to the concentration of antibody. The ten sera which were not positive by both tests all had detectable antibody at the minimum concentration only (12 IU). The dye test confirmed all sera positive by both tests with the exception of three. It also confirmed one of four sera positive by IHA antibody alone and two of six positive by IFA alone. All sera that proved dye test-negative had low antibody concentrations (12 IU) by IHA or IFA. The IHA test, which is commercially available in kit form, would be suitable for use as a screening test during pregnancy. The estimated annual rate of antibody acquisition over the age range 16-40 years is 1.2% per annum with the highest rate in the 36-40 age group (2.5% per annum) and the lowest in the 26-30 age group (0.4% per annum). The clinical history was not significantly different between those with and those without antibody against T gondi but significantly more women in the 36-40 age group had a history of animal contact than those in the 26-30 age group. No conclusive evidence of recent or current infection was found.

  15. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  16. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE and prostate specific antigen (PSA tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL. Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL. Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  18. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A;

    2014-01-01

    rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low (uptake is higher (74 and > 90% respectively......BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake......), in an attempt to explain the observed variation in national uptake rates. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach with an embedded design: a) documentary analysis and b) expert stakeholder analysis. National central statistical offices and legal documents were studied first to gain insight in demographic...

  19. National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and benefits, show which ones provide the greatest benefits for a specified level of harm. Are there radiation exposure risks associated with repeat CT scans? The radiation exposures from the screening done in ...

  20. Newborn Screening Disorders, California, 2009-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table presents counts of disorders that have been diagnosed by the California Newborn Screening program during the five-year period from 2009 through 2014....

  1. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others. Notes 1 clinicians Health care professionals, including doctors, nurses, physicians assistants, and nurse practitioners. screen Take a ... drugs. Even though the Task Force recommends that doctors and nurses offer you an HIV test, you can choose ...

  2. Ferritin >1000: grand for hemochromatosis screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Waalen and colleagues describe one-time screening using serum ferritin (SF) greater than 1000 μg/L to detect HFE hemochromatosis and increased risk of cirrhosis in non-Hispanic white individuals.

  3. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) is a geographically-based model that helps policy makers and communities explore data on releases of toxic...

  4. RNAi Screening of Leukemia Cells Using Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupriya; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-mediated screening has been an integral tool for biological discovery for the past 15 years. A variety of approaches have been employed for implementation of this technique, including pooled, depletion/enrichment screening with lentiviral shRNAs, and segregated screening of panels of individual siRNAs. The latter approach of siRNA panel screening requires efficient methods for transfection of siRNAs into the target cells. In the case of suspension leukemia cell lines and primary cells, many of the conventional transfection techniques using liposomal or calcium phosphate-mediated transfection provide very low efficiency. In this case, electroporation is the only transfection technique offering high efficiency transfection of siRNAs into the target leukemia cells. Here, we describe methods for optimization and implementation of siRNA electroporation into leukemia cell lines and primary patient specimens, and we further offer suggested electroporation settings for some commonly used leukemia cell lines. PMID:27581286

  5. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  6. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.;

    2013-01-01

    constrained properties related to chemical reaction equilibrium, substrate and product solubility, water solubility, boiling points, toxicity and others. Two examples are provided, covering the screening of solvents for lipase-catalyzed transesterification of octanol and inulin with vinyl laurate...

  7. NIDA Drug Use Screening Tool API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web-based interactive tool provides clinicians with a single-question quick screen about past year alcohol, tobacco, illegal and nonmedical prescription drug...

  8. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  9. Screening for transgenic Japanese quail offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Lansford, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    After mosaic founder breeding pairs of Japanese quail start to produce fertile eggs, the hatchlings must be screened for germ-line transmission to the subsequent G1 generation. This article describes how to isolate hatchling genomic DNA from the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which remains inside the egg after hatching. Collecting genomic DNA from the CAM decreases the hatchling's stress during handling and eliminates the need for a blood draw. By following this protocol, the CAM of a single egg will provide 50 microg or more of high-quality genomic DNA. The article also describes how to screen the genomic DNA samples for the transgene by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR genotyping should be used for screening hatchlings with a nonfluorescent transgene or with a fluorescently labeled transgene that does not lend itself well to phenotypic screening. PMID:20147014

  10. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... May and October 2014, before and after a performance feedback intervention in August 2014. The outcomes of interest were overall tuberculosis suspicion rate during consultations and provider adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the World Health Organizations' guidelines...

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)

  12. Virtual screening - what does it give us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    In current pharmaceutical research, lead compounds of high quality and structural diversity are key to the successful optimization of development candidates. In-house compound libraries at pharmaceutical companies, tested using HTS assays, are the major source of leads for new projects. However, these physically existing compounds, stored in microtiter plates in dispensaries, represent only a tiny fraction of the drug-like chemical space. Virtual screening offers many possibilities for new structures beyond those found in in-house libraries. During the last decade, a huge number of different virtual screening methods have been reported and used to search for novel bioactive compounds for many targets. This review addresses the current status of virtual screening, highlighting achievements as well as challenges, along with the value of virtual screening, and recent examples of successful applications.

  13. Products for Security Screening of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening electronic products are used to detect concealed weapons, explosives or other contraband without requiring physical contact ... or Gamma Radiation safety standard should include as part of their radiation safety report: how the product ...

  14. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  15. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  16. Calculations of electron screening in muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron screening in mounic atoms (O, Al, Fe, In, Ho, Au, Th) has been calculated for p3/2, d5/2 and f7/2 levels with nμ=3/2, d5/2 and f7/2 muons up to nμ=30. Screening corrections are also given for electron configurations with holes in the K and L3 shell. (orig.)

  17. Population screening for genetic susceptibility to disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, A.

    1995-01-01

    Genetic screening for susceptibility to common diseases, such as the common cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, may soon be technically feasible. Commercial interests should not be allowed to introduce such screening before proper evaluation or without adequate counselling and support. The evaluation of such testing should include psychosocial and medical outcomes and outcomes for those given low risks as well as high risks. These tests may distract attention away from environmenta...

  18. Cervical screening: Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) as triage and test of cure was introduced into the Northern Ireland Cervical Screening Programme on Monday 28 January 2013. This policy change will significantly alter the screening pathway for women with a mild dyskaryosis or borderline smear result. The link between HR-HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer has now been clearly established, with almost 100% of cervical cancers containing HPV DNA. Women with no evidence of HR-...

  19. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdoo, Krishan; Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties wer...

  20. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Bacria; Nicolae Herişanu

    2011-01-01

    The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against ...

  1. Screen Layout Methods for Multidimensional Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Matthew O.; Keim, Daniel A.

    1997-01-01

    The location of graphical entities such as data points, glyphs, or icons in a display is important to convey significant information about the relations between entities. Thr screen layout problem manifests itself in many arras, including data and information visualization, and many strategies have been developed in each domain. The goal of this paper is to identify and unite a variety of screen layout techniques from different disciplines, correlate techniques with implicit and explicit rela...

  2. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis ar...

  3. Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Existing disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We sought to assess preferred sources of colonoscopy screening information among Hispanics in East Harlem, NY. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among average-risk for CRC, non-symptomatic Hispanics in community-based sites and health clinics. SPSS 16 analysis explored the relationships between sociodemographic and health care variables and preferred sources of colonoscopy information for 395 participants. The top fou...

  4. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  5. Simulation of the screening process on a circularly vibrating screen using 3D-DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lala; Zhao Yuemin; Liu Chusheng; Li Jun; Dong Hailin

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study of the motion particulates follow along a circularly vibrating screen deck was done using the three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM).The motion of the particles was analyzed.The effects of vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle on the screening process are discussed.The results show that the average velocity of the particles increases along the longitudinal direction of the deck.The screening efficiency is highest when the vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle are 3-3.5 mm,2.7 and 15°,respectively.This work is helpful for developing a deep understanding of particle motion and for optimizing screen separator designs.

  6. Pancreatic cancer screening: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Helmstädter, Lars; Riemann, Jürgen F

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a median survival of approximately 6 months after diagnosis. Many factors are associated with a worse outcome; examples include late diagnosis, low resection rate, aggressive tumor behavior and a lack of an effective chemotherapy regimen. Owing to the low prevalence of pancreatic cancer relative to the diagnostic accuracy of present detection methods and the absence of promising treatment modalities, even in early stages, it is currently neither advisable nor cost effective to screen the general population. Efforts are focused on early screening of selected high-risk-cohorts, who account for approximately 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer. These include patients with chronic pancreatitis, individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer, patients with hereditary pancreatitis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, cystic fibrosis or familial atypical multiple mole melanoma. At present, a multimodal-screening approach of endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography appears to be the most effective method to screen for pancreatic cancer in high-risk patients. Continued efforts are needed to elucidate effective testing to identify patients with nonhereditary risk factors who will benefit from screening protocols. A combined approach of serum markers, genetic markers and specific imaging studies may prove to be the future of pancreatic screening. PMID:19210116

  7. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  8. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  9. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  10. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  11. Setting up an HIV screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A; Dodd, R Y

    1989-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) screening programs currently are based primarily on the detection of specific HIV-1 antibodies by the commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) combined with highly specific confirmation procedures. Factors to be considered in establishing a screening program include test performance characteristics, economy, confidentiality and notification procedures, legal and regulatory issues, proficiency and quality control measures, and laboratory safety. Commercial EIA screening in conjunction with a licensed Western blot assay permits the classification of all but a few serum samples into HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative categories. The occasional indeterminate results often can be resolved by following a defined retesting/resampling algorithm or by using research-level test procedures that may become available for diagnostic use in the future. Although screening of patient populations with an increased risk of HIV-1 exposure will improve the predictive accuracy of an initial screening assay, confirmation testing should nonetheless be performed for all EIA reactive sera regardless of the source. Local HIV-1 screening programs that meet minimum-volume requirements can result in considerable savings and flexibility for a moderate-size institution. However, before this type of program is undertaken, numerous technical and ethical considerations need to be addressed.

  12. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  13. Two-view versus single-view mammography at subsequent screening in a region of the Dutch breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively determined the effect of analogue two-view mammography versus single-view mammography at subsequent screens on breast cancer detection and determined financial consequences for a current digital mammography setting. Two screening radiologists reviewed the mammograms of 536 screen detected cancers (SDCs) and 171 interval cancers (ICs) with single-view mammography (medio-lateral-oblique view) at the last but one screen (SDCs) or latest screen (ICs). They determined whether two-view mammography at the last (but one) screen could have increased the cancer detection rate at that screening round. For subsequent screens, the radiologists also assessed the percentage of SDCs and ICs that had been missed at previous two-view screening mammography (SDC) or latest two-view screening (IC), respectively. Additional personnel and digital storage costs for standard two-view mammography at subsequent screening were calculated for digital screening. Two-view mammography could have facilitated earlier cancer detection in 40.9% (219/536) of SDCs and 39.8% (68/171) of ICs. For two-view screens, 24.4% of SDCs (213/871) were missed at previous two-view screening and 29.3% of ICs (110/375) were missed at the latest screen. Overall costs increase € 1.03/screen after implementation of digital two-view mammography. Standard two-view mammography at subsequent screening may modestly increase cancer detection at an earlier stage, whereas additional screening costs are limited

  14. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  15. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. PMID:19363796

  16. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  17. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

  18. Should adults be screened for celiac disease? What are the benefits and harms of screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Pekka

    2005-04-01

    The symptoms of celiac disease are diverse, and the disease is often asymptomatic. Without active serologic screening, most cases probably remain undiagnosed. Recent serologic screening assays allow mass screening for the disease. However, there is no evidence as yet to suggest that symptom-free celiac disease patients run an increased risk of small intestinal lymphoma or other complications. The prevention of osteoporosis seems to be the strongest indicator for widespread screening today. Screening asymptomatic individuals for celiac disease may be even harmful. A lifelong gluten-free diet is not easy to maintain, and the subject's quality of life may deteriorate. It is also debatable whether patients found by active screening adhere to a gluten-free diet similarly to symptomatic ones. The cost-effectiveness of population screening is dubious. Serologic screening should be applied in individuals with even subtle symptoms indicative of celiac disease, such as subclinical-isolated iron deficiency. In various autoimmune conditions, the risk of celiac disease is approximately 5% and, in individuals with affected first-degree relatives, 15%. Infertility, neurologic symptoms such as polyneuropathy, ataxia, epilepsy with posterior cerebral calcification, and osteoporosis are conditions in which celiac disease should be kept in mind. Elevated aminotransferases and liver failure can lead to a diagnosis of celiac disease. Evidence today does not support mass screening of celiac disease. Instead, increased alertness should be observed in patients at risk of the condition. PMID:15825117

  19. Preprocessing and Screen-Cursor Mapping for a Virtual TouchScreen on a Projected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Das,; Dwijen Rudrapal,; Anupam Jamatia,; Lalita Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Touch Screen, on a projected area, is a system in which the projection on any ordinary flat surface provides us a graphical work-field for controlling specific kind of operations without anysophisticated touch sensors. Moreover, an ordinary screen area can be transformed into virtual touch screen with the use of a webcam and a projector. The webcam can take the picture of an indicator whichmay be a human finger with LEDs on its tip and then the touch screen is simulated by locating th...

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  1. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  2. Combination of hearing screening and genetic screening for deafness-susceptibility genes in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gen-Dong; Li, Shou-Xia; Chen, Ding-Li; Feng, Hai-Qin; Zhao, Su-Bin; Liu, Yong-Jie; Guo, Li-Li; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Cai-Xia; Wang, Ze-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the results of screening of newborn hearing and the incidence of deafness-susceptibility genes. One thousand newborn babies in the Handan Center Hospital (Handan, China) underwent screening of hearing and deafness-susceptibility genes. The first screening test was carried out using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Babies with hearing loss who failed to pass the initial screening were scheduled for rescreening at 42 days after birth. Cord blood was used for the screening of deafness-susceptibility genes, namely the GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MTRNR1) genes. Among the 1,000 neonates that underwent the first hearing screening, 25 exhibited left-sided hearing loss, 21 exhibited right-sided hearing loss and 15 cases had binaural hearing loss. After rescreening 42 days later, only one of the initial 61 cases exhibited hearing loss under OAE testing. The neonatal deafness gene tests showed two cases with 1555A>G mutation and two cases with 1494C>T mutation of the MTRNR1 gene. In the SLC26A4 gene screening, four cases exhibited the heterozygous IVS7-2A>G mutation and one case exhibited heterozygous 1226G>A mutation. In the GJB2 gene screening, two cases exhibited the homozygous 427C>T mutation and 10 exhibited the heterozygous 235delC mutation. The genetic screening revealed 21 newborns with mutations in the three deafness-susceptibility genes. The overall carrier rate was 2.1% (21/1,000). The association of hearing and gene screening may be the promising screening strategy for the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  3. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  4. Lung cancer screening and video-assisted thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Dirksen, Asger;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to report the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening on the use of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) in a randomized screening trial.......The objective of this study is to report the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening on the use of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) in a randomized screening trial....

  5. The Performance of Two Pathological Gambling Screens in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; McCausland, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of two pathological gambling (PG) screening instruments, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and the Massachusetts Gambling Screen-DSM-IV subscale (MAGS), were explored in a sample of college students (N = 159). Participants completed the two screening instruments, a diagnostic interview for PG, the Gambling-Timeline…

  6. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SCREEN PARAMETERS ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝林; A.C.Apling

    1996-01-01

    A series of laboratory screening tests have been performed with the objective of evaluating the effect of feed rate, screen length and screen motion on the quality of separation. The separation performance has been evaluated by the use of proposed ISO Standard measures which are based on the partition curve. The laboratory rig, the test programme and results derived from it are discussed. The effect of screen length, feed rate and screen motion on the levels of screen performance as indicated by these measures and a normalised separation size parameter are discussed in relation to the assumed screening conditions for the tests reported and conclusions are summarised.

  8. Four Principles to Consider Before Advising Women on Screening Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, John D; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    screening cannot reliably correct for selection bias. The final principle is that accounting for tumor biology is important for accurate estimates of lead time, and the potential benefit from screening. Since "early detection" is actually late in a tumor's lifetime, the time window when screen detection......This article reviews four important screening principles applicable to screening mammography in order to facilitate informed choice. The first principle is that screening may help, hurt, or have no effect. In order to reduce mortality and mastectomy rates, screening must reduce the rate of advanced...

  9. Effects of mammography screening under different screening schedules: Model estimates of potential benefits and harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); S. Bailey (Stephanie); D.A. Berry (Donald); H.J. de Koning (Harry); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H. Huang (Hailiang); S.J. Lee (Stephanie Joi); M.F. Munsell (Mark); S.K. Plevritis (Sylvia); P.M. Ravdin (P.); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); B. Sigal (Bronislava); M.A. Stoto (Michael); N.K. Stout (Natasha); N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); J. Venier (John); M. Zelen (Marvin); E. Feuer (Eric)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite trials of mammography and widespread use, optimal screening policy is controversial. Objective: To evaluate U.S. breast cancer screening strategies. Design: 6 models using common data elements. Data Sources: National data on age-specific incidence, competing mortality

  10. The potential harms of primary human papillomavirus screening in over-screened women: a microsimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Naber (Steffie); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is well acknowledged that HPV testing should not be performed at young age and at short intervals. Cytological screening practices have shown that over-screening, i.e., from a younger age and at shorter intervals than recommended, is hard to avoid. We quantified the conseq

  11. A Method for Universal Screening of Elementary School Students: Development of the Social Challenges Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Stein, Alexander J.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Matthews, Nicole L.; Openden, Daniel; Melmed, Raun D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools regularly screen students for hearing and vision impairments because they present impediments to academic progress. For the same reason, schools should consider adding a universal screening for social challenges, which may also impede the learning process. This study reports on the development of the Social Challenges Screening…

  12. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  13. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI): A Screening Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Leone, Sarah L.; Lecavalier, Luc; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the preliminary validity and utility of the "Ghuman-Folstein Screen for Social Interaction" ("SSI"), a measure of social interaction that can serve to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in clinical samples of young high-risk children. Caregivers of 350 children (176 younger participants, ages 24-42 months, mean age = 34.1…

  14. Compliance after 17 years of breast cancer screening - Factors associated with reattendance for periodic breast screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ScafKlomp, W; VanSonderen, E; VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    The motives and reasons for regular attendance, irregular attendance and drop-out were studied in women who were enrolled in a biennial breast screening programme in 1975 and who were invited to each subsequent screening round until 1992. Three compliance groups were compared: 'attended all rounds'

  15. Domestic violence screening in a military setting: provider screening and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Monica; Busch, Jeanne; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2010-06-01

    Domestic violence is an important healthcare problem, and it appears more prevalent in military patient populations although no one has demonstrated the cause behind this phenomenon. The purpose of this observational study was to assess data regarding domestic violence screening from practitioners at one military training center. This study used an anonymous questionnaire for physicians, nurses and nurse midwives, which surveyed current methods, attitudes toward screening, and barriers for such assessment. Fifty-seven surveys were distributed, and 26 were returned for a response rate of 45.6%. Only about a third (38.5%) of the practitioners screened all obstetric patients while the remainder screened selected patients for domestic violence. Even less (19%) screened gynecology patients routinely, whereas 69% reported they screened selected women with chronic or somatic complaints. A history of prior abuse in the respondents led practitioners to try to identify such patients within their practice. Lack of education or training was the most common barrier to universal screening followed by time constraints and frustration about not being able to address adequately the problem when noted. These results emphasized the importance of an educational program to increase domestic violence awareness and routine screening. PMID:20830952

  16. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  17. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  18. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : the feasibility and specificity of screening in real life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Margriet M.; Stoutenbeek, Remco; Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and specificity of glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: In four optician shops, glaucoma screening was offered to 400 consecutive visitors aged 45 years or above. If the visitor agreed to participate, an intraocular pressure measurement an

  19. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... more specific chemical effects on the endocrine system, and are currently in the process of being... substance interferes with the endocrine systems of humans or other species simply because it has been listed... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening...

  20. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  1. Microfluidic-Enabled Print-to-Screen Platform for High-Throughput Screening of Combinatorial Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhe; Li, Jiannan; Xiao, Wenwu; Xiao, Kai; Lee, Joyce; Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Zhu, Zijie; Digiglio, Philip; Yang, Gaomai; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-10-20

    Since the 1960s, combination chemotherapy has been widely utilized as a standard method to treat cancer. However, because of the potentially enormous number of drug candidates and combinations, conventional identification methods of the effective drug combinations are usually associated with significantly high operational costs, low throughput screening, laborious and time-consuming procedures, and ethical concerns. In this paper, we present a low-cost, high-efficiency microfluidic print-to-screen (P2S) platform, which integrates combinatorial screening with biomolecular printing for high-throughput screening of anticancer drug combinations. This P2S platform provides several distinct advantages and features, including automatic combinatorial printing, high-throughput parallel drug screening, modular disposable cartridge, and biocompatibility, which can potentially speed up the entire discovery cycle of potent drug combinations. Microfluidic impact printing utilizing plug-and-play microfluidic cartridges is experimentally characterized with controllable droplet volume and accurate positioning. Furthermore, the combinatorial print-to-screen assay is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept biological experiment which can identify the positive hits among the entire drug combination library in a parallel and rapid manner. Overall, this microfluidic print-to-screen platform offers a simple, low-cost, high-efficiency solution for high-throughput large-scale combinatorial screening and can be applicable for various emerging applications in drug cocktail discovery. PMID:26334956

  2. Low background screening capability in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment

  3. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  4. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  5. Screening mechanisms at polar oxide heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungbum; Nakhmanson, Serge M.; Fong, Dillon D.

    2016-07-01

    The interfaces of polar oxide heterostructures can display electronic properties unique from the oxides they border, as they require screening from either internal or external sources of charge. The screening mechanism depends on a variety of factors, including the band structure at the interface, the presence of point defects or adsorbates, whether or not the oxide is ferroelectric, and whether or not an external field is applied. In this review, we discuss both theoretical and experimental aspects of different screening mechanisms, giving special emphasis to ways in which the mechanism can be altered to provide novel or tunable functionalities. We begin with a theoretical introduction to the problem and highlight recent progress in understanding the impact of point defects on polar interfaces. Different case studies are then discussed, for both the high thickness regime, where interfaces must be screened and each interface can be considered separately, and the low thickness regime, where the degree and nature of screening can be manipulated and the interfaces are close enough to interact. We end with a brief outlook toward new developments in this rapidly progressing field.

  6. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghag, Chamkaur [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  7. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  8. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  9. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  10. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  11. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Four Principles to Consider Before Advising Women on Screening Mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, John D; Jørgensen, Karsten J

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews four important screening principles applicable to screening mammography in order to facilitate informed choice. The first principle is that screening may help, hurt, or have no effect. In order to reduce mortality and mastectomy rates, screening must reduce the rate of advanced disease, which likely has not happened. Through overdiagnosis, screening produces substantial harm by increasing both lumpectomy and mastectomy rates, which offsets the often-promised bene...

  13. Richtlijn 'screening en diagnostiek van het mammacarcinoom' (herziening).

    OpenAIRE

    Zonderland, H. M.; Tuut, M.K.; den Heeten, G. J.; van Asperen, C J; de Bock, G H; Rutqers, E.J.; Westenend, P.J.; Smit, G.M.; Benraadt, J.

    2008-01-01

    Revised practice guideline 'Screening and diagnosis of breast cancer' The evidence-based revision of the practice guideline 'Screening and diagnosis of breast cancer' was necessitated by new insights, for instance on the cost-effectiveness of screening modalities other than mammography. Mammography is the only screening modality that is recommended for the general population. In the Netherlands, women from 50-75 years of age are invited for screening. However, in view of the ongoing increase ...

  14. Evaluation of Screening Techniques for Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    Woody plant herbicide screening techniques were evaluated in an attempt to expedite the screening process and decrease amounts of herbicide active ingredient required. Rapid greenhouse screening of woody plant seedlings was performed in less than six months while rapid seed screening was performed in less than twenty days. A traditional field screen, requiring ten months, was performed for comparison purposes. Leaf area â biomass ratios were also examined for their influence on herbicide...

  15. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected.

  16. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. PMID:26354136

  17. Economics of blood screening: in search of an optimal blood screening strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkhumba, Jobiba

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to assess the economic impact that the practice of 'family replacement donor system' has on the operational costs of a rural blood bank and to rationalize efficient blood screening protocols with a view to minimizing blood screening costs without compromising blood safety. Prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis were ascertained from records of 870 potential donors screened over a period of 6 months. Costs of screening tests were approximated by summing up costs of materials used per test. Overhead and labour costs were not factored in. Average and marginal costs of a fully-screened blood unit were calculated using different blood screening protocols. The average and marginal costs of a fully-screened blood unit vary greatly depending on the order in which screening tests are conducted. Although the variation in average costs per blood unit among different protocols is narrow, US 29.44 dollars to US 33 dollars, the variation in marginal costs is significantly wider ranging from US 22.79 dollars to US 51.85 dollars. Overall, 78 (9%) of the potential donors had HIV infection while 25 (3.2%) had hepatitis B infections and nine (1.2%) donors had syphilis. Co-infection rate was very low at 1.4%. The study shows that it is possible to prioritize blood screening tests for the selection of safe blood donors simply and cost-effectively in a developing country hospital. In the face of rapid rises in health-care spending, it is very important that essential health services such as blood screening are safely delivered with as little expenditure of financial resources as possible. To make sound economic decisions, average cost is not what matters but marginal cost, the cost of one more test. PMID:16483429

  18. Unintended Consequences of Screening for Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Laura Johnson; Doubeni, Chyke A

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) reached the United States in September 2014, leading the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to publish screening guidelines to identify patients with high-risk exposures at their first point of contact with the health care system. In West Africa, the burden of EVD is superimposed on the trauma of decades of civil war, violence, and poverty. Therefore, an important consideration in implementing screening procedures in the United States is the potential to unintentionally exacerbate posttraumatic stress disorder, or add additional stress from stigma and discrimination, among the West African diaspora. We recommend rigorous research to develop and implement evidence-based, trauma-informed approaches to screening for communicable diseases during outbreaks, using principles of community-engaged or community-based participatory research. PMID:26180954

  19. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  20. The Shape Dependence of Vainshtein Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Scalar field theories that possess a Vainshtein mechanism are able to dynamically suppress the associated fifth forces in the presence of massive sources through derivative non-linearities. The resulting equations of motion for the scalar are highly non-linear and therefore very few analytic solutions are known. Here we present a brief investigation of the structure of Vainshtein screening in symmetrical configurations, focusing in particular on the spherical, cylindrical and planar solutions that are relevant for observations of the cosmic web. We consider Vainshtein screening in both the Galileon model, where the non-linear terms involve second derivatives of the scalar, and a k-essence theory, where the non-linear terms involve only first derivatives of the scalar. We find that screening, and consequently the suppression of the scalar force, is most efficient around spherical sources, weaker around cylindrical sources and can be absent altogether around planar sources.

  1. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  2. Investigations of OTR screen surfaces and shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, C P; Lefèvre, T

    2006-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has proven to be a flexible and effective tool for measuring a wide range of beam parameters, in particular the beam divergence and the transverse beam profile. It is today an established and widely used diagnostic method providing linear real-time measurements. Measurements in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) showed that the performance of the present profile monitors is limited by the optical acceptance of the imaging system. In this paper, two methods to improve the systems' performance are presented and results from measurements are shown. First, the influence of the surface quality of the OTR screen itself is addressed. Several possible screen materials have been tested to which different surface treatment techniques were applied. Results from the measured optical characteristics are given. Second, a parabolic-shaped screen support was investigated with the aim of providing an initial focusing of the emitted radiation and thus to reduce the problem of aperture limitation.

  3. Screening of Trichoderma strains tolerant to benzimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren; ZENG Yong-san; ZHOU Hong-zi; YU Jin-feng; JIANG Xin-yin; ZHANG Yue-li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The screening of isolates and the assay of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma were studied systematically in laboratory and greenhouse in vivo. The proteins tolerant to benzimidazole in Trichoderma strains were purified, and their physical and chemical properties were detected. Compared their biological activities in vitro and vivo in greenhouse, nine biocontrol strains (including Ty- 10-2, LTR-2, Tj-5-1, Tj-5-4, Ty- 11-1, Tj-11-3, Ty- 11-3, Tj-3-3-2, Tj-3-3-4) were screened. These biocontrol strains had faster rates of growth and higher inhibition to gray mould (Bortrytis cinerea),and the inhibition was stable. The effects of controlling gray mould in greenhouse with the screened Trichoderma strains were 70 % and 50 % in vivo.

  4. The dose from Compton backscatter screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rez, Peter; Metzger, Robert L; Mossman, Kenneth L

    2011-04-01

    Systems based on the detection of Compton backscattered X rays have been deployed for screening personnel for weapons and explosives. Similar principles are used for screening vehicles at border-crossing points. Based on well-established scattering cross sections and absorption coefficients in conjunction with reasonable estimates of the image contrast and resolution, the entrance skin dose and the dose at a depth of 1 cm can be calculated. The effective dose can be estimated using the same conversion coefficients as used to convert exposure measurements to the effective dose. It is shown that the effective dose is highly dependent on image resolution (i.e. pixel size).The effective doses for personnel screening systems are unlikely to be in compliance with the American National Standards Institute standard NS 43.17 unless the pixel sizes are >4 mm. Nevertheless, calculated effective doses are well below doses associated with health effects. PMID:21068018

  5. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)

  6. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Serafim, W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  8. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spitaleri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective “screening” potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. In this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the “electron screening puzzle”, the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  9. Education for screen use as holistic praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. José Antonio Gabelas Barroso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available New generations maintain a very close daily relationship with screens (television, Internet, video consoles and mobile telephones. A lot of their leisure time centres on these means of communication with a double purpose: either for playing or communicating with others. These are the two dimensions (recreational and social that dominate the choice of these types of communication in order to entertain oneself and/or establish relationships with their groups of friends. The trend in the consumption of screens has distanced television from its previous monopoly and has meant that it has to share young people’s leisure time with other advanced technological supports. The health of children and adolescents involves educating them towards a healthy and responsible consumption of all screens, in a balanced way as regards dosis and planning, and with criteria as regards the content that could endanger them and the level of their cognitive development.

  10. Screening-induced carrier transport in silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Boltzmann transport equation in the MRT approximation, we present a theory to investigate low-field carrier transport in dual-gated silicene FETs by taking into account screened charged impurity scattering, which is the most likely scattering mechanism limiting the conductivity. Static RPA dielectric screening is also included in the conductivity calculation to study temperature-dependent silicene transport. It is found that both calculated conductivity and band gap not only depend strongly on carrier sheet density, but also depend strongly on effective offset density. More importantly, screening-induced metal-insulator-transition phenomena in buckled silicene can be observed theoretically, which is similar to that obtained in monolayer graphene. (paper)

  11. Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model

    CERN Document Server

    Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.

  12. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  13. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  14. Ethical Considerations for Perinatal Toxicology Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsman, Mindy G

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development. Concerns for unethical practices in the toxicology screening of pregnant women and their babies by risk factors that are unproven or disproven are discussed, and three goals of toxicology screening based on the ethical principles of justice and beneficence are proposed. This article will help equip neonatal nurses to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate for just screening and referral practices in their institutions and communities. PMID:27636690

  15. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. PMID:27017251

  16. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. Areas covered in this review This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. What the reader will gain These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. Take home message Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design. PMID:21691435

  17. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  18. Screening for Malnutrition in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Malnutrition risk increases with age and level of care. Despite significant medical advances, malnutrition remains a significant and highly prevalent public health problem of developed countries. Earlier identification and appropriate nutrition support may help to reverse or halt the malnutrition trajectory and the negative outcomes associated with poor nutritional status. A nutrition screening process is recommended to help detect people with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or at malnutrition risk. Evidence supports that oral nutritional supplements and dietary counseling can increase dietary intake and improve quality of life in elderly with PEM or at malnutrition risk. This article examines nutritional screening and assessment tools designated for older adults. PMID:26195101

  19. Theories of Dark Energy with Screening Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence for the existence of dark energy and dark matter, their underlying fundamental physics remains unknown. This review article explores the tantalizing possibility that the dark sector includes new light degrees of freedom that mediate long-range forces on cosmological scales. To ensure consistency with laboratory and solar system tests of gravity, some screening mechanism is necessary to "hide" these degrees of freedom locally. I will focus on two broad classes of screening theories, chameleons and symmetrons, which rely respectively on the scalar field acquiring a large mass or weak coupling in the presence of large ambient matter density.

  20. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey;

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences...... feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context...