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Sample records for bad boys blue

  1. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  2. 76 FR 58784 - Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...-4408. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Belinda V. Bell, Trial Attorney, Division of Compliance, Office... accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC (``Bad Boy'') and staff (``Staff'') of the United... Order resolve Staff's allegations set forth below. The Parties 2. Staff is the staff of the Commission...

  3. Are Boys That Bad? Gender Gaps in Measured Skills, Grades and Aspirations in Czech Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines gender gaps in academic performance (grades in mathematics and reading) between boys and girls of ninth-grade elementary schools in the Czech Republic. Our analysis is based on 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, encompassing the academic performance and family background of ninth-grade pupils.…

  4. "Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem…

  5. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  6. Need your love so bad: Los poemas amorosos de Catulo en las letras de blues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el 32, Ellington grabó Baby when you ain't there, uno de sus temas menos alabados y al que el fiel Barry Ulanov no dedica mención especial. Con voz curiosamente seca canta Cootie Williams los versos: I get the blues down North, The blues down South, Blues anywhere, I get the blues down East, Blues down West, Blues anywhere. I get the blues very well O my baby when you ain't there ain't there, ain't there ¿Por qué, a ciertas horas, es tan necesario decir: "Amé esto?" Amé unos blues, una imagen en la calle, un pobre río seco del norte. Dar testimonio, luchar contra la nada que nos barrerá. Así quedan todavía en el aire del alma esas pequeñas cosas, un gorrioncito que fue de Lesbia, unos blues que ocupan en el recuerdo el sitio menudo de los perfumes, las estampas y los pisapapeles (Julio Cortázar, Rayuela, 87.

  7. Using methylene blue for perioperative localization of the hydrocele sac in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowande, O A; Olajide, T A

    2011-01-01

    Ligation of a patent processus vaginalis via the inguinal approach is the standard operative technique for the treatment of hydroceles in infants and children. Although a simple technique, identification of the processus vaginalis can be difficult even for the experienced surgeon. To investigate the use of methylene blue in the perioperative identification of the patent processus vaginalis in a group of children presenting with hydrocele. Twenty consecutive patients with hydrocele between the ages of 1 and 9 years were recruited for the study. Methylene blue 0.3-0.5 ml was injected slowly into the hydrocele fluid through the scrotal wall after aspiration, followed by routine ligation of the hydrocele track. The track of the processus vaginalis was clearly visualized in 17 (85%) of the patients, while in 3 (15%) patients no track could be seen, the hydrocele being localized to the tunica vaginalis. There were no cases of inadvertent testicular injury and there was no intraoperative complication. No patient reacted in any abnormal way to the methylene blue. The technique helps in the identification of a patent processus vaginalis when it is present. It may be useful in cases where difficulty in identification of the hydrocele tract is anticipated in a child.

  8. New Toys for Boys

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In 'Out of Time: Reflections on the Programming Life', Ellen Ullman writes that a senior (male) engineer once asked her why she left full-time engineering for consulting. She replied that she found the engineering culture very 'teenage-boy puerile'. The engineer replied to the effect that such loss of talent was too bad.

  9. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many different things can cause halitosis — from not brushing your teeth to certain medical conditions. Sometimes, a person's bad ... collect bacteria, which can be smelly, too. Not brushing your teeth regularly will let plaque (a sticky, colorless film) ...

  10. Feeling bad and seeing bad

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The emotions of guilt, shame, disappointment and grief, and the bodily states of pain and suffering, have something in common, at least phenomenologically: they are all unpleasant, they feel bad. But how might we explain what it is for some state to feel bad or unpleasant? What, in other words, is the nature of negative affect? In this paper I want to consider the prospects for evaluativist theories, which seek to explain unpleasantness by appeal to negative evaluations or appraisals. In part...

  11. Bad Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoyne, Greig

    2016-01-01

    "Only when we move do we see the chains" - Rosa Luxemburg Bad drawing / paper cell is a site-specific drawing performance commissioned for The Prison Drawing Project, Scarborough jail, Yorkshire, presented as a film grafted onto the space that is the cell. It takes the notion of drawing as an act of covering and form of measurement, in an immersive act of attempted liberation. Measuring using rolls of paper, the film chronicles what could be seen as a bad day wallpapering a space, no ass...

  12. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  13. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo ... through your mouth. Smoking is also a major cause of bad breath. There are lots of myths ...

  14. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  15. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Protect Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, ... stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads ...

  17. How to manage bad customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Merlin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bad customers exist! Yon won't find much written about them in marketing textbooks, and business schools don't like teaching about them. The idea of the bad customer is encoded and repackaged as, for example: "retail shrinkage" (thefts from stores by customers and staff, "bad debt" (a bad debt is usually linked with a bad customer!, "persistent complainer" (the motive for the persistence is often not explained.

  18. Color associations to mood stories in first grade boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Bailetti, A M; Cerbus, G

    1977-12-01

    Choices of color crayons to portray mood stories were studied in a sample of first grade boys. The total sample (180) was divided into three treatment groups (60 subjects in each) who were told either the "Angry Boy" story, the "Happy Boy" story, or the "Sad Boy" story. Each subject selected one of six color crayons (red, yellow, green, blue, brown, or purple) to color the boy "to look" angry, happy, or sad. Racial, socioeconomic, and within-group differences were not significant, but significant differences were found between groups given angry and sad stories (x2 equal to 22.23, df equal to 5, p is less than .01). red was significantly associated with the angry boy when compared with the sad boy, while brown was significantly more often preferred for the sad boy than for the happy boy. By the age of first grade consequently the general preference for red by children is already significantly altered.

  19. Bad boy, good girl? How teachers evaluate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a qualitative research in an elementary school at São Paulo, Brazil, and discusses the academic evaluation of pupils, searching if teacher’s opinions about masculinity and femininity affect her/his judgments. The text concludes that it is time to reflect upon these topics in the educational field, because gender inequalities and hierarchies are powerful interferences on the evaluation processes used in most Brazilian elementary schools.

  20. Concept of 'bad death'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following previous research on the linguistic concept of а 'bad death' which lexical expression is the word family of the verb ginuti, I focus my attention in this paper on the relationship between language conceptualization of а 'bad death' and the representation of а 'bad death' in traditional and contemporary culture. Diachronically based language corpus makes possible to trace the changes of referential frame and use of verb ginuti and its derivatives. In the traditional culture а 'bad death' is marked in action code by irregular way of burial and beliefs in demons stemming from the 'impure dead'. In the paper I explore the degree of synonymy of the symbols of all three codes: verbal code, action code and code of beliefs. In the contemporary culture the lack of individual control and choice is considered to be the key element of the concept of a 'bad death'. This change of conceptual content manifests itself in the use of its lexical expressions.

  1. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español For Boys: Trouble "Down There" KidsHealth / For Kids / For Boys: ... boy can get medical care. What if a Boy Is Too Embarrassed? Lots of boys don't ...

  2. Blue lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Scope, Alon; Lallas, Aimilios; Zalaudek, Iris; Moscarella, Elvira; Gardini, Stefano; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Blue color is found in a wide range of malignant and benign melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions and in lesions that result from penetration of exogenous materials, such as radiation or amalgam tattoo or traumatic penetration of particles. Discriminating between different diagnostic entities that display blue color relies on careful patient examination and lesion assessment. Dermoscopically, the extent, distribution, and patterns created by blue color can help diagnose lesions with specificity and differentiate between benign and malignant entities. This article provides an overview of the main diagnoses whereby blue color can be found, providing simple management rules for these lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delivering bad news to patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Lonnie; Cox, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    When physicians lack proper training, breaking bad news can lead to negative consequences for patients, families, and physicians. A questionnaire was used to determine whether a didactic program on delivering bad news was needed at our institution. Results revealed that 91% of respondents perceived delivering bad news as a very important skill, but only 40% felt they had the training to effectively deliver such news. We provide a brief review of different approaches to delivering bad news and advocate for training physicians in a comprehensive, structured model. PMID:26722188

  4. Supporting Boys as Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  5. The Trouble with Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jack B.

    1981-01-01

    Subjective comments from veteran news reporters, media critics, and the public give the impression that bad or negative news is becoming a major problem in this country. This impression raises major questions concerning how much is really known about bad news, including whether the media present an accurate or distorted picture of reality in…

  6. Cinema and the communication of bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel GÓMEZ CORDOBA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Breaking Bad News requires medical professionals possess a range of skills to ensure that the patient has the information required for decision?making, this process occurs without further damage and even has a therapeutic effect, and another, that the doctor is not exposed to legal risk or stress associated with the inability to cope with the feelings of the patient, their families or themselves. This article discusses the aspects of communication of bad news in the field of doctor?patient relationship will be presented. The SPIKES model and discussion of movie segments related to the subject was employed as a thread, such as Doctor, 50/50, The Barbarian Invasions, Wings of Life, Stepmom, Letters to God, Wit, The butterfly blue, The power of friendship, Life without me, Make me laugh, Knockin ‘on Heaven’s Door, My Life, A crazy Loose in Brooklyn, As suicide and not die in the attempt, A lesson of life, and The sacrifice of a mother, as a pedagogical strategy in medical training.

  7. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  8. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  9. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  10. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  11. Internet Bad Neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  12. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  13. How Bad is Selfish Voting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Morgenstern, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that strategic behavior in elections is essentially unavoidable; we therefore ask: how bad can the rational outcome be? We answer this question via the notion of the price of anarchy, using the scores of alternatives as a proxy for their quality and bounding the ratio between...

  14. How to Tell Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  15. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  16. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  17. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  18. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  19. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  20. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  1. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  2. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to “realize” the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relati...

  3. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases.

  4. Breaking Bad News - Perceptions of Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, M G; Krishnakumar, P

    2017-08-15

    The present study evaluated the perceptions and practice of 92 final year pediatric residents with regard to breaking bad news. Only 16% of residents had received any training in communication skills. Majority (65%) of the residents were not comfortable while breaking bad news.

  5. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  6. BAD: a good therapeutic target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Andrea B; Hynes, Nancy E

    2003-01-01

    The major goal in cancer treatment is the eradication of tumor cells. Under stress conditions, normal cells undergo apoptosis; this property is fortunately conserved in some tumor cells, leading to their death as a result of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation-induced stress. Many malignant cells, however, have developed ways to subvert apoptosis, a characteristic that constitutes a major clinical problem. Gilmore et al. recently described the ability of ZD1839, a small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to induce apoptosis of mammary cells that are dependent upon growth factors for survival. Furthermore, they showed that the major effector of the EGFR-targeted therapy is BAD, a widely expressed BCL-2 family member. These results are promising in light of the role of the EGFR in breast cancer development

  7. Contemporary Conditions are Badly Known

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Rather than discuss post-media conditions as such, the notion of ‘contemporary conditions’ is preferred to indicate the characteristic features of the historical present. The argument is that rather than concentrate on futures or whether something is sustainable, new or sufficiently different......, the notion of the contemporary poses the question of when the present of a particular work begins and ends. Peter Osborne’s point is that the convergence and mutual conditioning of periodizations of art and the social relations of art have their roots in more general economic and socio......-technological processes that makes contemporary art possible, in the sense of an ‘art of contemporaneity’. “Contemporary art is badly known”, as he puts it. Thus ‘contemporaneity’ begins to describe the more complex and layered problem of different kinds of time existing simultaneously across different localities. Yet...

  8. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  9. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  10. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  11. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  12. Using methylene blue for perioperative localization of the hydrocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperatively, the child was observed for any bluish discoloration of the buccal and oral mucosa. Results. All the patients were boys with a median age of 5. Figure 1: Methylene blue is visible within the hydrocele sac. Figure 2: Easy identification and dissection of the hydrocele track. Figure 3: Almost complete dissection of ...

  13. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be measured by a blood test. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. Think of it ... A high triglyceride level combined with low HDL cholesterol or high LDL cholesterol is linked with fatty buildups in artery ...

  14. The psychological benefits of bad poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    The author was the founder and secretary pro-tem of the Bad Poets Society at Princeton Theological Seminary. This distinction does not appear on his official resume. The Society did not have meetings but it had a newsletter that came out several times a year comprised of bad poetry written by members of the faculty and staff. These poetic works included reflections on institutional matters. This article contains bad poetry by the author relating to such matters. This poetry illustrates Sigmund Freud's (Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Norton, New York, 1960) view of humor as saving in the expenditure of painful emotions, costly inhibitions, and difficult thinking. The parasitical nature of bad poetry is also noted and illustrated with the author's own poems.

  15. Mother's age effect on the boys' anthropometric properties in the Region of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzihalilović, Jasminka; Hadziselimović, Rifat; Halilović, Amir H; Osmić, Munevera; Hamidović, Hajrija; Ahmić, Adisa; Jusupović, Fatima

    2004-12-01

    Our objective was to establish if mother's age affects the anthropometric properties their 11 and 16 years old sons, and if the boys' BMI is satisfactory. Cross-sections, questionnaires, and statistics were used for data processing BMI (kg/m2) was presented according to the scale Quetelet's index nutritional status. Twelve anthropometric properties were researched. It was established that mother's age affects anthropometric properties in adolescent boys. The younger mothers' boys come to puberty with significantly higher mean values for most anthropometric parameters. In the course of adolescent jump, older mothers' boys have significantly higher anthropometric measures in comparison to their age boys delivered by younger mothers. After the completion of their intensive growth and development anthropometric measures in both category boys are equal or insignificantly higher in younger mothers' sons. Mother's age affects their sons' anthropometric properties of growth and development, particularly in prepuberty and puberty. After puberty that effect is not significant. According to BMI, the boys coming from the researched region make the group of underfed children. That is probably the outcome of bad living conditions, irregular and insufficient diet, stress, etc. in the course of four year aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Asymmetric News Effects on Volatility: Good vs. Bad News in Good vs. Bad Times

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Helinä; Lanne, Markku

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of positive and negative macroeconomic US and European news announcements in different phases of the business cycle on the highfrequency volatility of the EUR/USD exchange rate. The results suggest that in general bad news increases volatility more than good news. The news effects also depend on the state of the economy: bad news increases volatility more in good times than in bad times, while there is no difference between the volatility effects of good news in bad and go...

  17. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  18. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  19. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to "realize" the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relation. The deliverer of bad news initiates the telling by giving an advance indication of the bad news to come; this allows the recipient to calculate the news in advance of its final presentation, when the deliverer confirms what the recipient has been led to anticipate. Thus, realization of bad news emerges from intimate collaboration, whereas stalling and being blunt require recipients to apprehend the news in a social vacuum. Exacerbating disruption to recipients' everyday world, stalling and being blunt increase the probability of misapprehension (denying, blaming, taking the situation as a joke, etc.) and thereby inhibit rather than facilitate realization. Particular attention is paid to the "perspective display sequence", a particular forecasting strategy that enables both confirming the recipient's perspective and using that perspective to affirm the clinical news. An example from acute or emergency medicine is examined at the close of the paper.

  20. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  1. Breaking bad news: the patient's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Sastre, Maria Teresa; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain how patients judge the acceptability of physicians' communication of bad news. Two hundred forty-five adults, who had in the past received bad medical news, indicated the acceptability of physicians' conduct in 48 vignettes of giving bad news to patients. Vignettes were all combinations of five factors: level of bad news (infection with hepatitis C, cirrhosis of the liver, or liver cancer); request or not to the patient to come with spouse or partner; attempt or not by the physician to find out the patient's expectations about the test results; presence or absence of emotional supportiveness; and provision or not of complete and understandable information. In addition, nine physicians rated the same vignettes. Quality of information and emotional supportiveness explained more than 95% of the variance in patients' acceptability judgments, while the degree of badness of the news had no impact. In addition, for patients, low emotional supportiveness could not be fully compensated by high quality of information, nor the inverse. Physicians, in contrast, responded as if such compensations were possible. Physicians must appreciate that patients expect high levels of both empathy and information quality, no matter how bad the news.

  2. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  3. Synchronisation in the beta frequency-band--the bad boy of parkinsonism or an innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Brown, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Excessive synchronisation of basal ganglia neuronal activity in the beta frequency band has been implicated in Parkinson's disease. In a recent issue of Experimental Neurology, Bronte-Stewart, H., Barberini, C., Koop, M.M., Hill, B.C., Henderson, J.M., Wingeier, B., 2009. The STN beta-band profile in Parkinson's disease is stationary and shows prolonged attenuation after deep brain stimulation. Exp. Neurol. 215, 20-28. demonstrate that such activity is consistent over time and provide further evidence that deep brain stimulation is associated with its suppression. However, the extent to which beta synchrony has a mechanistic (rather than epiphenomenal) role in parkinsonism remains unclear, and the suppression of this activity by deep brain stimulation is contentious. This commentary discusses the evidence for and against a role for excessive beta synchrony in mediating the parkinsonian phenotype and in providing a possible mechanism to explain the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Some boys' problems in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    The last two decades have seen an increasing political concern in the high dropout rates and low performance in education of boys compared to girls – at times in the form of a ‘moral panic’. This has also been the case in Denmark where ‘the boy problem’ in education now is placed high on the agenda...... of education policy. The purpose of this article is to examine this ‘boy problem’ in relation to the dual system of vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. By considering the gender divisions and the value of the VET programmes on the labour market, it explores what kind of problems boys have...... to general education, but social and institutional processes of differentiation in the vocational schools place a significant group of students in a position where they have little chance of completing the programme. In the conclusion, some reflections are made on the effect of a recent reform of VET...

  5. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  6. Body Talk for Boys Growing Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for boys on…

  7. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  8. Breaking Bad News in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Bonnie McCracken; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2017-06-16

    The patient-provider relationship in the context of veterinary medicine represents a unique opportunity for studying how bad news is communicated to pet owners by conducting structured interviews with veterinarians. A sample of 44 veterinarians' responses was recorded and content-analyzed in an effort to identify themes among providers in their clinical experience of breaking bad news (BBN). Two coders revealed several themes in the data that were organized by three overarching areas: (1) breaking bad news in general, (2) euthanasia, and (3) social support. The findings from interviews indicated the COMFORT model (Villagran, Goldsmith, Wittenberg-Lyles, & Baldwin, 2010) in medical education provided a useful framework to organize the communication of BBN in veterinary medicine. Results were discussed in relation to future research in patient-provider communication and COMFORT's potential value for training students in veterinarian education.

  9. [Breaking bad news in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea; Ríos, Matías; Manríquez, José Manuel; Rojas, Gonzalo

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex task that requires multiple communication skills from health professionals. Clinical practice demands to communicate all type of bad news, from a diagnosis of cancer to adverse effects of a treatment. On the other hand, since the beginning of the health reform in 2003, the need to improve the quality of services was proposed, among which the concern about the rights and duties of patients stands out. Therefore, the health care provider-patient relationship becomes again the subject of discussion and study, and a topic of great importance for clinical work. We revise the consequences of breaking bad news for the patient and for the health care provider, as well as the current protocols available for this purpose. The importance of developing communication skills both for future health professionals as for those who currently work in the area is emphasized.

  10. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Breaking bad news among cancer physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ayed Alshammary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breaking bad news to patients with cancer diagnosis is not an easy task for physicians. The diagnosis must be explicitly stated and understood, and prognosis must be well-discussed in the most gentle and comfortable manner. It is important that the disclosure is performed in a way that patients will not lose all hope and get very depressed, leading them to undergo an abrupt change of their outlook in life. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the physicians' perceptions and perspectives of breaking bad news to cancer patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of all comprehensive cancer centre physicians currently working in a university teaching hospital in the Middle East was conducted from August to September 2016. Results: Sixty-eight percent responded to the survey. Eighty-four percent were comfortable with breaking bad news, and 70% had training in breaking bad news. Eighty-six percent of responders stated that patients should be told about their cancer. Almost 30% of the respondents stated that they would still disclose the diagnosis to patients even if it would be against the preference of the relatives. Nearly 61% said that they would only tell the details to the patients if asked while 67% of them disagreed that patients should be told about the diagnoses only if the relatives consent. About 51% of physicians wanted to discuss the bad news with the family members and patient together, whereas 24% stated that the patient alone should be involved in the discussion. Conclusion: Physicians face a dilemma when families do not wish the patient to know the cancer diagnosis and this highlights the necessity of taking into consideration the social circumstances in healthcare. When taking these into considerations, curriculum in the medical school must, therefore, be updated and must integrate the acquisition of skills in breaking bad news early in training.

  12. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  13. Discourse Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Martin, Gary E.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Harris, Adrianne A.; Foreman, Jamila; Nelson, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the conversational discourse skills of boys who have fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with those of boys with Down syndrome and boys who are typically developing. Method: Participants were boys who have fragile X syndrome with (n = 26) and without (n = 28) ASD, boys with Down syndrome…

  14. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  15. Unusual Straatsma Syndrome - How dogmatic is a bad prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vide-Escada, Ana; Prior Filipe, Helena

    2017-12-01

    To show that Straatsma Syndrome can have a good outcome and to highlight an unusual presentation of this disease. A four-year-old boy presents with severe right eye amblyopia in association with high myopia, esotropia, heterochromia iridum and extensive myelinated retinal fibers involving both temporal arcades and the optic nerve head. Right eye initial visual acuity was less than 20/400 for distance and less than R6W10 for near. Left eye examination was unremarkable. Despite the indicators for bad prognosis, intensive occlusion therapy was prescribed. Parents were strongly involved in the treatment regimen. After four months, the patient presented an unexpected good visual recovery both for distance and near, that has persisted until present. Right eye visual acuity is 20/30 with -9.00 dioptres contact lens for distance and R2W1 for near. Esotropia also improved to 12 prism dioptres. Fundoscopic alterations and heterochromia iridum have remained stable. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the right eye showed thinner superior outer ring measurements. Straatsma Syndrome can present with heterochromia iridum . When strabismus is present, early surgery should be withheld. Intensive treatment of Straatsma Syndrome can yield an unexpected good result, despite initial high degree anisometropia and low vision acuity.

  16. Are Chicken Eggs Good or Bad for My Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good or bad for my cholesterol? Are chicken eggs good or bad for my cholesterol? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. Chicken eggs are high in cholesterol, but the effect of egg consumption on blood ...

  17. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  18. Breaking Bad News in Oncology: A Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Guilhem; Orri, Massimiliano; Winterman, Sabine; Brugière, Charlotte; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The delivery of bad news by oncologists to their patients is a key moment in the physician-patient relationship. We performed a systematic review of qualitative studies (a metasynthesis) that focused on the experiences and points of view of oncologists about breaking bad news to patients. We searched international publications to identify relevant qualitative research exploring oncologists' perspectives about this topic. Thematic analysis, which compensates for the potential lack of generalizability of the primary studies by their conjoint interpretation, was used to identify key themes and synthesize them. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used. We identified 40 articles (> 600 oncologists) from 12 countries and assessed their quality as good according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Two main themes emerged: the patient-oncologist encounter during the breaking of bad news, comprising essential aspects of the communication, including the process of dealing with emotions; and external factors shaping the patient-oncologist encounter, composed of factors that influence the announcement beyond the physician-patient relationship: the family, systemic and institutional factors, and cultural factors. Breaking bad news is a balancing act that requires oncologists to adapt continually to different factors: their individual relationships with the patient, the patient's family, the institutional and systemic environment, and the cultural milieu. Extending the development of the ability to personalize and adapt therapeutic treatment to this realm of communications would be a major step forward from the stereotyped way that oncologists are currently trained in communication skills. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Bereavement Part 2: Breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K D

    1998-11-01

    Breaking bad news, whether telling a patient about a poor prognosis or informing relatives of the sudden death of a loved one, is one of the most daunting tasks facing nurses. It requires a sensitive approach, based on individuals' right to know the truth.

  20. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  1. Empathy in boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison to externalizing clinical control boys and community control boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Jenkins, Jennifer M; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show similar levels of empathy to those shown by NC girls and higher levels of empathy than the NC and ECC boys. Three measures of empathy were administered: a maternal-report questionnaire, a self-report questionnaire, and an in vivo evaluation in which children's reactions to pain simulations to two adult actors (mother, experimenter) were coded for empathy levels. On the maternal report and in-vivo measures, the NC girls had significantly higher empathy levels than the NC boys, but not on the self-report measure. By maternal report, the NC girls were rated as significantly more empathic than were the GID boys, with a "large" effect size. There were no significant differences between the GID boys and the NC girls on the self-report and in-vivo measures and the effect size differences were "small." No significant differences were observed between the GID and NC boys; however, there were "medium" and "small" effect size differences with boys with GID showing more empathy on the in-vivo and self-report measures, respectively. On the maternal-report measure, the GID boys were rated as significantly more empathic than the ECC boys and there was a trend for the GID boys to show greater levels of empathy than the ECC boys on both the self-report and in-vivo measures. The effect size differences on all three empathy measures were "medium" to "large," with GID boys showing more empathy than ECC boys. Empathy as a dispositional characteristic in the genesis and perpetuation of GID in boys is discussed.

  2. Thermodynamically stable blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Morris, S M; Terentjev, E M; Coles, H J

    2010-04-16

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  3. Breaking Bad News for Patients with Gastro-Intestinal Malignancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No patient was told about the prognosis and the chances of cure. Conclusion: Sympathy over-ride empathy in communicating bad news to Sudanese patients suffering of cancer. Patient education and training in breaking the bad news is needed. Key words: Communication skills, breaking bad news, truth telling, Sudan.

  4. Breaking Bad News To Patients | Adisa | Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the English literature on proven methods of breaking bad news to patients was carried out. Numerous study results show that patients generally desire frank and empathetic disclosure of a terminal diagnosis or other bad news Focused training in communication skills and techniques to facilitate breaking bad ...

  5. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  6. Depression and self-esteem in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with comorbid aggression and explanatory attributional mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuting, J J; Hinshaw, S P

    2001-02-01

    It was tested whether boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), subgrouped by aggressive status, would show higher rates of depressive symptomatology and lower levels of self-esteem than would comparison boys and, in a subsample, explored attributional mechanisms that may be related to such internalizing features. Study 1 utilized 114 boys with ADHD (all prior recipients of stimulant medication) and 87 comparison boys, aged 7-12 years. Aggressive boys with ADHD reported more symptoms of depression than did nonaggressive boys with ADHD, who, in turn, reported more depression than did comparison boys. Effect sizes were moderate to large and did not vary with a depression rating scale uncontaminated by ADHD-related items. For self-esteem, the most pronounced effect was that aggressive boys with ADHD showed lower levels than did nonaggressive ADHD or comparison boys; effects were again moderate to large. Study 2 participants were a subsample of boys with ADHD from Study 1 (N = 27). We probed causal attributions in ADHD-related domains through responses to hypothetical vignettes, in which the protagonist's medication status (medicated, not medicated) was crossed with type of outcome (good, bad). Medication-related attributions were frequent. In describing the protagonist's success in relation to medication treatment, the sample showed significant associations between (a) medication-related attributions and (b) increased depressive symptomatology as well as decreased self-esteem. We discuss attributional processes that may help to explain the variation in internalizing symptoms among children with ADHD.

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  8. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  9. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  10. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  11. Recommendations for how to communicate bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villa López

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The communication, along with the control of the symptoms and the emotional support are the basic instruments that are used in the daily development of our profession. To be little capable at the time of notifying bad news can generate an added suffering unnecessary in the person who receives the new and a deterioration in the relation professional-patient.In many occasions, at the time of approaching these situations, the professional of the health usually feels anguish, fear and restlessness, this is because during is scared and restlessness this happens because during his stage of studies in the faculty the student has received a formation based on the binomial health-disease from a totally biological perspective forgetting the abilities communication.Supported in different bibliographical sources, this article tries to analyze the factors that influence when communicating the bad news and, to suggest some preventatives ideas on how giving them trying to prevent the burnout syndrome.

  12. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  13. Physician-patient communication: breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Scott A; Johnson, W Michael

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often struggle with how to manage the task of breaking bad news with patients. Moreover, the arduous nature of the task can contribute to physician detachment from the patient or an avoidance of breaking the news in a timely manner. A plan of action can only improve physician confidence in breaking bad news, and also make the task more manageable. Over a decade ago, Rabow and McPhee offered a strategy; the ABCDE plan, which provided a patient centered framework from which to deliver troubling news to patients and families. At the heart of this plan was the creation of a safe environment, the demonstration of timely communication skills, and the display of empathy on the physician's part. Careful consideration of the doctor's own reactions to death and dying also played an important role. A close review of the five tenets of this plan indicates the relevance of Rabow and McPhee's strategy today. The patient base in our nation and state continues to be older, on average, and physicians are faced with numerous patients who have terminal illness. A constructive plan with specific ideas for breaking bad news can help physicians effectively navigate this difficult task.

  14. The Infrared Physics of Bad Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Assel, Stefano Cremonesi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the complete moduli space of vacua of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $U(N$ SQCD theories with $N_f$ fundamentals, building on the algebraic description of the Coulomb branch, and deduce the low energy physics in any vacuum from the local geometry of the moduli space. We confirm previous claims for good and ugly SQCD theories, and show that bad theories flow to the same interacting fixed points as good theories with additional free twisted hypermultiplets. A Seiberg-like duality proposed for bad theories with $N \\le N_f \\le 2N-2$ is ruled out: the spaces of vacua of the putative dual theories are different. However such bad theories have a distinguished vacuum, which preserves all the global symmetries, whose infrared physics is that of the proposed dual. We finally explain previous results on sphere partition functions and elucidate the relation between the UV and IR $R$-symmetry in this symmetric vacuum.

  15. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  16. Language comprehension in boys with fragile X syndrome and boys with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J; Roberts, J; Vandergrift, N; Martin, G

    2007-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited cause of intellectual disability, yet very few studies have explored the language comprehension skills of children with FXS. We examined the receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax skills of boys with FXS (who were additionally classified as having autism, autism spectrum, or no autism) and compared them to boys with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing (TD) boys at similar non-verbal developmental levels. The Vocabulary, Grammatical Morphology, and Elaborated Phrases and Sentences subtests of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language - 3rd Edition (TACL-3) were administered annually up to three times to assess the language comprehension skills of 35 boys with FXS without autism, 24 boys with FXS with autism spectrum, 19 boys with FXS with autism, 45 boys with DS and 40 TD boys at similar non-verbal cognitive levels. After controlling for non-verbal cognition and maternal education levels, we found that the three groups of boys with FXS did not differ from each other but scored lower than the TD boys in language comprehension. The boys with DS scored lower in language comprehension than boys with FXS without autism and TD boys. For all of the groups, scores for receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax did not differ. Boys with FXS and boys with DS differed in receptive language levels, demonstrating unique language profiles for each syndrome. Language comprehension appears to be an important area to target in assessment and intervention for both populations.

  17. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  18. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  19. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  2. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.M PMID:26340484

  3. 77 FR 26819 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2012-0054] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... PLANET is: Intended Commercial use of Vessel: ``Charter to Boy Scouts of America Florida Sea Base...

  4. [Blue light and eye health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  5. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  6. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  7. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  8. Breaking bad news: exploring patient's perspective and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, Sidra; Saleem, Taimur; Khawaja, Fariha Batool; Qidwai, Waris

    2010-05-01

    To explore patient's perspectives and expectations from physicians with respect to breaking of bad news. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. All consenting individuals from 18 to 60 years of age were interviewed on the basis of a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. The response rate for this study was 91.3%. A total of 400 respondents completed the full interview. About 60% patients had a fairly accurate idea about the implications of the phrase "bad news". A big proportion (44.1%) of people reported that bad news had been broken to them previously with incomplete details. From their personal experience, most respondents quoted "disease diagnosis" and "chances of survival" as most commonly encountered bad news. Diagnosis of cancer or its recurrence was stated as the most likely example of bad news (35.5%). A significant majority of respondents (40.5%) stated that it's the patient's absolute right to know bad news. A significant association for the relationship between both age as well as the gender of the respondents and type of emotional response expressed on hearing bad news (p = 0.000) was observed. This study documents the perceptions and expectations of patients from their physicians with regards to breaking of bad news. Most of the respondents wanted their doctors to be honest and upfront during the process.

  9. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  10. Have we lost the ability to listen to bad news?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, Kim.E.; van Wassenhove, Luk; Sengupta, Kishore; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that project managers continuously prioritised good vibes (positive, but subjective signals) over bad news (negative, but objective signals), which resulted in decisions of poor quality. Without understanding the root causes that generate the bad news and the good vibes, managers

  11. Evaluating Third-Party Bad Neighborhood Blacklists for Spam Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko; Seon Hong, C.; Diao, Y.; De Turk, F.

    The distribution of malicious hosts over the IP address space is far from being uniform. In fact, malicious hosts tend to be concentrate in certain portions of the IP address space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. This phenomenon has been previously exploited to filter Spam by means of Bad

  12. Bad Public Leadership in South Africa: The Jackie Selebi Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article scrutinises the literature on bad public leadership and then presents an analysis of a South African case of bad public leadership. Leadership is analysed in terms of contextual as well as conceptual perspectives. The article emphasises that both context as well as conceptual and theoretical factors should be ...

  13. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  14. Adolescent Boys' Friendships and Peer Group Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Judy Y.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…

  15. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…

  16. Wagogo boys playing 'giraffe', c.1919

    OpenAIRE

    Westgate, Thomas Buchanan Reginald, fl 1899-1936, missionary

    2004-01-01

    110 x 155 mm. Showing a group of boys playing 'giraffe'. This consists of a pair of boys holding a third aloft, this last with his hands above his head in imitation of the neck of a giraffe (see 'Mission world', 1919, March, p.117).

  17. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, James W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…

  18. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York…

  19. Boy Talk: Critical Literacy and Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Josephine Peyton

    2000-01-01

    Examines changes in four young adolescent boys' awareness of how masculinity constructs and is constructed by texts. Questions how critical literacy activities within homeschooling setting sustain or transform the boys' awareness of gendered identities and inequities in texts. Highlights impact of power relations within and among local and…

  20. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  1. It’s harder for boys?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; A. Guerlain, Madeleine; B Andersen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story...... of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed...... that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys...

  2. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M.O. [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  3. Learn good from bad: Effects of good and bad neighbors in spatial prisoners' dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital for the human society and this study focuses on how to promote cooperation. In our stratification model, there exist three classes: two minorities are elites who are prone to cooperate and scoundrels who are born to defect; one majority is the class of common people. Agents of these three classes interact with each other on a square lattice. Commons' cooperation and its factors are investigated. Contradicting our common sense, it indicates that elites play a negative role while scoundrels play a positive one in promoting commons' cooperation. Besides, effects of good and bad neighbors vary with temptation. When the temptation is smaller the positive effect is able to overcome the negative effect, but the later prevails when the temptation is larger. It concludes that common people are more prone to cooperate in harsh environment with bad neighbors, and a better environment with good neighbors merely leads to laziness and free riding of commons.

  4. Bad Luck or Bad Decisions: College Students' Perceptions of the Reasons for and Consequences of Their Alcohol Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Reasons for and immediate consequences of an alcohol overdose were explored for 217 undergraduate students requiring a medical emergency transport because of excessive alcohol consumption. The sample was categorized into 26 students attributing their overdose solely to bad luck and 191 students citing bad decision making as an explanation. A…

  5. Proteins Breaking Bad: A Free Energy Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Tapia-Rojo, Rafael; Eckels, Edward C; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Popa, Ionel; Fernández, Julio M

    2017-08-03

    Protein aging may manifest as a mechanical disease that compromises tissue elasticity. As proved recently, while proteins respond to changes in force with an instantaneous elastic recoil followed by a folding contraction, aged proteins break bad, becoming unstructured polymers. Here, we explain this phenomenon in the context of a free energy model, predicting the changes in the folding landscape of proteins upon oxidative aging. Our findings validate that protein folding under force is constituted by two separable components, polymer properties and hydrophobic collapse, and demonstrate that the latter becomes irreversibly blocked by oxidative damage. We run Brownian dynamics simulations on the landscape of protein L octamer, reproducing all experimental observables, for a naive and damaged polyprotein. This work provides a unique tool to understand the evolving free energy landscape of elastic proteins upon physiological changes, opening new perspectives to predict age-related diseases in tissues.

  6. Beware of a badly done liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The French national federation of conceding organizations and administrations (FNCCR) is an association specialized in public utilities. It has recently warned the government about the risks linked with a badly controlled deregulation of the electric and gas industries which should lead to a strong dissatisfaction of the small professional consumers and of households. It is of prime importance that the future (announced) drops of networks use tariffs will not lead to a decay of maintenance investments which would lead to networks degradation. In order to make the competition real, the federation proposes that small consumers can have the possibility to chose between individual purchase and gathered purchases through local public utilities. (J.S.)

  7. Methylene blue dye for identification of processus vaginalis during hydrocele repair: experience in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Salvatore; Russo, Tiziana; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Antonuccio, Pietro; Perrone, Patrizia; Romeo, Carmelo

    2017-02-07

    To investigate the use of methylene blue in perioperative identification of the patent processus vaginalis in a group of boys presenting with congenital or recurrent hydrocele where surgery was performed by junior surgeons in training. We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 22 boys with hydrocele, of which two recurrences, who were operated on via a standard inguinal approach, by trainees. Methylene blue 0.3-0.5 ml was injected into the hydrocele fluid through the scrotal wall. A processus vaginalis was identified as a blue line. Methylene blue injection clearly identified a patent processus vaginalis in 91% of patients. In 9% (2 cases), of which one recurrence, methylene blue injection demonstrated a hydrocele with an obliterated processus vaginalis. There were no intraoperative complications. No testicular atrophy was recorded. Injection of methylene blue into the hydrocele sac may be considered a useful aid for a clearer identification of a difficult patent processus vaginalis. In the present series, there were no complications, and thus we believe that this technique might be suitable and especially helpful, in cases of recurrent hydrocele, and for junior surgeons in training.

  8. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Correlational and descriptive. Participants' homes. Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). N/A. Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer-and more severe-expression of the same basic phenomenon.

  9. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  10. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  11. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Messerschmidt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.

  12. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error

  13. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered.Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter.The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  14. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  15. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind ....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading......Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  16. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  17. The natural selection of bad science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; McElreath, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing-no deliberate cheating nor loafing-by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further publication instead of discovery. In order to improve the culture of science, a shift must be made away from correcting misunderstandings and towards rewarding understanding. We support this argument with empirical evidence and computational modelling. We first present a 60-year meta-analysis of statistical power in the behavioural sciences and show that power has not improved despite repeated demonstrations of the necessity of increasing power. To demonstrate the logical consequences of structural incentives, we then present a dynamic model of scientific communities in which competing laboratories investigate novel or previously published hypotheses using culturally transmitted research methods. As in the real world, successful labs produce more 'progeny,' such that their methods are more often copied and their students are more likely to start labs of their own. Selection for high output leads to poorer methods and increasingly high false discovery rates. We additionally show that replication slows but does not stop the process of methodological deterioration. Improving the quality of research requires change at the institutional level.

  18. Four Bad Habits of Modern Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, James; Barrett, Paul; Cota, Lisa; Felix, Crystal; Taylor, Zachery; Garner, Samantha; Medellin, Eliwid; Vest, Adam

    2017-08-14

    Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial. The fourth study was an unsuccessful replication, yet re-analysis of the data showed that questioning the common assumptions of modern psychological measurement can lead to novel techniques of data analysis and potentially interesting findings missed by traditional methods of analysis. Considered together, these new analyses show that while it is true replication is a key feature of science, causal inference, modeling, and measurement are equally important and perhaps more fundamental to obtaining truly scientific knowledge of the natural world. It would therefore be prudent for psychologists to confront the limitations and flaws in their current analytical methods and research practices.

  19. Bad Data Detection and Identification for State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Bad data analysis is an important part of both dynamic and static state estimations. This paper present novel algorithm of phase measurement unit (PMU)-based static state estimation to detect and identify multiple bad data in critical measurements, which is not possible with traditional static...... state estimations. To achieve this object largest normalized residual test (rNmax) is applied to detect and analysis bad data in phasor measurements, power flow and power injections of buses used for the novel PMU-based state estimation. The main advantage of new PMU-based static state estimation...... of this method is the use of phasor measurements to improve results of conventional state estimator and detect the bad data associated with critical measurements, which cannot be detected by the conventional sate estimation algorithm. This algorithm will be developed based on (rNmax) test that shows that phasor...

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  1. Blue phases as photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohley, Christian; Scharf, Toralf

    2003-12-01

    The Liquid Crystalline Blue Phases (LC BPs) and their diffraction patterns were investigated experimentally and theoretically. We stabilized Blue Phases and measured their diffraction pattern for different wavelengths of monochromatic light with the help of a conoscopic setup of a polarization microscope. Moreover, the diffraction patterns were calculated with the help of a 4x4 matrix method which allows amplitude and phase investigations.

  2. Synchronisation in the beta frequency-band — The bad boy of parkinsonism or an innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Brown, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Excessive synchronisation of basal ganglia neuronal activity in the beta frequency band has been implicated in Parkinson's disease. In a recent issue of Experimental Neurology, Bronte-Stewart, H., Barberini, C., Koop, M.M., Hill, B.C., Henderson, J.M., Wingeier, B., 2009. The STN beta-band profile in Parkinson's disease is stationary and shows prolonged attenuation after deep brain stimulation. Exp. Neurol. 215, 20–28. demonstrate that such activity is consistent over time and provide further evidence that deep brain stimulation is associated with its suppression. However, the extent to which beta synchrony has a mechanistic (rather than epiphenomenal) role in parkinsonism remains unclear, and the suppression of this activity by deep brain stimulation is contentious. This commentary discusses the evidence for and against a role for excessive beta synchrony in mediating the parkinsonian phenotype and in providing a possible mechanism to explain the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19233172

  3. Bad Boys Meet the Swan of Avon: A Re-Visioning of Hamlet in Sons of Anarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burzyńska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the intersections between Shakespeare’s Hamlet and a popular TV series Sons of Anarchy (SOA, loosely based on the Shakespearean original. The crime drama series revolves around an outlaw motorcycle club that literally “rules” a fictional town in California like an old royal family with its own brutal dynastic power squabbles and dark family secrets. The club is governed by an unscrupulous President Clay and an equally violent, though more conflicted, Vice President Jax Teller, the son of the late President, who had died in mysterious circumstances. In the article I argue that the popularity of the series lies not in its graphic scenes of violence, over-the-top Harley chases, and sex intrigues, but rather in its Shakespearean and Renaissance structure. SOA, dubbed as “Hamlet on Harleys”1, is an appropriation rather than an adaptation of Shakespeare’s tragedy, which makes it a truly transmedial phenomenon. The article investigates a fascinating blend of seemingly marginal elements of modern American culture and the canonical British tragedy. It also addresses the connections between the lifestyles of the so called outlaw MC clubs and the early modern family structure as presented in Hamlet, focusing on the issues of power and gender relations.

  4. ‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-01-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction f...

  5. Effect of breaking bad news on patients' perceptions of doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mandy M

    2002-01-01

    The breaking of bad news is a routine but difficult task for many health professionals. There are numerous anecdotes of insensitive practice but the subject has attracted little systematic research. We therefore interviewed 106 patients with advanced cancer (from an original sample of 195) to assess their perceptions of the doctors involved in their care. Aspects of the ‘breaking bad news’ event were recorded during discussion of the illness history and were subsequently rated. Participants were also asked to nominate doctors under the headings ‘most helpful’ and ‘less helpful’, and completed standardized psychological screening questionnaires. In 94 of the 106 cases the bad news had been given by a doctor, usually a surgeon. Of the 13 doctors categorized as ‘most helpful’ when breaking bad news, 8 were general practitioners; of the 7 categorized as ‘less helpful’ all were surgeons. 69% of patients were neutral or positive about the bad-news consultation, but 20% were negative and 6% very negative. Doctors in surgical specialties were significantly more likely to be rated poorly than non-surgical specialists or general practitioners. Surgeons were the group of doctors most likely to break bad news, but non-surgical doctors were rated more positively in performance of the task. This finding has implications for training. PMID:12091508

  6. ‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-01-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one. PMID:21811349

  7. ′BREAKS′ protocol for breaking bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  8. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  9. Why good accountants do bad audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H; Loewenstein, George; Moore, Don A

    2002-11-01

    On July 30, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addressing corporate accountability. A response to recent financial scandals, the law tightened federal controls over the accounting industry and imposed tough new criminal penalties for fraud. The president proclaimed, "The era of low standards and false profits is over." If only it were that easy. The authors don't think corruption is the main cause of bad audits. Rather, they claim, the problem is unconscious bias. Without knowing it, we all tend to discount facts that contradict the conclusions we want to reach, and we uncritically embrace evidence that supports our positions. Accountants might seem immune to such distortions because they work with seemingly hard numbers and clear-cut standards. But the corporate-auditing arena is particularly fertile ground for self-serving biases. Because of the often subjective nature of accounting and the close relationships between accounting firms and their corporate clients, even the most honest and meticulous of auditors can unintentionally massage the numbers in ways that mask a company's true financial status, thereby misleading investors, regulators, and even management. Solving this problem will require far more aggressive action than the U.S. government has taken thus far. What's needed are practices and regulations that recognize the existence of bias and moderate its effects. True auditor independence will entail fundamental changes to the way the accounting industry operates, including full divestiture of consulting and tax services, rotation of auditing firms, and fixed-term contracts that prohibit client companies from firing their auditors. Less tangibly, auditors must come to appreciate the profound impact of self-serving biases on their judgment.

  10. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  11. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  12. Unsuspected urological anomalies in asymptomatic cryptorchid boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappis, C.H.; Argianas, S.A.; Bousgas, D.; Athanasiades, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 +- SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99/sup mTc/-DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly.

  13. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  14. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  15. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.

  16. Paediatric SpRs' experiences of breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, N; Ellis, J

    2007-09-01

    To ascertain the level of support and training available to paediatric specialist registrars (SpRs) in breaking bad news and their self-reported confidence in this task. A questionnaire-based survey. Paediatric SpRs working in North Thames region. Specialist registrars (n = 206) were sent a questionnaire relating to the level of support and training available to them in breaking bad news and their attitudes to this task. A repeat questionnaire was sent out 2 weeks later. The response rate was 54.9%. The study sample included 78 females and 34 males. The median year of qualification was 1995 [interquartile range (IQR) 1993-1997] and the median year of Calman training was Year 3 (IQR 2-4). Only 15.9% of participants had guidelines where they worked and 91.2% had received training in breaking bad news. Median self-perceived confidence in breaking bad news was rated as 4 out of 5. Only 21.2% of all respondents had both disclosed a diagnosis of Down syndrome and received feedback on their performance from their seniors. Few SpRs were able to adhere to all evidence-based recommendations for breaking bad news. Most SpRs had received training in breaking bad news and self-reported confidence in this skill was high, although their hands-on experience was limited. Recent research shows, however, that parental dissatisfaction with the way in which bad news is broken remains high. The potential discrepancy between self-reported confidence and actual competence casts doubt on the value of self-evaluation.

  17. Factors associated with patient preferences for communication of bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Communication based on patient preferences can alleviate their psychological distress and is an important part of patient-centered care for physicians who have the task of conveying bad news to cancer patients. The present study aimed to explore the demographic, medical, and psychological factors associated with patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news. Outpatients with a variety of cancers were consecutively invited to participate in our study after their follow-up medical visit. A questionnaire assessed their preferences regarding the communication of bad news, covering four factors-(1) how bad news is delivered, (2) reassurance and emotional support, (3) additional information, and (4) setting-as well as on demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors. A total of 529 outpatients with a variety of cancers completed the questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses indicated that patients who were younger, female, had greater faith in their physician, and were more highly educated placed more importance on "how bad news is delivered" than patients who were older, male, had less faith in their physician, and a lower level of education. Female patients and patients without an occupation placed more importance on "reassurance and emotional support." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients placed more importance on "additional information." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients, along with patients who weren't undergoing active treatment placed more importance on "setting." Patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news are associated with factors related to patient background. Physicians should consider these characteristics when delivering bad news and use an appropriate communication style tailored to each patient.

  18. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozdar, Ava; Taher, Mohammad; Shirzad, Samira; Arjmand, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Roozdar, Alale

    2010-01-01

    Objective Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran. Methods A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses) at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire. Results The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43) and nurses (74%, n=37), mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients. Only a few physicians (8%, n=4) had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones. Physicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively. Only a few physicians (14%) and nurses (24%) agreed to explain life expectancy to patients. Conclusion Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients’ emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary. PMID:22952506

  19. [Old Bad Pfäfers and its Paracelsus memorial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, H

    1994-03-29

    About 1240, hunters of the Benedictine abbey Pfäfers detected a hot spring in the impassable Tamina gorge within the borders of the abbey, founded about 940 in the Franconian Churraetia: the famous thermal springs of Pfäfers. The followers of Benedikt of Nursia knew how to use the healing water for the benefit of ill people and founded thus the bathing tradition of Bad Pfäfers, famous for many centuries, and later of Bad Ragaz. In the summer of 1535 Paracelsus stayed in Bad Pfäfers as a guest of the abbot Johann Jakob Russinger. In the rough surroundings of the simple bath-houses near the origin of the spring in the dark 'Badtobel', the man from Hohenheim wrote, apart from a medical report for the sickly abbot, the famous script about bathing there: 'Vonn dem Bad Pfeffers in Oberschwytz gelegen, Tugenden, Krefften unnd Würckung, Ursprung unnd Herkommen, Regiment und Ordinanz'. Bad Pfäfers became famous in the German countries; in spite of all the difficulties to reach the place, the mineral spring became an important destination for countless people longing for health. In the year 1969 the services of the Old Bad Pfäfers have been discontinued. The zenith of the steady strive to ameliorate the effects of the healing water has been reached. Actual balneologic and medical measures in the health resort Bad Ragaz and on the sunny-terrace of Valens have taken the place of the old spa. Thanks to efforts over many years, means and ways have been found to avert demolition and to manage the stilish restoration of this last historic group of buildings in 'Badtobel' constructed at the beginning of the 18th century.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Nyhuus, Lone; Buhl, Jytte

    2009-01-01

    Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy". Authors; Gjoerup,H1; Nyhuus,L2; Buhl,J3. 1) Center for Oral Health in Rare Conditions, Aarhus University Hospital 2) Prosthodontic Department, the Dental School, Aarhus University 3) Department...... region. 3. At the age of 10 years a new set of dentures were made. This time the upper denture was made as an overdenture supported and retained by 4 implants and a Dolder bar. The surgical procedure included bone grafting from the anterior ramus mandibulae. The boy's subjective judgement of his oral...... health has been registered. The boy and his family experience great improvement in the functioning as well as the comfort of his prosthesis after insertion of implants. Conclusion The prosthesis for edentulous boys with HED demand several adjustments and revisions, partly due to growth of the jaws...

  1. Gender inequality: Bad for men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, M

    2013-01-01

    Men's increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men's poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men's increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women) was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention.

  2. Gender inequality: Bad for men's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morna Cornell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men’s increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men’s poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men’s increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:12-14. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.894

  3. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  4. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  5. Cryptorchidism in boys with imperforate anus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Nielsen, Ole Henrik

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher was the incid......In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher...

  6. Patients’ Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Darzi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients’ preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. Results: 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years). 118 (90.76%) participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease’s condition. 120 (92.30%) preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76%) believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds. PMID:26862548

  7. Breaking bad news: doctors' skills in communicating with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silveira, Francisco José; Botelho, Camila Carvalho; Valadão, Carolina Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Breaking bad news is one of doctors' duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors' capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  8. Patients’ Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients’ preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. Results: 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years. 118 (90.76% participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease’s condition. 120 (92.30% preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76% believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds.

  9. Patients' Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Darzi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients' preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years). 118 (90.76%) participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease's condition. 120 (92.30%) preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76%) believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds.

  10. Breaking bad medical news in a dental care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneri, Pelin; Epstein, Joel; Botto, Ronald W

    2013-04-01

    Dental care providers may diagnose diseases and conditions that affect a patient's general health. The authors reviewed issues related to breaking bad medical news to dental practice patients and provide guidance to clinicians about how to do so. To help reduce the potentially negative effects associated with emotionally laden communication with patients about serious health care findings, the authors present suggestions for appropriately and sensitively delivering bad medical news to both patients and their families in a supportive fashion. Preparing to deliver bad news by means of education and practice is recommended to help prevent or reduce psychological distress. One form of communication guidance is the ABCDE model, which involves Advance preparation, Building a therapeutic relationship or environment, Communicating well, Dealing with patient and family reactions, and Encouraging and validating emotions. An alternative model is the six-step SPIKES sequence-Setting, Perception, Invitation or Information, Knowledge, Empathy, and Strategize and Summarize. Using either model can assist in sensitive and empathetic communication. For both practitioners' and patients' well-being, empathetic and effective delivery of bad medical news should be included in dental school curricula and continuing education courses. Dental care providers should be familiar with the oral manifestations of diseases and the care needed before the patient undergoes medical treatment and use effective communication necessary to share bad news with patients.

  11. How to build a Bad Metal from good metal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Stephen; Hebard, Arthur

    1998-03-01

    One of the most fascinating sub-fields of contemporary condensed matter physics is the study of bad metals. A distinguishing characteristic of a bad metal is that its resistivity as a function of temperature increases linearly past the scale where one wou ld infer a scattering length comparable to the inter-atomic spacing (at this range the Boltzmann transport theory ceases to be self consistent). By contrast, good metals exhibit resistive saturation when the resistivity approaches this scale. We have grow n thin films composed of a good metal, Ag, that mimic the characteristics of bad metals, very high resistivities and lack of resistive saturation. We have characterised the microstructure that leads to this behavior with a novel application of electrostat ic force microscopy, EFM. This microstructure leads to an anomalous negative magnetoresistance, which is quadratic in the applied field.. Finally, we have identified a criterion which can be used to distinguish this mimicry from intrinsic bad metallicity, a criterion that is met by A_3C_60 (A=K,Rb), indicating that caution should be exercised before classifying these materials as bad metals.

  12. Breaking bad news: doctors’ skills in communicating with patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Ferreira da Silveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breaking bad news is one of doctors’ duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors’ capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. RESULTS: The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. CONCLUSION: Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  13. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    to urban features. This way the proposed method extends approaches based on route choices only by assessment of how commuters feel and what they experience while underway along a chosen route. In connection to a detailed survey bikers were asked to pinpoint three good and three bad places along their route......The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...... about bicyclists’ behavior and their needs has to be generated. In order to fulfill these needs, an investigation into the bicyclists’ experiences, whether bad or good is necessary. In this presentation we focus on a methodological approach to how bicyclists’ experiences can be spatially related...

  14. Radiation Hormesis: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Three aspects of hormesis with low doses of ionizing radiation are presented: the good, the bad, and the ugly. The good is acceptance by France, Japan, and China of the thousands of studies showing stimulation and/or benefit, with no harm, from low dose irradiation. This includes thousands of people who live in good health with high background radiation. The bad is the nonacceptance of radiation hormesis by the U. S. and most other governments; their linear no threshold (LNT) concept promulgates fear of all radiation and produces laws which have no basis in mammalian physiology. The LNT concept leads to poor health, unreasonable medicine and oppressed industries. The ugly is decades of deception by medical and radiation committees which refuse to consider valid evidence of radiation hormesis in cancer, other diseases, and health. Specific examples are provided for the good, the bad, and the ugly in radiation hormesis. PMID:18648595

  15. Are Girls Less Fit Than Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 National School Population Fitness Survey found that girls aged 6 to 17 generally scored lower than boys on all test items except flexibility. Possible reasons are physiological factors, lack of opportunity, and psychological barriers. Changes in the law affecting women's athletic programs are reviewed. (MT)

  16. Heritage from the Wild Boy of Aveyron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recounts efforts made between 1801 and 1806 by French physician Itard to educate Victor, a boy found living in the wild in Aveyron. Explains how Itard's work with Victor, which met with limited success, led to the establishment of a school for educating clinical idiots. Describes procedures developed by Itard that are basic to the current…

  17. Boy George Helsingi-Tallinna geikruiisil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Angel Café & Gayclub ja firmade Tallink ja Madrenalin Ltd korraldatavast geikruiisist Lovebot 2006 (30. apr.-1. mai), kus show-programmi peaesinejateks briti laulja Boy Gerry ja ameerika laulja Sherry Vine (Sherry Vine kontsert ka 29. apr. Tallinnas Angeli klubis)

  18. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  19. Giant bladder diverticulum in a boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ozcakir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the bladder diverticula in children are seen commonly which is association with infravesical obstruction or neurogenic bladder function, the case of giant congenital bladder diverticula are rare. In this paper, an 11 years old boy with giant bladder diverticula presenting urinary infections is evaluated in terms of diagnosis and management by current literature.

  20. Cervical Synovial Sarcoma In a Young Boy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical Synovial Sarcoma. •. In a Young Boy. R. M. FISHER,. SUMMARY. Synovial sarcomas comprise about 8% of all tumours of somatic soft-tissues, and are the most common sar- comas of the 'hands and feet. Occasionally they may occur in the trunk, but they have rarely been reported in the neck. We present a case of ...

  1. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  2. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal…

  3. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  4. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W.; Janner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  5. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Disordered eating behaviors: what about boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominé, Françoise; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-02-01

    To determine the characteristics specific to boys with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the general context in which these DEB occur. Data were drawn from the SMASH02 database, a survey carried out among post-mandatory school students in Switzerland aged 16-20 years in 2002. Only males (N=3890) were included, and were classified into into one of four groups based on their level of concern about weight/food and on their eating behaviors, as follows: group 1: one concern without behavior (N=862); group 2: more than one concern without behavior (N=361); group 3: at least one behavior (N=798); and a control group (N=1869), according to previously validated items. Groups were compared for personal, family, school, experience of violence, and health-compromising behaviors variables on the bivariate level. All significant variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression using Stata 9 software. About one-half of the boys reported either a concern or unhealthy eating behavior. Compared with the control group, boys from the three groups were more likely to be students and to report a history of sexual abuse, delinquency, depression, and feeling fat. In addition, boys from group 3 were more likely to report a history of dieting, early puberty, peer teasing, having experienced violence, frequent inebriation, and being overweight. DEB concern adolescent males more frequently than thought and seem to be integrated in a general dysfunctional context, in which violence is predominant. Adolescent males also need to be screened for DEB. Moreover, prevention programs should target the increasing social and media pressure regarding boys ideal body shape and raise public consciousness about this phenomenon.

  7. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  8. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  9. Breaking Bad News: An essential skill for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hafidz, M I; Zainudin, L D

    2016-02-01

    Breaking bad news is a process of delivering news, which may negatively affect a patient's view of the future, however is an essential skill for doctors. There are a multitude of benefits if doctors can execute this task well, and will improve the disease journey for the patient. There are several published models including the SPIKES and ABCDE models to help guide the doctor to break bad news effectively. This important skill can be taught through various methods but the most effective may be actually observing a session by senior clinicians.

  10. Of “Bad Behaviour” and “Dangerous Sex”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie; Schächter Rasmussen, Trine; Oxlund, Bjarke

    2017-01-01

    Burundi has been tormented by armed conflict for decades. In the midst of reconstructing rural communities, young people are concerned with their future and the need to avoid “bad behaviours” in order to have a better future. This article is based on findings from an interview-based survey...... with these by assuming a moral high ground and becoming role models in their community. The article argues that the research participants draw on a binary moral discourse of good and bad behaviour in which sex is dangerous and should be avoided. From their accounts, it is clear that the message they have adopted...

  11. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  12. Combating bad weather part I rain removal from video

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the

  13. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  14. The Effects of Bad News and Good News on a Newspaper's Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jack B.; Miller, M. Mark

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that whether a newspaper carries mostly good news or mostly bad news affects the image of the paper, with bad news having negative effects and good news having positive effects on readers' perceptions of the newspaper. (FL)

  15. The electromyographic threshold in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Brynlynn; Dotan, Raffy; Millar, Jordan; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; O'Brien, Thomas; Falk, Bareket

    2015-06-01

    Children have been shown to have higher lactate (LaTh) and ventilatory (VeTh) thresholds than adults, which might be explained by lower levels of type-II motor-unit (MU) recruitment. However, the electromyographic threshold (EMGTh), regarded as indicating the onset of accelerated type-II MU recruitment, has been investigated only in adults. To compare the relative exercise intensity at which the EMGTh occurs in boys versus men. Participants were 21 men (23.4 ± 4.1 years) and 23 boys (11.1 ± 1.1 years), with similar habitual physical activity and peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) (49.7 ± 5.5 vs. 50.1 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). Ramped cycle ergometry was conducted to volitional exhaustion with surface EMG recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis muscles throughout the test (~10 min). The composite right-left EMG root mean square (EMGRMS) was then calculated per pedal revolution. The EMGTh was then determined as the exercise intensity at the point of least residual sum of squares for any two regression line divisions of the EMGRMS plot. EMGTh was detected in 20/21 of the men (95.2 %) and only in 18/23 of the boys (78.3 %). The boys' EMGTh was significantly higher than the men's (86.4 ± 9.6 vs. 79.7 ± 10.0 % of peak power output at exhaustion; p boys' higher EMGTh suggests delayed and hence lesser utilization of type-II MUs in progressive exercise, compared with men. The boys-men EMGTh differences were of similar magnitude as those shown for LaTh and VeTh, further suggesting a common underlying factor.

  16. Blue-emitting laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Ishibashi, A.

    This paper reviews the recent results of blue-emitting laser diodes. These devices are based on ZnMgSSe alloy II-VI semiconductors. Recently we have achieved room temperature continuous-wave operation of ZnMgSSe blue lasers for the first time. ZnMgSSe alloys offer a wide range of band-gap energy from 2.8 to 4.5 eV, while maintaining lattice matching to GaAs substrates. These characteristics make ZnMgSSe suitable for cladding layers of blue lasers. In this article, the feasibilities of ZnMgSSe will be reviewed. The laser structures and characteristics will be also mentioned.

  17. Long residence times - bad tracer tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    process, and later on during sample aeration); the adsorbed and/or co-precipitated tracer amounts appear to be non-zero, but their accurate metering was not completed to date. Thus, a conservative estimate of cumulative tracer recovery amounts to (at least) 2 parts-per-thousand for the first 700,000 m3 of fluid turnover within the geothermal well doublet. Neither do such recovery values automatically imply 'bad news' (poor inter-well connectivity), nor do they appear as implausibly low (cf. fig. 2 of [3]), considering the possibility of major vertical drainage along the large-scale fault zone that isolates the 'aquifer basin' around the re-injection well from the 'aquifer catchment' around the production well, along with the prospect of transport-effective porosity and/or thickness within these 'aquifers' being rather high, due to extensive fissuring/fracturing. In more general terms, we argue that (a) inter-well flow-path spikings are still worthwhile being conducted even in large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs; (b) results gained from single-well tests [3] can never serve as a substitute for the kind of information (primarily: residence time distribution RTD, or flow-storage repartition FSR) being expected from inter-well tests; (c) tracer species that are 'novel' in terms of thermo-/reactivity/sorptivity/exchange at phase interfaces and thus involve some transport-retarding process cannot alleviate the frustration associated with long RT; (d) augmenting the tracer quantity Minj to use for inter-well spiking might render the tracer signal detectable, say, one or two years earlier, but it does not make FSR available sooner, since Minj cannot alter the RTD of fluids traveling through the reservoir; moreover, for inter-well configurations and reservoir structures typical of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley, the Minj augmenting factors necessary to render tracer signals detectable 1 or 2 years earlier mostly range beyond the limits of the reasonably-recommendable (e. g., for

  18. Syntactic Complexity during Conversation of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Johanna R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Berni, Mary C.; Anderson, Kathleen L.; Sideris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the syntax of boys who have fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with that of (a) boys who have Down syndrome (DS) and (b) typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Thirty-five boys with FXS only, 36 boys with FXS with ASD, 31 boys with DS, and 46 TD boys participated. Conversational…

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  20. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Here comes the bad news: Doctor robot taking over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Winter, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    To test in how far the Media Equation and Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) validly explain user responses to social robots, we manipulated how a bad health message was framed and the language that was used. In the wake of Experiment 2 of Burgers et al. (Patient Educ Couns 89(2):267–273, 2012.

  2. Breaking bad news: A guide for effective and empathetic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn

    2017-01-01

    Breaking negative news to patients is a common occurrence for nurse practitioners. This difficult task requires patience and refined communication skills, and must be approached with empathy for all parties involved. There are several ways to deliver bad news to patients successfully using patient-centered communication techniques and methods. PMID:22252021

  3. Is Sitting Too Much Bad for Your Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Proper, K.I.; Spekle, E.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Office workers spend a large part of their workday sitting down. Too much sitting seems bad for people's health and puts them at risk for premature death. Workstation alternatives that allow desk work to be done while standing, walking, biking, or stepping reduce the total time spent sitting without

  4. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  5. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿ ... on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  6. The Effect of Leadership in a Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moxnes, E.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    With regard to global or regional environmental problems, do countries that take unilateral actions inspire other countries to curtail emissions?In this paper this possibility is investigated by the use of a novel design of a laboratory public bad experiment with a leader.Twelve groups of five

  7. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  8. Beta : The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; van Zundert, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper decomposes aggregate and individual stock returns into cash flow news, interest rate news, and risk premium news. We then extend the “good beta, bad beta” approach of Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) by allowing for a third beta: exposure to interest rate news. Using various stock

  9. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  10. Breaking bad news: Effects of forecasting diagnosis and framing prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Emily K; Carpenter, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Research to support guidelines for breaking bad news is lacking. This study used an experimental paradigm to test two communication strategies, forecasting bad news and framing prognosis, in the context of cancer. In a 2×2 design, 128 participants received bad news in a hypothetical consultation. A videotaped physician presented diagnostic and prognostic information, varying warning (warning shot vs. no warning), and framing (positive vs. negative). Effects on psychological distress, recall accuracy, and subjective interpretations of the news were assessed. Warning was not associated with lower psychological distress or improved recall. Individuals who heard a positively-framed prognosis had significantly less psychological distress, rated their prognosis better, and were more hopeful than those who heard a negatively-framed prognosis. However, they also showed a trend toward reduced accuracy in recalling prognostic statistics. Results contribute to a growing body of literature exploring optimal approaches for communicating bad news in health care. Although research in clinical settings is needed to bolster results, findings suggest that when providers use positive framing to reduce distress about prognosis, they should also consider ways to overcome potential reductions in recall accuracy, such as repeating statistical information or supplementing with written information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal warning system for vessels under bad weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many services provide weather forecasts, including severe weather alerts for the marine. It proves that many ships neglect the warnings because they expect to be able to handle the bad weather conditions. In order to identify possible unsafe situations the Coast Guard needs to observe marine vessel

  12. Bad leadership and institutional failure: foundation of corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure.

  13. Dilemmas of telling bad news: Paediatric palliative care providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In general, the principles of palliative care suggest that, at some stage, patients should be given 'bad news' about poor illness prognosis. e information is oen important for care planning, especially when it involves disclosure to children. Although there are ongoing debates about whether to tell or not to tell ...

  14. Using Breaking Bad to teach about defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin M; Beresin, Eugene V; Stern, Theodore A

    2014-12-01

    Defense mechanisms represent an important component of medical education that should be taught to all medical students, psychiatry residents, and other mental health trainees. Teaching about defense mechanisms can become more engaging by analyzing popular media. Using Breaking Bad, a well-known television show, we recommend specific scenes and episodes that can be used in teaching about defense mechanisms.

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos las Películas en 3-D? Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3-D movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology ...

  16. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos las Películas en ...

  17. Japanese cancer patients' communication style preferences when receiving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Parker, Patricia A; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Baile, Walter F; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2007-07-01

    This study describes the communication style preferences of Japanese patients when receiving bad news, examines the factor structure of the measure for patients' preferences (MPP) in a Japanese population, and explores variables that may be associated with patients' communication style preferences. Five hundred twenty-nine cancer outpatients completed several psychosocial measures including the Japanese version of the MPP (MPP-J), the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MAC), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The patients desired detailed information and a supportive environment when receiving bad news. The MPP-J demonstrated a 5-factor structure: support, facilitation, medical information, clear explanation, and encouraging question-asking. Regression analyses indicated that a female gender, the fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation dimensions of the MAC were positively associated with all 5 MPP-J factors. In conclusion, Japanese cancer patients' preferences for communication when receiving bad news differ somewhat from those of American patients. Japanese physicians should encourage patients to ask questions and should consider the demographic (e.g. gender), medical (disease status) and psychosocial characteristics (fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation) of patients when delivering bad news. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival

    OpenAIRE

    Danial, Nika N.; Walensky, Loren D.; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K.; Molina, Anthony J. A.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Bird, Gregory H.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Deeney, Jude T.; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeab...

  19. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  20. Girls Thrive Emotionally, Boys Falter After Move to Better Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by NIMH has found. Rates of depression and conduct disorder markedly increased in boys and decreased in girls. ... families who did not receive vouchers. Rates of conduct disorder among low poverty group boys were 6.4 ...

  1. Psychological adjustment and family functioning of boys with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, C R; Lewandowski, L J

    1990-01-01

    This study examined parent reports of behavioral and family functioning for 59 boys with learning disabilities (LD) and 65 nondisabled boys (NLD) of ages 6 to 12 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Boys with LD were reported as having significantly more behavior problems of both the Internalizing and Externalizing types than NLD boys. Individual scales yielded group differences indicating higher scores (more problems) for the group with LD on the Hyperactive, Schizoid or Anxious, Depressed, and Obsessive Compulsive scales, but no differences on the Aggressive or Social Withdrawal scales. Furthermore, families of boys with LD tended to score more frequently in the extreme (disturbed) range of family functioning. However, boys of families in the extreme range did not have more behavior problems than the boys of other families. The findings suggest that a greater than average proportion of boys with LD are at risk for developing psychological adjustment problems.

  2. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  3. The badness of death and priorities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Carl Tollef; Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-14

    The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death. Our aim is to connect philosophical discussions on the badness of death to contemporary debates in health priorities. Two questions regarding death are especially relevant to health priorities. The first question is why death is bad. Death is clearly bad for others, such as family, friends and society. Many philosophers also argue that death can be bad for those who die. This distinction is important for health priorities, because it concerns our fundamental reasons for saving lives. The second question is, 'When is the worst time to die?' A premature death is commonly considered worse than a late death. Thus, the number of good life years lost seems to matter to the badness of death. Concerning young individuals, some think the death of infants is worse than the death of adolescents, while others have contrary intuitions. Our claim is that to prioritise between age groups, we must consider the question of when it is worst to die. Deprivationism provides a more plausible approach to health priorities than Epicureanism. If Deprivationism is accepted, we will have a firmer basis for claiming that individuals, in addition to having a health loss caused by morbidity, will have a loss of good life years due to mortality. Additionally, Deprivationism highlights the importance of age and values for health priorities. Regarding age, both variants of Deprivationism imply that stillbirths are included in the Global

  4. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakura, Chikahiko [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Hironori [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Shimane (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masanori [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  5. Netduino home automation projects for lazy boys

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Netduino Home Automation Projects for Lazy Boys is written in a practical and friendly style. Reading this book will be an experience full of fun and learning as well.This book is ideally suited for someone who is interested in home automation, has some experience in C#, and has used a Netduino before but wants to explore more advanced topics. However, the book starts from the very basics so it can be picked up even by novices.

  6. Effects of "Good News" and "Bad News" on Newscast Image and Community Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galician, Mary-Lou; Vestre, Norris D.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether the relative amount of bad, neutral, and good news on television has corresponding effects on viewers' image of the community depicted and of the carrying newscast. Concludes that bad news creates a bad image for the community but that good news does not produce a more favorable image than neutral news. (MM)

  7. The News Delivery Sequence: Bad News and Good News in Conversational Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the conditional nature of good and bad news while focusing on three topics: (1) the status of information as news according the participants in a conversation; (2) the valence of this information with regard to its perception as good or bad; and (3) the effect of news on individuals. Notes that good news is privileged over bad news in…

  8. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad... Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts. (a) Establishment of reserves—(1) In general. A taxpayer...) accumulated for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1951, in the taxpayer's reserve for bad debts...

  9. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  10. Breaking bad news issues: a survey among radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Milind; Goyal, Shikha; Singh, Karuna; Pandit, Subhas; Sharma, Dn; Verma, Arun K; Rath, Gk; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35). Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35) believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35) agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35) admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  11. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  12. I Can Learn from You: Boys as Relational Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In "I Can Learn from You," Michael Reichert and Richard Hawley--the authors of "Reaching Boys, Teaching Boys"--set out to probe deeply into the relational dynamics that help boys succeed as learners. Drawing on interviews with students and teachers in thirty-five schools across six countries, they examine the particular ways…

  13. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  14. The Psychoeducational Profile of Boys with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article integrates the literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). It reports results of a study following 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls. Boys with KS demonstrated verbal cognitive deficits and significant underachievement in reading, spelling, and arithmetic, which increased with age.…

  15. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The…

  16. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  17. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  18. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish PEF values for teenage boys in a Cape Town suburb and examine factors that possibly influence this measurement. Setting. A high school for boys in the southern suburbs of CapeTown. Methods. Measurements of PEF were taken for 124 boys. Subjects were approximately 16 years old and apparently healthy ...

  19. How many bad apples does it take to spoil the whole barrel? Social exclusion and toleration for bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, N.L.; Rumble, A.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Parks, C.D.; Gallucci, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In social dilemmas, where personal welfare is in conflict with collective welfare, there are inherent incentives to act non-cooperatively. Moreover, there is evidence that the example of a few uncooperative group members ("bad apples") is more influential than the example of comparable numbers of

  20. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  1. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  2. Mobilizing investors for blue growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Stuiver, Marian; Bolman, Bas C.; Wijnen, Roland; Selnes, Trond; Dalton, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    The European Union's Blue Growth Strategy is a long term strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors, aiming to contribute to innovation and economic growth (European Commission, 2012). The EU sees the financial sector as a key partner to bring about transition to

  3. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  4. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  5. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Parra, Columba de la; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis

  6. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  7. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  8. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  9. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  10. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  11. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements

  12. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  13. Quantity versus quality: Effects of argumentation in bad news letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Jansen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Do the quality and the quantity of arguments have an impact on the evaluation of bad news messages? To answer this question, two experiments were carried out using bad news letters in which the quality and the quantity of the arguments were manipulated in a contextually realistic way. The results of both experiments show that adding argumentation has a positive impact on the perceived politeness and the persuasive force of the letters. Furthermore, the studies show that the impact of strong arguments is greater than that of weak arguments. The effect of adding successive arguments is positive as well. However, the results indicate that one or two arguments are sufficient. Adding a third argument only minimally contributes to better evaluations.

  14. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C.; Lotto, R. Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the “good news–bad news effect”), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  15. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  16. arXiv The Infrared Physics of Bad Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Assel, Benjamin

    2017-09-28

    We study the complete moduli space of vacua of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $U(N)$ SQCDtheories with $N_f$ fundamentals, building on the algebraic description of theCoulomb branch, and deduce the low energy physics in any vacuum from the localgeometry of the moduli space. We confirm previous claims for good and ugly SQCDtheories, and show that bad theories flow to the same interacting fixed pointsas good theories with additional free twisted hypermultiplets. A Seiberg-likeduality proposed for bad theories with $N \\le N_f \\le 2N-2$ is ruled out: thespaces of vacua of the putative dual theories are different. However such badtheories have a distinguished vacuum, which preserves all the globalsymmetries, whose infrared physics is that of the proposed dual. We finallyexplain previous results on sphere partition functions and elucidate therelation between the UV and IR $R$-symmetry in this symmetric vacuum.

  17. Physical Activity in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Lower and Less Demanding Compared to Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutinck, Lotte; Kampen, Nadine van; Jansen, Merel; Groot, Imelda J M de

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the amount of physical activity and perception of physical activity in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared to healthy boys. A questionnaire described 6 domains of physical activity. Four Duchenne muscular dystrophy subgroups were made: early and late ambulatory, nonambulatory with relative good, or limited arm function. Eighty-four boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (15.0 ± 6.4 years) and 198 healthy boys (14.0 ± 4.3 years) participated. Daily activities were more passive for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Physical activity was less and low demanding compared to healthy boys. It decreased with disease severity ( P Duchenne muscular dystrophy were having fun and making friends. Barriers were lack of sport facilities and insufficient health. This study helps to quantify poor engagement in physical activity by boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and demonstrates factors that contribute to it. Suggestions to stimulate physical activity are made.

  18. Bad timing in swimming races: A physicist to the rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H. Richard

    1999-02-01

    During official swimming competitions in the "bad old days," there were judges, armed only with their vision, to determine the sequence of arrival, and there were timers, armed with mechanical stopwatches, to get the times. At the University of Michigan, back in 1953, Bill Parkinson of the physics department, himself a swimmer, started work developing an electronic timing system to eliminate the human judgment and to have the accuracy of which electronics is capable.

  19. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  20. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  1. Breaking Bad News Issues: A Survey Among Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A. Al-Mohaimeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the physicians' perspectives and practices in relation to breaking bad news (BBN to patients.Methods: A quantitative survey was performed in the Qassim Region from January to July 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire administered to all practicing physicians working in both hospitals and Primary Healthcare centers in the Qassim Region. Anonymity was maintained throughout. The target groups received a self-administered questionnaire with a covering letter introducing the study and explaining their rights.Results: A total of 458 physicians participated in the study. Physicians with higher qualifications had lower total scores of the mean in BBN skills. The majority (70% preferred to discuss information with close relatives rather than the patients. In case of serious diseases, only 32% said that they would inform the patient’s family without the patient’s consent. More than 90% of our study sample did not avoid telling their patients the bad news; however, physicians working in Primary Healthcare centers were less reserved.Conclusion: Although most of the participating physicians were keen to help their patients, they lacked the essential knowledge and skills for breaking bad news. Thus, they are in need of specific training in this regard.

  2. Communicating bad news: an integrative review of the nursing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello Fontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: describe how the process of breaking bad news is established and identify how nurses approach the task of giving bad news. Method: integrative review of the literature for articles in Portuguese and English published between 1993-2014, in the databases: Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase. Nine articles were included using the selection flow chart. A digital form was completed for each article according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist and the level of scientific evidence was determined. Results: Of the 99 articles in identified, nine were included after applying the selection flowchart. Discussion: breaking bad news is frequent in the area of oncology and palliative care, with a strong cultural influence on the autonomy of nurses in this process. Conclusion: the approach and skills of the nurse during this task influences the patient’s reaction to the message. The theme is scarce in the literature and merits further investigation.

  3. Breaking bad news – an interdisciplinary curricular teaching-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Alt-Epping, Bernd; Gágyor, Ildikó

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concerns of patients suffering from life-threatening disease and end-of-life care aspects have gained increasing attention in public perception. The increasing focus on palliative medicine questions can be considered to be paradigmatic for this development. Palliative medicine became a compulsory subject of the undergraduate curriculum in Germany to be implemented until 2013. The preexisting conditions and qualifications at the medical faculties vary, though. We describe the conceptual process, didactic background, and first experiences with the new interdisciplinary course “Delivering bad news” as a compulsory part of the palliative medicine curriculum. Methods: Since autumn 2009, this course has been taught at the University Medical Center Göttingen, consisting of two double lessons in the final year of medical education. Considering the curriculum-based learning goals in Göttingen, the focus of this course is to impart knowledge, attitudes and communication skills relating to “bad news”. Results: Although the seminar requires adequate staff and is time-consuming, students have accepted it and gave high marks in evaluations. In particular, the teachers’ performance and commitment was evaluated positively. Discussion and Conclusions: We describe the first experiences with a new course. Didactic structure, theoretical contents, role-plays and usage of media (film, novel) are well- suited to communicate topics such as “bad news”. Additional experiences and evaluations are necessary. According to the progressive nature of learning, it might be worthwhile to repeat communication- centered questions several times during medical studies. PMID:22205910

  4. Breaking bad news issues: a survey among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A; Sharaf, Fawzy K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the physicians' perspectives and practices in relation to breaking bad news (BBN) to patients. A quantitative survey was performed in the Qassim Region from January to July 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire administered to all practicing physicians working in both hospitals and Primary Healthcare centers in the Qassim Region. Anonymity was maintained throughout. The target groups received a self-administered questionnaire with a covering letter introducing the study and explaining their rights. A total of 458 physicians participated in the study. Physicians with higher qualifications had lower total scores of the mean in BBN skills. The majority (70%) preferred to discuss information with close relatives rather than the patients. In case of serious diseases, only 32% said that they would inform the patient's family without the patient's consent. More than 90% of our study sample did not avoid telling their patients the bad news; however, physicians working in Primary Healthcare centers were less reserved. Although most of the participating physicians were keen to help their patients, they lacked the essential knowledge and skills for breaking bad news. Thus, they are in need of specific training in this regard.

  5. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hollywood Science: Good for Hollywood, Bad for Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2009-03-01

    Like it or not, most science depicted in feature films is in the form of science fiction. This isn't likely to change any time soon, if only because science fiction films are huge moneymakers for Hollywood. But beyond that, these films are a powerful cultural force. They reach millions as they depict scientific ideas from DNA and cloning to space science, whether correctly or incorrectly; reflect contemporary issues of science and society like climate change, nuclear power and biowarfare; inspire young people to become scientists; and provide defining images -- or stereotypes -- of scientists for the majority of people who've never met a real one. Certainly, most scientists feel that screen depictions of science and scientists are badly distorted. Many are, but not always. In this talk, based on my book Hollywood Science [1], I'll show examples of good and bad screen treatments of science, scientists, and their impact on society. I'll also discuss efforts to improve how science is treated in film and ways to use even bad movie science to convey real science. [4pt] [1] Sidney Perkowitz, Hollywood Science: Movies, Science, and the End of the World (Columbia University Press, New York, 2007). ISBN: 978-0231142809

  7. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  8. Galaxies on the Blue Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  9. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  10. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Bonduelle, M.; Schiettecatte, J.; Tournaye, H.; Painter, R. C.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  11. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  12. Language Comprehension in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Boys with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Roberts, J.; Vandergrift, N.; Martin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited cause of intellectual disability, yet very few studies have explored the language comprehension skills of children with FXS. We examined the receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax skills of boys with FXS (who were additionally classified as having autism,…

  13. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  14. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, Nika N; Walensky, Loren D; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K; Molina, Anthony J A; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L; Bird, Gregory H; Wikstrom, Jakob D; Deeney, Jude T; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne; Kim, Sheene; Greenberg, Michael E; Corkey, Barbara E; Shirihai, Orian S; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B; Korsmeyer, Stanley J

    2008-02-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeable, hydrocarbon-stapled BAD BH3 helices that target glucokinase, restore glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration and correct the insulin secretory response in Bad-deficient islets. Our studies uncover an alternative target and function for the BAD BH3 domain and emphasize the therapeutic potential of phosphorylated BAD BH3 mimetics in selectively restoring beta cell function. Furthermore, we show that BAD regulates the physiologic adaptation of beta cell mass during high-fat feeding. Our findings provide genetic proof of the bifunctional activities of BAD in both beta cell survival and insulin secretion.

  15. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  17. The History Boys on Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bregović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Bennett’s play The History Boys provides different perspectives of the educational system, which are reflected in different teaching techniques used by the fictional teachers. The play reflects the clash between two ways of producing legitimacy for education – the modern that relies on grand narratives, and the postmodern that relies on performativity and profitability. The issues raised by Bennett concern the changes in the educational system triggered by reforms introduced in the 1980s that were perceived as a gradual commodification of education. Changes in educational policy governed by neoliberal logic continue to have great impact on contemporary education with the introduction of the Bologna process. The only female teacher in Bennett’s play Mrs Lintott, offers a feminist critique of the system of education as well.Keywords: Alan Bennett, The History Boys, neoliberalism, education, commodificationSet during the rule of Margaret Thatcher in England, Alan Bennett’s play The History Boys reflects the changes in educational policy and strategies at that period (Jacobi, 76, and raises many issues about the nature of education and knowledge that remain important even today. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate two ways of producing legitimacy for knowledge that can be detected in Bennett’s work: the modern that relies on grand narratives and the postmodern that uses performativity as the crucial criterion of legitimacy. In the play, the clash of the two ways of producing legitimacy is represented as the clash of teaching methods employed by different teachers and is most evident in opposing ideas about knowledge espoused by the teacher of general studies Hector and the history teacher Irwin. New ways of producing legitimacy need to be analyzed in the context of the changes in social and political reality that started in the 1980s and continue to have great impact on contemporary education with the introduction of the

  18. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  19. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  20. Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Mårten; Marschik, Peter B; Tulviste, Tiia

    2012-01-01

    .08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary, and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language...... communities, the difference between girls and boys remained. This suggests that the difference is caused by robust factors that do not change between language communities....

  1. Why adolescent boys dream of becoming professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Sebben, D J; Wiley, D C

    1999-06-01

    A review of studies which investigated drawings of the ideal man and the occupational aspirations of boys (ages 11-18 years) from several countries indicated that becoming a professional athlete was a popular but unrealistic aspiration for many adolescent boys. Boys who were athletes and nonathletes from diverse ethnic groups and nationalities dreamed of becoming professional athletes. In two additional studies in the United States of America, adolescents were asked why they thought boys most often selected professional athlete as a possible future occupation. Adolescents perceived professional athletes as rich, famous, and glorified. Enhancement of status and financial gain were ranked as more important than the desire to play sports.

  2. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  3. The Myth of Pink and Blue Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Eliot, a neuroscientist who has analyzed gender differences in children's brains, asserts that--contrary to the widely held idea that boys' and girls' brains are hardwired differently--few differences exist in the neural structures and neurochemistry of boys' and girls' brains. Actual ability differences between the genders are quite small as…

  4. Communicative competence in the delivery of bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillotti, Cathy; Thompson, Teresa; McNeilis, Kelly

    2002-04-01

    Grounded in the Cegala and Waldron (Communication Studies 43 (1992) 105) model of communicative competence, the present study applied the McNeilis (Health Communication 13 (2001) 5) provider-patient coding scheme to video tapes of 3rd year medical students delivering bad news to a standardized patient. The goal of the study was to understand the specific communicative moves that are associated with perceptions of competence during bad news delivery. The coding scheme assesses Content, Acknowledgment Tokens, Interruptions, Alignment, and Function of the message. Naïve observers also evaluated the tapes on several items, assessing empathy and communicative effectiveness. Nonmedical talk was the most common type of content, followed by discussion of the current health problem. Neither acknowledgment tokens nor interruptions were frequent. The most common function of a message was a closed question, followed by explanations, assertions, and open questions. Summing across the functions indicated that information giving was the nost common behavior. The perceivers' data showed fairly neutral assessments of the medical students--they were generally not evaluated very positively, although they were not disliked. Regression analyses indicated numerous specific communicative behaviors that were associated with judgments of competence. Statements falling into the Nonspecific Content category were associated with more positive perceptions, while relational statements, moderately closed questions, solicited answers, expansions, restatements, assertions, explanations, open questions, bracketing, and small talk as well as information verifying, seeking, and giving (summed functions) led to more negative perceptions. The results indicate that the delivery of bad news requires communicative moves that differ from other kinds of medical communication. Depending on the results of future analyses of this topic health are providers may be well advised to focus little of their

  5. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  6. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  7. Breaking the bad news when sudden death occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bloch, L

    1996-01-01

    Notification of family when sudden death has occurred is often a highly stressful experience for hospital Emergency Department physicians and nursing personnel. This article will offer some guidelines to health care professionals in helping a deceased patient's family cope with the initial grief and loss that accompanies the unexpected death of a loved one. At the same time, an understanding of the wide range of emotional responses of bereaved survivors may case some of the anxiety Emergency Department staff members associate with "breaking the bad news."

  8. Food, Gender and Media. The Trinity of Bad Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    Food, Gender and Media – the Trinity of Bad Taste: Since she began working in the field in the mid-1980s, associate professor in media studies at Aarhus University Karen Klitgaard Povlsen has been one of most important scholars in the field of cultural food studies in Denmark. She is particularly...... interested in food in relation to gender and media, and has published widely on the subject. In this interview, she provides a Danish perspective on the study of food and gender, including a brief history of the area and her thoughts on its current status and potentials. Povlsen argues that while gender...

  9. Good Friends, Bad News - Affect and Virality in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the prob...... segment, but not in the non-news segment. Our findings may be summarized ’If you want to be cited: Sweet talk your friends or serve bad news to the public’....

  10. Antipatterns: A Compendium of Bad Practices in Software Development Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Medina Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Article presents a set of software process antipatterns, which arise as a result of bad practices within application development processes. Process AntiPatterns warn us about the harmful effects that may arise in projects, and also describe the features that identify them. The proposed anti-patterns provide a catalog that serves as a vocabulary for communication among project participants. Such Antipatterns can be implemented through software tools in order to keep better record of their implementation. Additionally, a tool that can operate under GPL (General Public license is provided for this purpose.

  11. The good, the bad and the ugly .... of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I review the good, the bad and the ugly of the non-projectable versions of Horava gravity. I explain how this non-relativistic theory was constructed and why it was touted with such excitement as a quantum theory of gravity. I then review some of the issues facing the theory, explaining how strong coupling occurs and why this is such a problem for both phenomenology and the question of renormalisability. Finally I comment on possible violations of Equivalence Principle, and explain why these could be an issue for Blas et al's h ealthy extension .

  12. Breaking bad news: current prospective and practical guideline for Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed; Salem, Abdel-Fattah

    2013-12-01

    Breaking bad news is one of the most distressing tasks which face physicians on daily basis; however, only few doctors receive formal training on this task. Disappointingly, the current status of the "breaking bad news" sector in health care systems in the Muslim countries is largely unknown. The following article attempts to address the current status of breaking bad news in the health care sector in Muslim countries and devises a practical protocol which provides a stepwise framework for breaking bad news in Muslim countries.

  13. Delivering Bad News: Attitudes, Feelings, and Practice Characteristics Among Speech-Language Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Gold, Azgad

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, feelings, and practice characteristics of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Israel regarding the subject of delivering bad news. One hundred and seventy-three Israeli SLPs answered an online survey. Respondents represented SLPs in Israel in all stages of vocational experience, with varying academic degrees, from a variety of employment settings. The survey addressed emotions involved in the process of delivering bad news, training on this subject, and background information of the respondents. Frequency distributions of the responses of the participants were determined, and Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relation between years of occupational experience and the following variables: frequency of delivering bad news, opinions regarding training, and emotions experienced during the process of bad news delivery. Our survey showed that bad news delivery is a task that most participants are confronted with from the very beginning of their careers. Participants regarded training in the subject of delivering bad news as important but, at the same time, reported receiving relatively little training on this subject. In addition, our survey showed that negative emotions are involved in the process of delivering bad news. Training SLPs on specific techniques is required for successfully delivering bad news. The emotional burden associated with breaking bad news in the field of speech-language pathology should be noticed and addressed.

  14. [The relationship study on the relationship between procrastination behaviors and bad personality disposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the relationship between procrastinate behavior of college students and bad personality disposition. 566 college students were selected and followed through adopting the measurement on the procrastination scale of college students and Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-4). Results showed that male and female college students did not have remarkable difference in terms of procrastination. High level procrastinators had a higher level of scores on bad personality disposition. In addition, College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition (r = 0.341, P College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition which did not match the findings from McCown's results on american college students.

  15. EARLY DOWNHOME BLUES IN AMERICAN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Muhni, Djuhertati Imam

    2012-01-01

    People's traditional music and the way people behave when performing it are symbolic expressions of broad cultural pattern and social organization . In other words music is a part of men's learned heritage . Hence this study is about music in a given culture, specifically blues in American culture . Allen Trachtenberg stated that blues songs are inheritance from the American past for negotiating black people's lives as Americans . In the experience of blues the African-Americans find themselv...

  16. The Red-Blue Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Della Croce, Federico; Goossens, Dries; Spieksma, Frits

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Red-Blue Transportation Problem (Red-Blue TP), a generalization of the transportation problem where supply nodes are partitioned into two sets and so-called exclusionary constraints are imposed. We encountered a special case of this problem in a hospital context, where patients need to be assigned to rooms. We establish the problem's complexity, and we compare two integer programming formulations. Furthermore, a maximization variant of Red-Blue TP is presented, for...

  17. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  18. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  19. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  20. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  1. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  2. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  3. Trauma and Boys, Birth to 3: What's Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers infant and toddler boys' unique susceptibilities to caregiving inadequacies that might lead to trauma in their development. It does so by examining the results of research, which point to three areas where boys are likely to have particular difficulties--their slower developmental timetable, their different relationship with…

  4. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  5. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  6. Depression and Social Adjustment in Siblings of Boys with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Nora

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two siblings of autistic boys and 34 other siblings were compared on measures of depression, social adjustment, and family responsibilities. Results showed that siblings of autistic boys scored significantly higher on depression than the comparison group, but not on problems of social adjustment. There were no significant gender…

  7. Aberrant Behaviors of Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachiewicz, Ave M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Caregivers of 55 boys with fragile X syndrome (ages 3-12) and 57 matched controls completed five behavioral questionnaires. Principal components analysis yielded 5 behavioral clusters: abnormal language, tactile defensiveness, poor self-control, poor eye contact/shyness, and hand flapping. Boys with fragile X were four times more likely to have…

  8. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  9. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  10. Body Image Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…

  11. Utilisation of Reproductive Health Services by Adolescent Boys in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, few studies have investigated the reproductive health needs of adolescent boys. The aim of this study was to find out sources of reproductive health information for boys and the reasons for their low/non use of public health services. Qualitative methods were used, including focus group discussions, ...

  12. Testiculaire microlithiasis bij jongens [Testicular microlithiasis in boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Pierik, F.H.; Hack, W.W.M.; Algra, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    In three boys aged 15, 9, and 10 years respectively scrotal ultrasound revealed testicular microlithiasis (TM). Two boys were free of symptoms and one suffered from testicular pain. TM is characterized by multiple echogenic foci within the seminiferous tubules with no acoustic shadowing. The

  13. A Big Boy : Tema lugu ja selle loojad / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2010-01-01

    Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal

  14. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... referral center for pediatric endocrinology. Participants: One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due tomissing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: The number of patients with CDGP classified...

  15. [Breaking bad news--a challenge for every physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, G; Mehnert, A

    2014-11-01

    Breaking bad news is one of the most important and challenging physician's duties in routine daily work. It is not unusual that such dialogues take place at the very beginning of a doctor-patient relationship and positively or negatively influence the further course. In cases of critically ill patients or in emergency situations clinicians mostly interact with family members who have to cope with their own distress and with uncertainties of their loved one's disease. It is well accepted that good communication can significantly improve coping with the disease and promote patient compliance as well as better fulfilling family needs. Particular difficulties are the often minimal or lacking information on the counterpart and the family network, the expectations of patients and their families and the inability to predict their reactions. It is always a challenge to honestly deliver bad news to a patient and relatives without destroying their hope. Despite often limited time resources a bond of trust should be built up and the patient should be empowered to participate in shared decision making.

  16. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, Sody A.; Prero, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible. PMID:25120920

  17. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sody A. Naimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  18. Colorimetric sensor for bad odor detection using automated color correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, K.; Tarantik, K.; Pannek, C.; Benito-Altamirano, I.; Casals, O.; Fàbrega, C.; Romano-Rodríguez, A.; Wöllenstein, J.; Prades, J. D.

    2017-06-01

    Colorimetric sensors based on color-changing dyes offer a convenient approach for the quantitative measurement of gases. An integrated, mobile colorimetric sensor can be particularly helpful for occasional gas measurements, such as informal air quality checks for bad odors. In these situations, the main requirement is high availability, easy usage, and high specificity towards one single chemical compound, combined with cost-efficient production. In this contribution, we show how a well stablished colorimetric method can be adapted for easy operation and readout, making it suitable for the untrained end user. As an example, we present the use of pH indicators for the selective and reversible detection of NH3 in air (one relevant gas contributing to bad odors) using gas-sensitive layers dip coated on glass substrates. Our results show that the method can be adapted to detect NH3 concentrations lower than 1 ppm, with measure-to-result times in the range of a few minutes. We demonstrate that the color measurements can be carried out with the optical signals of RGB sensors, without losing quantitative performance.

  19. Precarious employment, bad jobs, labor unions, and early retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Warren, John R; Sweeney, Megan M; Hauser, Robert M; Ho, Jeong-Hwa

    2011-03-01

    We examined the extent to which involuntary job loss, exposure to "bad jobs," and labor union membership across the life course are associated with the risk of early retirement. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a large (N=8,609) sample of men and women who graduated from high school in 1957, we estimated discrete-time event history models for the transition to first retirement through age 65. We estimated models separately for men and women. We found that experience of involuntary job loss and exposure to bad jobs are associated with a lower risk of retiring before age 65, whereas labor union membership is associated with a higher likelihood of early retirement. These relationships are stronger for men than for women and are mediated to some extent by pre-retirement differences in pension eligibility, wealth, job characteristics, and health. Results provide some support for hypotheses derived from theories of cumulative stratification, suggesting that earlier employment experiences should influence retirement outcomes indirectly through later-life characteristics. However, midlife employment experiences remain associated with earlier retirement, net of more temporally proximate correlates, highlighting the need for further theorization and empirical evaluation of the mechanisms through which increasingly common employment experiences influence the age at which older Americans retire.

  20. Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many teens. It might feel as though there just isn't enough time to do everything. Being a teen means struggling with ... sad, irritable, bored, or hopeless much of the time, or if you just can't seem to shake the blues, you might be depressed and ...

  1. Prehistory of the Little Blue River Valley, Western Missouri: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Lake project. The report discusses the geomorphology and vegetation of the Little Blue River valley, Late Quaternary bioclimatic change in Western...54 Aquatic Communities ............................... 58 IV. LATE QUATERNARY BIOCLIMATIC CHANGE IN WESTERN MISSOURI by Rolfe D...City District is presently constructing Blue Springs Lake on the East Fork of the Little Blue River in Jackson County, Missouri. The location of the

  2. HPV Vaccination of Boys in Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mandy A.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; O’Leary, Sean T.; Crane, Lori A.; Hurley, Laura P.; Stokley, Shannon; Babbel, Christine I.; Brtnikova, Michaela; Beaty, Brenda L.; Kempe, Allison

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) for the routine immunization schedule for 11- to 12-year-old boys. Before October 2011, HPV4 was permissively recommended for boys. We conducted a study in 2010 to provide data that could guide efforts to implement routine HPV4 immunization in boys. Our objectives were to describe primary care physicians’: 1) knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease and HPV4, 2) recommendation and administration practices regarding HPV vaccine in boys compared to girls, 3) perceived barriers to HPV4 administration in boys, and 4) personal and practice characteristics associated with recommending HPV4 to boys. METHODS We conducted a mail and Internet survey in a nationally representative sample of pediatricians and family medicine physicians from July 2010 to September 2010. RESULTS The response rate was 72% (609 of 842). Most physicians thought that the routine use of HPV4 in boys was justified. Although it was permissively recommended, 33% recommended HPV4 to 11- to 12-year-old boys and recommended it more strongly to older male adolescents. The most common barriers to HPV4 administration were related to vaccine financing. Physicians who reported recommending HPV4 for 11- to 12-year-old boys were more likely to be from urban locations, perceive that HPV4 is efficacious, perceive that HPV-related disease is severe, and routinely discuss sexual health with 11- to 12-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS Although most physicians support HPV4 for boys, physician education and evidence-based tools are needed to improve implementation of a vaccination program for males in primary care settings. PMID:24011749

  3. [Infant boy with propionic acidemia: anesthetic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ródenas, L; Hernández-Palazón, J; Burguillos-López, S; Sánchez-Ortega, J L; Castaño-Collado, I; García-Ferreira, J

    2005-01-01

    A 12-month-old boy diagnosed with propionic acidemia underwent gastrostomy. The patient's general state was good and he was alert, but with reduced muscular tone (unstable when seated with support, floppy head) and with dystonic movements in all extremities. An electroencephalogram showed slightly slowed brain activity. The patient was being treated with a low protein diet, phenobarbital, L-carnitine, L-isoleucine, and biotin. Surgery was carried out in satisfactory conditions with general anesthesia without opioids combined with infiltration of the surgical wound with local anesthetic. Recovery from anesthesia was rapid and free of complications. Propionic acidemia is caused by mitochondrial propionyl coenzyme carboxylase deficiency. Most patients have episodes of severe metabolic ketoacidosis as a result of excessive protein intake, delayed development, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, lethargy, hypotonia, and convulsions. The anesthetic approach involves avoiding triggers of metabolic acidosis (such as fasting, dehydration, hypoxemia, and hypotension) and preventing airway complications. Agents that metabolize propionic acid (such as succinylcholine, benzylisoquinoline neuromuscular blocking agents, and propofol) are not used, as they can exacerbate acidemia. We also believe that using local or regional anesthesia in combination with general anesthesia without opiates is safe and effective for controlling pain during surgery and postoperative recovery, as that combination avoids respiratory depression in these patients, who are highly sensitive to opiates.

  4. Serum insulin-like factor 3 levels during puberty in healthy boys and boys with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Anne M; Bay, Katrine; Hero, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development.......Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development....

  5. Physical Activity in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Lower and Less Demanding Compared to Healthy Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutinck, L.B.; Kampen, N. van; Jansen, M.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the amount of physical activity and perception of physical activity in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared to healthy boys. A questionnaire described 6 domains of physical activity. Four Duchenne muscular dystrophy subgroups were made: early and late ambulatory,

  6. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Daleth

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The blue rubber nevus syndrome consists of multiple venous malformations in the skin and gastrointestinal tract associated with intestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. Other organs may be involved. The causes of this syndrome are unknown. Its most common presentation is in the form of sporadic cases, but dominant autosomal inheritance has been described. It is a condition that affects both sexes equally, and its occurrence is rare in the black race. We present a case of this syndrome diagnosed in a 11-year-old patient. He had severe anemia and a venous swelling on the trunk. Similar lesions were found in the stomach, bowel, and on his foot. We emphasize the main clinical aspects: intestine, eyes, nasopharynx, parotids, lungs, liver, spleen, heart, brain, pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, skeletal muscles, bladder, and penis lesions, systemic complications that may occur to these patients which are thrombosis and calcification, as well as consumptive coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia that may occur within the nevi.

  7. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  8. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  9. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  10. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  11. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  12. Addressing Single and Multiple Bad Data in the Modern PMU-based Power System State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Detection and analysis of bad data is an important sector of the static state estimation. This paper addresses single and multiple bad data in the modern phasor measurement unit (PMU)-based power system static state estimations. To accomplish this objective, available approaches in the PMU-based ...

  13. Medical students' attitudes towards breaking bad news: an empirical test of the World Health Organization model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bensing, J.; Bruynooghe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in

  14. The Art of Breaking Bad News: Lessons Learned at a Large Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reflect on how to break bad news. The style in which one breaks bad news at the collegiate level has implications both for the individual and for the institution. If not managed well by enrollment professionals, negative news can taint prospects, applicants, parents, and current students, blemishing the…

  15. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Forty first-year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  16. Cue-responding in a Simulated Bad News Situation: Exploring a Stress Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valck, C.; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J. M.; Kerssens, J. J.; Hulsman, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  17. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  18. Effects of Similarity of Fate on Bad News Transmission: A Reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard E.; And Others

    Subjects (communicators) were more likely to transmit bad news (p.005) and less likely to be concerned about what the recipient thought about them (p.025) if, from the communicator's perspective, the recipient believed that both she and the communicator would receive the bad news fate than if the recipient believed only she would receive the bad…

  19. Delivering and Receiving Bad News: What School Psychologists Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Megan; Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Perry, Kimberly Hill

    2010-01-01

    Delivering bad news to students, teachers, and parents is not an uncommon occurrence for school psychologists. Skillfully communicating bad news requires sensitivity, thoughtful wording, and an awareness of the potential effect on the recipients. Despite the importance of this skill, school psychology has devoted little attention to what is…

  20. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice. PMID:22229135

  1. The “Bad Labor” Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana S. Simas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to what bad labor conditions across the globe are associated with international trade is unknown. Here, we quantify the bad labor conditions associated with consumption in seven world regions, the “bad labor” footprint. In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production of internationally traded goods. Our results show that (i as expected, there is a net flow of bad labor conditions from developing to developed regions; (ii the production of exported goods in lower income regions contributes to more than half of the bad labor footprints caused by the wealthy lifestyles of affluent regions; (iii exports from Asia constitute the largest global trade flow measured in the amount bad labor, while exports from Africa carry the largest burden of bad labor conditions per unit value traded and per unit of total labor required; and (IV the trade of food products stands out in both volume and intensity of bad labor conditions.

  2. Leading by Example? Investment Decisions in a Mixed Sequential-Simultaneous Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of having a leader in a laboratory public bad experiment with five subjects in each group.The control treatment is a standard public bad experiment, while in the leader treatments the design is such that in each group the leader decides first on his or her

  3. Reducing patients’ anxiety and uncertainty, and improving recall in bad news consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M. van; Sep, M.; Vliet, L.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients’ recall of provided information during bad news consultations is poor. According to the attentional narrowing hypothesis, the emotional arousal caused by the bad news might be responsible for this hampered information processing. Because affective communication has proven to be

  4. Reducing patients' anxiety and uncertainty, and improving recall in bad news consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M. van; Sep, M.; Vliet, L.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients' recall of provided information during bad news consultations is poor. According to the attentional narrowing hypothesis, the emotional arousal caused by the bad news might be responsible for this hampered information processing. Because affective communication has proven to be

  5. Reconsiderations: We Got the Wrong Gal--Rethinking the "Bad" Academic Writing of Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstein, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to think of a writer whose work has been more prominently upheld as an example of bad academic writing than the philosopher and literary theorist Judith Butler. In 1998, Butler was awarded first prize in the annual Bad Writing Contest established by the journal "Philosophy and Literature," and early in 1999, was lampooned in an…

  6. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Reed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose: Our objectives were to determine: 1 performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP setting; and 2 the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods: Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol. Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI as a measure of EI. Results: Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions: We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  7. Boys' and young men's perspectives on violence in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing, to experiencing, to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.

  8. Communicating bad news: an integrative review of the nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello; Menezes, Daniele Vieira de; Borgato, Maria Helena; Luiz, Marcos Roberto

    2017-01-01

    describe how the process of breaking bad news is established and identify how nurses approach the task of giving bad news. integrative review of the literature for articles in Portuguese and English published between 1993-2014, in the databases: Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase. Nine articles were included using the selection flow chart. A digital form was completed for each article according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist and the level of scientific evidence was determined. Of the 99 articles in identified, nine were included after applying the selection flowchart. breaking bad news is frequent in the area of oncology and palliative care, with a strong cultural influence on the autonomy of nurses in this process. the approach and skills of the nurse during this task influences the patient's reaction to the message. The theme is scarce in the literature and merits further investigation. Descrever como se estabelece o processo de comunicação de más notícias e identificar como o enfermeiro pratica a comunicação de más notícias. Revisão integrativa da literatura com artigos em português e inglês referente ao período 1993-2014 nas bases de dados Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL e Embase. Elegeram-se nove artigos pelo fluxograma de seleção. Para cada artigo foi preenchida uma ficha eletrônica, elaborado um checklist do Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research e verificado o nível de evidência científica. Foram identificados 99 artigos e incluídos nove pelo fluxograma de seleção. Transmitir más notícias é frequente nas áreas de oncologia e cuidados paliativos, com forte influência cultural na autonomia do enfermeiro nesse processo. O modo e a habilidade do enfermeiro durante a ação influenciarão a reação do paciente acerca da mensagem. O tema é escasso na literatura, necessitando ser explorado.

  9. O mal, sentido e dito Badness felt and spoken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delouya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O questionamento por que o mal é tão antigo quanto a linguagem e a humanidade. A definição e a identificação do mal com o outro constituem o eixo mais conhecido nas ocupações filosóficas e psicanalíticas. As inabilidades do ser humano, desde os inícios da vida, em lidar com as intensidades que se abatem sobre ele de dentro e de fora, e que resultam no que se denomina de trauma, são certamente os fatores da apreensão do mal e sua identificação com o outro. Entretanto, o trauma institui também o outro na origem do próprio desejo e como guia para a própria linguagem. O outro se engaja nesta empreitada pelo apelo imanente ao trauma e ao estado de desamparo do sujeito. Pretendemos "puxar" um dos fios deste arranjo paradoxal na obra freudiana, examinando sua atual relevância no cenário social e político, também a partir de obras pós-freudianas.The questioning is why badness is as old as humanity and language. The definition and identification of badness with the Other constitute one of the main known axes around which philosophical and psychoanalytical thoughts were fabricated. The helplessness of the newborn human being, his inability to deal with the outer and inner intensities and exigencies, that is, the trauma impact of existence, is certainly one of the main factors for badness conception and the perception of its origin in the other. However, psychoanalysis shows us beyond doubt that the other is also the traumatic source of the human desire and language. The other is called to exercise these functions by the immanent necessities of the original traumatic human condition. We examine some aspects of this paradox complex following its indications in the first Freudian works and relating it to post-Freudian works and its relation with the contemporary scenario

  10. Bilateral bad pixel and Stokes image reconstruction for microgrid polarimetric imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Ratliff, Bradley M.

    2015-09-01

    Uncorrected or poorly corrected bad pixels reduce the effectiveness of polarimetric clutter suppression. In conventional microgrid processing, bad pixel correction is accomplished as a separate step from Stokes image reconstruction. Here, these two steps are combined to speed processing and provide better estimates of the entire image, including missing samples. A variation on the bilateral filter enables both edge preservation in the Stokes imagery and bad pixel suppression. Understanding the newly presented filter requires two key insights. First, the adaptive nature of the bilateral filter is extended to correct for bad pixels by simply incorporating a bad pixel mask. Second, the bilateral filter for Stokes estimation is the sum of the normalized bilateral filters for estimating each analyzer channel individually. This paper describes the new approach and compares it to our legacy method using simulated imagery.

  11. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  12. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  13. Learning from Bad Practice in Environmental and Sustainability Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen

    and South Korea at the beginning of the 21st century. Through heavy emphasis on ideas of evidence-based best practice, educators try to further such goals of education as will aid the individual to succeed and societies to prosper, while maintaining that democracy, nature, and climate should be protected...... as part of sustainable development. Yet, these high hopes regarding what education and Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) will bring must still face the ever present bad practice that is found in everyday life, in education, as well as in policy and business. Sustainable development and......, challenge, and develop a way of living that aims to combine the possibility of living a full life without destroying the opportunity for future generations to do the same. The aim of this book is to develop the notion of ESE and other perspectives on education through a better understanding...

  14. Entropy, the Second Law and the Concept of `Bad' Energy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Andrew C.

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamics continues to mystify and instill a sense of dread in many students. Instruction continues to follow the tortuous historic development. To counter this the author adopts a teaching method that allows the majority of students to quickly be brought up to a level where they are able to tackle a multitude of non-standard and hence non-coached problems not normally associated with conventional thermodynamic courses. The method makes extensive use of the Reynolds transport equation in conjunction with a novel derivation of entropy and the liberal use of basic accounting principles. In the definition of entropy, the confusing traditional use of the path function of heat transfer at the numerator is replaced by a `bad' energy property, that the students find more intuitive.

  15. Breaking bad news: qualitative evaluation of an interprofessional learning opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Ann; Cocksedge, Simon; Boggis, Caroline

    2006-02-01

    This paper analyses the effects of bringing together a small group of nursing and medical students to learn the skills needed to break bad news to patients. It outlines the qualitative and quantitative methods used, to provide the reader with a comprehensive account of the teaching, learning and research strategies drawn on during the study. The paper examines the evaluation phase, as this aspect is of greatest import if such initiatives are to flourish. The facet of the study analysed in detail concerns the students' responses to the open-ended qualitative questionnaires. In coding the data, three researchers independently highlighted a series of themes associated with the benefits and hazards of nursing and medical students learning and working together. Finally, the paper closes by arguing that trust and mutual respect are vital ingredients if collaborative working is to become part of the medical and nursing curriculum.

  16. Freud's "bad conscience": The case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This article develops the argument that Friedrich Nietzsche influenced several aspects of Freud's later writings by illustrating, in particular, the impact of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. The theoretical and conceptual schemes represented in Freud's Discontents are found to bear a remarkable similarity to Nietzsche's Genealogy on a number of highly specific points. It is suggested that "DAS ES," "Uber-ich," and "bad conscience," concepts central to Freud's moral theory of mind, are at least partly derived from Nietzsche. Moreover, Freud's phylogenetic theory of guilt is based upon premises found in Nietzsche, as are specific details relating to ideas on human prehistory and the ancestral family. Based on this evidence, a re-examination of the moral and social dimensions of Freud's "structural" model may be in order. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Protoporphyrin IX: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachar, Madhav; Anderson, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is ubiquitously present in all living cells in small amounts as a precursor of heme. PPIX has some biologic functions of its own, and PPIX-based strategies have been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment (the good). PPIX serves as the substrate for ferrochelatase, the final enzyme in heme biosynthesis, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated during heme synthesis. Accumulation of PPIX in human porphyrias can cause skin photosensitivity, biliary stones, hepatobiliary damage, and even liver failure (the bad and the ugly). In this work, we review the mechanisms that are associated with the broad aspects of PPIX. Because PPIX is a hydrophobic molecule, its disposition is by hepatic rather than renal excretion. Large amounts of PPIX are toxic to the liver and can cause cholestatic liver injury. Application of PPIX in cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on its photodynamic effects. PMID:26588930

  18. Breaking bad news, the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Trudy; Tack, Jessica; Vertommen, Anneke; Proesmans, Marijke; de Boeck, Kris

    2015-07-01

    The day parents are told their child has cystic fibrosis (CF) is imprinted in their memory. Parents often show strong emotions (e.g. shock, anxiety); they need to cope with bad news and restructure their lives taking into account CF. The aims of this study are (1) to explore how parents recall circumstances of the CF diagnosis and the information they received and (2) to investigate their current coping styles. Parents (n=38) of 20 children (diagnosed during the past 5 years) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Coping was assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The association between coping and time since diagnosis/severity of illness was investigated. Fifteen parents first heard the term 'CF' from their local pediatrician or GP. All were informed in detail by the CF specialist. All parents recalled specifics about the information, the attitude of the doctor, their thoughts and emotions. Most parents were satisfied with the content and manner in which they had received information. Nineteen appreciated the doctor showing some emotions during the talks. One couple criticized the doctor for not showing emotions. Parents reported higher use (than normative scores) of the active coping style 'social support seeking' and the accommodative coping styles 'palliative reaction pattern' and 'comforting cognitions'. Perception of severity of illness was associated with higher scores on palliative coping. This study shows the importance of physicians and CF teams to tailor the way of providing bad news to parents' needs and preferences. It is important to help and encourage parents to use active or accommodative coping strategies. The diagnosis is the starting point of a long-term relationship. 'Doing things well from the start' helps families to learn to live with CF and treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulated parents: developing paediatric trainees' skills in giving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K; Frydenberg, Alexis R; Donath, Susan K; Marks, Michael M

    2009-03-01

    In curriculum documents for medicine in undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing professional development, there is now a focus on communication skills. The challenges are to place communication skills in the crowded curriculum and then to construct and sustain a programme that uses an evidence-based approach to the teaching and learning of communication skills. For 6 years, we have conducted a programme that involves simulated parents supporting junior medical staff to refine their skills in communication, particularly in giving parents bad news. The aim of our study was to obtain a better understanding of the trainees' experiences of the programme. Nine junior residents individually worked through two scenarios and received feedback from the simulated parent. They gave bad news to a simulated parent/actor who then gave feedback. A recording of the simulation was provided for discussion with a designated colleague at an arranged time. The tapes were then separately appraised by two independent raters - another actor and a paediatrician. Brief written reports and conducted semi-structured interviews provided more insights into the trainees' experience of the simulation. Other participating medical/medical education staff were interviewed about the simulation programme. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data: timeliness, emotional safety, the complexity of communication, practical usefulness and the challenge of effecting change. In addition, the ratings of the videos helped to clarify those 'parent-centred' communication skills that trainees may neglect in difficult conversations: 'ask about support', 'encourage the parent to ask questions' and 'repeat key messages'. The evaluation highlighted the value of an early-career experiential programme to highlight the importance of communication skills in post-graduate paediatrics practice.

  20. Phytotoxicity of methylene blue to rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is widely used in various industrial branches. Due to insufficient treatment, its occurrence in wastewater is frequently detected, which may result in serious environment problems to aquatic organisms. Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45 exposed to methylene blue to determine the effective concentration using relative growth rate and water use efficiency as response endpoints. Results showed that acute toxicity of methylene blue to rice seedlings was evident. Although a linear decrease in relative growth rate and water use efficiency was observed in rice seedlings with increasing methylene blue concentrations, relative growth rate of rice seedlings was more sensitive to change of methylene blue than water use efficiency. Using non-linear regression, EC-48 h values for 10%, 20% and 50% inhibition of the relative growth rate were estimated to be 1.54, 3.22 and 10.13 mg MB/L for rice seedlings exposed to methylene blue, respectively, while smaller EC were obtained for 96 h exposure. In conclusion, the toxic response of young rice seedlings to methylene blue is obvious and inhibitory effects are highly dependent on response endpoints and the duration of exposure period.

  1. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  2. How bad were British prison hulks in the Napoleonic wars? : Evidence from captured Danish and Norwegian seamen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunig, Tim; Lottum, van Jelle; Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a novel data source to test whether British Napoleonic prison hulks were as bad as many claim, and whether they were perceived to be bad by seamen who risked ending up in them. We find that they were not so bad: death rates of imprisoned Danish and Norwegian seamen were low. We

  3. Results of preputial reconstruction in 77 boys with distal hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, A. J.; Dik, P.; de Jong, T. P.

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest in preputial reconstruction combined with hypospadias repair. We retrospectively analyzed its results for future developments and patient information. We evaluated 77 boys who underwent distal hypospadias repair combined with preputial reconstruction to determine

  4. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  5. Comparison of Writing and Drawing Performance of Dyslexic Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gordon; Watson, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Ten dyslexic boys and 10 matched controls were asked to draw a person and write a composition. The two groups are compared on time spent on tasks, number of words written, and proportions of spelling and grammatical errors. (SJL)

  6. The mental health of men and boys: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peate, Ian

    This article provides insight and understanding into important issues of which nurses need to be aware when caring for men and boys with regard to their mental health. Inequalities in health care are discussed, and suggestions made concerning how all nurses can help redress these inequalities. The mental health of men and boys concerns all nurses; not just those working in mental health settings. The article focuses on a recent review published by the Men's Health Forum (Wilkins, 2010), and considers a number of gender-specific mental health issues that affect the health and wellbeing of men and boys. The role of the nurse is to protect and promote the health of people in their care and this article makes clear that this extends to and includes the mental health of men and boys. Labelling people and categorizing them into homogenous groups is not often helpful or strategically wise; this article does not wish to categorize, but merely attempts to explain.

  7. Cold agglutinins in haemophiliac boys infected with HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton-Maggs, P H; Rogan, P D; Duguid, J K; Mutton, K J; Ball, L M

    1991-01-01

    Eleven haemophiliac boys infected with HIV were screened for irregular red cell antibodies and were compared with nine haemophiliac boys who did not have antibodies to HIV. Seven (64%) of the children who had antibodies to HIV also had cold agglutinins, mostly of anti-I specificity, compared with one (11%) of those who did not have antibodies to HIV. The children with antibodies to HIV and cold agglutinins had a significantly increased mean IgM concentration. The presence of cold agglutinins ...

  8. [A boy with a cough and shoulder pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompier, Charlotte J A; Roelants, Roosje; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy reported to the Accident and Emergency Department with excessive coughing, shortness of breath and pain in the area of his left shoulder blade. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cultured from his sputum. The boy was otherwise healthy, and had no immune deficiency or underlying anatomic abnormality. He probably contracted the MRSA infection at the international school he attends.

  9. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  10. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  11. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. THE BULLYING PHENOMENON: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bullying phenomenon is characterized by aggression always unequal power and involves violence. This study aimed to identify the types of bullying (physical, verbal, psychological, material, virtual or sexual more prevalent in this population and compare bullying among adolescent males and females. We used a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Participants were 309 students, 142 males and 167 females, from 6th to 8th grade from two schools, one state and one municipal. These results show 27% of participants were involved in episodes of bullying and that the most prevalent type of bullying was verbal, being appointed for 92% of girls and 84% boys; followed by psychological, indicated by 70% of girls and 53% boys. Physical bullying, had 46% of female and 44% male reports, the material was mentioned by 27% of girls and 16% boys. On sexual bullying type was greatest difference between the sexes, suffered by 38% of girls and 16% boys. Only 13% of girls and 12% boys, mentioned suffer the virtual bullying. Corroborating research area, in this study the highest percentage of victims were female and different from the literature girls reported being verbally abused more for boys than for girls.

  13. Boys with a simple delayed puberty reach their target height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, B L M; Rooman, R; Op De Beeck, L; Du Caju, M V L

    2008-01-01

    Final height in boys with delayed puberty is thought to be below target height. This conclusion, however, is based on studies that included patients with genetic short stature. We therefore studied final height in a group of 33 untreated boys with delayed puberty with a target height >-1.5 SDS. Standing height, sitting height, weight and arm span width were measured in each patient. Final height was predicted by the method of Greulich and Pyle using the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for retarded boys at their bone age (PAH1) and the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for average boys plus six months (PAH2). Mean final height (175.8 +/- 6.5 cm) was appropriate for the mean target height (174.7 +/- 4.5 cm). The prediction method of Bailey and Pinneau overestimated the final height by 1.4 cm and the modified prediction method slightly underestimated the final height (-0.15 cm). Boys with untreated delayed puberty reach a final height appropriate for their target height. Final height was best predicted by the method of Bailey and Pinneau using the tables for average boys at their bone age plus six months. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Physiological profiles of young boys training in ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, H; Litmanen, H; Mahlamäki, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate physiological characteristics in young male ballet dancers, 27 boys (aged 9 to 16 years) who participated in a boys' dance course during the Kuopio Dance and Music Festival in June 1988 were studied. In general, the boys had started dancing at the age of 8.6 years and had been training for 4.1 years. They had, on average, three dancing sessions per week and the mean time spent on dancing was four hours per week. In the study, some anthropometric measurements were taken, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was measured by a cycle ergometer test and the explosive strength and the mechanical power of lower extremities were evaluated by a jumping test. The results indicate that boys who train in ballet are in general moderately lean, have relatively small body size and a high degree of flexibility. The younger boys especially have only moderate aerobic power, but both explosive strength and mechanical power in leg muscles are good in ballet trained boys. PMID:2630002

  15. Obesity and bullying: different effects for boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L J; Wolke, D; Page, A S; Horwood, J P

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether weight category (underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese) at age 7.5 predicts bullying involvement at 8.5 years. Models were tested separately for boys and girls to investigate gender differences in association patterns. Prospective cohort study in southwest England. Height and weight were measured in children at age 7.5 (n = 8210). BMI (kg/m2) was used to define underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese children, according to British age and gender specific growth reference data. Overt (n = 7083) and relational (n = 6932) bullying behaviour was assessed in children at age 8.5. After adjustment for parental social class, compared to average weight boys, obese boys were 1.66 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.66) times more likely to be overt bullies and 1.54 (1.12 to 2.13) times more likely to be overt victims. Obese girls were 1.53 (1.09 to 2.15) times more likely to be overt victims compared to average weight girls. Obesity is predictive of bullying involvement for both boys and girls. Preadolescent obese boys and girls are more likely to be victims of bullying because they deviate from appearance ideals. Other obese boys are likely to be bullies, presumably because of their physical dominance in the peer group.

  16. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  17. Nurses’ perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians’ duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

  18. The impact of delivery style on doctors' experience of stress during simulated bad news consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joanne; Brown, Rhonda; Dunn, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between doctors' bad news delivery style and their experience of physiological stress during simulated bad news consultations. 31 doctors participated in two simulated breaking bad news (BBN) consultations. Delivery style was categorized as either blunt, forecasting or stalling (i.e. avoidant), based on the time to deliver the bad news and qualitative analysis of the interaction content and doctor's language style. Doctors' heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded in consecutive 30s epochs. Doctors experienced a significant decrease in HR (F(1,36)=44.9, pnews delivery phases of the consultation. Between-group comparisons for the three delivery styles did not identify any significant differences in HR (F(2,36)=2.2, p>.05) or SC (F(2,48)=.66, p>.05). Doctors experience heightened stress in the pre-news delivery phase of breaking bad news interactions. Delaying the delivery of bad news exposes doctors to a longer period of increased stress.This suggests that medical students and doctors should be taught to deliver bad news without delay, to help mitigate their response to this stressful encounter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Breaking Bad News: An Evidence-Based Review of Communication Models for Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Meridith; Keefe, Joanna; Miller, Lindsay; Overcash, Janine

    2017-10-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is a stressful, difficult, and life-altering event. Breaking bad news is distressing to patients and families and is often uncomfortable for the nurse delivering it. Evidence-based communication models have been developed and adapted for use in clinical practice to assist nurses with breaking bad news.

. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on breaking bad news and to review the utility of the SPIKES and PEWTER evidence-based communication models for oncology nurses.
. Perceptions of breaking bad news from the nurse and patient perspectives, as well as barriers and consequences to effective communication, will be presented. Clinical examples of possible situations of breaking bad news will demonstrate how to use the SPIKES and PEWTER models of communication when disclosing bad news to patients and their families.
. By using the evidence-based communication strategies depicted in this article, oncology nurses can support the delivery of bad news and maintain communication with their patients and their patients' families in an effective and productive manner.

  20. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessing bad debt in New Hampshire and Vermont office-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, S J

    1993-12-01

    Bad debt is one measure of the cost of medical indigence on health care institutions. This two-part study identifies a methodology for and presents findings from measuring bad debt in a collection of office-based practices. In Part I of the study, data were gathered on site from 26 practices in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, after first conducting a survey of bad debt losses at these offices. Survey findings were compared to on-site findings and it was determined that only the practices with computerized record-keeping systems were able to supply accurate data by survey alone. In Part II, 71 randomly chosen computerized practices in New Hampshire and Vermont (identified in a screen of 275 practices) were surveyed on bad debt. The practices from Part II wrote off an average of $23,115 per physician in 1990 from bad debt in a region in which primary care physician income averages approximately $70,000. The author calculates that bad debt losses are greater than either Medicare or Medicaid losses. Uninsured patients account for 21.6% of office visits but 45% of practice write-offs. Bad debt accounts for a 16% loss from total earnings from regular office visits. Office-based practices in this study are shouldering a significant portion of the cost of care of their uninsured and underinsured patients.

  2. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner.

  3. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  4. Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Lee, Chun-Hong; Khoo, I C; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2012-10-08

    Random lasing actions have been observed in optically isotropic pure blue-phase and polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals containing laser dyes. Scattering, interferences and recurrent multiple scatterings arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen in these materials provide the optical feedbacks for lasing action. In polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals, coherent random lasing could occur in the ordered blue phase with an extended temperature interval as well as in the isotropic liquid state. The dependence of lasing wavelength range, mode characteristics, excitation threshold and other pertinent properties on temperature and detailed make-up of the crystals platelets were obtained. Specifically, lasing wavelengths and mode-stability were found to be determined by platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate; lasing thresholds and emission spectrum are highly dependent on, and therefore can be tuned by temperature.

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Protonation of Patented Blue V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XTreme.ws

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Protonation of Patented Blue V in aqueous solutions: Theoretical and experimental studies. KATERYNA BEVZIUKa, ALEXANDER CHEBOTAREVa, MAKSYM FIZERb,. ANASTASIIA KLOCHKOVAa, KONSTANTIN PLIUTAa and DENYS SNIGURa*. aDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, ...

  6. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  7. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...

  8. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  9. Collective bads: The case of low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    In low-level radioactive waste (LLW) compact development, policy gridlock and intergovernmental conflict between states has been the norm. In addition to the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) phenomenon, LLW compacts must content with myriad political and ethical dilemmas endemic to a particular collective bad. This paper characterizes the epistemology of collective bads, and reviews how LLW compacts deal with such bads. In addition, using data from survey questionnaires and interviews, this paper assesses the cooperative nature of LLW compacts in terms of their levels of regional autonomy, regional efficacy, allocation of costs and benefits, and their technocentric orientation

  10. Bad boys don’t cry: A thematic analysis of interpersonal dynamics in interview narratives of young offenders with psychopathic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eDe Ganck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most discussions of the social and interpersonal styles in individuals with strong psychopathic traits focus on their dangerousness or their affective and interpersonal deficiencies. This study has a different focus, and starts from the idea that such focus on the threat emanating from individuals with a psychopathic style might blind us from the logic inherent to their way of relating with the world. By means of a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis of narratives from a Lacanian talking therapy, this study examines how 15 youngsters with strong psychopathic traits make sense of interpersonal events and relations. The main recurring theme across these narratives was that others in general are fundamentally distrustful antagonists that they have to protect themselves from. Especially the father figure, with whom identification seems to take place, is seen as a violent actor. Consequently, these youngsters develop multiple strategies of dealing with the threat they experience in relation to (significant others. These relationship patterns also emerged within the therapeutic relationship, resulting in frequent testing of the therapist’s trustworthiness. The results of this study, discussed in terms of Lacanian theory, might help therapists to develop treatment approaches that better fit with the interpersonal orientation of individuals with strong psychopathic traits.

  11. Bad boys don't cry”: a thematic analysis of interpersonal dynamics in interview narratives of young offenders with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ganck, Julie; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Most discussions of the social and interpersonal styles in individuals with strong psychopathic traits focus on their dangerousness or their affective and interpersonal deficiencies. This study has a different focus, and starts from the idea that such focus on the threat emanating from individuals with a psychopathic style might blind us from the logic inherent to their way of relating with the world. By means of a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis) of narratives from a Lacanian talking therapy, this study examines how 15 youngsters with strong psychopathic traits make sense of interpersonal events and relations. The main recurring theme across these narratives was that others in general are fundamentally distrustful antagonists that they have to protect themselves from. Especially the father figure, with whom identification seems to take place, is seen as a violent actor. Consequently, these youngsters develop multiple strategies of dealing with the threat they experience in relation to (significant) others. These relationship patterns also emerged within the therapeutic relationship, resulting in frequent testing of the therapist's trustworthiness. The results of this study, discussed in terms of Lacanian theory, might help therapists to develop treatment approaches that better fit with the interpersonal orientation of individuals with strong psychopathic traits. PMID:26217279

  12. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  13. A conservative approach to testicular rupture in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jimena; Reda, Edward F; Gitlin, Jordan; Zelkovic, Paul; Palmer, Lane S

    2010-10-01

    Management for blunt trauma with breach of the renal capsule or bladder (extraperitoneal) has largely become nonsurgical since a conservative approach proved to be effective and safe. Currently the recommendation for managing testicular rupture is surgical exploration and débridement or orchiectomy. We report outcomes in boys diagnosed with testicular rupture and treated without surgical intervention. In the last year we conservatively treated 7 consecutive boys with delayed presentation of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Patients were treated with scrotal support, antibiotics to prevent abscess, rest, analgesics and serial ultrasound. We report clinical information and outcomes. The 7 boys were 11 to 14 years old and presented 1 to 5 days after injury. Trauma was to the left testis in 3 cases and to the right testis in 4. Patients presented with mild to moderate pain and similar scrotal swelling. Ultrasound findings consistently revealed hematocele and increased echogenicity. Blood flow was present in the injured portion of the testes in 3 cases and to the remainder of the affected testicle in 6 of the 7 boys. In the remaining boy an adequate waveform was not seen in either testicle, which the radiologist thought was secondary to prepubertal status. Other findings included scrotal edema, irregular contour and seminiferous tubule extrusion. Followup was greater than 6 months in all cases. Five boys were seen at the office and the 2 remaining had telephone followup. In all cases hematocele resolved, testicular size stabilized without atrophy and echogenicity normalized in the 5 patients with followup ultrasound. One patient required surgical repair of hydrocele 4 months after trauma but no other patient needed surgical exploration. No abscess or infection developed. A conservative approach in a select group of adolescent boys with testicular rupture can result in resolution of the fracture and maintenance of testicular architectural integrity

  14. Ex-Premature Infant Boys with Hypospadias are Similar in Size to Age-Matched, Ex-Premature Infant Boys Without Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael H.; Alonzo, David G.; Gonzales, Edmond T.; Jones, Eric A.; Cisek, Lars J.; Roth, David R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have postulated that hypospadias, prematurity, and low birth weight are linked by defects in androgen signaling. To determine whether premature, hypospadiac boys are small and remain so, we compared their size at birth and at hypospadias repair to premature boys who underwent post-neonatal circumcision. METHODS We identified premature boys admitted to Texas Children's Hospital who underwent either hypospadias repair or circumcision after 4 months of age. Age, weight, and height at birth and surgery were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-four boys had hypospadias and 34 did not. For hypospadiac boys, the mean birth weight and age, height, and weight at surgery were lower than for boys without hypospadias. More importantly, length-for-age and weight-for-age percentiles were also lower for hypospadiac boys. When subset analysis was performed on boys younger than 2 years at surgery, however, there were no significant differences in height or weight between hypospadiac and nonhypospadiac boys. CONCLUSION Our series suggests that premature, hypospadiac boys are born smaller than age-matched, non-hypospadiac controls. However, there were no age-corrected size differences between hypospadiac and non-hypospadiac boys at surgery. This implies that hypospadiac boys exhibit postneonatal ‘rebound’ growth. Global growth deficits, if any, do not persist in hypospadiac boys. PMID:20833109

  15. The Relationship between Friendship Quality and Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Daubman, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of friendship quality in adolescent boys' and girls' self-esteem. High school student surveys indicated that girls had significantly lower self-esteem than boys, and they rated their relationships as stronger, more interpersonally rewarding, and more stressful than boys. Boys rated their cross-gender best friendship as more…

  16. Using Picture Books to Provide Archetypes to Young Boys: Extending the Ideas of William Brozo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby

    2007-01-01

    In his book "To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy," William Brozo suggested that many adolescent boys have become mentally and academically detached from school. While Brozo acknowledges that a solution to these problems is multifaceted, he asserts that engaging boys in literature that makes use of…

  17. Conflict, Provocation and Fights among Boys in a South African High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlall, Vijay; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Boys are commonly associated with disruptive behaviour and physical fighting at school. Explanations for this behaviour range from naturalistic "boys will be boys" approaches to analyses which focus on the social construction of masculinity and emphasise the gendered nature of boys' behaviour. Whichever view holds sway, it is often…

  18. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior as a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…

  19. Medical students' reflections on emotions concerning breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Asta Kristiina; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Louhiala, Pekka; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2017-10-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of fourth year medical students' reflections on emotions in the context of breaking bad news (BBN). During the years 2010-2012, students reflected on their emotions concerning BBN in a learning assignment at the end of the communications skills course. The students were asked to write a description of how they felt about a BBN case. The reflections were analysed using qualitative content analysis. 351 students agreed to participate in the study. We recognized ten categories in students' reflections namely empathy, insecurity, anxiety, sadness, ambivalence, guilt, hope, frustration, gratefulness and emotional detachment. Most students expressed empathy, but there was a clear tension between feeling empathy and retaining professional distance by emotional detachment. Students experience strong and perplexing emotions during their studies, especially in challenging situations. A deeper understanding of students' emotions is valuable for supporting students' professional development and coping in their work in the future. Medical students need opportunities to reflect on emotional experiences during their education to find strategies for coping with them. Emotions should be actively discussed in studies where the issues of BBN are addressed. Teachers need education in attending emotional issues constructively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Breaking Bad News: Can We Get It Right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurer MA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The health service involves a spectrum of personnel working together towards achieving a common goal, namely the delivery of high quality health care. This involves a large volume of communication between members of staff and patients and their relatives. Doctors are trained to deal with various clinical situations but receive little or no training in communication skills and therefore their communication skills are predominantly instinctive. Patients and their relatives are understandably anxious and vulnerable and it is not surprising that things can go wrong if effective communication is not practiced. Although most doctors communicate effectively, there is increasing evidence that a large number of patients remain unhappy with the amount of information given and the manner of its delivery [1]. Maguire and colleagues found that when doctors use communication skills effectively, both they and their patients benefit [2]. Furthermore, ineffective communication is an important source of complaints and litigations. In a recent Japanese study 81% of litigation involved insufficient or incorrect explanations by the physician [3]. Moreover, in 26% of cases poorly delivered information was found to be the reason that prompted individuals to file a malpractice claim [4]. This article looks into a specific area of communication between doctors, on the one hand, and patients and their relatives on the other; namely “breaking bad news”. It highlights the importance of equipping doctors to effectively communicate with patients and their relatives.

  1. Does iris(in) bring bad news or good news?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Corleo, Davide; Buscemi, Carola; Giordano, Carla

    2017-09-20

    Irisin, a novel myokine produced in response to physical activity, promotes white-to-brown fat transdifferentiation. The name irisin referred to the ancient Greek goddess Iris, the messenger who delivered (bad) news from the gods. In mice, it has been demonstrated that irisin plays a key role in metabolic regulation, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. New findings from various studies carried out in both animals and humans suggest that irisin might also have other favorable effects, such as increasing bone cortical mass, preventing hepatic lipid accumulation, and improving cognitive functions, thus mediating many exercise-induced health benefits. However, data on the role and function of irisin in humans have prompted controversy, due mostly to the only recent confirmation of the presence of irisin in humans. Another strong limitation to the understanding of irisin mechanisms of action is the lack of knowledge about its receptor, which until now remains unidentified in humans and in animals. This review presents an overall analysis of the history of irisin, its expression, and its involvement in health, especially in humans. Level of Evidence Level V, review.

  2. Does high antibiotic consumption still reflect bad practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, T; Delfosse, F; Lambiotte, F; Dezorzi, S; Gosteau, L; Vasseur, M

    2012-07-01

    The authors had for aim to assess the quality of antibiotic prescription in an intensive care unit because of their high rate of consumption. A prospective 5-month study was made of the first 50 prescriptions of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and imipenem. Treatment was considered adequate at day 5 if the indication was relevant, with the right doses, and if the prescription was adapted to the antibiogram. Fifty treatments were evaluated (38 patients included). Eighty-four percent (42/50) was adequate at day 5. Glycopeptides and fluoroquinolones accounted for 2/3 of prescriptions. The absence of de-escalation was the most common mistake. The severity of presentations was evident with a mean SSI at 68 (22-113), and a mean BMI at 28 (18.5 - 50). Eighty-four percent (32/38) of patients were exposed to invasive devices, 47% died in the ICU. Most prescriptions were adequate. The patient profile could explain the high rate of antibiotic consumption. Bacteriological monitoring revealed an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria, which could explain a high rate of consumption along with adaptation of the dose to overweight. De-escalation, using aminosides more frequently, and shorter prescribed courses of fluoroquinolones should improve consumption rates does not always reflect bad practices, but may be adequate when considering bacterial ecology and patient profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombination: the good, the bad and the variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Jessica; Feulner, Philine G D; Johnston, Susan E; Santure, Anna W; Smadja, Carole M

    2017-12-19

    Recombination, the process by which DNA strands are broken and repaired, producing new combinations of alleles, occurs in nearly all multicellular organisms and has important implications for many evolutionary processes. The effects of recombination can be good , as it can facilitate adaptation, but also bad when it breaks apart beneficial combinations of alleles, and recombination is highly variable between taxa, species, individuals and across the genome. Understanding how and why recombination rate varies is a major challenge in biology. Most theoretical and empirical work has been devoted to understanding the role of recombination in the evolution of sex-comparing between sexual and asexual species or populations. How recombination rate evolves and what impact this has on evolutionary processes within sexually reproducing organisms has received much less attention. This Theme Issue focusses on how and why recombination rate varies in sexual species, and aims to coalesce knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing recombination with our understanding of the evolutionary processes driving variation in recombination within and between species. By integrating these fields, we can identify important knowledge gaps and areas for future research, and pave the way for a more comprehensive understanding of how and why recombination rate varies. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Ionizing Radiation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Skin changes from ionizing radiation have been scientifically documented since 1902 (Hymes et al., 2006). Ionizing radiation is a widely accepted form of treatment for various types of cancer. Despite the technological advances, radiation skin injury remains a significant problem. This injury, often referred to as radiation dermatitis, occurs in about 95% of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer and ranges in severity from mild erythema to moist desquamation and ulceration (McQuestion, 2011; Salvo et al., 2010). Ionizing radiation is not only a concern for cancer patients, but also a public health concern due to the potential for and reality of a nuclear and/or radiological event. Recently, the United States has increased efforts to develop medical countermeasures to protect against radiation toxicities from acts of bioterrorism, as well as cancer treatment. Management of radiation dermatitis would improve the therapeutic benefit of radiation therapy for cancer and potentially the mortality expected in any “dirty bomb” attack (Benderitter et al., 2010; Muller and Meineke, 2010). Currently, there is no effective treatment to prevent or mitigate radiation skin injury. This review summarizes “the good, the bad and the ugly” of current and evolving knowledge regarding mechanisms of and treatments for radiation skin injury. PMID:22217743

  5. Chemokines in tuberculosis: The good, the bad and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Leticia; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects about one third of the world’s population, with a majority of infected individuals exhibiting latent asymptomatic infection, while 5–10% of infected individuals progress to active pulmonary disease. Research in the past two decades has elucidated critical host immune mechanisms that mediate Mtb control. Among these, chemokines have been associated with numerous key processes that lead to Mtb containment, from recruitment of myeloid cells into the lung to activation of adaptive immunity, formation of protective granulomas and vaccine recall responses. However, imbalances in several key chemokine mediators can alter the delicate balance of cytokines and cellular responses that promote mycobacterial containment, instead precipitating terminal tissue destruction and spread of Mtb infection. In this review, we will describe recent insights in the involvement of chemokines in host responses to Mtb infection and Mtb containment (the good), chemokines contributing to inflammation during TB (the bad), and the role of chemokines in driving cavitation and lung pathology (the ugly). PMID:25444549

  6. Mars Express/MARSIS - Analysis and solution of an anomaly event: MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, S.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Orosei, R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the detection, the analysis and the possible solutions of an anomaly event occurred sometimes in MARSIS science data consisting in the corruption of the Spacecraft Event Time (SCET): MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp.

  7. [Breaking bad news in the emergency room: Suggestions and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Ramírez, Edgar; López-Gómez, Antonio; Jiménez-Escobar, Irma; Sánchez-Sosaa Sánchez-Sosaa, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe educational programs that reportedly teach how to break bad news in the emergency department. We also suggest some recommendations on how to communicate bad news based on the research of evidence available in the field. The examined evidence points toward six major components with which physicians should familiarize when communicating bad news: 1) doctor-patient empathic communication, 2) establishing a proper space to give the news, 3) identifying characteristics of the person who receives the news, 4) essential aspects for communicating the news; 5) emotional support, and 6) medical and administrative aspects of the encounter. Finally, we point out several limitations in the studies in the field and future challenges identified in the communication of bad news in emergency room facilities. aPrograma.

  8. A randomized, controlled trial of physician postures when breaking bad news to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, Eduardo; Palmer, J Lynn; Pace, Ellen; Zhang, Karen; Willey, Jie; Strasser, Florian; Bennett, Michael I

    2007-09-01

    Medical training teaches physicians to sit when breaking bad news, though there have been no controlled studies to support this advice. We aimed to establish cancer patients' preference for physician posture when physicians break bad news using a randomized controlled crossover trial in a department of palliative care at a large US cancer center. Referred patients were blind to the hypothesis and watched video sequences of a sitting or standing physician breaking bad news to a cancer patient and 168 of 173 participants (88 female) completed the study. Sitting physicians were preferred and viewed as significantly more compassionate than standing physicians (P importance than posture. In summary, cancer patients, especially females, prefer physicians to sit when breaking bad news and rate physicians who adopt this posture as more compassionate. However, sitting posture alone is unlikely to compensate for poor communication skills and lack of other respectful gestures during a consultation.

  9. What opportunities have we missed, and what bad deals have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, M K; Kane, W J

    2001-04-01

    In addition to its many accomplishments, family medicine has inevitably made some choices that have not worked out as well. Respectful consideration of where we may have done so can help inform future decision making. This paper suggests some decisions that in retrospect appear to be bad deals, good deals gone bad, or missed opportunities. Bad deals include the limiting effects of our specialty's name and of our go-it-alone philosophy. Good deals gone bad include our affinity for a permanent counterculture role, our persistent belief that big is better, and limited evolution of our residency family practice centers. We have missed opportunities to lead development of a new model of patient-responsive health care, to change the system of payment for care, to maximize the strength of our discipline by links between university and community family physicians, and to build a powerful program of family medicine research.

  10. LESSONS FROM THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL AND MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN CEE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin FILIP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims identifying and analysing the determinants of bad loans in the banks from Central and Eastern Europe, while their accumulation may lead to malfunctions on macroeconomic level. Analysing 38 of the most representative banks in the region during 2004-2013, we found significant positive linkages of bad loans ratio with cost to income ratio, unemployment and crisis, but also significant negative linkages with bank size, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation. Moreover, using Panel Least Squares Fixed Effects Method, we found that the main determinants of bad loans ratio increase are bank size, crisis, unemployment and cost to income ratio. Contrary, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation proved to act against bad loans accumulation. The results offer important lessons which may be useful in the future both for the banks and also for the governments from this region.

  11. Siim Nestor soovitab : HUH : energiaöö. Bad Apples / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Festivali "Hea Uus Heli" hooaja lõpetamisest 15. dets. Von Krahlis Tallinnas. Ansambli Bad Apples heliplaadi "When Colours Become Day and Night" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas teatri NO99 majas Jazziklubis

  12. Submaximal fatigue and recovery in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzikotoulas, K; Patikas, D; Bassa, E; Hadjileontiadis, L; Koutedakis, Y; Kotzamanidis, C

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of a sustained submaximal isometric contraction on fatigue and recovery rates in untrained prepubescent boys and men. Fifteen prepubescent boys and 15 men executed an isometric plantar flexion at 20% of their maximal voluntary contraction for 10 min. During the fatigue protocol, surface electromyogram of the soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained. Following the fatigue protocol, maximal voluntary contraction data were also obtained every 3 min throughout a 15-min recovery period. During the fatigue protocol, agonist and antagonist surface electromyogram increased gradually to a similar extent in both groups. Following fatigue, torque and surface electromyogram during a maximal voluntary contraction decreased compared to pre-fatigue values and recovered in a similar manner in both groups. However, boys showed faster recovery in torque and surface electromyogram during the third minute of recovery period. It is concluded that a low-intensity sustained isometric fatigue protocol induces similar fatigue levels in boys and men. However, there is evidence that boys can recover faster than men. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  13. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  14. First Hours of the GW170817 Kilonova: Why So Blue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    rise is best matched by models in which the emission is produced by radioactive decay of ejecta with lots of heavier elements (likely from tidal tails). The subsequent decline of the emission, however, is fit as well or better by models that include lighter, faster outflows, or additional emission due to shock-heating from a wind or a cocoon surrounding a jet.Optical and ultraviolet light curves for the first 3 days after merger, as compared to four different emission models. Observations at earlier times, where the models differ more substantially, could provide stronger constraints for future mergers. [Arcavi 2018]Missing UltravioletThe takeaway from Arcavis work is that we cant yet eliminate any models for the GW170817 kilonovas early blue emission we simply dont have enough data.Why not? It turns out we had some bad luck with GW170817: a glitch in one of the detectors slowed down localization of the source, preventing earlier discovery of the kilonova. The net result was that the electromagnetic signal of this merger was only found 11 hours after the gravitational waves were detected and the ultraviolet signal was detected 4 hours after that, when the kilonova light curves are already decaying.If we had ultraviolet observations that tracked the earlier, rising emission, Arcavi argues, we would be able to differentiate between the different emission models for the kilonova. So while this may be the best we can do with GW170817, we can hope that with the next merger well have a full set of early observations allowing us to better understand where its emission comes from.CitationIair Arcavi 2018 ApJL 855 L23. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab267

  15. Grammar in Boys With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder and Boys With Fragile X Syndrome Plus Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra

    2018-03-14

    Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples. Convergent validity of a sentence imitation task with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar was examined in addition to divergent validity of the measures with nonverbal IQ and vocabulary comprehension and production. The boys with ASD outperformed the boys with FXS+ASD on the norm-referenced assessment of "be," and effect sizes indicate that the boys with ASD had better performance on past tense probes on the sentence imitation task and "do" on the norm-referenced assessment. The two measures of grammar had good convergent validity except for copula and auxiliary "be" and "do." Grammatical performance was not correlated with nonverbal IQ, and trends indicate a relationship between vocabulary and grammar. Despite being similar on mean length of utterance, there were group differences on grammatical performance. The sentence imitation task had good convergent validity with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar for the third-person singular and past tense probes and therefore could be an inexpensive and valid tool to use clinically for these populations. Future research should continue to refine this task, particularly for the probes with high rates of unscorable responses (i.e., "be" and "do").

  16. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  17. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  18. GOOD NEWS, BAD NEWS AND GARCH EFFECTS IN STOCK RETURN DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Depken II

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the volume of trade can be decomposed into proportional proxies for stochastic flows of good news and bad news into the market. Positive (good) information flows are assumed to increase the price of a financial vehicle while negative (bad) information flows decrease the price. For the majority of a sample of ten split-stocks it is shown that the proposed decomposition explains more GARCH than volume itself. Using the proposed decomposition, the variance of returns for younger...

  19. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria.

    OpenAIRE

    De Jonckheere, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was pr...

  20. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  1. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  2. Breaking bad news in inpatient clinical settings: role of the nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Tod, Angela; Foster, Julie; Soreny, Cathy

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of an exploration of the role of the nurse in the process of breaking bad news in the inpatient clinical setting and the provision of education and support for nurses carrying out this role. The term 'breaking bad news' is mostly associated with the moment when negative medical information is shared with a patient or relative. However, it can also be seen as a process of interactions that take place before, during and after bad news is broken. Little research has been conducted exploring the role of the nurse in the process of breaking bad news in the inpatient clinical setting. A questionnaire was developed using Likert scales and open text questions. Data collection took place in 2007. Fifty-nine inpatient areas took part in the study; 335 questionnaires were distributed in total and 236 were completed (response rate 70%). Nurses engaged in diverse breaking bad news activities at many points in care pathways. Relationships with patients and relatives and uncontrolled and unplanned events shaped the context in which they provided this care. Little formal education or support for this work had been received. Guidance for breaking bad news should encompass the whole process of doing this and acknowledge the challenges nurses face in the inpatient clinical area. Developments in education and support are required that reflect the challenges that nurses encounter in the inpatient care setting.

  3. Role, perspective and knowledge of Iranian critical care nurses about breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanipour, Masoomeh; Karim, Zahra; Bahrani, Naser

    2016-05-01

    Given the issue of caring critically ill patients, nurses are involved in the process of breaking bad news in critical care units, while little research has been conducted on this challenging issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the role, perspective and knowledge of Iranian critical care nurses regarding breaking bad news. This descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 160 nurses working in critical care units of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Stratified and quota sampling methods were used. The data collection tool was a four-part questionnaire with validity and reliability confirmed via content validity and test-retest, respectively. The study showed that most critical care nurses were involved in breaking bad news, with different roles. The majority of participants (91.2%) had a positive attitude towards involvement of nurses in breaking bad news. In this study, 78.8% of nurses had moderate knowledge about how to break bad news, and only a few had good level of knowledge (16.2%). According to the findings, while critical care nurses took different roles in the process of breaking bad news and they had positive attitude towards participation in this process, yet their knowledge about this process was inadequate. Thus, designing educational programmes to enhance critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in this area seems necessary. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preferences of cancer patients regarding communication of bad news: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2009-04-01

    Most physicians regard the communication of bad news to be a difficult issue in clinical oncology practice. The optimal manner of communicating bad news to patients so that physicians can create maximal understanding in patients and facilitate their psychological adjustment is unknown. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to clarify available knowledge on patient preferences regarding the communication of bad news and associated factors. A comprehensive computer search of databases (MEDLINE and PsychINFO) and a manual search identified 24 studies. The above issue has been discussed mainly in Western countries. Most studies used different measures to obtain information on patient preferences and have provided mostly descriptive evidence. The findings in this review suggest that patient preferences with regard to the communication of bad news by physicians consist of four components: setting, manner of communicating bad news, what and how much information is provided and emotional support, and that patients' preferences are associated with demographic factors. Younger patients, female patients and more highly educated patients consistently expressed a desire to receive as much detailed information as possible and to receive emotional support. Asian patients were shown to prefer that relatives be present when receiving bad news more than Westerners do and to prefer to discuss their life expectancy less than Westerners. Physicians need to recognize these preferences to help patients understand.

  5. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  6. Hormonal changes in 3-month-old cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Anne-Maarit; Main, Katharina M; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hormonal dysregulation has been suggested to be one of many etiological factors of cryptorchidism. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in cryptorchid boys during the postnatal hormonal surge. DESIGN: This was a prospective......, longitudinal, population-based study. SETTING: The study was performed at two primary obstetric centers. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants included 388 Finnish and 433 Danish boys (88 and 34 with cryptorchidism, respectively). INTERVENTIONS: Clinical examinations were performed at 0 and 3 months. Blood samples...... were taken at 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were testis position and reproductive hormone levels. RESULTS: Finnish cryptorchid boys had significantly higher FSH [1.59 (0.50-3.53) vs. 1.30 (0.49-2.92) IU/liter; P

  7. PSYCHOLOGY OF BOYS AT RISK: INDICATORS FROM 0-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2017-01-01

    In utero and during the first 5 years of life, boys face unique risks as a result of neurobiological and environmental factors. This introductory article to the Special Issue describes the background of this gender-specific inquiry and outlines some of those risks, drawing attention to the areas that will be covered in depth in the following contributions. We also describe the basis of this inquiry as the link between early life and the subsequent difficulties that adolescent boys and many young men face, and pay particular attention to the circumstances of young men of color and to the growing knowledge about the contributions of fathers to boys' development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  9. The Education of Playful Boys: Class Clowns in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn A.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified degrees of playfulness in 278 kindergarten-aged children, and followed them through their next three school years to determine how playfulness was viewed by the children themselves, their classmates, and teachers. Perceptions of the social competence, disruptiveness, and labeling as the class clown, were assessed from all perspectives in each of first through third grades. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to account for the nesting of the data (children within classrooms within schools) and for the lack of independence between the measures. A central finding confirmed extant literature in that gender differences were dominant, with playful boys regarded as distinct from their less playful counterparts, while no such discrepancies appeared for girls. Playful boys were increasingly negatively regarded as rebellious and intrusive and were labeled as the “class clown” by their teachers. These findings were in direct contrast with children's self-perceptions and those of their peers, who initially regarded more playful boys as appealing and engaging playmates. The data further revealed that the playful boys were stigmatized by their teachers, and this was communicated through verbal and non-verbal reprimands, and classmates assimilated this message and became increasingly denigrating of the playful quality in the boys. In stark contrast, girls' playfulness levels were not a consideration in ratings by teachers or peers at any grade, nor did their classroom behaviors show significant variation. These negative perceptions were likely transferred by teachers to peers and to the children themselves, whereupon they changed their positive perceptions to be increasingly negative by third grade. The results contribute to the literature by demonstrating that playfulness in boys (but not girls) is often associated with the “class clown” designation, and is viewed as an increasingly lethal characteristic in school classrooms

  10. Video incident analysis of concussions in boys' high school lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Andrew E; Caswell, Shane V; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2013-04-01

    Boys' lacrosse has one of the highest rates of concussion among boys' high school sports. A thorough understanding of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse is necessary to target injury prevention efforts. To characterize common game-play scenarios and mechanisms of injury associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse using game video. Descriptive epidemiological study. In 25 public high schools of a single school system, 518 boys' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of concussion incidents was examined to identify game characteristics and injury mechanisms using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. A total of 34 concussions were captured on video. All concussions resulted from player-to-player bodily contact. Players were most often injured when contact was unanticipated or players were defenseless (n = 19; 56%), attempting to pick up a loose ball (n = 16; 47%), and/or ball handling (n = 14; 41%). Most frequently, the striking player's head (n = 27; 79%) was involved in the collision, and the struck player's head was the initial point of impact in 20 incidents (59%). In 68% (n = 23) of cases, a subsequent impact with the playing surface occurred immediately after the initial impact. A penalty was called in 26% (n = 9) of collisions. Player-to-player contact was the mechanism for all concussions. Most commonly, injured players were unaware of the pending contact, and the striking player used his head to initiate contact. Further investigation of preventive measures such as education of coaches and officials and enforcement of rules designed to prevent intentional head-to-head contact is warranted to reduce the incidence of concussions in boys' lacrosse.

  11. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  12. "In the Interest of the Colored Boys": Christopher J. Atkinson, William T. Coleman, and the Extension of Boys' Clubs Services to African-American Communities, 1906-1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Carter Julian

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…

  13. "It's A Girl Thing!" Do Boys Engage in Relational Aggression? Exploration of Whether Strategies to Educate Young People about Relational Aggression Are Relevant for Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Deborah; Lawlor, Maria; Murphy, Niamh; Flynn, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Relational aggression is often perceived as a female issue. Less is known about relational aggression in adolescent boys. This study examines whether the issues associated with relational aggression in girls are similar for boys to determine whether an intervention designed for girls would be relevant for boys. Focus group discussions illustrate…

  14. "Composing in the Style of Mozart: An Exploration of the "Struggling Boy Writer" Comparing the Composing Processes and Strategies of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The under-achievement of boys in the language components of standardised tests, together with a perception of boys as having negative attitudes towards the English curriculum, has led to boys being positioned as struggling writers. This article reflects critically on this construction, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council…

  15. Breaking bad news-what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifart, C; Hofmann, M; Bär, T; Riera Knorrenschild, J; Seifart, U; Rief, W

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of the SPIKES protocol, a recommended guideline for breaking bad news, is sparse, and information about patients' preferences for bad-news delivery in Germany is lacking. Being the first actual-theoretical comparison of a 'breaking bad news' guideline, the present study evaluates the recommended steps of the SPIKES protocol. Moreover, emotional consequences and quality of bad-news delivery are investigated. A total of 350 cancer patients answered the MABBAN (Marburg Breaking Bad News Scale), a questionnaire representing the six SPIKES subscales, asking for the procedure, perception and satisfaction of the first cancer disclosure and patient's assign to these items. Only 46.2% of the asked cancer patients are completely satisfied with how bad news had been broken to them. The overall quality is significantly related to the emotional state after receiving bad news (r = -0.261, P bad news were delivered, and the resulting rang list of patients' preferences indicates that the SPIKES protocol do not fully meet the priorities of cancer patients in Germany. It could be postulated that the low satisfaction of patients observed in this study reflects the highly significant difference between patients' preferences and bad-news delivery. Therefore, some adjunctions to the SPIKES protocol should be considered, including a frequent reassurance of listeners' understanding, the perpetual possibility to ask question, respect for prearrangement needs and the conception of bad-news delivery in a two-step procedure.

  16. Breaking bad news–what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifart, C.; Hofmann, M.; Bär, T.; Riera Knorrenschild, J.; Seifart, U.; Rief, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the SPIKES protocol, a recommended guideline for breaking bad news, is sparse, and information about patients' preferences for bad-news delivery in Germany is lacking. Being the first actual–theoretical comparison of a ‘breaking bad news’ guideline, the present study evaluates the recommended steps of the SPIKES protocol. Moreover, emotional consequences and quality of bad-news delivery are investigated. Patients and methods A total of 350 cancer patients answered the MABBAN (Marburg Breaking Bad News Scale), a questionnaire representing the six SPIKES subscales, asking for the procedure, perception and satisfaction of the first cancer disclosure and patient’s assign to these items. Results Only 46.2% of the asked cancer patients are completely satisfied with how bad news had been broken to them. The overall quality is significantly related to the emotional state after receiving bad news (r = −0.261, P bad news were delivered, and the resulting rang list of patients’ preferences indicates that the SPIKES protocol do not fully meet the priorities of cancer patients in Germany. Conclusions It could be postulated that the low satisfaction of patients observed in this study reflects the highly significant difference between patients’ preferences and bad-news delivery. Therefore, some adjunctions to the SPIKES protocol should be considered, including a frequent reassurance of listeners’ understanding, the perpetual possibility to ask question, respect for prearrangement needs and the conception of bad-news delivery in a two-step procedure. PMID:24504443

  17. Teknologi penyamakan kulit wet blue buaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Oetojo

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available For this study it was used 12 pieces of grain salted crocodile skin of 11 up to 14 inch width. All of the crocodile skin were process up to pickling with the same way. Furthermore pickled crocodile skins were process up to pickling with the same way. Furthermore pickled crocodile skins and was done twice. The wet blue output from the research was visual investigated for the coulor using staning scale method. For comparition it was used pickled crocodile skins. Statistical analysis pints out that there is unsignify difference (P<0.05 the influence of the used of basic chrome sulphate to the colour of wet blue crocodile skins. Practical meaning of the research is, for tanning of crocodile skins to the wet blue, it is used 1.5% basic chromium sulphate.

  18. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  19. Addiction as a BAD, a Behavioral Allocation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2018-01-01

    Addiction is continued drug use despite its harm. As one always has alternatives, addiction can be construed as a decision to allocate behavior to drug use. While decision making is commonly discussed and studied as if it resulted from deliberative, evaluative processes, such processes are actually only rarely involved in behavior allocation. These deliberative processes are too slow, effortful and inefficient to guide behavior other than when necessary. Rather, most actions are guided by faster, more automatic processes, often labeled habits. Habits are mostly adaptive, and result from repeated reinforcement leading to over-learned behavior. Habitual behavior occurs rapidly in response to particular contexts, and the behavior occurring first is that which occurs, i.e., the behavior that is decided upon. Thus, as drug use becomes habitual, drug use is likely to be chosen over other available activities in that particular context. However, while drug use becoming habitual is necessary for addiction to develop, it is not sufficient. Typically, constraints limit even habitual drug use to safer levels. These constraints might include limiting occasions for use; and, almost always, constraints on amount consumed. However, in a minority of individuals, drug use is not sufficiently constrained and addiction develops. This review discusses the nature of these constraints, and how they might fail. These failures do not result from abnormal learning processes, but rather unfortunate interactions between a person and their environment over time. These accumulate in the maladaptive allocation of behavior to drug use. This Behavior Allocation Disorder (BAD) can be reversed; occasionally easily when the environment significantly changes, but more often by the arduous application of deliberative processes generally absent from decision making. These deliberative processes must continue until new more adaptive habits become the most probable behavior in the contexts encountered

  20. Bad Clade Deletion Supertrees: A Fast and Accurate Supertree Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischauer, Markus; Böcker, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Supertree methods merge a set of overlapping phylogenetic trees into a supertree containing all taxa of the input trees. The challenge in supertree reconstruction is the way of dealing with conflicting information in the input trees. Many different algorithms for different objective functions have been suggested to resolve these conflicts. In particular, there exist methods based on encoding the source trees in a matrix, where the supertree is constructed applying a local search heuristic to optimize the respective objective function. We present a novel heuristic supertree algorithm called Bad Clade Deletion (BCD) supertrees. It uses minimum cuts to delete a locally minimal number of columns from such a matrix representation so that it is compatible. This is the complement problem to Matrix Representation with Compatibility (Maximum Split Fit). Our algorithm has guaranteed polynomial worst-case running time and performs swiftly in practice. Different from local search heuristics, it guarantees to return the directed perfect phylogeny for the input matrix, corresponding to the parent tree of the input trees, if one exists. Comparing supertrees to model trees for simulated data, BCD shows a better accuracy (F1 score) than the state-of-the-art algorithms SuperFine (up to 3%) and Matrix Representation with Parsimony (up to 7%); at the same time, BCD is up to 7 times faster than SuperFine, and up to 600 times faster than Matrix Representation with Parsimony. Finally, using the BCD supertree as a starting tree for a combined Maximum Likelihood analysis using RAxML, we reach significantly improved accuracy (1% higher F1 score) and running time (1.7-fold speedup). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Multinucleated Giant Cells: Good Guys or Bad Guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2018-02-01

    Multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are a special class of giant cell formed by the fusion of monocytes/macrophages abundantly found in human tissues. While historically their role around certain classes of biomaterials have been directly linked to a foreign body reaction leading to material rejection, recent accumulating evidence has put into question their role around certain classes of bone biomaterials. It was once thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were considered osteoclasts characterized by their ability to resorb and replace bone grafts with newly formed native bone. More recently, however, a special subclass of bone biomaterials has been found bordered by large MNGCs virtually incapable of resorbing bone substitutes even years after their implantation yet surrounded by stable bone. Interestingly, research from the field of cardiovascular disease has further shown how a shift in macrophage polarization from M1 "tissue-inflammatory" macrophages toward M2 "wound-healing" macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque may lead to MNGC formation and ectopic calcification of arteries. Despite the growing observation that MNGC formation occurs around certain bone biomaterials, their role in these tissues remains extremely poorly understood and characterized. In summary, four central aspects of this review are discussed with a focus on (1) the role of MNGCs in bone/tissue biology, and their ability to induce vascularization/new bone formation, their role around, (2) bone substitutes for bone augmentation, (3) dental implants, as well as (4) during peri-implant infection. The authors express the necessity to no longer refer to MNGCs as "good" or "bad" cells, but instead point toward the necessity to more specifically characterize them scientifically and appropriately as M1-MNGC and M2-MNGC accordingly. Future research investigating the factors influencing their polarization as a "center of control" is also likely to act as a key factor in the

  2. "I am happy that God made me a boy": Zambian adolescent boys' perceptions about growing into manhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbäck, Elisabeth; Makelele, Patrick; Phillimon, Ndubani; Bawa, Yamba; Bergtröm, Staffan; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit

    2003-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition during which a person is neither considered a child nor an adult. As little is known about adolescent boys' perceptions, norms, role models and gender relations that influence their male identity and behaviour, this qualitative study was conducted. Data were drawn from seven FGDs and twelve mails of adolescent boys (15-19 years old) residing in two townships outside Lusaka and Kitwe in Zambia. Findings show that growing up to a man entails a certain level of ambiguity and contradictory perceptions in terms of supposedly appropriate social and sexual behaviour but indicates a few alternatives. Based on the findings, we recommend that the information gap, misconceptions and anxiety among boys regarding their male identity should be addressed. The respondents suggested that an educational programme that will pay due attention to their needs and answer their questions should be designed and implemented with active involvement of male adolescent peers.

  3. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  4. Electrolyzed-water generator 'SaniBoy'; Eisei jokinsuik kyokyu sochi 'SaniBoy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M.; Kakiuchi, H.; Muto, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    In the food industry, injuries due to food poisoning have been increasing. Especially the mass outbreak of food poisoning by Escherichia coli such as O-157 in 1996 gave warning on the importance of food sanitation management. Public efforts such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system have been made to prevent food poisoning. Recently, disinfection made by electrolyzing water with some salt added has attracted attention. Fuji Electric has developed the generator 'SaniBoy' that produces weak alkaline electrolyzed water without wasting water. The environment-friendly 'SaniBoy' will contribute to sanitation in various fields. (author)

  5. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  6. "Breaking bad news": standardized patient intervention improves communication skills for hematology-oncology fellows and advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed; Petty, Michael; Hutchins, Laura; Thompson, Reed

    2009-01-01

    Breaking bad news is 1 of cancer specialists' most common and difficult duties, yet hematology-oncology fellowship programs typically offer little formal preparation for this daunting task. We designed the Breaking Bad News Standardized Patient Intervention (BBNSPI) as a standardized patient educational intervention to improve the communication skills of hematology-oncology fellows (HOFs) and advanced practice nurses (APNs) in breaking bad news to cancer patients. A total of 6 HOFs and 2 APNs participated in the preintervention test and an educational session designed to improve communication skills. A total of 5 HOFs and 1 APN participated in the postintervention test 1 week later. The average test score of the participants improved from 56.6% in the preintervention test to 68.8% (P breaking bad news compared to 5 of 6 subjects (83%) in the postintervention survey (P breaking bad news to cancer patients (P breaking bad news to cancer patients. The perception of the subjects about BBNSPI was positive.

  7. Career Pathways And Youth Metamorphosis Into Area Boys In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth metamorphosis into area boys was found within structural forces including family disorganization, academic failure and poor career orientation. Unexpectedly, obedience to patron-client agencies ... Keywords: Deprivation, Social Mobility, Gangs, Deviance, Lagos African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social ...

  8. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...

  9. Duplicated Muellerian remnant in a 6-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Helen J.; Cain, Mark P. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Urology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, Boaz [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We report a 6-year-old boy with large duplicated Muellerian duct remnant who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and dysuria. His prior urological problems included proximal hypospadias (repaired), urachal cyst, and a unilateral undescended testis. Imaging evaluation included US, MRI, and cystoscopy. Laparoscopic resection was performed via a retrovesical approach. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  10. Students' Centennial Reader: Boys and Girls High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominberg, Larry; And Others

    This volume contains a series of stories and related questions about famous graduates of Boys and Girls High School and about some high points in the school's 100 year history. Brief biographical sketches are provided for Shirley Chisholm, Isaac Asimov, and other individuals who graduated from the school. Other readings describe various aspects of…

  11. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  12. The Behavioral Treatment of Obesity in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Sanford E.

    Two adolescent boys with a history of rapidly increasing obesity participated in a behavioral weight reduction program. The multi-dimensional treatment package consisted of those behavioral techniques most often shown to be effective in treating obese adults (programed behavior management and stimulus control instructions, self monitoring of daily…

  13. Osteogenesis Imperfecta in a Young Nigerian Boy | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with similarities to various congenital and acquired musculoskeletal anomalies. Depending on the severity of the disease, presentation can be early or late. The late presentation of this anomaly in a young Nigerian boy whose clinical and radiographic ...

  14. Teaching Boys: Towards a Theory of Gender-Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to the social and educational challenges facing boys and men around the world. Next, it highlights how the outcomes for males of African descent across the Americas, in particular the USA, are especially troubling. Moreover, a critique is presented about the recruitment campaigns that see increasing the number of Black…

  15. Takayasu's disease in a young black boy | Oguntona | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takayasu's disease in a young black boy. ... Abstract. Takayusu's disease is a rare disease affecting women predominantly during the child- bearing age. It is a primary vasculitis condition ... The diagnosis of Takayasu's disease was confirmed by the rheumatology unit and appropriate literature search was done. Takayusu's ...

  16. Bloody nipple discharge in a 7-month-old boy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zaid, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Isolated bloody nipple discharge is rare in infancy and is usually idiopathic. Discharge commonly resolves spontaneously, and ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic technique to detect the cause of discharge. The authors report a 7-month-old boy who presented with unilateral spontaneous bloody nipple discharge for 1 month without signs of infection or mass.

  17. Clandestine Readers: Boys and Girls Going "Undercover" in School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the diverse nature of students' interpretations of their reading experiences, this study moves beyond broad generalizations about boys and girls to consider complexities inherent in the social processes that influence students' engagement in reading. While the study aimed to develop understandings about the ways notions of masculinity…

  18. Mothering, fathering, and externalizing behavior in toddler boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological

  19. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  20. [A boy with a swelling under his right jaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmer, Jessica E; Moes, A R Roelof

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with a painful swelling under his right jaw. Cat scratch disease was confirmed serologically. Two months later the swelling had increased in size and had become red. There was obvious fluctuation, which indicated abscess formation. After incision and drainage of the abscess, the swelling resolved within two weeks.

  1. Teacher Perceptions Affect Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading comprehension. Results showed that for boys,…

  2. Longterm Creative Therapy with a Borderline Psychotic Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Lenore

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes three years of art therapy with a boy (age seven at the start) with borderline psychotic disorder. Changing themes over course of therapy are discussed and examples of child's work are included. Therapy was terminated after child had worked out fears and assumed an identity in which he could relate to peers in a normal…

  3. Go/NoGo performance in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Eichele, Tom; Hammar, Asa

    2010-01-01

    This study compared performance and performance monitoring in 19 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS) (12.64 years, +/- 2.05) and 19 age-matched controls (13.16 years, +/- 2.29) using a Go/NoGo task. The results indicated similar performance accuracy in the TS group and the control group. TS particip...

  4. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...

  5. Treating hoarding disorder in a 12-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tanja Margrethe Gjerlev; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2017-01-01

    In this case report hoarding disorder is described in a 12-year-old boy who suffered from obsessive collection of things. The disorder is a separate diagnostic entity in DSM-5, and it will probably be a separate disorder in ICD-11 called hoarding disorder. The disorder is generally considered...

  6. Development of gas boy medical incinerator as a substitute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stench that emanates from the burial of placentas, limbs etc especially after rainfall, are unbearable and awful within most hospital environments. A solution has been found in the engineering of all-in-one medical gas boy incinerator with quick rise in temperature and even distribution of heat, with drying and firing cycles ...

  7. Relational Aggression among Boys: Blind Spots and Hidden Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2018-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a 'girl problem', we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression…

  8. Melatonin and LH secretion patterns in pubertal boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevre, M.; Boyar, R.M.; Rollag, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma melatonin and LH were measured at 20 minute intervals for 24 hours in four normal pubertal boys. All four subjects showed a significant augmentation of LH and melatonin during nocturnal sleep. There was also a significant correlation between the LH and melatonin levels (p [fr

  9. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  10. Group climate and empathy in a sample of incarcerated boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for

  11. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Schmidt, I M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2000-01-01

    Healthy boys have a considerable production of reproductive hormones during the first postnatal months, the biological significance of which is poorly understood. We report on cases of male infants with hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, n = 1; panhypopituitarism, n = 2) who showed lack...

  12. Girls--More Moral Than Boys or Just Sneakier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Richard L.

    This research was undertaken to check on the existence of the impression that teachers do see girls as more moral than boys, and to assess the accuracy of the teachers' perceptions. A random sample of sixth grade children was selected from 10 classes in a middle class and a working class school to fit a balanced factorial design with two factors,…

  13. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children's physical performance. Aims: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys' performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT ...

  14. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  15. Wildmen, Warriors, and Lovers: Reaching Boys through Archetypal Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.; Schmelzer, Ronald V.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that teachers look to current and classic literature as a way to motivate adolescent boys to read and to provide them with positive male role models. Defines 10 male archetypes, and lists examples of literature that illustrate each archetype. (SR)

  16. Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandy White

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

  17. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a phenomenological approach, the purpose of this research was to explore the meaning of young children's gender and identity play, and the experiences they take to form their identity in the early childhood setting. During the course of the study I drew meanings from the boys' pretend playing pregnancy and gender ...

  18. Reappraising the Apparent Underachievement of Boys at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Rees, Gareth; Salisbury, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Challenges common beliefs about academic achievement differences between boys and girls. Analysis of gendered results from examinations and statutory assessments of all Welsh students from 1992-97 indicated that girls had higher achievement in certain subjects at certain levels, but no gender gaps existed in other subjects. Achievement gaps were…

  19. Recurrent sinus pericranii in a 14-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Woldenberg, L; Velasco, M E

    1987-01-01

    A case of symptomatic and recurrent sinus pericranii in a 14-year-old boy is presented. A blood-filled cyst was diagnosed after head trauma. The sinus pericranii was surgically removed. One year later the patient presented with blurred vision, headaches, and recurrence at a different site in the skull.

  20. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  1. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  2. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  3. Cryopreservation of intact testicular tissue from boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Byskov, A G

    2006-01-01

    Boys with cryptorchidism often face fertility problems in adult life despite having orchiopexy performed at a very young age. During this operation, a biopsy of the testis is normally taken in order to evaluate their infertility potential and the presence of malignant cells. This study evaluated ...... the morphology and functional capacity of cryopreserved testes biopsies and their possible use in fertility preservation....

  4. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  5. On Jorge Becoming a Boy: A Counselor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Travis

    2007-01-01

    In this portrait, Travis Wright, writing as a psychology counselor in training, brings the reader into one morning's events in his clinical work with Jorge, a three-year-old boy whose family is experiencing difficult times. Throughout the morning at Jorge's day-care center, Wright encounters scenarios that force him to ask questions about child…

  6. Patterns of Language Preference Among Bilingual (Filipino-English) Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Heloise Marie L.; Morris, Robin D.

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of language preference in a simultaneous bilingual (Filipino-English) population was examined, including changes in the pattern of preference over time. Participants were 81 Filipino boys (Mean age=6 years, 2 months) recruited from two schools in the Philippines. A language preference checklist was completed by the parents of the…

  7. Effect of Table Tennis Trainings on Biomotor Capacities in Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Murat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the biomotor capacities of boys doing table tennis trainings are affected. A total of 40 students, as randomly selected 20 test groups and 20 control groups at an age range of 10-12 participated in the research. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Statistic Package for Social Science…

  8. "Schooling Is Fooling": Why Do Jamaican Boys Underachieve in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Odette

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which females, as pupils and teachers, are linked, in teachers' accounts, to the educational underachievement of Jamaican boys. Interviews with 47 teachers reveal the crucial role sex/gender identity plays in educational failure. Additionally problematic is the lack of male role models. (GR)

  9. Psychotherapy Outcome of Sexually Abused Boys: An Agency Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, William N.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a treatment intervention program for young, sexually abused boys. Treatment included group, individual, and family therapy, and parent training. Clinical and statistically significant improvement were noted in many areas, including overall behavior problems and sexual behavior problems. Therapy outcome was related to numerous family and…

  10. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates ...

  11. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city

    OpenAIRE

    Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cro...

  12. Breaking bad news of cancer diagnosis - Perception of the cancer patients in a rural community in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Gabriel Bain; Cheah Whye Lian; Chang Ching Thon

    2014-01-01

    Context: Breaking of bad news is an important component in the management of cancer patients. Aims: This study aimed to assess the perceptions of breaking bad news of cancer diagnosis. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study using Breaking Bad News Assessment Schedule (BAS) questionnaire on cancer patients in Serian district. Materials and Methods: Using snowballing sampling method, a total of 134 patients were interviewed face-to-face after the consent was obtained from each of t...

  13. Gender inequality: Bad for men’s health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, M

    2013-01-01

    Men’s increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men’s poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men’s increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women) was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention. PMID:24078805

  14. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  15. Phonological awareness and reading in boys with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Robinson, Marissa L; Roberts, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic, social-behavioral and environmental factors were also investigated as predictors of phonological awareness. Participants included 54 boys with FXS and 53 typically developing (TD) mental age-matched peers who completed assessments of phonological awareness, nonverbal intelligence, and reading annually for up to 4 years. FMRP level and autism symptomatology were also measured within the FXS group. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine change in phonological awareness over time and its predictors. Linear regression was used to examine phonological awareness as a predictor of word reading. Boys with FXS exhibited slower growth than TD peers in phonological awareness only when nonverbal cognitive abilities were not controlled. The rate of change in phonological awareness decreased significantly after age 10 in boys with FXS. Phonological awareness accounted for 18% unique variance in basic reading ability after controlling for nonverbal cognition, with similar relationships across groups. Phonological awareness skills in the boys with FXS were commensurate with their nonverbal cognitive abilities, with similar relationships between phonological awareness and reading as observed in the TD mental age-matched peers. More research is needed to examine potential causal relationships between phonological awareness, other language skills, and reading abilities in individuals with FXS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  17. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  18. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  19. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  20. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While