WorldWideScience

Sample records for baggage screening

  1. A review of automated image understanding within 3D baggage computed tomography security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Andre; Breckon, Toby P

    2015-01-01

    Baggage inspection is the principal safeguard against the transportation of prohibited and potentially dangerous materials at airport security checkpoints. Although traditionally performed by 2D X-ray based scanning, increasingly stringent security regulations have led to a growing demand for more advanced imaging technologies. The role of X-ray Computed Tomography is thus rapidly expanding beyond the traditional materials-based detection of explosives. The development of computer vision and image processing techniques for the automated understanding of 3D baggage-CT imagery is however, complicated by poor image resolutions, image clutter and high levels of noise and artefacts. We discuss the recent and most pertinent advancements and identify topics for future research within the challenging domain of automated image understanding for baggage security screening CT.

  2. Working alone or in the presence of others: exploring social facilitation in baggage X-ray security screening tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-feng; Wu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the mere presence of a human audience would evoke a social facilitation effect in baggage X-ray security screening tasks. A 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) ×  2 (task complexity: simple vs. complex) ×  2 (social presence: alone vs. human audience) within-subject experiment simulating a real baggage screening task was conducted. This experiment included 20 male participants. The participants' search performance in this task was recorded. The results showed that the presence of a human audience speeded up responses in simple tasks and slowed down responses in complex tasks. However, the social facilitation effect produced by the presence of a human audience had no effect on response accuracy. These findings suggested that the complexity of screening tasks should be considered when designing work organisation modes for security screening tasks. Practitioner summary: This study investigated whether the presence of a human audience could evoke a social facilitation effect in baggage X-ray security screening tasks. An experimental simulation was conducted. The results showed that the presence of a human audience facilitated the search performance of simple tasks and inhibited the performance of complex tasks.

  3. Stress-induced cortisol secretion impairs detection performance in x-ray baggage screening for hidden weapons by screening novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Livia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Heimgartner, Nadja; Hedinger, Patrik; Hofer, Franziska; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2014-09-01

    Aviation security strongly depends on screeners' performance in the detection of threat objects in x-ray images of passenger bags. We examined for the first time the effects of stress and stress-induced cortisol increases on detection performance of hidden weapons in an x-ray baggage screening task. We randomly assigned 48 participants either to a stress or a nonstress group. The stress group was exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test (TSST). Before and after stress/nonstress, participants had to detect threat objects in a computer-based object recognition test (X-ray ORT). We repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and X-ray ORT performance before and after stress/nonstress. Cortisol increases in reaction to psychosocial stress induction but not to nonstress independently impaired x-ray detection performance. Our results suggest that stress-induced cortisol increases at peak reactivity impair x-ray screening performance.

  4. Long Term Implementation of a 100 Percent Checked Baggage Screening System: A Value Focused Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    baggage checking system. The checked baggage system in place at Dayton International Airport is an interim solution. EDS and explosive trace detection machines...system will include detection equipment such as Explosive Trace Detection (ETD) systems, EDS machines, conveyor systems, and operators necessary to run...4.1.1 Terminal Floor System – Interim as of 31 December 2002 This interim system consists of the placement of EDS and Explosive Trace Detection machines

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of the Reinforcement Function of Signal Detections in Simulated Baggage Screening: Further Support for the Vigilance Reinforcement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Lindsey C.; Bell, Matthew; Olson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The vigilance reinforcement hypothesis (VRH) asserts that errors in signal detection tasks are partially explained by operant reinforcement and extinction processes. VRH predictions were tested with a computerized baggage screening task. Our experiment evaluated the effects of signal schedule (extinction vs. variable interval 6 min) and visual…

  6. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of hold baggage for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokytha, S.; Speller, R.; Robson, S.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes a cost-effective check-in baggage screening system, based on "on-belt tomosynthesis" (ObT) and close-range photogrammetry, that is designed to address the limitations of the most common system used, conventional projection radiography. The latter's limitations can lead to loss of information and an increase in baggage handling time, as baggage is manually searched or screened with more advanced systems. This project proposes a system that overcomes such limitations creating a cost-effective automated pseudo-3D imaging system, by combining x-ray and optical imaging to form digital tomograms. Tomographic reconstruction requires a knowledge of the change in geometry between multiple x-ray views of a common object. This is uniquely achieved using a close range photogrammetric system based on a small network of web-cameras. This paper presents the recent developments of the ObT system and describes recent findings of the photogrammetric system implementation. Based on these positive results, future work on the advancement of the ObT system as a cost-effective pseudo-3D imaging of hold baggage for airport security is proposed.

  8. Subacromial shoulder disorders among baggage handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the influence of cumulative employment as baggage handler on the risk of incident subacromial shoulder disorders. Baggage handling is characterized by repetitive work primarily consisting of heavy lifting in awkward positions and time pressure. METHODS: This cohort study is based...... System. The primary exposure was cumulative years of employment as a baggage handler, and the primary outcome was diagnoses and surgical treatment of subacromial shoulder disorders. RESULTS: The cohort contained 3396 baggage handlers and 63,909 workers in the reference group. Baggage handlers with longer...... increased incidence of subacromial shoulder disorders for workers with longer cumulative years of employment. These results support that long-term lifting in awkward positions and time pressure influences the risk of subacromial shoulder disorders....

  9. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  10. Mining Risk Factors in RFID Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Calders, Toon; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    and frustration to the passengers. To remedy these problems we propose a detailed methodology for mining risk factors from Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. The factors should identify potential issues in the baggage management. However, the baggage tracking data are low level...... experimental study with real RFID baggage tracking data and it shows that the proposed methodology results in a strong classifier, and can find interesting concrete patterns and reveal useful insights of the data....

  11. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg

    2013-01-01

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated...

  12. Baggage Tags for Learning Out of Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Lib

    The manual provides teachers with not only educational outdoor activities, but also with activities that can be provided on an individual level. The only equipment needed for most of these activities is a bought or homemade "baggage tag". These tags are used for a variety of purposes such as plant and animal identification, nature quiz games, and…

  13. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  14. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...... times, the algorithm is suitable for dynamic dispatching. Investigations on the impact of uncertainty and fleet size make it possible to support a trade-off between fleet size and expected service level.......We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...

  15. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags that arrive continuously during the day. We present an IP model of the problem and describe the problem as a case study from a real life setting. We present a weighted greedy algorithm for dispatching ...

  17. Partially observable Markov decision processes for risk-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozack, Alex; Liao, Xuejun; Skatter, Sondre; Carin, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    A long-term goal for checked baggage screening in airports has been to include passenger information, or at least a predetermined passenger risk level, in the screening process. One method for including that information could be treating the checked baggage screening process as a system-of-systems. This would allow for an optimized policy builder, such as one trained using the methodology of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP), to navigate the different sensors available for screening. In this paper we describe the necessary steps to tailor a POMDP for baggage screening, as well as results of simulations for specific screening scenarios.

  18. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of baggage is stowed: (1) In a suitable closet or baggage or cargo stowage compartment placarded for... not be placed in an overhead rack unless that rack is equipped with approved restraining devices or... was type certificated. (g) In addition to the methods of stowage in paragraph (c) of this...

  19. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers...

  20. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  1. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  2. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain......, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort...... hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler...

  3. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur...... during operations. We introduce a basic static model that can be adapted to the layout of different airports. Afterwards we show how a decision support system based on a MIP-model can be designed in a dynamic real world environment. The system supports the decisions of the dispatcher during daily...... operations. Computational results for a real world problem at Frankfurt Airport are presented. At Frankfurt Airport the suggested solution method was successfully implemented and is running now for over half an year. The experiences show that the system increases the quality of the dispatching process...

  4. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  5. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  6. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  7. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  8. A Data Warehouse Solution for Analyzing RFID-Based Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    spatio-temporal Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. Analysis of this data can yield interesting results on baggage flow, the causes of baggage mishandling, and the parties responsible for the mishandling(airline, airport, handler,...), which can ultimately lead to improved...... with the appropriate tracking data from the data sources. The presented concepts are generalizable to other types of multi-site indoor tracking systems based on Bluetooth and RFID. The system has been tested with large amount of real-world RFID-based baggage tracking data from a major industry initiative...

  9. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  10. Risk factors and visual fatigue of baggage X-ray security screeners: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Feng; Yang, Lin-Dong; Wu, Xin

    2016-06-03

    This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue using structural equation modelling approach. Two hundred and five X-ray security screeners participated in a questionnaire survey. The result showed that satisfaction with the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions were negatively correlated with the intensity of visual fatigue, whereas job stress and job burnout had direct positive influences. The path coefficient between the image quality of VDT and visual fatigue was not significant. The total effects of job burnout, job stress, the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions on visual fatigue were 0.471, 0.469, -0.268 and -0.251 respectively. These findings indicated that both extrinsic factors relating to VDT and workplace environment and psychological factors including job burnout and job stress should be considered in the workplace design and work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue. The findings were of great importance to the workplace design and the work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue.

  11. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a) Procedure. Baggage in transit from point to point in Canada or Mexico through the United...

  12. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport? 303-70.301 Section 303-70.301 Public Contracts and Property... on the baggage we may transport? Yes. You may only transport government property and the...

  13. A model for transfer baggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Timler Holm, Janus; Lindorff Larsen, Jakob

    of the corresponding outbound flight. We present a static mixed integer model for the transfer baggage problem. The objective combines efficiency and quality criteria in a weighted linear function; minimizing the number of missed bags and transportation time, while ensuring a fair distribution of the workload...... and robustness. The model can be solved with a commercial MIP-solver. Furthermore, the use of the model in the dynamic environment during daily operations is introduced. The model includes two different approaches for increasing the robustness of the generated solutions. The uncertainty of the input data...

  14. Hong Kong Airport Says It Now Uses Only RFID Baggage Tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claire; Swedberg

    2009-01-01

    By using baggage tags with embedded EPC Gen 2 tags,the airport has increased the number of bags it can process by 5 percent. May 12,2009—Hong Kong International Airport(HKIA), which serves approximately 48 million passengers per year on flights to 150 locations,is now using RFID baggage tags for 100 percent of the 40,000 bags that leave the airport every day.HKIA has upgraded its former bar-code-based system with radio frequency identification, at a cost of HK$50 million(US$6.5 million).

  15. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  16. 19 CFR 148.22 - Examination of air travelers' baggage in foreign territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... territory. 148.22 Section 148.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... territory. (a) Examination and surrender of declaration. When places have been established in a foreign... the Customs territory of the United States. When baggage is examined in foreign territory, the...

  17. Observation, simulation and optimization of the movement of passengers with baggage in railway station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2015-03-01

    To propose method that can optimize the movement efficiency of passengers in the railway station and then guarantee the personal security under emergency case, we did experimental and modeling research on the movement behavior and characteristics of the passengers in a railway station. Observation experiments were conducted to analyze the process of passengers catching trains and leaving the station, through which, the phenomena of lane changing and dislocation were found in a straight channel, and seven categories of baggage were also identified in the crowd. Analysis shows that personal speed would rise as the increasing size of the baggage. A modified lattice gas model focus on the passengers carrying baggage was further built to study passengers movement characteristics. Using this model, the effect of pause probability of passengers and the effect of channel width on movement efficiency were analyzed, according to which, a management strategy to promote the flow rate of crowd in railway station was proposed. This study may be useful to study on evacuation of the railway station, control of the passengers and formulate pre-proposal on emergency evacuation.

  18. The effect of increase in baggage weight on elderly women's lower extremity muscle activation during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Nam, Chan-Woo; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of increased baggage weight on the muscle activation of elderly women's lower extremities during gait. A total of 24 elderly women who were residing in communities in Daegu, South Korea aged 79.6±6.2, 149.7±7.0cm in height, and 53.5±7.2kg in weight participated in this study. The muscle activation of each muscle was measured three times at 2kg, 3kg, and 4kg of baggage weight while the subjects were conducting treadmill walking wearing backpacks. Electrodes were placed on four muscles: the quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris), the hamstring muscle (semitendinosus), the tibialis anterior muscle, and the soleus muscle. The results show that the rates of increase in muscle activation in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles according to baggage weight increase were higher than those in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (<0.05). These results indicate that the heavier weight loads increase the activation of muscles that control the ankle joints causing muscle fatigue. Moreover, a decrease in balance ability through muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for falls. Thus, elderly people should be instructed not to carry heavy objects.

  19. Impact of Self-Reported Biases and Familiarity in a Baggage Screening Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Infrastructure Library ( ITIL ) to accomplish the most efficient Help Desk consolidation across the Command. Led the ITSM Integrated Product Team (IPT...Library ( ITIL ) v3 Foundation Certification (2007) Chief Information Officer (CIO) Certificate (2001) 76 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved

  20. A New Generation of X-ray Baggage Scanners Based on a Different Physical Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Speller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray baggage scanners play a basic role in the protection of airports, customs, and other strategically important buildings and infrastructures. The current technology of baggage scanners is based on x-ray attenuation, meaning that the detection of threat objects relies on how various objects differently attenuate the x-ray beams going through them. This capability is enhanced by the use of dual-energy x-ray scanners, which make the determination of the x-ray attenuation characteristics of a material more precise by taking images with different x-ray spectra, and combining the information appropriately. However, this still has limitations whenever objects with similar attenuation characteristics have to be distinguished. We describe an alternative approach based on a different x-ray interaction phenomenon, x-ray refraction. Refraction is a familiar phenomenon in visible light (e.g., what makes a straw half immersed in a glass of water appear bent, which also takes place in the x-ray regime, only causing deviations at much smaller angles. Typically, these deviations occur at the boundaries of all objects. We have developed a system that, like other “phase contrast” based instruments, is capable of detecting such deviations, and therefore of creating precise images of the contours of all objects. This complements the material-related information provided by x-ray attenuation, and helps contextualizing the nature of the individual objects, therefore resulting in an increase of both sensitivity (increased detection rate and specificity (reduced rate of false positives of baggage scanners.

  1. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  2. Profile of international air passengers intercepted with illegal animal products in baggage at Guarulhos and Galeão airports in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Pinheiro de Sá, Marcos Eielson; Alves, Flaviane Faria; McManus, Concepta; Aragão, Lucas Fernandes; Belo, Bruno Benin; Campani, Paulo Ricardo; da Matta Ribeiro, Antonio Cavalcanti; Seabra, Christina Isoldi; Seixas, Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Protection against biological material entering a country or region through airports is important because, through them, infectious agents can quickly reach exotic destinations and be disseminated. Illegal products of animal origin may contain hazardous infectious agents that can compromise animal and public health. The aim of this study was to identify associations between possession of illegal animal products in baggage and demographic characteristics of the passengers, as well as characteristics of their travel plans in the two main Brazilian international airports. A total of 457 passengers were divided into two groups: passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products and control. Passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products not stated on the accompanied baggage declaration completed a questionnaire, to aid in profiling. Nationality, origin, age and residency of passengers were analyzed using chi square, logistic regression and odds ratios. Passengers from Eastern Europe were the most likely to enter with animal products as were those aged between 35 and 55 years. When evaluating the departure point, the highest frequency was seen in those coming from Portugal. Passenger group, reasons for travel, amount and type of baggage were available only for passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products, noting that they prefer traveling alone, for leisure, bringing few bags. Such information can contribute to the early identification of passengers that have illegal animal products in baggage at Brazilian airports.

  3. The demand forecasting method selection of airport passenger departure checked baggage%机场离港旅客托运行李需求预测方法的选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志超

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis on the demand characteristics of airport passenger departure checked baggage, leading to checked baggage de-mand influence factors, selected the existing forecasting methods, selected the BP neural network model, analyzed its applicability, in order to accurately grasp the passengers departure checked baggage requirements, timely and effective allocation and scheduling related personnel and e-quipment.%通过分析机场离港旅客托运行李的需求特性,引出托运行李需求影响因素,对现有的预测方法进行筛选,选择了BP神经网络模型,并对其适用性进行了分析,以准确把握离港旅客的托运行李需求,及时有效地分配及调度相关人员与设备。

  4. X-ray diffraction imaging with the Multiple Inverse Fan Beam topology: principles, performance and potential for security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G; Fleckenstein, H; Kosciesza, D; Olesinski, S; Strecker, H; Theedt, T; Zienert, G

    2012-07-01

    The steadily increasing number of explosive threat classes, including home-made explosives (HMEs), liquids, amorphous and gels (LAGs), is forcing up the false-alarm rates of security screening equipment. This development can best be countered by increasing the number of features available for classification. X-ray diffraction intrinsically offers multiple features for both solid and LAGs explosive detection, and is thus becoming increasingly important for false-alarm and cost reduction in both carry-on and checked baggage security screening. Following a brief introduction to X-ray diffraction imaging (XDI), which synthesizes in a single modality the image-forming and material-analysis capabilities of X-rays, the Multiple Inverse Fan Beam (MIFB) XDI topology is described. Physical relationships obtaining in such MIFB XDI components as the radiation source, collimators and room-temperature detectors are presented with experimental performances that have been achieved. Representative X-ray diffraction profiles of threat substances measured with a laboratory MIFB XDI system are displayed. The performance of Next-Generation (MIFB) XDI relative to that of the 2nd Generation XRD 3500TM screener (Morpho Detection Germany GmbH) is assessed. The potential of MIFB XDI, both for reducing the exorbitant cost of false alarms in hold baggage screening (HBS), as well as for combining "in situ" liquid and solid explosive detection in carry-on luggage screening is outlined.

  5. Ecology: Insect thermal baggage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Strong positive selection on cold hardiness and relaxed selection on heat hardiness experienced by range-expanding populations may help to explain why ectothermic animals generally have broader thermal tolerance towards the poles, and shed new light on their climate vulnerabilities.

  6. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  7. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  8. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  10. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  11. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  12. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot become radioactive from this procedure. However, some photographic film may need to be hand-screened because ... level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum allowable ...

  13. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  14. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  15. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  16. Debye screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, David C.; Federbush, Paul

    1980-10-01

    The existence and exponential clustering of correlation functions for a classical coulomb system at low density or high temperature are proven using methods from constructive quantum field theory, the sine gordon transformation and the Glimm, Jaffe, Spencer expansion about mean field theory. This is a vindication of a belief of long standing among physicists, known as Debye screening. That is, because of special properties of the coulomb potential, the configurations of significant probability are those in which the long range parts of r -1 are mostly cancelled, leaving an effective exponentially decaying potential acting between charge clouds. This paper generalizes a previous paper of one of the authors in which these results were obtained for a special lattice system. The present treatment covers the continuous mechanics situation, with essentially arbitrary short range forces and charge species. Charge symmetry is not assumed.

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  19. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  20. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  3. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  4. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E W;

    1997-01-01

    rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... on uncertain assumptions concerning prevalence, incidence and risk of rupture. Therefore a randomized trial screening of 65-73 year old males is taking place in the County of Viborg in Denmark. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Mar-24...

  5. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Henneberg, E W;

    1997-01-01

    rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... on uncertain assumptions concerning prevalence, incidence and risk of rupture. Therefore a randomized trial screening of 65-73 year old males is taking place in the County of Viborg in Denmark....

  6. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  8. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  9. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  10. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  11. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Glaucoma The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Glaucoma . This final recommendation statement ...

  12. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  13. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity ) Screen time increases your child's risk of obesity because: Sitting and watching a screen is time that is not spent being physically active. TV commercials and other screen ads can lead to unhealthy food choices . Most of the time, the foods in ads ...

  14. Breast awareness and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  15. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...

  16. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio produc

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  18. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy.

  19. For a better control of the greenhouse gases emissions of the international maritime and aerial baggage holds: evaluation and possible actions; Pour une maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre des soutes internationales aeriennes et maritimes: constat et actions possibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassi, O. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2003-07-01

    The greenhouse gases emissions resulting from the aerial and marine baggage holds, are not taken into account in the national objectives of greenhouse gases reduction, defined by the Kyoto protocol. Thus they have to be controlled separately by each country concerned by the Kyoto protocol and urgent actions to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions are necessary. This study brings in first parts information on the context (legislation, traffic), the emission inventories and the options of allocation. It proposes then control methods and analyzes the possible measures. (A.L.B.)

  20. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  1. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  2. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  3. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  4. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  5. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  7. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  8. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  9. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  10. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  11. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  13. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  14. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  15. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  16. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  17. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...

  18. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  19. Barriers to screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  20. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  2. Screening for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  3. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among......Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...

  4. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  5. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  6. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  7. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Gaucher disease. People of African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian heritage should be offered screening for thalassemias ... Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology ...

  8. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  9. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Virtual screening against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  11. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  12. Herbicide resistance screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    Herbicide resistance screening is a method that can be used not only to determine presence of the enzyme, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, encoded by either the Bar or the Pat gene in transgenic maize, but also to assess the inheritance ratio of those genes in a segregating population. Herbicide screening can also be used to study linkage of a transgene of interest that was cotransformed with the herbicide resistance marker gene. By combining the herbicide screen assay with a PCR-based screen of leaf tissue DNA for the presence of both the Bar or the Pat gene marker and a cotransformed transgene of interest from the same seedling tissue and maintaining that seedling identity, the researcher can identify linkage or the possible breakdown in linkage of the marker gene and the transgene of interest. Further, the occurrence of "DNA silencing" can be evaluated if an individual seedling that was susceptible to the applied herbicide nonetheless gave PCR data that indicated presence of the gene responsible for herbicide resistance. Similarly, "DNA silencing" of the gene of interest may be investigated if the seeds can be screened and scored for that phenotypic trait in a nondestructive manner prior to planting.

  13. Afterword: "Screening Schoolhood"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    "Screening schoolhood" attempts to move on both the debate and material covered by the six lead articles in this special issue. It appreciates the ways the articles, and the films they examine, deal with educational issues while at the same time evaluating their range in terms of creative construct and place in the history of documentary film.…

  14. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  15. 78 FR 14913 - Domestic Baggage Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Notices The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553) contains a ``good cause'' exemption which... LIABILITY 0 1. The authority citation for part 254 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C....

  16. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., trucks, trailers, motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles, perambulators, and their containers. (4) Tools of... Import Certificate or a U.S. export license before allowing the import of a shotgun, you should determine the import requirements of your country of destination in advance. (2) A nonresident alien leaving...

  17. Traveling Robots and Their Cultural Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    When social robots are imported from Asia to Europe they bring along with them a cultural luggage consisting of foreign sociotechnical imaginary. The effort to adopt the robot Silbot to Nordic social services exposed unfamiliar and cultural-dependent views of care, cognition, health and human...... nature. Studying Silbot in “the wild” highlighted these issues as well as the human-robot interaction and the adaptation of the robot to real life praxis. The importance of comprehending robots as parts of sociotechnical ensembles is emphasized as well as the observance of how robots are shaped...

  18. Screening with rubber screen surfaces with variously shaped apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, B.; Kraemer, T.

    1984-07-01

    Rubber screen surfaces are advantageous for bulk materials screening because of their low rate of wear and low noise emission and because they tend to prevent clogging. Screens with four different aperture shapes and sizes were available for experimental research. The cut sizes were determined in relation to the above-mentioned parameters with round and with crushed feed materials.

  19. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  20. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; ... Free Fetal DNA Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers , used to help diagnose and monitor ...

  1. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  2. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  3. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final ...

  4. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  5. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...... trials underway in Europe and in the USA. Our purpose is to update the readers on recent progress in medical knowledge in this field....

  6. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2011-01-01

    it as a “screening device”. It is a “device” in the sense that it distributes agency, and it “screens” in the word’s multiple meanings: “projecting” as in creating a viewer position;“sifting” and “systematizing” as in discriminating “knowledge” from mere “opinionings”; and “protecting” teachers from noise. Using...

  7. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Testicular ...

  8. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...

  9. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NEL

  10. Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography.......To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography....

  11. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe..., 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft... requiring Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) of substances for...

  12. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role...... of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  13. Abolishing mammography screening programs?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Biller-Andorno and Jüni (2014), in a widely debated commentary published in the May 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, accept the concept that mammography every 2 years from age 50 can decrease breast cancer mortality by 20%, that is, from five to four deaths per 1000 women over a 10-year period. Both the absolute and the relative risk of breast cancer death may vary depending on the baseline mortality rates in various populations and on the impact of screening mammography in re...

  14. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation.

  15. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  16. Principles of successful cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A

    1999-10-01

    Screening for cancer is the application of various tests to apparently healthy individuals in order to identify who among them has occult disease, which may be either invasive disease or a precursor lesion. For any given cancer site, the potential of screening to reduce morbidity and mortality is based on well-defined criteria for the evaluation of screening effectiveness and on acceptable performance to be realized in the average community setting. Screening programs are most successful when they are organized into a system that leads to high rates of participation, high quality, and constant surveillance and evaluation. If the elements that contribute to a successful screening program are not well organized and integrated, then the fullest potential of screening will not be realized.

  17. Designing Business Touch Screen Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Čeč, Neža

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers conversion of a business application from a standard application to a touch screen version. The first part describes basic functional characteristics of touch screen applications, like their structure and user interaction. Later on we describe technological characteristics that cover different technologies and frameworks for developing touch screen applications. These theoretic chapters are followed by a practical example of converting a business application to a touch scre...

  18. Cancer Screening in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke; Beldowski, Kathryn; de la Paz, Amanda

    2016-04-15

    Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these patients should not be based on age alone. Studies suggest that a life expectancy of at least 10 years is necessary to derive a survival benefit from screening for breast and colorectal cancers; therefore, screening for these cancers is not recommended in those with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Prostate cancer screening, if performed at all, should not be performed after 69 years of age. Cervical cancer screening may be stopped after 65 years of age if the patient has an adequate history of negative screening results. An individualized approach to cancer screening decisions involves estimating life expectancy, determining the potential benefits and harms of screenings, and weighing those benefits and harms in relation to the patient's values and preferences.

  19. The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores two contexts for Francis Skidmore and George Gilbert Scott's screen at Hereford Cathedral. First, it locates the screen within a succession of choir screens at Hereford from the middle ages to the present, thereby charting the typology of the choir screen within a single institutional context. Second, it shows that Skidmore and Scott's work at Hereford should be understood in light of their related work at Lichfield and Salisbury, and that, more distantly, the three buildings were subject to significant "improvements" in the eighteenth century that Scott and Skidmore's work was intended to erase.

  20. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  1. Electromagnetic pollution. Screens accused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, J.

    1996-04-01

    A recent experiment carried out by M. Bastide (Montpellier University, France) has shown an important increase of mortality, immunosuppression and morphological changes for chicks embryos when submitted to the very low frequency electromagnetic field of a personal computer screen during incubation. Similar effects on pregnant women working in front of cathode ray tubes have never been demonstrated. The paper gives an overview of the epidemiological studies carried out so far to determine the possible noxious effects of electromagnetic fields on public health. In particular, EdF (Electricite de France) has started three different inquiries involving 400000 workmens from electric power industry in order to determine some possible correlation between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukemias, brain tumors and melanomas. William Dab, from EdF Medical Studies Service indicates that only a very small relation with the occurrence of brain tumors and acute myeloid leukemias have been shown so far. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 photos.

  2. Comments on Gaugino Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Wecht, Brian

    2012-02-15

    Gauge mediated models of supersymmetry breaking often exhibit 'gaugino screening,' where to leading order in F, gaugino masses are unaffected by higher dimensional Kahler potential interactions between the supersymmetry breaking spurion and the messengers. We provide a derivation of this phenomenon which utilizes the gaugino counterterm originally proposed in the context of anomaly mediation by Dine and Seiberg. We argue that this counterterm is present when there are non-zero messenger F-terms, and can cancel the leading order Feynman diagram contribution to the gaugino mass. We provide a nontrivial check of the regulator independence of our results by performing the computation using both dimensional reduction and Pauli-Villars. This analysis reconciles an apparent contradiction between diagrammatics and analytic continuation into superspace.

  3. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  4. Non-participation in screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bjerregaard, Beth;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history.......To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history....

  5. Mammographic screening: keeping women alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of: Tabar L, Vitak B, Chen TH et al. Swedish Two-County Trial: impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality during 3 decades. Radiology 260(3), 658-663 (2011). In the 1980s, the periodic invitation of women aged 40-69 years for mammographic screening in the Swedish Two-Coun

  6. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  7. Singularities in Speckled Speckle: Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, David A

    2008-01-01

    We study screening of optical singularities in random optical fields with two widely different length scales. We call the speckle patterns generated by such fields speckled speckle, because the major speckle spots in the pattern are themselves highly speckled. We study combinations of fields whose components exhibit short- and long-range correlations, and find unusual forms of screening.

  8. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  9. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  10. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics.

  11. The evolution of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    Botany is usually considered to be the gentlest of sciences with botanists being regarded as people who study relatively safe specimens, compared with, for example, anthropologists or microbiologists. However, botanists have their moments, particularly when collecting new species. The great botanists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries risked their lives in collecting and bringing back species, which we now take for granted, and Robert Brown was one of these adventurers, a young Scot who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks to New Holland. It was not, however, for his adventurous lifestyle that Brown is remembered but for his startling observation of the movements of pollen grains on a microscope slide. He noted that the pollen grains were in perpetual agitated motion, without purpose or direction but full of energy. This motion, called Brownian motion, arises from the movement of molecules, and Brownian motion is the term that has been applied to much of healthcare, including many screening programmes, which have in the past been marked more by the amount of energy and activity than by a clear sense of direction or positive achievement.

  12. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  13. Data Quality Screening Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  14. Screening of Newborn Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the incidence, congenital heart diseases ranks first among congenital problems in the neonatal period. Although some of those diseases are with significant clinical findings, they might be insignificant in most cases. Standardization methods have been studied in variety of points, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry is thougt to be a good alternative to physical examination. In several studies, it is mentioned that some of congenital heart diseases are diagnosed by saturation screening. However, the benefits of this method are marred with the false negative and false positive rates. Therefore, in 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics has revised its saturation algorithm for scanning. It was aimed to have a standardization in saturation detecting time and evaluation of achieved saturation in newborns. Despite all efforts, some newborns with congenital heart disease are not diagnosed before discharging. We beleive that the details of saturation measurements are needed to be carefully evaluated because although these measurements are widely used their details are not well known. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 587-604

  15. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  16. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...

  17. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  18. To screen or nor to screen: the prostate cancer dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson N Stone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC has updated their previous seminal report on prostate cancer mortality comparing screened men to controls. Now with 13 years follow-up, the rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality was 0.79 favoring the screened population. The authors concluded that there was a "substantial reduction in prostate cancer mortality attributable to testing with prostate-specific antigen (PSA" but they also stated that a "quantification of harms" needed to be addressed. The issue of harms was not addressed by the ERSPC (at least not in this report and hence this additional statement most likely reflects the controversy currently surrounding the risks associated with over-diagnosis and treatment of indolent diseases inadvertently detected by a screening protocol. [1] In addition, the positive results from this trial conflict with those of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO [2] study and require further elaboration.

  19. Dielectric screening in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Walter A.; Klepeis, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Intra-atomic and interatomic Coulomb interactions are incorporated into bond-orbital theory, based upon universal tight-binding parameters, in order to treat the effects of charge redistribution in semiconductor bonds. The dielectric function ɛ(q) is obtained for wave numbers in a [100] direction. The screening of differences in average hybrid energy across a heterojunction is calculated in detail, indicating that the decay length for the potential depends upon the relative values of Madelung and intra-atomic Coulomb terms. The parameters used here predict an imaginary decay length and thus an oscillating potential near the interface. The same theory is applied to point defects by imbedding a cluster in a matrix lattice, taking charges in that lattice to be consistent with continuum theory. Illustrating the theory with a phosphorus impurity in silicon, it is seen that the impurity and its neighboring atoms have charges on the order of only one-tenth of an electronic charge, alternating in sign from neighbor to neighbor as for planar defects. Although there are shifts in the term values on the order of a volt, the difference in these shifts for neighboring atoms is much smaller so that the effect on the bonds is quite small. This behavior is analogous to the response of a dielectric continuum to a point charge: The medium is locally neutral except at the center of the cluster and there are slowly varying potentials e2/ɛr. Because of this slow variation, free-atom term values should ordinarily suffice for the calculation of bond properties and bond lengths at impurities. Corrections are larger for homovalent substitutions such as carbon in silicon.

  20. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS,Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350,Université de Tours,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-06

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  1. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  2. Osteoporosis Screening Preferences of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine older adults' osteoporosis screening test preferences, willingness to travel for screening, and willingness to pay for screening. A survey was mailed to 1830 women and men ≥ 60 years old in Pennsylvania, assessing screening test preference (among dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and risk assessment tools), willingness to travel 20 miles for a better screening test, and willingness to pay $100 for a better screening test, as well a...

  3. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  4. First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) . The first trimester screen is one ... chromosome material that results in Down syndrome or Edwards syndrome , the levels of PAPP-A tend to be ...

  5. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  6. Screening Effect in Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Ming; XIAO Xiao; GAO Yi-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of screening effect on quantum decoherence for charge qubit and the process of quantum information storage. When the flux produced by the circulating current in SQUID loop is considered, screening effect is formally characterized by a LC resonator. Using large-detuning condition and Fr(o)hlich transformation in the qubit-cavity-resonator system, we calculate the decoherence factor for charge qubit and the effective qubit-cavity Hamiltonian. The decoherence factor owns a factorized structure, it shows that screening effect is a resource of decoherence for charge qubit. The effective Hamiltonian shows that the screening effect results in a frequency shift for charge qubit and a modified qubit-cavity coupling constant induced by a LC resonator.

  7. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  8. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  9. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  10. Indirect discrimination and breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, J L; Manku-Scott, T K; Moledina, F; Williams, A

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of screening services in inner-city communities has been low, particularly in older age groups, lower social classes, and ethnic minorities. In Leicester City, where up to 25% of the population belong to ethnic minorities, this may have important implications for breast screening. We randomly sampled 701 inner-city women aged 45 to 64 years, stratified by neighborhood and by women's "likely home language." Trained interviewers succeeded in interviewing 79% of those eligible, and we report here a preliminary analysis of 413 respondents. Knowledge of breast cancer and screening varied markedly and significantly by actual language: 60.4% of English-speaking and 12.5% of non-English-speaking women correctly answered 10 or more questions (of 14) about breast cancer and screening (chi 2(1) = 89.884; P = .000). Despite that, 80% or more women stated their intention to attend for screening and assessment if necessary, irrespective of neighborhood, language, age, or social class. We suggest that the difference in knowledge between language groups arose from indirect discrimination in the way in which health-related information is disseminated in British society. However, after providing appropriate screening information, we report similarly high intended acceptance rates in the two language groups.

  11. Phenotypic screens targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Luo, Guangrui; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wang, Shaohui; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and the incidences increase as the population ages. Disease-modifying therapy that prevents or slows disease progression is still lacking, making neurodegenerative diseases an area of high unmet medical need. Target-based drug discovery for disease-modifying agents has been ongoing for many years, without much success due to incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screening, starting with a disease-relevant phenotype to screen for compounds that change the outcome of biological pathways rather than activities at certain specific targets, offers an alternative approach to find small molecules or targets that modulate the key characteristics of neurodegeneration. Phenotypic screens that focus on amelioration of disease-specific toxins, protection of neurons from degeneration, or promotion of neuroregeneration could be potential fertile grounds for discovering therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will summarize the progress of compound screening using these phenotypic-based strategies for this area, with a highlight on unique considerations for disease models, assays, and screening methodologies. We will further provide our perspectives on how best to use phenotypic screening to develop drug leads for neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database.

  13. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  14. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  15. Eletrodos fabricados por "silk-screen" Screen-printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valberes B. Nascimento

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A review dealing with the use of screen-printing technology to manufacture disposable electrodes is presented, covering in details virtually all the publications in the area up to early 1997 and including 206 references. The elements and different strategies on constructing modified electrodes are highlighted. Commercial and Home-made ink recipes are discussed. Microelectrode arrays, built by the combination of photostructuring and screen-printing technologies to the mass production of advanced disposable sensors, are also discussed. Future research trends are predicted.

  16. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (... sensitivity of screening mammography, while the specificity of screening remained stable across weight groups. Screening programmes should be organized to encourage these women to overcome obstacles for participation....

  17. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  18. Hadronic Screening in Improved Taste

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2013-01-01

    We present our results on meson and nucleon screening masses in finite temperature two flavour QCD using smeared staggered valence quarks and staggered thin-link sea quarks with different lattice spacings and quark masses. We investigate optimization of smearing by observing its effects on the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) components of gluon and quark fields. The application of smearing to screening at finite temperature also provides a transparent window into the mechanism of the interplay of smearing and chiral symmetry. The improved hadronic operators show that above the finite temperature cross over, T_c, screening masses are consistent with weak-coupling predictions. There is also evidence for a rapid opening up of a spectral gap of the Dirac operator immediately above T_c.

  19. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  20. Microelectroporation device for genomic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Negrete, Oscar; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2014-09-09

    We have developed an microelectroporation device that combines microarrays of oligonucleotides, microfluidic channels, and electroporation for cell transfection and high-throughput screening applications (e.g. RNA interference screens). Microarrays allow the deposition of thousands of different oligonucleotides in microscopic spots. Microfluidic channels and microwells enable efficient loading of cells into the device and prevent cross-contamination between different oligonucleotides spots. Electroporation allows optimal transfection of nucleic acids into cells (especially hard-to-transfect cells such as primary cells) by minimizing cell death while maximizing transfection efficiency. This invention has the advantage of a higher throughput and lower cost, while preventing cross-contamination compared to conventional screening technologies. Moreover, this device does not require bulky robotic liquid handling equipment and is inherently safer given that it is a closed system.

  1. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  2. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.T.; Horeweg, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. METHODS: Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were re

  3. Screening for prostatakreft i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D. Fosså

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ENGLISH SUMMARYFosså SD, Høisæter PÅ. Screening for prostate cancer in Norway. Nor J Epidemiol 2001; 11 (2: 147-152.Background  Results  Conclusion  . Population-based PSA screening can not be recommended in Norway. PSA-based opportunisticscreening should be substantially reduced. If an asymptomatic man persistently requires PSAtesting, the responsible doctor has to inform him about the potential disadvantages as well as the potentialbenefits associated with opportunistic screening, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. PSAscreeningshould be considered as a public health care strategy, depending on the results of the ERPCS.. The rate of opportunistic screening in Norway in elderly men was about 7% in 1999 but isincreasing, with significant differences between the counties. The current health care strategy is to limitopportunistic screening to a minimum, as the effectiveness of this task is unproven. Reduction of mortalitycan only be achieved by the early diagnosis and treatment of “clinically important” prostatecancer. The identification of these cases remains problematic in clinical routine. Data from the CancerRegistry of Norway, and knowledge about prostate cancer tumour biology and epidemiology leavedoubt whether the aim of the ERPCS can be reached in 2008: The Norwegian Urological Cancer Grouphas therefore not recommended Norway's participation in the ERPCS.. PSA-based opportunistic screening for prostate cancer is increasing throughout theworld, and also in Norway. The mortality reducing effectiveness of population-based PSA screeninghas, however, so far not been proven and it is currently addressed by a European randomised trial(ERPCS. This trial aims to demonstrate a 20% reduction of the prostate cancer-related mortality rate inthe year 2008 in men who have had regular PSA analysis and, if possible, curatively intended treatmentof a newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

  4. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  5. Nutritional Screening of Children: A Manual for Screening & Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This manual shows health providers how to perform precisely and expertly each step of several procedures used in screening children for nutritional problems. It is intended for all health providers who are involved in weighing and measuring children, recording and plotting measurements on growth charts, taking blood samples to test for iron…

  6. Screening_mgmt: a Python module for managing screening data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Andreas; Tammela, Päivi

    2015-02-01

    High-throughput screening is an established technique in drug discovery and, as such, has also found its way into academia. High-throughput screening generates a considerable amount of data, which is why specific software is used for its analysis and management. The commercially available software packages are often beyond the financial limits of small-scale academic laboratories and, furthermore, lack the flexibility to fulfill certain user-specific requirements. We have developed a Python module, screening_mgmt, which is a lightweight tool for flexible data retrieval, analysis, and storage for different screening assays in one central database. The module reads custom-made analysis scripts and plotting instructions, and it offers a graphical user interface to import, modify, and display the data in a uniform manner. During the test phase, we used this module for the management of 10,000 data points of various origins. It has provided a practical, user-friendly tool for sharing and exchanging information between researchers.

  7. Wastewater washing screens out solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.G. [Hycor Corp., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

  8. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking... document describes EPA's final policies and procedures for requiring Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine... chemicals for potential endocrine effects. The following list of North American Industrial...

  9. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  10. Radiative screening of fifth forces

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Millington, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We describe a symmetron model in which the screening of fifth forces arises at the one-loop level through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that such a theory can avoid current constraints on the existence of fifth forces, but still has the potential to give rise to observable deviations from general relativity.

  11. Population screening in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G; Beutler, E

    2000-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive condition found in the homozygous state in 1/200-1/400 people of northern-, central-, and western-European origin. It causes increased iron storage, which may lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes in many but not all affected adults, with a higher frequency in males. The condition is easily treated by repeated venesections without side effects but is frequently overlooked. Population screening of adults using iron indices alone or combined with DNA testing has therefore been recommended, but a consensus conference in 1997 recommended that such screening be deferred, owing to uncertainty regarding the extent of clinical disease that may develop in individuals detected by such programs. There was also concern that DNA screening results might be used for discrimination in insurance and occupational settings. Screening family members of patients with evidence of definite iron loading, however, is accepted by all observers. Because serious complications may be overlooked, a more aggressive stance toward case detection in the adult population has been advocated by some observers, realizing that unnecessary treatment might occur. Because additional information regarding the spectrum of clinical disease in homozygotes in now accumulating, a consensus conference in the near future is suggested to consider appropriate policies.

  12. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  13. Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Tuchman, Roberto F

    2008-10-01

    Autism (ie, the autism spectrum disorders) is now recognized in 1 in 150 children. This article highlights the definition, neurobiology, screening, and diagnosis of autism. The genetics, immunology, imaging, and neurophysiology of autism are reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas that impact pediatricians. Early recognition of the social deficits that characterize autism is key to maximizing the potential of these children.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  15. SCREENING FOR DIABETES IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Manoj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: All pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy with timely intervention to reduce perinatal morbidity and obstetrics complication. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of diabetes in ANC mother attending ANC OPD at Bh arati Hospital, to evaluate the high risk factor causing abnormal GTT and to evaluate outcome of pregnant mother with GDM. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: The prospective study was conducted in 100 pregnant women attending antenatal checkup who had no previous histo ry of diabetes. ANC mothers were given 75gm glucose irrespective of last meal. A venous sample was collected at 2hr for estimating plasma glucose. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed if 2hrs . plasma glucose levels came >140mg/dl. RESULT AND CONCLUS ION : The screening of pregnant woman for diabetes on their first visit to antenatal clinic can be an effective method in detection of diabetes during pregnancy. Though the higher incidence is found in the risk group women in comparison to non - risk group, u niversal screening can be recommended instead of selective screening. Early screening does help in early detection of diabetes. Chances of gestational diabetes are increasing with increase in age & gravidity. Increasing maternal carbohydrate intolerance in pregnant women is associated with a graded increase in adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Women diagnosed to have GDM are at increased risk of future diabetes predominantly type 2 DM as are their children. Thus GDM offers an important opportunity for the development, testing and implementation of clinical strategies for diabetes prevention and reducing perinatal morbidity and obstetrics complications.

  16. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  17. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time...... the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over...

  18. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  19. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  20. Does school scoliosis screening make the grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Tami L; Alexy, Eileen M

    2014-09-01

    School nurses have provided routine health screenings of school-age children for decades. During the 1970s, recommendations for school scoliosis screening, which were based upon poor access to health care, led state boards of education to mandate that school nurses screen for scoliosis. The history of mandated scoliosis screening in U.S. schools is reviewed, and current school nurse practices for scoliosis screening are presented. Elevated referral rates for repeat scoliosis examination following school scoliosis screenings have led to questions of efficacy. Further controversy exists regarding school nurses screening for scoliosis due to a lack of evidence indicating a decreased need for scoliosis surgery. This article contains evidence-based recommendations for discontinuing school scoliosis screening to help school nurses refocus their efforts on complex health needs and preventive health issues more likely to impact the majority of their students.

  1. Maximising benefit and minimising harm of screening

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, J A M; Patnick, J.; Blanks, R G

    2008-01-01

    Gordon Brown has pledged to increase screening services in the NHS. Muir Gray, Julietta Patnick, and Roger Blanks show how experience with the UK breast screening programme can help ensure that they are effective

  2. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  3. Use of fluorescent screens for isotope radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Radiographic examination can be performed on items beyond the limitation of conventional isotope radiography without a great loss of resolution. With proper film and screen selection and scatter radiation control, fluorescent screens can be a valuable additional tool for radiography.

  4. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Screening and Counseling An effective but underused health service Language: English ... about their drinking. 25% Alcohol screening and brief counseling can reduce the amount consumed on an occasion ...

  6. Screening Sex: revelando e dissimulando o sexo Screening Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, procura-se contar a história da exibição do sexo em filmes majoritariamente produzidos nos Estados Unidos no período de quase um século. Ao se perguntar quando, porque e como os Estados Unidos se transformaram de uma cultura que não exibia o sexo em uma que o exibe, a autora insiste no duplo significado do verbo screen (tanto como uma revelação quanto uma dissimulação. Exibir é revelar em uma tela. Mas um segundo e igualmente importante significado, como diz o dicionário é "proteger ou esconder atrás de uma tela". Os filmes tanto revelam como escondem. O artigo analisa a forma como mudanças sociais ocorridas nos Estados Unidos, como, por exemplo, a Revolução sexual dos anos 60 e novas visões a respeito da sexualidade, possibilitaram novas maneiras de representação do sexo no cinema, reorganizando a relação entre o público e o privado. O artigo se pergunta também sobre como nossos corpos e sentidos reagem ao encontro com o sexo na tela, introduzindo a ideia de "saber carnal" (carnal knowledge.In this paper, we try to tell the history of the exhibition of sex in movies mainly produced in the United States in almost a century. Asking when, why and how the United States became - from a culture that did not exhibit sex - into a culture that exhibits it, the author insists in the double sense of the verb to screen (as both a revelation and a dissimulation. To exhibit is to reveal in a screen. But another, and important, sense, as says the dictionary, is "to protect or hide behind a screen". Movies show as well as they reveal. The paper analyzes the way social change in the United States, for example the sexual revolution of the sixties and new views on sexuality allowed new ways of representing sex in the movies, creating a new relation between public and private. The paper also asks how our bodies and senses react to sex in the screen, introducing the idea of "carnal knowledge".

  7. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  8. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796]).

  9. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuab...... doping after reinfusion, and the parameter could be used in a testing setting, once stability validation has been performed....... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...

  10. Reaction screening using a microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Olivier; Roch, Mathieu; Chappuis, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the screening of chemical reactions using a microreactor equipped with infrared spectroscopy as online analytics. An esterification reaction has been optimized in continuous mode with the proposed setup. The esterification did not work well due to the material of the microreactor (stainless-steel 316Ti) that catalyzed the decomposition of formic acid. However, despite the occurrence of decomposition, an optimization could be achieved with this system.

  11. Screening in quantum charged systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ph. A.; Gruber, Ch.

    1984-07-01

    For stationary states of quantum charged systems in ν dimensions, ν>=2, it is proven that the reduced-density matrices satisfy a set of sum rules whenever the clustering is faster than |x|-(ν+l). These sum rules, describing the screening properties, are analogous to those previously derived for classical systems. For neutral quantum fluids, it is shown that the clustering cannot be faster than the decay of the force.

  12. Osteoporosis screening and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Consuelo H.

    2007-01-01

    Consuelo H WilkinsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common among older adults and results in costly osteoporotic fractures. Screening for this metabolic bone disorder is warranted in most older adults and clinicians must be diligent in identifying persons at risk. The evaluation should include an assessment of risk factors for falls, a bone density test, and consideratio...

  13. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  14. Classification of findings in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pamilo, M; Lönnqvist, J; Halttunen, A

    1991-01-01

    survey of mammography screening in Helsinki and surroundings in Finland. PATIENTS--21,417 women (aged 50-59 years) were invited to be screened, 18,012 (84.10%) participated. Of these 579 (3.21% of those screened) were recalled for further studies; 124 of these were referred for surgical biopsy and 82 had...

  15. NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Duane; Hanson, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent changes in genetics research have created new opportunities to improve the scope and quality of newborn screening services. Changes in newborn screening should be supported and directed by an organized program of research. The NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening includes the development of systematic methods to identify…

  16. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  17. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T

    2011-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  18. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  19. Screening in humid air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  20. Population screening for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Si Houn

    2014-05-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in the gene encoding an ATPase, ATP7B. Early detection of Wilson's disease is critical because effective medical treatments such as chelating agents and zinc salts are available, which can prevent lifelong neurological disabilities and/or cirrhosis. It is unfortunate that most patients are brought to our attention after they have developed serious complications such as brain damage or cirrhosis, despite the availability of effective treatments. The diagnosis is usually made through copper measurement in the liver tissue, followed by confirmation with genetic testing of the ATP7B gene. Currently, there are no effective biomarkers or methods suitable for newborn screening for Wilson's disease. Ceruloplasmin has been tested for pediatric and newborn screening with limited outcome. Recently, liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) has emerged as a robust technology that may enable multiplex quantification of signature proteotypic peptides with low abundance. The application of this technology may help facilitate the research on Wilson's disease for protein expression, biomarker study, diagnosis, and, hopefully, screening.

  1. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  2. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  3. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  4. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  5. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effec

  6. 75 FR 77869 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: December 8, 2010. Stephen A. Owens, Assistant... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension of... Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's (EDSP) second list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. This...

  7. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luiz; Ronaldo; Alberti; Diego; Paim; Carvalho; Garcia; Debora; Lucciola; Coelho; David; Correa; Alves; De; Lima; Andy; Petroianu

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates.

  8. Phenotypic screening: the future of antibody discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, Andrea L; Minter, Ralph R; Rust, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Most antibody therapeutics have been isolated from high throughput target-based screening. However, as the number of validated targets diminishes and the target space becomes increasingly competitive, alternative strategies, such as phenotypic screening, are gaining momentum. Here, we review successful phenotypic screens, including those used to isolate antibodies against cancer and infectious agents. We also consider exciting advances in the expression and phenotypic screening of antibody repertoires in single cell autocrine systems. As technologies continue to develop, we believe that antibody phenotypic screening will increase further in popularity and has the potential to provide the next generation of therapeutic antibodies.

  9. Screening in Hot Non-Abelian Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Petreczky, P

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the screening masses in hot non-Abelian theories. Section 1 contain a brief introduction to the topic. In section 2 a detailed overview of the screening phenomena and their applications is given. In section 3 the screening masses are defined through the coupled gap equations. Section 4 deals with the determination of the screening masses of hot SU(2) gauge theory in the framework of the 3d lattice adjoint Higgs model considered as an effective theory. Finally in section 5 the screening masses of hot SU(2) Higgs model are examined.

  10. Factors Associated with Osteoporosis Screening and Recommendations for Osteoporosis Screening in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Osteoporosis screening rates are low, and it is unclear which patient factors are associated with screening and physician recommendations for screening. OBJECTIVE To identify patient characteristics associated with osteoporosis screening recommendations and receipt of screening in older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. PARTICIPANTS Women and men ≥60 years old living in or near western Pennsylvania. MEASUREMENTS Sociodemographic characteristics and osteoporosis...

  11. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  12. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  13. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  14. Mathematical Models of the Sinusoidal Screen Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Koren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will define a family of sinusoidal screening elements and explore the possibilities of their application in graphic arts, securities printing and design solutions in photography and typography editing. For this purpose mathematical expressions of sinusoidal families were converted into a Postscript language. The introduction of a random variable results in a countless number of various mutations which cannot be repeated without knowing the programming code itself. The use of the family of screens in protection of securities is thus of great importance. Other possible application of modulated sinusoidal screens is related to the large format color printing. This paper will test the application of sinusoidal screens in vector graphics, pixel graphics and typography. The development of parameters in the sinusoidal screen element algorithms gives new forms defined within screening cells with strict requirements of coverage implementation. Individual solutions include stochastic algorithms, as well as the autonomy of screening forms in regard to multicolor printing channels.

  15. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  16. Virtual screening of virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darren V S

    2003-01-01

    Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry

  17. Screening three-form fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Tiago; Nunes, Nelson J

    2016-01-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  18. Measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Kuriyama, T; Kuriyama, F; Radebaugh, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental apparatus for the measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens as well as some experimental results taken with the apparatus. Screens are stacked in a fiberglass-epoxy cylinder, which is 24.4 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length. The cold end of the stacked screens is cooled by a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler at cryogenic temperature, and the hot end is maintained at room temperature. Heat conduction through the screens is determined from the temperature gradient in a calibrated heat flow sensor mounted between the cold end of the stacked screens and the GM cryocooler. The samples used for these experiments consisted of 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 400-mesh phosphor bronze screens, and two different porosities of 325-mesh stainless steel screens. The wire diameter of the 400-mesh stainless steel and phosphor bronze screens was 25.4 micrometers and the 325-mesh stainless steel screen wire diameters were 22.9 micrometers and 27.9 micrometers. Standard porosity values were used for the experimental data with additional porosity values used on selected experiments. The experimental results showed that the helium gas between each screen enhanced the heat conduction through the stacked screens by several orders of magnitude compared to that in vacuum. The conduction degradation factor is the ratio of actual heat conduction to the heat conduction where the regenerator material is assumed to be a solid rod of the same cross sectional area as the metal fraction of the screen. This factor was about 0.1 for the stainless steel and 0.022 for the phosphor bronze, and almost constant for the temperature range of 40 to 80 K at the cold end.

  19. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  20. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  1. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  2. Coulomb screening in linear coasting nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parminder

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of coulomb screening on primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe having scale factor that evolves linearly with time. Coulomb screening affects primordial nucleosynthesis via enhancement of thermonuclear reaction rates. This enhancement is determined by the solving Poisson equation within the context of mean field theory (under appropriate conditions during the primordial nucleosynthesis). Using these results, we claim that the mean field estimates of coulomb screening hardly affect the predicted element abundances and nucleosynthesis parameters$, \\{\\eta_9,\\xi_e\\}$. The deviations from mean field estimates are also studied in detail by boosting genuine screening results with the screening parameter ($\\omega_s$). These deviations show negligible effect on the element abundances and on nucleosynthesis parameters. This work thus rules out the coulomb screening effects on primordial nucleosynthesis in slow evolving models and confirms that constraints in ref.[7] on nucleosynthesis parame...

  3. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  4. Is the tide turning against breast screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Herein I argue that mammographic screening has not delivered on its fundamental premise: to reduce the incidence of advanced breast cancer. Indeed, achieving this goal is required if screening is to reduce breast cancer mortality or mastectomy use. Rather, screening has caused substantial...... harmful, unnecessary treatment. If true, these observations raise the specter that screening creates breast cancer patients and that this practice carries little or no benefit....... increases in the incidence of in situ and early invasive cancers. Moreover, evidence indicates that these screen-detected cancers are unlikely to be cases that were 'caught early', but instead represent women who would not have been diagnosed in the absence of screening and who, as a result, have received...

  5. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A;

    2014-01-01

    rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands......BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...

  6. Beam screens for the LHC beam pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1997-01-01

    Cross-section of LHC prototype beam pipes showing the beam screens. Slits in the screens allow residual gas molecules to be pumped out and become frozen to the walls of the ultra-cold beam pipe. Beam screens like these have been designed to line the beam pipes, absorbing radiation before it can hit the magnets and warm them up, an effect that would greatly reduce the magnetic field and cause serious damage.

  7. Between Stage and Screen : Ingmar Bergman Directs

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Törnqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio productions. In the prologue Bergman's spiritual and aesthetic heritage and his position in the twentieth century media landscape is outlined. In the epilogue the question is answered to what extent one ...

  8. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  9. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  10. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  11. Optimization in HIV screening problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors use both deterministic and stochastic approaches to the analysis of some optimization problems that arise in the group (“pool” HIV screening practice. Two kinds of testing policies are considered. For the first kind, group-individual testing, the optimal size of the group that should be selected for testing is found. For more general group-subgroup testing procedure the authors develop a numerical algorithm for finding the sequence of successively selected subgroups that minimizes the total cost of testing. Assuming that both arriving and testing processes have a random nature, the authors suggest a stochastic model in which the optimal size of the group in the group-individual testing procedure is found by using methods of queueing theory.

  12. Osteoporosis screening and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo H Wilkins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Consuelo H WilkinsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common among older adults and results in costly osteoporotic fractures. Screening for this metabolic bone disorder is warranted in most older adults and clinicians must be diligent in identifying persons at risk. The evaluation should include an assessment of risk factors for falls, a bone density test, and consideration of possible secondary causes of osteoporosis. Several medications are available to improve bone density and decrease fractures. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake (and treatment of vitamin D deficiency are paramount in the management of osteoporosis.Keywords: Osteoporosis, Fractures, Vitamin D

  13. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  14. LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.

  15. Screening of Modified RNA duplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen

    Because of sequence specific gene targeting activity siRNAs are regarded as promising active compounds in gene medicine. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNA duplexes. Cellular reactions towards double stranded...... RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...... protection against a fish pathogenic virus. This protection corresponded with an interferon response in the fish. Here we use this fish model to screen siRNAs containing various chemical modifications of the RNA backbone for their antiviral activity, the overall aim being identification of an siRNA form...

  16. Screening dynamics in doped titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubensson, J.E.; Luening, J.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The time scale for carrier relaxation in semiconductors is on the same order of magnitude as the life time of shallow core hole states (a few femtoseconds). Resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) which involves (virtual) excitations of core levels consequently contains information about the time development of the electronic structure on this time scale. In many cases one can treat the scattering in an absorption (SXA) followed-by-emission (SXE) picture, where simply the rates for various processes can be compared with the intermediate core hole state decay rate as an internal {open_quotes}clock{close_quotes}. By variation of x (0 < x < 1) in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3}, the amount of Ti d electrons in the system can be controlled. SrTiO{sub 3} (x=0) is an insulator with an empty Ti d band. With increasing x, electrons are doped into the Ti d-band, and LaTiO{sub 3} (x=1) is a Mott Hubbard insulator with a Ti 3d{sup 1} configuration. In this work the authors demonstrate that the rate for Ti 2p core hole screening in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} is doping dependent. The screening rate increases with the availability of Ti 3d electrons, and they estimate it to be 3.8 x 10{sup 13}/sec in La{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}TiO{sub 3}.

  17. Screening for Iron Overload: Lessons from the HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Adams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study provided data on a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort of participants in North America screened from primary care populations.

  18. What's in a Screen Name? Attractiveness of Different Types of Screen Names Used by Online Daters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Whitty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether different types of screen names offer advantages when it comes to attracting a partner on dating sites. In the pilot study, we conducted a content analysis of real screen names to develop a typology of screen names. In the main study, we explored whether the typology predicted online daters' ratings of names, and compared the types of names that appealed to men and to women. Men more than women were attracted to screen names that indicated physical attractiveness, and women more than men were attracted to screen names that indicated intelligence or were neutral. Similarly, men more than women were motivated to contact screen names which indicated physical attractiveness and women more than men were more motivated to contact screen names which indicated intellectual characteristics or were neutral. These findings indicate that different types of screen names may elicit different reactions.

  19. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    .... List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Drinking water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening AGENCY... chemicals and substances for which EPA intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor...

  20. Structure-based Drug Screening and Ligand-Based Drug Screening Toward Protein-Compound Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

    2007-12-01

    We developed two new methods to improve the accuracy of molecular interaction data using a protein-compound affinity matrix calculated by a protein-compound docking software. One method is a structure-based in silico drug screening method and another method is a ligand-based in silico drug screening method. These methods were applied to enhance the database enrichment of in silico drug screening and in silico target protein screening.

  1. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  2. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  3. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  4. Screening for macular disorders: the optometrist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsner AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann E Elsner, Brett J King School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Abstract: Macular screening services can take many forms, offering a variety of roles for optometrists. The need for screening has been demonstrated in industrialized and developing nations alike. Populations of particular interest for macular screening services include individuals at high risk for diabetes, not just diagnosed diabetics, since a significant proportion of those with diabetes do not realize it. Individuals who know they have diabetes are frequently not examined at the recommended intervals. Related populations include patients with a high likelihood of retinal vascular disease and high blood pressure. A second population is older individuals, who are at risk for age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia, key causes of vision loss depending upon geographic location and ethnicity. Images showing the complexity of lesions from diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and degenerative myopia illustrate the challenges of screening and classification. A third population to be screened is the large pediatric one. While many children are at risk for developing myopia, which could lead to high myopia, the risk of myopia and retinal damage is far more common in individuals who had low birth weight or premature birth. A variety of types of screening instrumentation are discussed in terms of practicality of use and cost. The technical challenges in populations with dark eyes, small pupils, and poor anterior-segment media are discussed. We discuss the wealth of screening strategies, from permanent sites with trained staff and expert graders to planned campaigns that target specific populations. Successful screening systems include instrumentation that is used within its limits, feedback and supervision during screening and grading, and clear pathways for referral for a complete examination or treatment. Keywords: vision

  5. A Barcode-Free Combinatorial Screening Platform for Matrix Metalloproteinase Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Tushar D.; Zec, Helena C.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Application of droplet microfluidics to combinatorial screening applications remains elusive because of the need for composition-identifying unique barcodes. Here we propose a barcode-free continuous flow droplet microfluidic platform to suit the requirements of combinatorial screening applications. We demonstrate robust and repeatable functioning of this platform with matrix metalloproteinase activity screening as a sample application.

  6. Systematic Screening at the Elementary Level: Considerations for Exploring and Installing Universal Behavior Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study reports data from one elementary school whose leadership team explored and installed systematic behavior screening as part of their tiered model of prevention. The authors compared student performance on two school-selected screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and…

  7. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  8. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  9. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  10. A barcode-free combinatorial screening platform for matrix metalloproteinase screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-02-03

    Application of droplet microfluidics to combinatorial screening applications remains elusive because of the need for composition-identifying unique barcodes. Here we propose a barcode-free continuous flow droplet microfluidic platform to suit the requirements of combinatorial screening applications. We demonstrate robust and repeatable functioning of this platform with matrix metalloproteinase activity screening as a sample application.

  11. Danish Quality Database for Mammography Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Njor, Sisse Helle; Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Quality Database for Mammography Screening (DKMS) was established in 2007, with the aim to monitor, sustain, and improve the quality of the Danish national breast cancer screening program. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish women aged 50-69 years who were invited every 2 years for breast...

  12. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  13. The holographic screen at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2010-01-01

    A permissible spectrum of transverse vibrations for the holographic screen modifies both a distribution of thermal energy over bits at low temperatures and the law of gravitation at small accelerations of free fall in agreement with observations of flat rotation curves in spiral galaxies. This modification relates holographic screen parameters in de Sitter space-time with the Milgrom acceleration in MOND.

  14. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  15. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  16. A shortcut in phage screening technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple modification of the traditional Benton & Davis technique for phage screening is presented that avoids the tedious sample dilutions of putative spots/phages towards the second screening. With the use of a sole agar plate and nylon filter, the modification distinguishes a true positive recombinant from a false positive, with high probability of success.

  17. Screening of nutritional status in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizenga, H.M.; Wierdsma, N.J.; Bokhorst, van M.A.E.; Schueren, van der D.E.; Hollander, H.J.; Jonkers-Schuitema, C.F.; Heijden, van der E.; Melis, G.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: In 2001, the Dutch Dietetic Association conducted a national screening on malnutrition. The goal of this screening was to determine the prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in The Netherlands in all fields of medical care and to investigate the involvement of the dietitian

  18. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  19. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.

  20. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.``

  1. The Gesell Screening Examination: Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard N.

    In an assessment of the adequacy of the Gesell screening examination as a test instrument, a Gesell Screening Evaluation was given to 400 children semi-annually from their 4th to 6th year. The sample, which was stratified by parent occupation, included 40 girls and 40 boys at 5 age levels. The test battery corresponded with the Gesell Preschool…

  2. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer screening is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify ar

  3. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  4. 48 CFR 45.602-3 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and donation screening as described in paragraph (a) of this subsection. (4) Non-nuclear hazardous materials, hazardous wastes, and classified items. These items shall be screened in accordance with agency... electronic equivalent to GSA (see 41 CFR 102-36.215). (2) Twenty-first through forty-sixth day (21...

  5. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Vejborg, Ilse;

    2017-01-01

    Background: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participat...

  6. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  7. Nuchal translucency beyond Down syndrome screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Nuchal translucency (NT) goes far beyond Down syndrome screening. An enlarged NT is associated with a wide range of structural and genetic anomalies. A detailed first trimester scan is an important step in screening for those anomalies and in individual risk assessment. All pregnant women should be

  8. National Lung Screening Trial Results: Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 4, 2010, the NLST reported initial trial results, showing 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT (also known as spiral CT) compared to those who got screened with chest X-rays.

  9. A Screen for Identifying Maladaptive Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Siu L.; Leung, G. M.; Ng, Cecilia; Yu, Effie

    2009-01-01

    A screening tool (in Chinese) for maladaptive internet use was developed in two stages. Thirty-five factors were first extracted from data obtained from 378 adolescents with a 179-item questionnaire. Nine higher-order factors were then obtained from 35 factors. A 26-item screen that measures both endogenous and exogenous factors was constructed on…

  10. Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this book on screen media, space, and mobility I compare synchronically, as well as diachronically, diverse and variegated screen media - their technologies and practices – as sites for virtual mobility and navigation. Mobility as a central trope can be found on the multiple levels that are inves

  11. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-01-01

    in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved...

  12. Screening for human papillomavirus: is urine useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, bec

  13. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  14. 24 CFR 983.255 - Tenant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... suitability for tenancy. However, the PHA may opt to screen applicants for family behavior or suitability for... in 25 CFR part 5, subpart L, apply to tenant screening....

  15. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  16. Overview of guidelines on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Kalager, Mette; Barratt, Alexandra;

    2016-01-01

    Updated guidelines on breast cancer screening have been published by several major organisations over the past five years. Recommendations vary regarding both age range, screening interval, and even on whether breast screening should be offered at all. The variation between recommendations reflects...... substantial differences in estimates of the major benefit (breast cancer mortality reduction) and the major harm (overdiagnosis). Estimates vary considerably among randomised trials, as well as observational studies: from no benefit to large reductions, and from no overdiagnosis to substantial levels......, such as small effects in absolute terms. There is a need for agreement on a hierarchy of observational study designs to quantify the major benefit and harm of cancer screening. This review provides a summary of recent guidelines on breast cancer screening and their major strengths and weaknesses, as well...

  17. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  18. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  19. Dynamics and observer dependence of holographic screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Moosa, Mudassir

    2017-02-01

    We study the evolution of holographic screens, both generally and in explicit examples, including cosmology and gravitational collapse. A screen H consists of a one-parameter sequence of maximal surfaces called leaves. Its causal structure is nonrelativistic. Each leaf can store all of the quantum information on a corresponding null slice holographically at no more than one bit per Planck area. Therefore, we expect the screen geometry to reflect certain coarse-grained quantities in the quantum gravity theory. In a given spacetime, there are many different screens, which are naturally associated with different observers. We find that this ambiguity corresponds precisely to the free choice of a single function on H . We also consider the background-free construction of H , where the spacetime is not given. The evolution equations then constrain aspects of the full spacetime and the screen's embedding in it.

  20. Drug screening for influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ailin; CAO; Hongpeng; DU; Guanhua

    2005-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the most important targets to screen the drugs of anti-influenza virus A and B. After virtual screening approaches were applied to a compound database which possesses more than 10000 compound structures, 160 compounds were selected for bioactivity assay, then a High Throughput Screening (HTS) model established for influenza virus NA inhibitors was applied to detect these compounds. Finally, three compounds among them displayed higher inhibitory activities, the range of their IC50 was from 0.1 μmol/L to 3μmol/L. Their structural scaffolds are novel and different from those of NA inhibitors approved for influenza treatment, and will be useful for the design and research of new NA inhibitors. The resuit indicated that the combination of virtual screening with HTS was very significant to drug screening and drug discovery.

  1. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  2. Eye screening in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, E M; O'Connor, M; Coakley, D; Walsh, J B

    1997-01-01

    Poor vision is considered to be a common unreported illness in the elderly population. To determine its prevalence we carried out an eye screen on 150 randomly selected co-operative elderly subjects attending St James's Hospital. A database [mean age 78.2 years (range 65 to 97)], medical history, mini-mental test score [mean score 9.1 (range 2 to 10)], mobility assessment and history of eye problems was gathered. A visual test of both eyes together (standard N6 and N8), inspection of the eyes, tonometry (Perkin's handheld tonometer) and fundoscopy were performed on each subject and the need and reason for referral to an optician or an ophthalmologist was documented. Results show that 64% of subjects could read N6 or N8. Tonometry revealed no subject with raised intraocular pressure, including 4 subjects who were currently on treatment for glaucoma. Fundoscopy showed that 57.3% of subjects had some evidence of cataracts, 16.6% moderate and 3% severe. The retina appeared normal in 58.6% of subjects, 20.6% of the population had hypertensive changes, 4.6% had diabetic changes, 3% had optic atrophy, 1.3% had macular degeneration and a further 10% could not be clearly visualised due to cataracts. 90% of subjects wore glasses and the average duration since the glasses were last changed was 3.7 years (range 2 weeks to 20 years). No glasses examined were in need of cleaning or repair. 36% of subjects could not read N8 (28 of these had forgotten their glasses and were advised to visit their optician if they could not read newsprint). 7.3% of subjects were referred to an optician for new glasses, 1.3% were referred to an ophthalmologist for newly diagnosed cataracts and 6.6% were regular attenders to an ophthalmologist. We conclude that the rate of new referrals for the occurrence of correctable undetected visual acuity deficit was lower than expected at 8.6% of subjects screened.

  3. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  4. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, R.; Marra, M.; Montagnese, C.; De Rosa, E.; Onufrio, M.; Amato, V.; Santarpia, L.; De Caprio, C.; Contaldo, F.; Pasanisi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 - 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2 fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  5. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  6. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies.

  7. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  8. Screening for Prediabetes Using Machine Learning Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Beom Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing. Studies support the necessity of screening and interventions for prediabetes, which could result in serious complications and diabetes. This study aimed at developing an intelligence-based screening model for prediabetes. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were used, excluding subjects with diabetes. The KNHANES 2010 data (n=4685 were used for training and internal validation, while data from KNHANES 2011 (n=4566 were used for external validation. We developed two models to screen for prediabetes using an artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM and performed a systematic evaluation of the models using internal and external validation. We compared the performance of our models with that of a screening score model based on logistic regression analysis for prediabetes that had been developed previously. The SVM model showed the areas under the curve of 0.731 in the external datasets, which is higher than those of the ANN model (0.729 and the screening score model (0.712, respectively. The prescreening methods developed in this study performed better than the screening score model that had been developed previously and may be more effective method for prediabetes screening.

  9. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  10. Knowledge of Density and Screening Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothathu, Nitya S; Philpotts, Liane E; Busch, Susan H; Gross, Cary P; Staib, Lawrence H; Hooley, Regina J

    2016-12-10

    To determine breast density awareness and attitudes regarding supplemental breast ultrasound screening since implementation of the nation's first breast density notification law, Connecticut Public Act 09-41. A self-administered survey was distributed at a Connecticut academic breast imaging center between February 2013 and February 2014. Women with prior mammography reports describing heterogeneous or extremely dense breast tissue were invited to participate when presenting for screening mammography, screening ultrasound, or both. Data were collected on breast density awareness, history of prior ultrasounds, attitudes toward ultrasound and breast-cancer risk, and demographics. Data were collected from 950 completed surveys. The majority of surveyed women (92%) were aware of their breast density, and 77% had undergone a prior screening ultrasound. Forty-three percent of participants who were aware of their breast density also expressed increased anxiety about developing breast cancer due to having dense breast tissue. Caucasian race and higher education were significantly associated (p density (93% and 95%, respectively) and having a prior screening breast ultrasound (79% and 80%, respectively). Patients with less than a college degree (82%) were significantly more likely to rely exclusively on their provider's recommendation regarding obtaining screening ultrasound (p density awareness is strongly associated with higher education, higher income, and Caucasian race. Non-Caucasian patients and those with less than a college education rely more heavily on their physicians' recommendations regarding screening ultrasound. Among women aware of their increased breast density, nearly half reported associated increased anxiety regarding the possibility of developing breast cancer.

  11. Benefits and harms of mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løberg, Magnus; Lousdal, Mette Lise; Bretthauer, Michael; Kalager, Mette

    2015-05-01

    Mammography screening for breast cancer is widely available in many countries. Initially praised as a universal achievement to improve women's health and to reduce the burden of breast cancer, the benefits and harms of mammography screening have been debated heatedly in the past years. This review discusses the benefits and harms of mammography screening in light of findings from randomized trials and from more recent observational studies performed in the era of modern diagnostics and treatment. The main benefit of mammography screening is reduction of breast-cancer related death. Relative reductions vary from about 15 to 25% in randomized trials to more recent estimates of 13 to 17% in meta-analyses of observational studies. Using UK population data of 2007, for 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50, 2 to 3 women are prevented from dying of breast cancer. All-cause mortality is unchanged. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer is the main harm of mammography screening. Based on recent estimates from the United States, the relative amount of overdiagnosis (including ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer) is 31%. This results in 15 women overdiagnosed for every 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50. Women should be unpassionately informed about the benefits and harms of mammography screening using absolute effect sizes in a comprehensible fashion. In an era of limited health care resources, screening services need to be scrutinized and compared with each other with regard to effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and harms.

  12. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  13. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  14. Screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E J; Ross, R; Hurley, R

    1981-06-01

    The prevalence of antibody against Toxoplasma gondi in a population of 715 pregnant women has been evaluated by two methods: indirect haemagglutination antibody (IHA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and all positive sera were checked by the dye test. Five hundred of the study population were questioned on diet and on animal contact to elucidate a possible relation to the prevalence of antibody. Results are expressed in international units (IU) of antibody against T gondi. Of the 715 sera, 171 were positive by IHA and 173 by IFA. One hundred and sixty-seven sera were positive by both tests, ninety-eight (58%) correlating exactly, as to the concentration of antibody. The ten sera which were not positive by both tests all had detectable antibody at the minimum concentration only (12 IU). The dye test confirmed all sera positive by both tests with the exception of three. It also confirmed one of four sera positive by IHA antibody alone and two of six positive by IFA alone. All sera that proved dye test-negative had low antibody concentrations (12 IU) by IHA or IFA. The IHA test, which is commercially available in kit form, would be suitable for use as a screening test during pregnancy. The estimated annual rate of antibody acquisition over the age range 16-40 years is 1.2% per annum with the highest rate in the 36-40 age group (2.5% per annum) and the lowest in the 26-30 age group (0.4% per annum). The clinical history was not significantly different between those with and those without antibody against T gondi but significantly more women in the 36-40 age group had a history of animal contact than those in the 26-30 age group. No conclusive evidence of recent or current infection was found.

  15. CRCHD Launches National Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.

  16. 77 FR 39986 - Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection, Health Screening Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be...: Title: Health Screening Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0164. Expiration Date of Approval: January...

  17. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  18. Molecular fingerprint similarity search in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Mulero, Miquel; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Molecular fingerprints have been used for a long time now in drug discovery and virtual screening. Their ease of use (requiring little to no configuration) and the speed at which substructure and similarity searches can be performed with them - paired with a virtual screening performance similar to other more complex methods - is the reason for their popularity. However, there are many types of fingerprints, each representing a different aspect of the molecule, which can greatly affect search performance. This review focuses on commonly used fingerprint algorithms, their usage in virtual screening, and the software packages and online tools that provide these algorithms.

  19. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  20. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key

  1. Freezeup Dynamics of a Frazil Ice Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Vh~FILE COPY * AD-A219 588 Freezeup Dynamics of a Frazil Ice Screen Kathleen D. Axelson February 1990 * DTIC a 3 ELECTU Apprcv . f pti’L r, 1 Distl...U Special Report 90-4 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Freezeup Dynamics of a Frazil Ice Screen Kathleen D...not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Freezeup Dynamics of a Frazil Ice Screen KATHLEEN D. AXELSON

  2. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  3. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE and prostate specific antigen (PSA tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL. Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL. Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  5. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  6. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... May and October 2014, before and after a performance feedback intervention in August 2014. The outcomes of interest were overall tuberculosis suspicion rate during consultations and provider adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the World Health Organizations' guidelines...... screen (any of current cough, fever, weight loss or night sweats). After feedback, patients with a positive WHO symptom screen were more likely to be suspected of tuberculosis (OR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.19-4.09) and referred for microscopy (OR 2.71; 95% CI: 1.25-5.86). CONCLUSIONS: A simple prospective audit...

  7. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) is a geographically-based model that helps policy makers and communities explore data on releases of toxic...

  8. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collection. Part of the card consists of special absorbent paper used to collect the blood sample. 1 ... blood is taken through a "heel stick." The absorbent portion of the screening card is then placed ...

  9. PSA mass screening: is there enough evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Bernardo; Grasso, Angelica; dell'Orto, Paolo Guido; Albo, Giancarlo; Castle, Erik; Coelho, Rafael; Patel, Vip; Mottrie, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer plays an important role in widely understood aspects of men's health, and is becoming a growing problem in terms of public life. Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms among men. Male patients can live with prostate cancer for a long time so it is important to offer appropriate males adequate diagnostic tools and treatments. Prostate cancer and PSA potentially represent a “pair” of a disease and an appropriate indicator to be used in mass screening, but regardless of that there is still active debate about it. Extensive use of PSA screening has modified epidemiology of the diseases. Randomized controlled studies provided sufficient results regarding a reduction in mortality through PSA mass screening, while all agreed on risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. New and accurate screening tools are necessary, along with adequate counseling and risk stratification. PMID:24578912

  10. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. S.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length.

  11. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  12. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  13. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  14. New null screen design for corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-09-01

    In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal topography. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the topography.

  15. Lower Spine Screening in the Shooting Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volski, Robert V.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire and screening test for posture and flexibility were designed and administered to 80 rifle and pistol shooters. Findings indicated that 78 percent had eperienced low back pain during competition and 63 percent afterward. (MT)

  16. Waveguides induced by grey screening solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke-Qing; Zhao Wei; Yang Yan-Long; Zhang Mei-Zhi; Li Jin-Ping; Liu Hong-Jun; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the properties of waveguides induced by one-dimensional grey screening solitons in biased photore-fractive crystals. The results show that waveguides induced by grey screening solitons are always of single mode for all intensity ratios, i.e. the ratios between the peak intensity of the soliton and the dark irradiance. Our analysis indicates that the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton increase monotonically with intensity ratio increasing. On the other hand, when the soliton greyness increases, the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton decrease monotonically. Relevant examples are provided where photorefractive crystal is of the strontium barium niobate type.

  17. NIDA Drug Use Screening Tool API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web-based interactive tool provides clinicians with a single-question quick screen about past year alcohol, tobacco, illegal and nonmedical prescription drug...

  18. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... May and October 2014, before and after a performance feedback intervention in August 2014. The outcomes of interest were overall tuberculosis suspicion rate during consultations and provider adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the World Health Organizations' guidelines...

  19. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective "screening" potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. In this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the "electron screening puzzle", the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  20. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)

  2. Virtual screening - what does it give us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    In current pharmaceutical research, lead compounds of high quality and structural diversity are key to the successful optimization of development candidates. In-house compound libraries at pharmaceutical companies, tested using HTS assays, are the major source of leads for new projects. However, these physically existing compounds, stored in microtiter plates in dispensaries, represent only a tiny fraction of the drug-like chemical space. Virtual screening offers many possibilities for new structures beyond those found in in-house libraries. During the last decade, a huge number of different virtual screening methods have been reported and used to search for novel bioactive compounds for many targets. This review addresses the current status of virtual screening, highlighting achievements as well as challenges, along with the value of virtual screening, and recent examples of successful applications.

  3. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  4. Atomic absorption spectroscopy in ion channel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Larisa; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    This article examines the utility of atomic absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with cold flux assays, to ion channel screening. The multiplicity of ion channels that can be interrogated using cold flux assays and atomic absorption spectroscopy is summarized. The importance of atomic absorption spectroscopy as a screening tool is further elaborated upon by providing examples of the relevance of ion channels to various physiological processes and targeted diseases.

  5. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  6. Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Existing disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We sought to assess preferred sources of colonoscopy screening information among Hispanics in East Harlem, NY. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among average-risk for CRC, non-symptomatic Hispanics in community-based sites and health clinics. SPSS 16 analysis explored the relationships between sociodemographic and health care variables and preferred sources of colonoscopy information for 395 participants. The top fou...

  7. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the...

  8. Simulation of the screening process on a circularly vibrating screen using 3D-DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lala; Zhao Yuemin; Liu Chusheng; Li Jun; Dong Hailin

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study of the motion particulates follow along a circularly vibrating screen deck was done using the three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM).The motion of the particles was analyzed.The effects of vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle on the screening process are discussed.The results show that the average velocity of the particles increases along the longitudinal direction of the deck.The screening efficiency is highest when the vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle are 3-3.5 mm,2.7 and 15°,respectively.This work is helpful for developing a deep understanding of particle motion and for optimizing screen separator designs.

  9. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  10. Automated reticulocyte parameters for hereditary spherocytosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Elena; Pradier, Olivier; Cotton, Frédéric; Gulbis, Béatrice

    2014-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on several screening and confirmatory tests; our algorithm includes clinical features, red blood cell morphology analysis and cryohaemolysis test, and, in case of positive screening, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic test. Using the UniCel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter) haematology analyser, we investigated automated reticulocyte parameters as HS screening tool, i.e. mean reticulocyte volume (MRV), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and mean sphered cell volume (MSCV). A total of 410 samples were screened. Gel electrophoresis was applied to 159 samples that were positive for the screening tests. A total of 48 patients were diagnosed as HS, and seven were diagnosed as acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Some other 31 anaemic conditions were also studied. From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both delta (mean cell volume (MCV)-MSCV) and MRV presented an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. At the diagnostic cut-off of 100 % sensitivity, MRV showed the best specificity of 88 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7. The parameters IRF, MRV and MSCV discriminated HS not only from controls and other tested pathologies but also from AIHA contrary to the cryohaemolysis test. In conclusion, automated reticulocyte parameters might be helpful for haemolytic anaemia diagnostic orientation even for general laboratories. In combination with cryohaemolysis, they ensure an effective and time-saving screening for HS for more specialised laboratories.

  11. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  12. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  13. Statistical analyses of a screen cylinder wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azmi, Azlin; Zhou, Tongming; Zhou, Yu; Cheng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of a screen cylinder wake was studied by analysing its statistical properties over a streamwise range of x/d={10-60}. The screen cylinder was made of a stainless steel screen mesh of 67% porosity. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 7000 using an X-probe. The results were compared with those obtained in the wake generated by a solid cylinder. It was observed that the evolution of the statistics in the wake of the screen cylinder was different from that of a solid cylinder, reflecting the differences in the formation of the organized large-scale vortices in both wakes. The streamwise evolution of the Reynolds stresses, energy spectra and cross-correlation coefficients indicated that there exists a critical location that differentiates the screen cylinder wake into two regions over the measured streamwise range. The formation of the fully formed large-scale vortices was delayed until this critical location. Comparison with existing results for screen strips showed that although the near-wake characteristics and the vortex formation mechanism were similar between the two wake generators, variation in the Strouhal frequencies was observed and the self-preservation states were non-universal, reconfirming the dependence of a wake on its initial condition.

  14. Paediatric screening for hypercholesterolaemia in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, D M; de Beaufort, C; Widhalm, K; Guardamagna, O; Bratina, N; Ose, L; Wiegman, A

    2012-03-01

    Different screening strategies are currently recommended to identify children with (familial) hypercholesterolaemia in order to initiate early lipid management. However, these strategies are characterised to date by low adherence by the medical community and limited compliance by parents and children. In a literature review, the authors assess which children should undergo screening and which children are in effect identified through the currently recommended strategies. Furthermore, the authors discuss the different screening tools and strategies currently used in Europe and what is known about the negative aspects of screening. The authors conclude that currently recommended selective screening strategies, which are mainly based on family history, lack precision and that a large percentage of affected children who are at increased risk of future coronary artery disease are not being identified. The authors propose universal screening of children between 1 and 9 years of age, a strategy likely to be most effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the identification of children with familial hypercholesterolaemia. However, this concept has yet to be proven in clinical practice.

  15. A practice guideline revisited: screening for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, B

    1995-06-15

    In 1993, the Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee began evaluation of new topics and reevaluation of previous guidelines on common screening tests, which were published in Annals of Internal Medicine between 1988 and 1990 and republished as a collection in 1991 (Eddy DM, ed. Common Screening Tests. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1991). Of the 11 guidelines contained in Common Screening Tests, only 3 (for breast, colon, and cholesterol screening) will be published with new data supporting new recommendations. Dr. Littenberg's analysis of the evidence that has appeared since the publication of the original paper on screening for hypertension (Littenberg B, Garber AM, Sox HC. Screening for Hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:192-202) presents a new format for updating Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project (CEAP) guidelines that have not been altered by new evidence. This "updated guideline" reports on new published studies and its analysis affirms the approved American College of Physicians recommendations of 1990. The Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee carried out the Internal and external review procedures that are used for all CEAP guidelines. The plan is to keep all American College of Physicians guidelines updated in this way on a regular basis. Direct any comments or suggestions to Director, Scientific Policy, American College of Physicians, 6th Street at Race, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

  16. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  18. Genetic screening and democracy: lessons from debating genetic screening criteria in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van El, Carla Geertruida; Pieters, Toine; Cornel, Martina

    2012-04-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing possibilities for genetic testing and screening. In clinical genetics, the doctor's office defined a secluded space for discussion of sensitive reproductive options in cases of elevated risk for genetic disorders in individuals or their offspring. When prenatal screening for all pregnant women became conceivable, the potential increase in scale made social and ethical concerns relevant for the whole of society. Whereas genetic testing in clinical genetic practice was widely accepted, prenatal screening at a population level met with unease. Concerns were raised regarding social pressure to screen: the sum of individual choice might result in a 'collective eugenics'. The government's involvement also raised suspicion: actively offering screening evoked associations with eugenic population policies from the first half of the 20th century. By reconstructing elements of policy and public debate on prenatal screening in the Netherlands from the past 30 years, this article discusses how the government has gradually changed its role in balancing the interest of the individual and the collective on genetic reproductive issues. Against a background of increasing knowledge about and demand for prenatal screening among the population, governmental policy changed from focusing on protection by banning screening toward facilitating screening in a careful and ethically sound way by providing adequate information, decision aids and quality assessment instruments. In the meanwhile, invigorating democracy in public debate may entail discussing concepts of 'the good life' in relation to living with or without impairments and dealing with genetic information about oneself or one's offspring.

  19. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

  20. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  1. Judaism, genetic screening and genetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1998-01-01

    Genetic screening, gene therapy and other applications of genetic engineering are permissible in Judaism when used for the treatment, cure, or prevention of disease. Such genetic manipulation is not considered to be a violation of God's natural law, but a legitimate implementation of the biblical mandate to heal. If Tay-Sachs disease, diabetes, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease or other genetic diseases can be cured or prevented by "gene surgery," then it is certainly permitted in Jewish law. Genetic premarital screening is encouraged in Judaism for the purpose of discouraging at-risk marriages for a fatal illness such as Tay-Sachs disease. Neonatal screening for treatable conditions such as phenylketonuria is certainly desirable and perhaps required in Jewish law. Preimplantation screening and the implantation of only "healthy" zygotes into the mother's womb to prevent the birth of an affected child are probably sanctioned in Jewish law. Whether or not these assisted reproduction techniques may be used to choose the sex of one's offspring, to prevent the birth of a child with a sex-linked disease such as hemophilia, has not yet been ruled on by modern rabbinic decisions. Prenatal screening with the specific intent of aborting an affected fetus is not allowed according to most rabbinic authorities, although a minority view permits it "for great need." Not to have children if both parents are carriers of genetic diseases such as Tay-Sachs is not a Jewish option. Preimplantation screening is preferable. All screening test results must remain confidential. Judaism does not permit the alteration or manipulation of physical traits and characteristics such as height, eye and hair color, facial features and the like, when such change provides no useful benefit to mankind. On the other hand, it is permissible to clone organisms and microorganisms to facilitate the production of insulin, growth hormone, and other agents intended to benefit mankind and to

  2. Evaluating developmental screening in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dawson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a method of evaluating accuracy of developmental screening modeled on the evidence-based medical literature. Method: A retrospective review was performed on 418 children screened with the Denver II by a trained technician. Two models for analyzing screening data were examined, using predictive values and likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR−. Results: The technician, working at 20% time, screened 44% of eligible children. There were 129/418 (31% children with Suspect Denver II results, 115/418 who were referred, 81/115 (70% who were evaluated by Early Intervention, and 64/81 (79% who qualified for services. The uncorrected positive predictive value for the Denver II alone (44% was insufficient to meet the preset standard of 60%, but the LR+ of 4.16 indicated a significant contribution of test information to improving predictive value. Combining test results with information from the parent–technician conference to achieve a referral decision resulted in an uncorrected predictive value of 56%, which rose with correction for children referred but not evaluated to 72% (LR+ 10.33. Negative predictive values and likelihood ratios of a negative test and a non-referral decision achieved recommended levels. Parents who expressed concern were significantly more likely to complete recommended evaluation than those who did not (82% vs 58%, p < .01. Results were in the same range as in published studies with other screening tests but showed three areas for improvement: screening more children, more carefully supervising some referral decisions, and getting more children to evaluation. Conclusion: Levels of predictive accuracy above 60% can be obtained by combining different types of information about development to make decisions about referral for more complete evaluation. Systematic study of such combinations could lead to improved predictive accuracy of screening programs and support attempts to close the gap between referral

  3. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  4. Combination of hearing screening and genetic screening for deafness-susceptibility genes in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gen-Dong; Li, Shou-Xia; Chen, Ding-Li; Feng, Hai-Qin; Zhao, Su-Bin; Liu, Yong-Jie; Guo, Li-Li; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Cai-Xia; Wang, Ze-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the results of screening of newborn hearing and the incidence of deafness-susceptibility genes. One thousand newborn babies in the Handan Center Hospital (Handan, China) underwent screening of hearing and deafness-susceptibility genes. The first screening test was carried out using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Babies with hearing loss who failed to pass the initial screening were scheduled for rescreening at 42 days after birth. Cord blood was used for the screening of deafness-susceptibility genes, namely the GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MTRNR1) genes. Among the 1,000 neonates that underwent the first hearing screening, 25 exhibited left-sided hearing loss, 21 exhibited right-sided hearing loss and 15 cases had binaural hearing loss. After rescreening 42 days later, only one of the initial 61 cases exhibited hearing loss under OAE testing. The neonatal deafness gene tests showed two cases with 1555A>G mutation and two cases with 1494C>T mutation of the MTRNR1 gene. In the SLC26A4 gene screening, four cases exhibited the heterozygous IVS7-2A>G mutation and one case exhibited heterozygous 1226G>A mutation. In the GJB2 gene screening, two cases exhibited the homozygous 427C>T mutation and 10 exhibited the heterozygous 235delC mutation. The genetic screening revealed 21 newborns with mutations in the three deafness-susceptibility genes. The overall carrier rate was 2.1% (21/1,000). The association of hearing and gene screening may be the promising screening strategy for the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  6. Lung cancer screening and video-assisted thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Dirksen, Asger;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to report the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening on the use of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) in a randomized screening trial.......The objective of this study is to report the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening on the use of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) in a randomized screening trial....

  7. The Performance of Two Pathological Gambling Screens in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; McCausland, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of two pathological gambling (PG) screening instruments, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and the Massachusetts Gambling Screen-DSM-IV subscale (MAGS), were explored in a sample of college students (N = 159). Participants completed the two screening instruments, a diagnostic interview for PG, the Gambling-Timeline…

  8. Protocol for measuring light transmission of horticultural screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Hemming, S.; Mohammadkhani, V.; Ruijven, van J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The light transmission is an important property for horticultural screens. For energy screens in particular, an accurate measurement of the light transmission is important because these screens are often used during the day, in the winter period when radiation is limited. For shading screens the sha

  9. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications.

  10. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SCREEN PARAMETERS ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝林; A.C.Apling

    1996-01-01

    A series of laboratory screening tests have been performed with the objective of evaluating the effect of feed rate, screen length and screen motion on the quality of separation. The separation performance has been evaluated by the use of proposed ISO Standard measures which are based on the partition curve. The laboratory rig, the test programme and results derived from it are discussed. The effect of screen length, feed rate and screen motion on the levels of screen performance as indicated by these measures and a normalised separation size parameter are discussed in relation to the assumed screening conditions for the tests reported and conclusions are summarised.

  12. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  13. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  14. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  15. Ethical issues related to screening for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Hedley, Paula L; Gjerris, Mickey; Christiansen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2-8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care.

  16. Neonatal Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Population-based newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and related disorders has been instituted in five states, with several more planning to add this testing to their newborn screening panels. This review summarizes the rationale, development, and implementation of SCID screening programs to date and highlights current and future challenges. Recent findings Early results of T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) testing newborns in pilot states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. The TREC test has clinical validity and TRECs, as predicted, are an excellent biomarker of poor T-cell lymphocyte production in the thymus or increased lymphocyte loss resulting in T-cell lymphopenia. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment. Summary Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. Routine screening of all newborns with the TREC test, implemented as part of an integrated public health program, can achieve pre-symptomatic diagnosis of SCID and other disorders with T-cell lymphopenia, allowing prompt and effective treatment and leading to a better understanding of the spectrum of these disorders and how to manage them. PMID:22001765

  17. Early discovery drug screening using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marshall M

    2002-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric methods useful for early discovery drug screening are reviewed. All methods described involve studies of non-covalent complexes between biopolymer receptors and small molecule ligands formed in the condensed phase. The complexes can be sprayed intact directly into the gas phase by ESI-MS using gentle experimental conditions. Gas phase screening applications are illustrated for drug ligand candidates non-covalently interacting with peptides, proteins, RNA, and DNA. In the condensed phase, the complexes can be also isolated, denatured and analyzed by ESI-MS to identify the small molecule ligands. Condensed phase drug screening examples are illustrated for the ESI-MS ancillary techniques of affinity chromatography, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoretic methods. Solid phase drug screening using MALDI-MS is illustrated for small molecule ligands bound to MALDI affinity probe tips and to beads. Since ESI and MALDI principally produce molecular ions, high throughput screening is achieved by analyzing mass indexed mixtures.

  18. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  19. Newborn Screening for Krabbe’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Joseph J.; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Gelb, Michael H.; Caggana, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Live newborn screening for Krabbe’s disease (KD) was initiated in New York on August 7, 2006, and started in Missouri in August, 2012. As of August 7, 2015, nearly 2.5 million infants had been screened, and 443 (0.018%) infants had been referred for followup clinical evaluation; only five infants had been determined to have KD. As of August, 2015, the combined incidence of infantile KD in New York and Missouri is ~1 per 500,000; however, patients who develop later-onset forms of KD may still emerge. This Review provides an overview of the processes used to develop the screening and followup algorithms. It also includes updated results from screening and discussion of observations, lessons learned, and suggested areas for improvement that will reduce referral rates and the number of infants defined as at risk for later-onset forms of KD. Although current treatment options for infants with early-infantile Krabbe’s disease are not curative, over time treatment options should improve; in the meantime, it is essential to evaluate the lessons learned and to ensure that screening is completed in the best possible manner until these improvements can be realized. PMID:27638592

  20. Compliance after 17 years of breast cancer screening - Factors associated with reattendance for periodic breast screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ScafKlomp, W; VanSonderen, E; VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    The motives and reasons for regular attendance, irregular attendance and drop-out were studied in women who were enrolled in a biennial breast screening programme in 1975 and who were invited to each subsequent screening round until 1992. Three compliance groups were compared: 'attended all rounds'

  1. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : the feasibility and specificity of screening in real life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Margriet M.; Stoutenbeek, Remco; Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and specificity of glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: In four optician shops, glaucoma screening was offered to 400 consecutive visitors aged 45 years or above. If the visitor agreed to participate, an intraocular pressure measurement an

  2. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  3. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  4. Effects of mammography screening under different screening schedules: Model estimates of potential benefits and harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); S. Bailey (Stephanie); D.A. Berry (Donald); H.J. de Koning (Harry); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H. Huang (Hailiang); S.J. Lee (Stephanie Joi); M.F. Munsell (Mark); S.K. Plevritis (Sylvia); P.M. Ravdin (P.); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); B. Sigal (Bronislava); M.A. Stoto (Michael); N.K. Stout (Natasha); N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); J. Venier (John); M. Zelen (Marvin); E. Feuer (Eric)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite trials of mammography and widespread use, optimal screening policy is controversial. Objective: To evaluate U.S. breast cancer screening strategies. Design: 6 models using common data elements. Data Sources: National data on age-specific incidence, competing mortality

  5. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  6. The potential harms of primary human papillomavirus screening in over-screened women: a microsimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Naber (Steffie); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is well acknowledged that HPV testing should not be performed at young age and at short intervals. Cytological screening practices have shown that over-screening, i.e., from a younger age and at shorter intervals than recommended, is hard to avoid. We quantified the conseq

  7. Microfluidic-Enabled Print-to-Screen Platform for High-Throughput Screening of Combinatorial Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhe; Li, Jiannan; Xiao, Wenwu; Xiao, Kai; Lee, Joyce; Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Zhu, Zijie; Digiglio, Philip; Yang, Gaomai; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-10-20

    Since the 1960s, combination chemotherapy has been widely utilized as a standard method to treat cancer. However, because of the potentially enormous number of drug candidates and combinations, conventional identification methods of the effective drug combinations are usually associated with significantly high operational costs, low throughput screening, laborious and time-consuming procedures, and ethical concerns. In this paper, we present a low-cost, high-efficiency microfluidic print-to-screen (P2S) platform, which integrates combinatorial screening with biomolecular printing for high-throughput screening of anticancer drug combinations. This P2S platform provides several distinct advantages and features, including automatic combinatorial printing, high-throughput parallel drug screening, modular disposable cartridge, and biocompatibility, which can potentially speed up the entire discovery cycle of potent drug combinations. Microfluidic impact printing utilizing plug-and-play microfluidic cartridges is experimentally characterized with controllable droplet volume and accurate positioning. Furthermore, the combinatorial print-to-screen assay is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept biological experiment which can identify the positive hits among the entire drug combination library in a parallel and rapid manner. Overall, this microfluidic print-to-screen platform offers a simple, low-cost, high-efficiency solution for high-throughput large-scale combinatorial screening and can be applicable for various emerging applications in drug cocktail discovery.

  8. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  9. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. A Bayesian Predictive Discriminant Analysis with Screened Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2015-01-01

    In the application of discriminant analysis, a situation sometimes arises where individual measurements are screened by a multidimensional screening scheme. For this situation, a discriminant analysis with screened populations is considered from a Bayesian viewpoint, and an optimal predictive rule for the analysis is proposed. In order to establish a flexible method to incorporate the prior information of the screening mechanism, we propose a hierarchical screened scale mixture of normal (HSS...

  11. Four Principles to Consider Before Advising Women on Screening Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, John D; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews four important screening principles applicable to screening mammography in order to facilitate informed choice. The first principle is that screening may help, hurt, or have no effect. In order to reduce mortality and mastectomy rates, screening must reduce the rate of advanced...... might extend a woman's life is narrow, as many tumors that can form metastases will already have done so. Instead of encouraging screening mammography, physicians should help women make an informed decision as with any medical intervention....

  12. Immobilized OBOC combinatorial bead array to facilitate multiplicative screening

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wenwu; Bononi, Fernanda C.; Townsend, Jared; Li, Yuanpei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2013-01-01

    One-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library screening has been broadly utilized for the last two decades to identify small molecules, peptides or peptidomimetics targeting variable screening probes such as cell surface receptors, bacteria, protein kinases, phosphatases, proteases etc. In previous screening methods, library beads were suspended in solution and screened against one single probe. Only the positive beads were tracked and isolated for additional screens and finally selected...

  13. Shattering the Screen: Embodied Narrative in Digital Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J. Cook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This illustrated phenomenological inquiry into storytelling in screen media identifies important media transformations of experience. Viewers embody, or situate their experienced selves, according to screen requirements. A viewer’s compelled perspective on the screen causes fundamental spatio-temporal transformations of narrative experience, including horizontal stretching of screen space and time compression or leakage. Virtual media have the potential, as yet unrealized, to break out of the screen and to restore narrative to its primordial, experiential roots.

  14. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  15. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected.

  16. Screening of Trichoderma strains tolerant to benzimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren; ZENG Yong-san; ZHOU Hong-zi; YU Jin-feng; JIANG Xin-yin; ZHANG Yue-li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The screening of isolates and the assay of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma were studied systematically in laboratory and greenhouse in vivo. The proteins tolerant to benzimidazole in Trichoderma strains were purified, and their physical and chemical properties were detected. Compared their biological activities in vitro and vivo in greenhouse, nine biocontrol strains (including Ty- 10-2, LTR-2, Tj-5-1, Tj-5-4, Ty- 11-1, Tj-11-3, Ty- 11-3, Tj-3-3-2, Tj-3-3-4) were screened. These biocontrol strains had faster rates of growth and higher inhibition to gray mould (Bortrytis cinerea),and the inhibition was stable. The effects of controlling gray mould in greenhouse with the screened Trichoderma strains were 70 % and 50 % in vivo.

  17. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spitaleri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective “screening” potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. In this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the “electron screening puzzle”, the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  18. Does educational level determine screening participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    .75-2.07) for women with lower primary education. In conclusion, our results did not support the hypothesis that lack of understanding the information in the invitation letter explains nonparticipation. 'Never use' was not inversely associated with the level of education, but showed a U-shaped association, even when......The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that nonparticipation in organized mammography screening is due to insufficient understanding of the information in the invitation letter by relating educational level to user pattern. Data from two Danish mammography screening programmes...... in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001 were taken for this study. The Danish Central Population Register was used to define target groups; screened participation data were provided by the health authority, and data on highest obtained education came from Statistics Denmark. Data on all breast imaging...

  19. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teis Esben Sondergaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC. In this screen, fractions containing the red pigments aurofusarin and bikaverin showed effects against strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The IC50 for aurofusarin against Lactobacillus acidophilus was 8 µM, and against Bifidobacterium breve it was 64 µM. Aurofusarin only showed an effect on probiotic bacteria, leading to the speculation that only health-promoting bacteria with a positive effect in the gut system are affected.

  20. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  1. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Serafim, W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  2. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)

  3. Investigations of OTR screen surfaces and shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, C P; Lefèvre, T

    2006-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has proven to be a flexible and effective tool for measuring a wide range of beam parameters, in particular the beam divergence and the transverse beam profile. It is today an established and widely used diagnostic method providing linear real-time measurements. Measurements in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) showed that the performance of the present profile monitors is limited by the optical acceptance of the imaging system. In this paper, two methods to improve the systems' performance are presented and results from measurements are shown. First, the influence of the surface quality of the OTR screen itself is addressed. Several possible screen materials have been tested to which different surface treatment techniques were applied. Results from the measured optical characteristics are given. Second, a parabolic-shaped screen support was investigated with the aim of providing an initial focusing of the emitted radiation and thus to reduce the problem of aperture limitation.

  4. [Mammogram screening: an on-going debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivar, Cristina

    2005-04-01

    General public mamma-gram screening programs directed at women aged from 50 to 65 years are a common practice in Spain and other European countries. After more than ten years being recognized as early detection programs for breast cancer A debate has opened about the effectiveness of mamma-gram screening to reduce the number of deaths due to this type of tumor. The author includes a wide bibliography and various data bases such as MEDLINE: 1989-2003, CANCERLIT: 1975-2002, CINAHL: 1982-2003, and EMBASE: 1988-2003; and realizes it is not simple to justify mamma-gram screening since there is a great diversity of opinion in medical literature.

  5. Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model

    CERN Document Server

    Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.

  6. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  7. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  8. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bertulani, C.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective “screening” potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. In this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the “electron screening puzzle”, the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  9. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  10. Ethical Considerations for Perinatal Toxicology Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsman, Mindy G

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development. Concerns for unethical practices in the toxicology screening of pregnant women and their babies by risk factors that are unproven or disproven are discussed, and three goals of toxicology screening based on the ethical principles of justice and beneficence are proposed. This article will help equip neonatal nurses to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate for just screening and referral practices in their institutions and communities.

  11. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  12. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  13. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines....... METHODS: Two experienced chiropractors independently assessed 111 adolescents aged 12-14 years who were recruited from a primary school in Denmark. A standardised examination protocol was used to test inter-rater reliability including tests for scoliosis, hypermobility, general mobility, inter......, the LoA were quite wide compared with the range of assessments. CONCLUSION: Some clinical tests showed good, and some tests poor, reliability when applied in a spinal screening of adolescents. The results could probably be improved by additional training and further test standardization...

  14. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. Areas covered in this review This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. What the reader will gain These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. Take home message Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design. PMID:21691435

  15. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Hauwers K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, because HPV-related, life threatening malignancies in men are rare. The importance of male HPV screening lies mainly in HPV vaccination. Young females are the target group for HPV, but men are considered to be the reservoir for HPV and to have a role in the perpetuation of the infection in the general population. We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  16. Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Drahomira; Jiskra, Jan; Limanova, Zdenka; Zima, Tomas; Potlukova, Eliska

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy. After the 14th gestational week, fetal brain development may already be irreversibly affected by lack of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of manifest hypothyroidism in pregnancy is about 0.3-0.5%. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism varies between 4 and 17%, strongly depending on the definition of the upper TSH cutoff limit. Hyperthyroidism occurs in 0.1-1% of all pregnancies. Positivity for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) is common in women of childbearing age with an incidence rate of 5.1-12.4%. TPOAb-positivity may be regarded as a manifestation of a general autoimmune state which may alter the fertilization and implantation processes or cause early missed abortions. Women positive for TPOAb are at a significant risk of developing hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum. Laboratory diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is based upon serum TSH concentration. TSH in pregnancy is physiologically lower than the non-pregnant population. Results of multiple international studies point toward creation of trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH in pregnancy. Screening for hypothyroidism in pregnancy is controversial and its implementation varies from country to country. Currently, the case-finding approach of screening high-risk women is preferred in most countries to universal screening. However, numerous studies have shown that one-third to one

  17. AA, beam stopper with scintillator screen

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    An insertable steel-plate beam stopper was located after nearly a full turn downstream of the injection point. It was fitted with a scintillator screen, a thin plate of Cr-doped alumina, imprinted with a grid and reference points. The screen was illuminated through a window and observed with a highly sensitive TV camera plus image intensifier. This allowed observation of beam position and size of a proton test beam and of the beam from the target, which consisted not only of antiprotons but contained as well electrons, pions and muons of the same momentum.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy in diagnosis and screening

    CERN Document Server

    Severcan, F

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the use of vibrational spectroscopic methods for diagnosis and screening. These applications range from diagnosis of disease states in humans, such as cancer, to rapid identification and screening of microorganisms. The growth in such types of studies has been possible thanks to advances in instrumentation and associated computational and mathematical tools for data processing and analysis. This volume of Advances in Biomedical Spectroscopy contains chapters from leading experts who discuss the latest advances in the application of Fourier

  19. A population screening programme for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Mairesse, Georges H; Goethals, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    general population using an ECG handheld machine and its feasibility to identify new AF cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data obtained from 5 years of the 'Belgian Heart Rhythm Week' screening programme. All subjects were screened using a one-lead ECG handheld machine. Among 65 747 subjects......) and 5.8% were treated with OAC and antiplatelet drugs. Among recorded AF cases, the use of the ECG handheld machine allowed identification of 603 new AF patients (1.1%, 95% CI 0.9-1.3%). Factors associated with incident AF were chronic heart failure (P ....001), previous stroke (P disease (P

  20. Universal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects an estimated 123 million persons worldwide and is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in most countries. Approximately 75% of persons with chronic HCV were born between the years 1945-1965 and screening of patients in this birth cohort is now advocated. Unfortunately, these recommendations are not readily applied and a sizable population of infected persons who could benefit from treatment fall outside the birth cohort. Universal screening for HCV would be optimal. However, the primary limitation once patients are identified is accessing treatment which remains restricted in most countries.

  1. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey;

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences...... feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context...

  2. Theories of Dark Energy with Screening Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence for the existence of dark energy and dark matter, their underlying fundamental physics remains unknown. This review article explores the tantalizing possibility that the dark sector includes new light degrees of freedom that mediate long-range forces on cosmological scales. To ensure consistency with laboratory and solar system tests of gravity, some screening mechanism is necessary to "hide" these degrees of freedom locally. I will focus on two broad classes of screening theories, chameleons and symmetrons, which rely respectively on the scalar field acquiring a large mass or weak coupling in the presence of large ambient matter density.

  3. Screening for gestational diabetes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; Van Assche, André

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is rising globally and it represents an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. GDM is also associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. Acceptance and implementation of the 2013 World Health...... to European health organizations based on screening uptake rates, maternal well-being, maternal and neonatal health outcomes, equity and cost-effectiveness. Here we describe the ongoing controversy on GDM screening and diagnosis, and provide an overview of important topics for future research concerning GDM...

  4. Screening of the hearing of newborns - Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Permanent congenital bilateral hearing loss (CHL of moderate or greater degree (≥40 dB HL is a rare disease, with a prevalence of about 1 to 3 per 1000 births. However, it is one of the most frequent congenital diseases. Reliance on physician observation and parental recognition has not been successful in the past in detecting significant hearing loss in the first year of life. With this strategy significant hearing losses have been detected in the second year of life. With two objective technologies based on physiologic response to sound, otoacoustic emissions (OAE and auditory brainstem response (ABR hearing screening in the first days of life is made possible. Objectives: The objective of this health technology assessment report is to update the evaluation on clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs. Universal newborn hearing screening (UHNS (i, selective screening of high risk newborns (ii, and the absence of a systematic screening program are compared for age at identification and age at hearing aid fitting of children with hearing loss. Secondly the potential benefits of early intervention are analysed. Costs and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs are determined. This report is intended to make a contribution to the decision making whether and under which conditions a newborn hearing screening program should be reimbursed by the statutory sickness funds in Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment report updates a former health technology assessment (Kunze et al. 2004 [1]. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, based on a documented search and selection of the literature using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and a documented extraction and appraisal of the included studies. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the different screening strategies in Germany the decision analytic Markov state model which had been developed in

  5. Screening for lung cancer: time for large-scale screening by chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomi, Dekel; Ben-Avi, Ronny; Balmor, Gingy Ronen; Onn, Amir; Peled, Nir

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Age and smoking are the primary risk factors for lung cancer. Treatment based on surgical removal in the early stages of the disease results in better survival. Screening programmes for early detection that used chest radiography and sputum cytology failed to attain reduction of lung cancer mortality. Screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no mortality advantage was manifested in small randomised control trials. A large randomised control trial in the U.S.A., the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), showed a significant relative reduction of 20% in lung cancer mortality and 6.7% reduction in total mortality, yet no reduction was evidenced in the late-stage prevalence. Screening for lung cancer by low-dose CT reveals a high level of false-positive lesions, which necessitates further noninvasive and invasive evaluations. Based primarily on the NLST eligible criteria, new guidelines have recently been developed by major relevant organisations. The overall recommendation coming out of this collective work calls for lung cancer screening by low-dose CT to be performed in medical centres manned by specialised multidisciplinary teams, as well as for a mandatory, pre-screening, comprehensive discussion with the patient about the risks and advantages involved in the process. Lung cancer screening is on the threshold of a new era, with ever more questions still left open to challenge future studies.

  6. Cancer screening status in Korea, 2011: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, which are included in the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme. In 2011 the National Cancer Centre in Korea conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional interview survey using multi-stage random sampling. Participants included 4,100 cancer-free men 40 years and over of age and women over 30 years of age. The lifetime screening rates for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 76.2%, 54.3%, 56.1%, 79.0%, and, 74.8%, respectively. The rates of recommended screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 64.6%, 22.9%, 35.3%, 60.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. More than 70% of all screening was attributed to organised cancer screening programmes. The main reason given for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. A greater effort is needed to increase screening rates, especially for liver and colorectal cancers.

  7. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  8. Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Martin

    Full Text Available The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases and efficiency (i.e. false positives of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness.We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate. Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6 of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive.While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

  9. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  10. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincock, Layne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  11. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T.

    1984-10-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  12. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  13. Lung cancer screening: Is there a future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary ER O′Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with an average rate of 40-100/100,000 depending on the level of deprivation, and the rates are higher in smokers. The National Lung Screening Trial using three consecutive annual low-dose computed tomography scans is the first and largest screening study to show clear evidence of a significant reduction in lung cancer mortality in selected high-risk subjects. The many on-going European screening studies will generate information on the groups of subjects that may or may not benefit from screening (demographics, pack-years smoked, length of smoking, number of years from quitting etc. and the required frequency and duration of the intervention. Smoking cessation remains the most important tool for general improvement in health outcomes and in particular lung cancer prevention. Early intervention for investigations of symptoms that are considered mild or common could also change the outcome. Doctors and patients must become increasingly aware that these common symptoms are also potentially symptoms of lung cancer and are not ′normal′ even in smokers.

  14. Preview Screening of Documentary Touching the Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>While CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin visited the U.S.from April 11 to 16,a preview of the documentary film Touching the Tigers,a memorial to the great contribution American pilots made to China’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression in WWII,was screened at the Chinese Embassy in Washington,D.C.

  15. Pixel masks for screen-door transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Groen, F.C.A.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1998-01-01

    Rendering objects transparently gives additional insight in complex and overlapping structures. However, traditional techniques for the rendering of transparent objects such as alpha blending are not very well suited for the rendering of multiple transparent objects in dynamic scenes. Screen-door tr

  16. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  17. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    2004-01-01

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the po

  18. Screen Media and Young Children: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2010-01-01

    Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…

  19. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  20. Silk-Screening a la Andy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project that was used with advanced 11th and 12th grade art students in which they created silk-screen self-portraits in the style of Andy Warhol. Discusses the process of creating the portraits and the activities that concluded the project. Lists the needed materials. (CMK)

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad;

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate...

  2. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  3. DHAD variants and methods of screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kristen J.; Ye, Rick W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.

  4. Clinical utility of nuchal translucency screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovic V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vedran Stefanovic,1 Outi Äyräs,1 Marianne Eronen,2 Jorma Paavonen,1 Minna Tikkanen1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 2Health Department, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Helsinki, Finland Abstract: The term nuchal translucency (NT is used to describe the accumulation of fluid behind the fetal neck visible on ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy. In singleton and dichorionic twin pregnancies, increased NT thickness is associated with trisomy 21 and other aneuploidies, major fetal anomalies (especially congenital heart disease, and genetic syndromes. The pathophysiology and significance of increased or discordant NT in monochorionic twin pregnancies is more complex and is associated with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and other pregnancy complications due to monochorionicity. The long-term neurological outcome of euploid children without structural anomalies after increased fetal NT seems to be favorable. Proper counseling is essential in the screening process. Special attention should be paid to the assessment of NT screening quality control. Even in the era of arising possibilities for non-invasive fetal karyotype determination from maternal blood, the role of NT screening is far from over. The association of this phenomenon with aneuploidies is only one of its utilities in modern obstetrics. Keywords: nuchal translucency, screening, aneuploidy, congenital anomaly, counseling, obstetrics

  5. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 30 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  6. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 60 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  7. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen-Lubsen, G.

    1981-01-01

    abstractScreening provides a means for 11filtering disease from the population11, until then unrecognized by patient or physician. In an increasing number of diseases, early detection is helpful in preventing serious consequences, by treatment or by genetic counseling on the recurrence risk of conge

  8. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractScreening provides a means for 11filtering disease from the population11, until then unrecognized by patient or physician. In an increasing number of diseases, early detection is helpful in preventing serious consequences, by treatment or by genetic counseling on the recurrence risk of c

  9. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an aut

  10. Interactive Screen Experiments with Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Single photons are used for fundamental quantum physics experiments as well as for applications. Originally being a topic of advance courses, such experiments are increasingly a subject of undergraduate courses. We provide interactive screen experiments (ISE) for supporting the work in a real laboratory, and for students who do not have access to…

  11. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Jakobsen, Michael L.; Hanson, Steen G.; Mosgaard, Morten; Iversen, Theis; Korsgaard, Jorgen

    2011-08-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching finger is also demonstrated.

  12. A Beautiful Screen Tells a Classic Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Scenes from Dream of Red Mansions, a masterpiece of classic Chinese literature, have been recreated in stone. Entitled "Stories from Dream of Red Mansions," the new work of fine workmanship took some three years and more than 80,000 working hours to complete. Fifty-two screens are linked to each other. stretching 70 meters in length, 2.3 meters in

  13. Screening of electrocatalytic materials for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Bondarenko, Alexander S.; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    A general scheme for high-throughput screening of electrocatalysts is presented. By systematically exploiting a collection of theoretical and experimental materials databases, supplemented with quantum mechanical calculations, it locates systems that meet a set of pre-imposed selection criteria...

  14. Computational screening of mixed metal halide ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Quaade, Ulrich;

    the search spaces consists of millions combinations, which makes a GA ideal, to reduce the number of necessary calculations. We are screening for a one step release from either a hexa or octa ammine, and we have found promising candidates, which will be further investigated ? both computationally...

  15. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.;

    2013-01-01

    . Esterification of acrylic acid with octanol is also addressed. Solvents are screened and candidates identified, confirming existing experimental results. Although the examples involve lipases, the method is quite general, so there seems to be no preclusion against application to other biocatalysts....

  16. In vitro toxicity screening of colored smokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Alblas, M.J.; Makkus, J.C.; Meer, J.A. van der; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Groeneveld, F.R.; Norbert, M.; Lingen, J.N.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Data on the acute and/or long-term toxicity of colored smokes appear to be scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study is to obtain more insight on this matter. For this purpose, existing platforms for in vitro toxicity screening are evaluated with respect to their applicability

  17. Environmental Screening Assessment of Perchlorate Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    nitramido)dinitroethylene AP Ammonium perchlorate CAS Chemical Abstract Services DNNC 1,3,5,5-tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine EPI Estimation Program...can be created and pasted into the input screen or obtained from a linked file of Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. The EPI Suite Interface

  18. Womens' preference in Down syndrome screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, IM; Tijmstra, T; Bleker, O.P.; van Lith, JMM

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the knowledge of pregnant women about prenatal tests. and what tests they would choose if offered. Also, the preference of pregnant women for second-trimester or first-trimester screening was assessed. Patients and methods Pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a decentral

  19. New era of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maysaa El Zoghbi; Linda C Cummings

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC) is the 2nd most common cancer in women and 3rd most common cancer in men worldwide. Most CRCs develop from adenomatous polyps arising from glandular epithelium. Tumor growth is initiated by mutation of the tumor suppressor gene APC and involves other genetic mutations in a stepwise process over years. Both hereditary and environmental factors contribute to the development of CRC. Screening has been proven to reduce the incidence of CRC. Screening has also contributed to the decrease in CRC mortality in the United States. However,CRC incidence and/or mortality remain on the rise in some parts of the world(Eastern Europe,Asia,and South America),likely due to factors including westernized diet,lifestyle,and lack of healthcare infrastructure. Multiple screening options are available,ranging from direct radiologic or endoscopic visualization tests that primarily detect premalignant or malignant lesions such as flexible sigmoidoscopy,optical colonoscopy,colon capsule endoscopy,computed tomographic colonography,and double contrast barium enema- to stool based tests which primarily detect cancers,including fecal DNA,fecal immunochemical test,and fecal occult blood test. The availability of some of these tests is limited to areas with high economic resources. This article will discuss CRC epidemiology,pathogenesis,risk factors,and screening modalities with a particular focus on new technologies.

  20. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  1. Making Movies: From Script to Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobker, Lee R.

    This book is a guide to the making of films. It covers preparation (scripting, storyboarding, budgeting, casting, and crew selection), filming (directing, camera operating, and sound recording), and postproduction (editing, sound dubbing, laboratory processing, and trial screening). Distribution of films is discussed in detail. Possible careers in…

  2. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  3. Transport properties of fully screened Kondo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörig, Christoph B M; Mora, Christophe; Schuricht, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium transport properties of fully (exactly) screened Kondo quantum dots subject to a finite bias voltage or a finite temperature. First, we calculate the Fermi-liquid coefficients of the conductance for models with arbitrary spin, i.e., its leading behavior for small bias vol

  4. Screening and expression of genes from metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most abundant and widely spread organisms on earth. They colonize a huge variety of natural and anthropogenic environments, including very specialized ecological niches and even extreme habitats, which are made possible by the immense metabolic diversity and genetic adaptability of microbes. As most of the organisms from environmental samples defy cultivation, cultivation-independent metagenomics approaches have been applied since more than one decade to access and characterize the phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities as well as their metabolic potential and ecological functions. Thereby, metagenomics has fully emerged as an own scientific field for mining new biocatalysts for many industrially relevant processes in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. This review summarizes common metagenomic approaches ranging from sampling, isolation of nucleic acids, construction of metagenomic libraries and their evaluation. Sequence-based screenings implement next-generation sequencing platforms, microarrays or PCR-based methods, while function-based analysis covers heterologous expression of metagenomic libraries in diverse screening setups. Major constraints and advantages of each strategy are described. The importance of alternative host-vector systems is discussed, and in order to underline the role of phylogenetic and physiological distance from the gene donor and the expression host employed, a case study is presented that describes the screening of a genomic library from an extreme thermophilic bacterium in both Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus. Metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and single-cell-based methods are expected to complement metagenomic screening efforts to identify novel biocatalysts from environmental samples.

  5. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  6. 33 CFR 84.09 - Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meters or more in length shall be fitted with mat black inboard screens and meet the requirements of § 84.17. On vessels of less than 20 meters in length, the sidelights, if necessary to meet the... single vertical filament and a very narrow division between the green and red sections, external...

  7. Alcohol Screening and Counseling PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.  Created: 1/7/2014 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/7/2014.

  8. The Munich Parasomnia Screening in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Groetelaers, L.; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate the subjective experience of parasomnias and other nocturnal behaviors in depression and schizophrenia. Materials and methods Using the Munich Parasomnia Screening (MUPS), 21 parasomnias and other nocturnal behaviors were assessed in 85 participants; 27 were pat

  9. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  10. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  11. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Exporters and Importers, Cargo Airline Association, Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP...

  12. To cervixcytologiske metoder til screening for livmoderhalskraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid-based cytology....

  13. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  14. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-09-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed.

  15. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions...

  16. Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective People with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Early detection might modify cardiometabolic risk factors and prevent cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate 1) the feasibility and yield of screening for MetS with

  17. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  18. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touchin...... finger is also demonstrated....

  19. Comparative analysis of pharmacophore screening tools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; Barbosa, A.J.; Zarzycka, B.; Nicolaes, G.A.; Klomp, J.P.G.; Vlieg, J. de; Rio, A. Del

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacophore concept is of central importance in computer-aided drug design (CADD) mainly because of its successful application in medicinal chemistry and, in particular, high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS). The simplicity of the pharmacophore definition enables the complexity of molecular

  20. Screening techniques for detecting chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of review As patients with impaired kidney function are at increased risk not only for progressive renal function loss, but also for cardiovascular disease, it is of importance to have accurate techniques to screen patients for the presence of an impaired kidney function. Recent findings Glo

  1. Pre-anaesthetic screening of geriatric dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-anaesthetic screening has been advocated as a valuable tool for improving anaesthetic safety and determining anaesthetic risk. This study was done determine whether pre-anaesthetic screening result in cancellation of anaesthesia and the diagnosis of new clinical conditions in geriatric dogs. One hundred and one dogs older than 7 years of age provided informed owner consent were included in the study. Each dog was weighed, and its temperature, pulse and respiration recorded. An abdominal palpation, examination of the mouth, including capillary refill time and mucous membranes, auscultation, body condition and habitus was performed and assessed. A cephalic catheter was placed and blood drawn for pre-anaesthetic testing. A micro-haematocrit tube was filled and the packed cell volume determined. The blood placed was in a test tube, centrifuged and then analysed on an in-house blood analyser. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase, urea, creatinine, glucose and total protein were determined. A urine sample was then obtained by cystocentesis, catheterisation or free-flow for analysis. The urine specific gravity was determined with a refractometer. A small quantity of urine was then placed on a dip stick. Any new diagnoses made during the pre-anaesthetic screening were recorded. The average age of the dogs was 10.99+2.44 years and the weight was 19.64+15.78 kg. There were 13 dogs with pre-existing medical conditions. A total of 30 new diagnoses were made on the basis of the pre-anaesthetic screening. The most common conditions were neoplasia, chronic kidney disease and Cushing's disease. Of the 30 patients with a new diagnosis, 13 did not undergo anaesthesia as result of the new diagnosis. From this study it can be concluded that screening of geriatric patients is important and that sub-clinical disease could be present in nearly 30 % of these patients. The value of screening before anaesthesia is perhaps more questionable in terms of

  2. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, René

    2012-12-16

    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett's esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of

  3. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  4. GAMPMS: Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thomas; McDougal, Owen M; Andersen, Tim

    2015-06-30

    The prominence of endogenous peptide ligands targeted to receptors makes peptides with the desired binding activity good molecular scaffolds for drug development. Minor modifications to a peptide's primary sequence can significantly alter its binding properties with a receptor, and screening collections of peptide mutants is a useful technique for probing the receptor-ligand binding domain. Unfortunately, the combinatorial growth of such collections can limit the number of mutations which can be explored using structure-based molecular docking techniques. Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening (GAMPMS) uses a genetic algorithm to conduct a heuristic search of the peptide's mutation space for peptides with optimal binding activity, significantly reducing the computational requirements of the virtual screening. The GAMPMS procedure was implemented and used to explore the binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α3β2-isoform with a library of 64,000 α-conotoxin (α-CTx) MII peptide mutants. To assess GAMPMS's performance, it was compared with a virtual screening procedure that used AutoDock to predict the binding affinity of each of the α-CTx MII peptide mutants with the α3β2-nAChR. The GAMPMS implementation performed AutoDock simulations for as few as 1140 of the 64,000 α-CTx MII peptide mutants and could consistently identify a set of 10 peptides with an aggregated binding energy that was at least 98% of the aggregated binding energy of the 10 top peptides from the exhaustive AutoDock screening.

  5. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  6. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  7. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in 11 Screening Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S.; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K.; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E.; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T.; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hale, Jaime E.; Celine Hanson, I.; Hay, Beverly N.; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B.; Naides, Stanley J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M.; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T.; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sugerman, Robert W.; Sullivan, John L.; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L.; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Watson, Michael S.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Weiner, Leonard B.; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100 000 births. OBJECTIVES To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3 030 083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58 000 infants (95%CI, 1/46 000-1/80 000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87%(45/52), 92%(45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in

  8. ScreenMasker: An Open-source Gaze-contingent Screen Masking Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Pavel A; Bednarik, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The moving-window paradigm, based on gazecontingent technic, traditionally used in a studies of the visual perceptual span. There is a strong demand for new environments that could be employed by non-technical researchers. We have developed an easy-to-use tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) allowing both execution and control of visual gaze-contingency studies. This work describes ScreenMasker, an environment that allows create gaze-contingent textured displays used together with stimuli presentation software. ScreenMasker has an architecture that meets the requirements of low-latency real-time eye-movement experiments. It also provides a variety of settings and functions. Effective rendering times and performance are ensured by means of GPU processing under CUDA technology. Performance tests show ScreenMasker's latency to be 67-74 ms on a typical office computer, and high-end 144-Hz screen latencies of about 25-28 ms. ScreenMasker is an open-source system distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License and is available at https://github.com/PaulOrlov/ScreenMasker .

  9. Transcript annotation prioritization and screening system (TrAPSS) for mutation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brian M; Davis, Steven G; Smith, Michael F; Brown, Bartley; Kemp, Mathew B; Almabrazi, Hakeem; Grundstad, Jason A; Burns, Thomas; Leontiev, Vladimir; Andorf, Jeaneen; Clark, Abbot F; Sheffield, Val C; Casavant, Thomas L; Scheetz, Todd E; Stone, Edwin M; Braun, Terry A

    2007-12-01

    When searching for disease-causing mutations with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, candidate genes are usually screened in their entirety, exon by exon. Genomic resources (i.e. www.ncbi.nih.gov, www.ensembl.org, and genome.ucsc.edu) largely support this paradigm for mutation screening by making it easy to view and access sequence data associated with genes in their genomic context. However, the administrative burden of conducting mutation screening in potentially hundreds of genes and thousands of exons in thousands of patients is significant, even with the use of public genome resources. For example, the manual design of oligonucleotide primers for all exons of the 10 Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) genes (149 exons) represents a significant information management challenge. The Transcript Annotation Prioritization and Screening System (TrAPSS) is designed to accelerate mutation screening by (1) providing a gene-based local cache of candidate disease genes in a genomic context, (2) automating tasks associated with optimizing candidate disease gene screening and information management, and (3) providing the implementation of an algorithmic technique to utilize large amounts of heterogeneous genome annotation (e.g. conserved protein functional domains) so as to prioritize candidate genes.

  10. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing could cut death rate by 20 ... the United States don't get screened for lung cancer even though they're at increased risk for ...

  11. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  12. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  13. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  14. Noise Reduction in High-Throughput Gene Perturbation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivation: Accurate interpretation of perturbation screens is essential for a successful functional investigation. However, the screened phenotypes are often distorted by noise, and their analysis requires specialized statistical analysis tools. The number and scope of statistical methods available...

  15. Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary dipsticks are sometimes used for screening asymptomatic people, and for case-finding among inpatients or outpatients who do not have genitourinary symptoms. Abnormalities identified on screening sometimes lead to additional investigations, which may identify serious disease, s...

  16. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula

    1999-01-01

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  17. Some Activities with Polarized Light from a Laptop LCD Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The LCD screen of a laptop computer provides a broad, bright, and extended source of polarized light. A number of demonstrations on the properties of polarized light from a laptop computer screens are presented here.

  18. Study of Screen Design Principles for Visualizing Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.

  19. The sociology of medical screening: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Natalie; Eborall, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Medical screening raises fundamental issues for sociological inquiry, but at present a well-developed sociology of medical screening is lacking. This special issue on the sociology of screening brings together an exciting collection of new work that tackles medical screening from a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. In this opening paper, we begin by explaining what we mean by screening, and why we believe screening merits sociological attention. Secondly, we reflect on the sociology of screening to date and provide an introduction for those new to this area. We then provide an overview of the papers in this collection, highlighting links and contrasts between papers. We conclude by reflecting on sociology's potential contribution to wider debates about screening, and propose future research directions.

  20. Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... on Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents . This final recommendation statement applies to children and ...